Ucayali, a tributary of the
Amazon, which rises in the S. Peruvian Andes, and which it joins
after a northward course of over 1000 m.
Udall, Nicholas, author
of "Ralph Roister-Doister," the earliest of English
comedies, and "the earliest picture of London manners,"
born in Hants; was a graduate of Oxford, and head-master first
of Eton and subsequently of Westminister School (1505-1556).
German philosopher, professor at Königsberg; author of
a "History of Philosophy," an excellent text-book
Uganda, a territory in East Africa
along the N. and NW. shore of Victoria Nyanza, with a population
of from 300,000 to 500,000, and the seat of an active mission
propaganda on the part of both the Catholic and Protestant Churches;
has since 1890 been under British protection. The capital is
Ugolino, Count, tyrant
of Pisa; was of the Guelph party; celebrated for his tragic
fate; having fallen into the hands of his enemies, he was in
1288 thrown into a dungeon along with his two sons and two grandsons,
and starved to death, a fate which suggested to Dante one of
the most terrible episodes in his "Inferno"; the dungeon
referred to has since borne the name of the "Tower of Hunger."
Uhland, Johann Ludwig,
German poet, born at Tübingen; studied law, and wrote essays
as well as poems, but it is on the latter his fame rests, and
that is as wide as the German world; he was a warm-hearted patriot,
and in keen sympathy with the cause of German liberation (1787-1862).
Uhlans, a body of light cavalry
in the German army, introduced first into the Polish service,
and of Tartar origin it is said.
Uist, two islands of the Outer
Hebrides, called respectively North and South, forming part
of Inverness-shire; separated by the island of Benbecula, with
a population of over 3000 each; engaged chiefly in fishing.
Ukase, an edict issued by the
Czar, having the force of a law.
Ukraine (frontier), a fertile
Russian province of undefined limits in the basin of Dnieper,
originally a frontier territory of Poland against the Tartars.
Uleaborg (11), a seaport town
in Russian Finland, near the head of the Gulf of Bothnia; trades
in wood and tar.
Ulema, a body in Turkey, or any
Mohammedan country, of the learned in the Mohammedan religion
and law, such as the Imams, or religious teachers, the Muftis,
or expounders of the law and the Cadis, or judges; its decrees
are called "fetvas."
Ullmann, Karl, German theologian;
was professor at Heidelberg: wrote "Reformers before the
Reformation," but is best known as author of "The
Sinlessness of Jesus" (1796-1865).
Ullswater, second largest
of the English lakes, lies between Cumberland and Westmorland,
8 m. long, and its average breadth 1 m.; is looked down upon
by Helvellyn, on the SW.
Ulm (36), city of Würtemberg,
on the Danube, 46 m. SE. of Stuttgart; was an imperial free
city, and is a place of great importance; is famed for its cathedral,
which for size ranks next to Cologne, as well as for its town
hall; has textile manufactories and breweries, and is famed
for its confectionery; here General Mack, with 28,000 Austrians,
surrendered to Marshal Key in 1805.
Ulotrichi, name given to the
races that have crisp or woolly hair.
Ulphilas, Gothic bishop; famous
for his translation of the Scriptures into Gothic, the part
which remains being of great philological value; was an Arian
in theology (311-381).
Ulrici, Hermann, German
philosopher and literary critic, born in Lower Lusatia; professor
at Halle; wrote against the Hegelian philosophy as pantheistic,
and also studies in Shakespeare (1806-1884).
Ulster (1,617), the northern
province of Ireland, is divided into the nine counties of Antrim,
Armagh, Cavan, Donegal, Down, Fermanagh, Londonderry, Monaghan,
and Tyrone, and has an area of 8560 sq. m.; became an English
settlement in 1611, and was largely colonised from Scotland;
it is the most Protestant part of the island, though the Catholics
predominate, and is the most enterprising and prosperous part;
the land is extensively cultivated, and flax growing and spinning
the chief industries.
Ultimus Romanorum (the
last of the Romans), name given by Cæsar to Brutus, as
one with whom the old Roman spirit would become extinct; applied
to the last of any sturdy race.
given to extreme views in the matter of the prerogatives and
authority of the Pope, so called in France as prevailing on
the other side of the Alps.
Ulugh-Beg, a Tartar prince,
grandson of Tamerlane; astronomy was a favourite study of his,
and in the patronage of it he founded an observatory at Samarcand;
after a reign of 40 years conjointly with his father and by
himself, he was put to death by a son who had rebelled against
Ulysses (i. e. Greek
Odysseus), chieftain of Ithaca, one of the Greek heroes in the
Trojan War, in which he was with difficulty persuaded to join,
but in which, however, he did good service both by his courage
and his counsels; he is less famed for what he did before Troy
than for what befell him in his ten years' wandering homeward
after, as recorded by Homer in a separate poem called after
him the "Odyssey" (q.
v.), which relates his stay among the
lotus-eaters (q. v.),
his encounter with Polyphemus
(q. v.), the enchantments of
Circe (q. v.), the Sirens
(q. v.), and Calypso (q.
v.), and his shipwreck, &c. Tennyson represents him
as impatient of the humdrum life of Ithaca on his return, and
as longing to join his Trojan comrades in the Isles of the Blessed.
See Penelope and
Ulysses' Bow, a bow which
only Ulysses could wield.
Uma (the gracious one), the consort
of Siva (q. v.), and sometimes
also of Rudra (q. v.).
Umballa (499), a city in the
Punjab, 150 m. NW. of Delhi; is an important military station
and a railway centre; carries on a large trade.
Umbria, a province of ancient
Italy, between Cisalpine Gaul and the territory of the Sabines;
inhabited originally by a powerful Latin race.
Umlaut, name given by Grimm to
the modification of a vowel in a syllable through the influence
of a vowel in the succeeding.
Una (i. e. who is one), the
personification of Truth, the companion of St. George in his
adventures, and who, after various adventures herself, is at
last wedded to him.
Uncial Letters, large
round characters or letters used in ancient MSS.
Uncle Sam, name given to the
United States Government, derived from a humorous translation
of the initials U.S.
Unconscious, The, name
given to a spiritual supernatural influence operating in and
affecting the life and character, but which we are not sensible
of ourselves, and still less reveal a conscious sense of to
Undine, a female spirit of the
watery element, naturally without, but capable of receiving,
a human soul, particularly after being wedded to a man and after
giving birth to a child.
the theory that light is due to vibrations or undulations in
the ether as the medium through which it is transmitted from
its source in a luminous body.
increase in the value of land or any property without expenditure
of any kind on the part of the proprietor.
Unicorn, a fabulous animal like
a horse, with a cubit and a half long horn on the forehead;
was adopted by James I. as the symbol of Scotland on the royal
arms; is in Christian art a symbol of the incarnation, and an
emblem of female chastity.
Uniformity, Act Of,
an Act passed in England in 1662 regulating the form of public
prayers and rites to be observed in all churches, and which
had the effect of driving hundreds of clergymen from the Established
Unigenitus, The Bull,
a bull beginning with this word, issued by Pope Clement XI.
in 1713 against Jansenism (q.
v.) in France, and which was in 1730 condemned by the civil
authorities in Paris.
Union, Federal, name given
to a union of several States in defence or promotion of the
common good, while each State is independent of the rest in
Union, The, a name applied
in the English history to (1) the Union of England and Scotland
in 1603 under one crown, by the accession of James VI. of Scotland
to the throne of England on the death of Elizabeth; (2) the
Union of England and Scotland in 1707, under one Parliament
seated at Westminster, into the United Kingdom of Great Britain;
and (3) to the Union of the United Kingdom of Great Britain
to Ireland in 1801, when the Irish Parliament was abolished,
and was represented, as it still is, in the Imperial.
Union Jack, originally the
flag of Great Britain, on which the crosses of St. George and
St. Andrew are blended, with which certain white streaks were
blended or fimbriated after the Union with Ireland.
Unionists, name given to the
Liberal party opposed to Mr. Gladstone's measure to grant Home
Rule to Ireland.
Unitarians, a designation
applicable to all monotheists in religion, including Jews and
Mohammedans, but generally and more specially applied to those
who deny the Church doctrine of the Trinity, and in particular
the divinity of Christ, and who have at different times and
in different countries assumed an attitude, both within the
pale of the Church and outside of it, of protestation against
the opposite orthodox creed in the interests of rationalistic
belief; the name is also employed in philosophy to designate
those who resolve the manifold of being into the operation of
some single principle.
United Brethren, name
given to the Moravians (q.
a body of Presbyterians in Scotland who dissent from the Established
Church on chiefly ecclesiastical grounds, and had their origin
in union in 1847 of the Secession Church of 1733 with the Relief
Church of 1752, bodies previously in dissent as well. A further
union of the United Presbyterian body with the Free Church is
to all appearance about to be consummated.
United Provinces. See
United States (62,622),
the great Western republic; occupies an area nearly as large
as all Europe, bounded on the N. by the Dominion of Canada,
on the E. by the Atlantic, on the S. by Mexico and the Gulf,
and on the W. by the Pacific, extending 2700 m. from E. to W.,
and on an average 1600 m. from N. to S.; on the coasts are few
capes, inlets, and islands, except on that of New England; there
are two great mountain systems, the Appalachians on the E. and
the Rockies, the Cascade ranges, &c., on the W., which divide
the territory into four regions—an eastern, which slopes
from the Appalachians to the Atlantic, a manufacturing region;
a central, which slopes S., formed by the Mississippi Valley,
an agricultural and pastoral region; a plateau supported by
the Rocky and Cascade ranges, a metalliferous region; and a
territory with the valley of the Sacramento, which slopes to
the Pacific, of varied resources. The great rivers are in the
Mississippi Valley, as also the two largest lakes, the Michigan
and Great Salt Lake, though there are important rivers both
for navigation and water-power on the Atlantic and Pacific slopes.
The climate is of every variety, from sub-arctic to sub-tropic,
with extremes both as regards temperature and moisture, in consequence
of which the vegetation is varied. The mineral wealth is immense,
and includes, besides large beds of coal, all the useful metals.
The industries, too, are manifold, and embrace manufactures
of all kinds, with agriculture, grazing, mining, and fishing,
while commerce is prosecuted with an activity that defies all
rivalry, the facilities in railway and waterway being such as
no other country can boast of, for there are over 182,000 miles
of railway, not to mention street railways and traction lines,
with telegraphic and telephonic communication. The population
is mostly of British and German descent, with eight million
negroes, who are all English-spoken. The Government is a federal
republic of 45 States; the legislature consists of two Houses—a
Senate representing the States, each one sending two members,
and a House of Representatives representing the people, every
citizen over 21 having a vote, and every 170,000 voters having
a representative—the head of the Government being the
President, elected for a term of four years, and commander-in-chief
of both army and navy. Religious equality prevails through all
the States, though the Protestant section of the Church is in
the ascendant, and education is free
and general, though backward in some of the former slave-holding
States, the cost being met by State or local funds, supplemented
by the Federal Government.
United States, Presidents
of, George Washington (1789-1797); John Adams (1797-1801);
Thomas Jefferson (1801-1809); James Maddison (1809-1817); James
Munroe (1817-1825); John Quincy Adams (1825-1829); Andrew Jackson
(1829-1837); Martin Van Buren (1837-1841); John Tyler (1841-1845);
John K. Polk (1845-1849); Zachary Taylor (1849-1850); Millard
Fillmore (1850-1853); Franklin Pierce (1853-1857); James Buchanan
(1857-1861); Abraham Lincoln (1861-1865); Andrew Johnson (1865-1869);
Ulysses D. Grant (1869-1877); Rutherford B. Hayes (1877-1881);
James A. Garfield (1881); Chester A. Arthur (1881-1885); Grover
Cleveland (1885-1889); Benjamin Harrison (1889-1893); Grover
Cleveland (1893-1897); William McKinley (1897-1901); Theodore
Unities, Three, name given
to the rule laid down by Aristotle that a tragedy should be
limited to one subject, to one place, and a single day.
Universalists, a body
of Christians who profess to believe in the final restoration
of all the fallen, angels as well as men; a body chiefly of
American growth, having an ecclesiastical organisation, and
embracing a membership of 40,000; there are many of them Unitarians,
and all are more or less Pelagian in their views of sin.
Unknown, The Great,
name given to Sir Walter Scott from withholding his name in
publishing the Waverley novels.
Unterwalden (27), a canton
of Switzerland S. and E. of Lucerne, consisting of two parallel
valleys 15 m. long running N. and S.; an entirely pastoral country,
and exports articles of husbandry.
Unyanyembe, a district of
German East Africa, with a town of the name, with a settlement
of Arabs who cultivate the soil, the fruits of which they export.
Unyoro (1,500), a native State
of Central Africa, between Lake Albert Nyanza and the territory
a voluminous heterogeneous collection of treatises connected
with the Vedas, and the chief source of our knowledge of the
early metaphysical speculations and ethical doctrines of the
Hindus; they are to a great extent apocryphal, and are posterior
to the rise of Buddhism.
Upas Tree, a poison-yielding-tree,
at one time fabled to exhale such poison that it was destructive
to all animal and vegetable life for miles round it.
Upolu (16), the principal island
in the Samoan group (q. v.),
is 140 m. in circumference, and rises in verdure-clad terraces
from a belt of low land on the shore, with Apia, the capital
of the group, on the N. border.
Uppingham, market-town in
Rutland, with a famous public school.
Upsala (21), the ancient capital
of Sweden, on the Sala, 21 m. NW. of Stockholm, the seat of
the Primate, and of a famous university with 1900 students,
and a library of 250,000 volumes; its cathedral, built of brick
in the Gothic style, is the largest in Sweden, contains the
tombs of Linnæus and of Gustavus Vasa.
Ural, a river of Russia, which
rises in the E. of the Urals and forms part of the boundary
between Europe and Asia, and falls after a course of 870 m.
by a number of mouths into the Caspian Sea.
Urals, The, a range of mountains
rich in precious as well as useful metals, extending from the
Arctic Sea to the Sea of Aral, and separating European from
Asiatic Russia, and is 1330 m. in length, 60 m. in breadth,
and 3000 ft. in average height.
Uralsk (26), a town, a Cossack
centre, on the Ural River, 280 m. from the Caspian Sea, and
a place of considerable trade.
Urania, the muse of astronomy,
is represented with a globe in her hand, to which she points
with a small rod.
Uranus, a planet, the outermost
but one of the solar system, is 1770 millions of miles from
the sun, takes 30,686 of our days, or 84 of our years, to revolve
round it, has four times the diameter of the earth, and is accompanied
by four moons; it was discovered in 1781 by Herschel, and called
by him Georgium Sidus in honour of George III.
Uranus (Heaven), in the Greek
mythology the son of Gaia (the Earth), and by her the father
of the Titans; he hated his children, and at birth thrust them
down to Tartarus, to the grief of Gaia, at whose instigation
Kronos, the youngest born, unmanned him, and seized the throne
of the Universe, to be himself supplanted in turn by his son
Urban, the name of eight Popes:
Urban I., Pope from 223 to 230; Urban II., Pope
from 1088 to 1099, warm promoter of the first Crusade; Urban
III., Pope from 1185 to 1187; Urban IV., Pope from
1261 to 1264; Urban V., Pope from 1362 to 1370, man of
an ascetic temper; Urban VI., Pope from 1378 to 1389,
in his reign the schism in the papacy began which lasted 40
years; Urban VII., Pope in 1590; and Urban VIII.,
Pope from 1623 to 1644, founded the College de Propaganda Fide.
Urbino, an ancient town of Central
Italy, 20 m. SW. of Pesaro; was once the capital of a duchy;
is the seat of an archbishop, and was the birthplace of Raphael.
Uri (17), a Swiss canton N. of Unterwalden;
is almost entirely pastoral; is overlooked by Mount St. Gothard;
Altdorf is the capital.
Urim and Thummim, two
ornaments attached to the breastplate of the Jewish high-priest
which, when consulted by him, at times gave mysteriously oracular
Urquhart, Sir Thomas,
of Cromarty, a cavalier and supporter of Charles I., and a great
enemy of the Covenanters in Scotland; travelled much, and acquired
a mass of miscellaneous knowledge, which he was fain to display
and did display in a most pedantic style; posed as a philologist
and a mathematician, but executed one classical work, a translation
of Rabelais; is said to have died in a fit of laughter at the
news of the restoration of Charles II. (1605-1660).
Ursa Major, the Greater Bear,
a well-known constellation in the northern hemisphere, called
also the Plough, the Wagon, or Charles's Wain, consists of seven
bright stars, among others three of which are known as the "handle"
of the Plough, and two as the pointers, so called as pointing
to the pole-star.
Ursa Minor, the Lesser Bear,
an inconspicuous constellation, the pole-star forming the tip
of the tail.
Ursula, St., virgin saint and
martyr, daughter of a British king; sought in marriage by a
heathen prince, whom she accepted on condition that he became
a Christian and that he would wait three years till she and
her 11,000 maidens accomplished a pilgrimage to Rome; this pilgrimage
being accomplished, on their return to Cologne they were set
upon and all save her slain by a horde of Huns, who reserved
her as a bride to Etzel, their king, on the refusal of whose
hand she was transfixed by an arrow, and thereby set free from
all earthly bonds; is very often represented
in art with arrows in her hands, and sometimes with a mantle
and a group of small figures under it, her martyred sisters.
Ursulines, an order of nuns
founded in 1537 by St. Angela Merici of Brescia in honour of
St. Ursula, devoted to the nursing of the sick and the instruction
of the young, and now established in homes in different cities
of both Europe and North America.
Uruguay (730), the smallest
State in South America and a republic, formerly called Banda
Oriental; lies between the Atlantic and the Uruguay River, and
is bounded on the S. by the estuary of the Plata; it covers
an area of over 70,000 sq. m., and is little more than one-third
the size of France; the mineral wealth is abundant, but little
has been done to exploit it; the cultivation of the soil is
only begun, and the land is mostly given over to pasture, cattle-rearing
and sheep-farming being the chief industries, and the chief
products and exports being hides, wool, preserved meats, and
similar articles of commerce. The people are mostly natives
of mixed race, with some 30 per cent. of Europeans; primary
education is compulsory; there are numerous schools, and a university,
and though the established religion is Roman Catholic, all others
are tolerated. Montevideo is the capital.
Urumiya (32), a town in Persia,
near a lake of the name, SW. of the Caspian Sea, the seat of
a Nestorian bishop and the birthplace of Zoroaster.
Usedom (33), island belonging
to Prussia, at the mouth of the Oder, with Schwinemünde
on the N.
Ushant, island off the W. coast
of France, in department of Finisterre, where Howe gained a
signal victory over the French in 1794.
Usher, James, Irish episcopal
prelate, born in Dublin of good parentage, educated at Trinity
College, Dublin; took orders and devoted years to the study
of the Fathers of the Church; was in 1607 appointed professor
of Divinity in his Alma Mater, in 1620 bishop of Meath, and
in 1621 archbishop of Armagh; in 1640 he went to England, and
during the rebellion next year his house was broken into and
plundered, after which he settled in London and was eight years
preacher at Lincoln's Inn; adhered to the royal cause, but was
favoured by Cromwell, and by him honoured with burial in Westminster;
he was a most saintly man, evangelical in his teaching, and
wrote a number of learned works (1581-1656).
Utah (207), a territory on the
western plateau of the United States, W. of Colorado, traversed
by the Wahsatch range, at the foot of which lies the Great Salt
Lake, is in extent nearly three times as large as Scotland,
and occupied by a population four-fifths of which are Mormons,
a territory rich in mines of the precious and useful metals
as well as coal; originally wholly a desert waste, but now transformed
where the soil has admitted of it, into a fruit-bearing region.
Salt Lake City (q. v.)
is the capital.
Utakamand, the summer capital
of the Presidency of Madras, India, on the Nilgherries, 7000
ft. above the sea-level, and where the temperature in summer
is as low as 60°.
Utgard (out-yard), in the Norse
mythology a place or circle of rocks on the extreme borders
of the world, the abode of the giants, the same as Jötunheim.
Utica, an ancient city of North
Africa, founded by the Phoenicians on a site 20 m. NW. of Carthage;
was in alliance with Carthage during the first and second Punic
Wars, but took part with the Romans in the third, and became
afterwards the capital of the Roman province.
Utica (56), a city in New York
State, U.S., 232 m. NW. of New York City; is on the Erie Canal,
in the heart of a dairy-farming district; has a noted market
for cheese, and has various manufactures.
Utilitarianism, the theory
which makes happiness the end of life and the test of virtue,
and maintains that "actions are right in proportion as
they tend to promote happiness, and wrong as they tend to produce
the reverse," a theory characterised by Carlyle, who is
never weary of denouncing it, as "reducing the infinite
celestial soul of man to a kind of hay-balance for weighing
hay and thistles on, pleasures and pains on." The great
apostle of this theory was John Stuart Mill, and the great father
of it Jeremy Bentham.
Utopia (Nowhere), an imaginary
island described by Sir Thomas More, and represented as possessing
a perfect political organisation, and which has given name to
all schemes which aim at the like impossible perfection, though
often applied to such as are not so much impossible in themselves
as impracticable for want of the due individual virtue and courage
to realise them.
Utraquists (i. e.
both kinders), followers of Huss who maintained that the Eucharist
should be administered to the people in both kinds, both bread
Utrecht (60), an old town, the
capital of a province of the name (224), in Holland, on the
Old Rhine, 23 m. SE. of Amsterdam; it is fortified by strong
forts, and the old walls have been levelled into beautiful promenades;
has a number of fine buildings, a Gothic cathedral, St. Martin's,
a famous university with 700 students, and a library of 160,000
volumes, besides a town-hall and the "Pope's house"
(Pope Adrian VI., who was born here), &c.; manufactures
iron goods, textiles, machinery, &c., and trades in butter
and cheese; here in 1713 the treaty was signed which closed
the Spanish Succession War. Is the name also of a S. province
of the Transvaal.
Uttoxeter, market-town of
Staffordshire, 14 m. NE. of Stafford; has sundry manufactures
and brewing; here Dr. Johnson did public penance, with head
uncovered, as a man, for want of filial duty when, as a boy,
he refused to keep his father's bookstall in the market-place
when he was ill.
Uxbridge, town of Middlesex,
16 m. W. of London; has two fine churches, and a large corn-market.
Uzbegs, a race of Tartar descent
and Mohammedan creed, dominant in Turkestan, the governing class
in Khiva, Bokhara, and Khokand especially; territory now annexed