Baader, Franz Xavier von,
a German philosopher, born at Münich; was patronised by
the king of Bavaria, and became professor in Münich, who,
revolting alike from the materialism of Hume, which he studied
in England, and the transcendentalism of Kant, with its self-sufficiency
of the reason, fell back upon the mysticism of Jacob Boehme,
and taught in 16 vols. what might rather be called a theosophy
than a philosophy, which regarded God in Himself, and God even
in life, as incomprehensible realities. He, however, identified
himself with the liberal movement in politics, and offended
the king (1765-1841).
Ba`al (meaning Lord), pl.
Baalim, the principal male divinity of the Canaanites
and Phoenicians, identified with the sun as the great quickening
and life-sustaining power in nature, the god who presided over
the labours of the husbandman and granted the increase; his
crowning attribute, strength; worshipped on hill-tops with sacrifices,
incense, and dancing. Baal-worship, being that of the Canaanites,
was for a time mixed up with the worship of Jehovah in Israel,
and at one time threatened to swamp it, but under the zealous
preaching of the prophets it was eventually stamped out.
Baal`bek (i. e. City
of Baal, or the Sun), an ancient city of Syria, 35 m. NW. of
Damascus; called by the Greeks, Heliopolis; once a place of
great size, wealth, and splendour; now in ruins, the most conspicuous
of which is the Great Temple to Baal, one of the most magnificent
ruins of the East, covering an area of four acres.
Baalism, the name given to the
worship of natural causes, tending to the obscuration and denial
of the worship of God as Spirit.
Baba, Ali, the character in
the "Arabian Nights" who discovers and enters the
den of the Forty Thieves by the magic password "Sesamë"
(q. v.), a word which he accidentally overheard.
Baba, Cape, in Asia Minor,
the most western point in Asia, in Anatolia, with a town of
Babbage, Charles, a mathematician,
born in Devonshire; studied at Cambridge, and professor there;
spent much time and money over the invention of a calculating
machine; wrote on "The Economy of Manufactures and Machinery,"
and an autobiography entitled "Passages from the Life of
a Philosopher"; in his later years was famous for his hostility
to street organ-grinders (1791-1871).
an English Catholic gentleman; conspired against Elizabeth on
behalf of Mary, Queen of Scots, confessed his guilt, and was
executed at Tyburn in 1586.
Bab-el-Mandeb (i. e.
the Gate of Tears), a strait between Asia and Africa forming
the entrance to the Red Sea, so called from the strong currents
which rush through it, and often cause wreckage to vessels attempting
to pass it.
Baber, the founder of the Mogul
empire in Hindustan, a descendant of Tamerlane; thrice invaded
India, and became at length master of it in 1526; left memoirs;
his dynasty lasted for three centuries.
Babes in the Wood, Irish
banditti who infested the Wicklow Mountains in the 18th century,
and were guilty of the greatest atrocities. See
Bâbis, a modern Persian
sect founded in 1843, their doctrines a mixture of pantheistic
with Gnostic and Buddhist beliefs; adverse to polygamy, concubinage,
and divorce; insisted on the emancipation of women; have suffered
from persecution, but are increasing in numbers.
Noel, a violent revolutionary in France, self-styled
Gracchus; headed an insurrection against the Directory, "which
died in the birth, stifled by the soldiery"; convicted
of conspiracy, was guillotined, after attempting to commit suicide
Baboo, or Babu, name applied
to a native Hindu gentleman who has some knowledge of English.
Baboon, Lewis, the name
Arbuthnot gives to Louis XIV. in his "History of John Bull."
Ba`brius, or Gabrius,
a Greek poet of uncertain date; turned the fables of Æsop
and of others into verse, with alterations.
Baby-farming, a system
of nursing new-born infants whose parents may wish them out
Babylon, the capital city of
Babylonia, one of the richest and most magnificent cities of
the East, the gigantic walls and hanging gardens of which were
classed among the seven wonders of the world; was taken, according
to tradition, by Cyrus in 538 B.C., by diverting out of their
channel the waters of the Euphrates, which flowed through it
and by Darius in 519 B.C., through the self-sacrifice of Zophyrus.
The name was often metaphorically applied to Rome by the early
Christians, and is to-day to great centres of population, such
as London, where the overcrowding, the accumulation of material
wealth, and the so-called refinements of civilisation, are conceived
to have a corrupting effect on the religion and morals of the
Babylo`nia, the name given
by the Greeks to that country called in the Old Testament, Shinar,
Babel, and "the land of the Chaldees"; it occupied
the rich, fertile plain through which the lower waters of the
Euphrates and the Tigris flow, now the Turkish province of Irak-Arabi
or Bagdad. From very early times it was the seat of a highly
developed civilisation introduced by the Sumero-Accadians, who
descended on the plain from the mountains in the NW. Semitic
tribes subsequently settled among the Accadians and impressed
their characteristics on the language and institutions of the
country. The 8th century B.C. was marked by a fierce struggle
with the northern empire of Assyria, in which Babylonia eventually
succumbed and became an Assyrian province. But Nabopolassar
in 625 B.C. asserted his independence, and under his son Nebuchadnezzar,
Babylonia rose to the zenith of its power. Judah was captive
in the country from 599 to 538 B.C. In that year Cyrus conquered
it for Persia, and its history became merged in that of Persia.
the name given to the deportation of Jews from Judea to Babylon
after the capture of Jerusalem by the king of Babylon, and which
continued for 70 years, till they were allowed to return to
their own land by Cyrus, who had conquered Babylon; those who
returned were solely of the tribes of Judah, Benjamin, and Levi.
Bacchanalia, a festival,
originally of a loose and riotous character, in honour of Bacchus.
Bacchantes, those who took
part in the festival of Bacchus, confined originally to women,
and were called by a number of names, such as Mænads,
Thyads, &c.; they wore their hair dishevelled and thrown
back, and had loose flowing garments.
Bac`chus, son of Zeus and Semele,
the god of the vine, and promoter of its culture as well as
the civilisation which accompanied it; represented as riding
in a car drawn by tame tigers, and carrying a
Thyrsus (q. v.); he rendered
signal service to Zeus in the war of the gods with the
Giants (q. v.). See
Bacchyl`ides, a Greek lyric
poet, 5th century B.C., nephew of Simonides and uncle of Eschylus,
a rival of Pindar; only a few fragments of his poems extant.
Baccio della Porto.
See Bartolomeo, Fra.
Baccio`chi, a Corsican officer,
who married Maria Bonaparte, and was created by Napoleon Prince
of Lucca (1762-1841).
Bach, Johann Sebastian,
one of the greatest of musical composers, born in Eisenach,
of a family of Hungarian origin, noted—sixty of them—for
musical genius; was in succession a chorister, an organist,
a director of concerts, and finally director of music at the
School of St. Thomas, Leipzig; his works, from their originality
and scientific rigour, difficult of execution (1685-1750).
Bache, A. Dallas, an American
physicist, born at Philadelphia, superintended the coast survey
Bachelor, a name given to one
who has achieved the first grade in any discipline.
Bacil`lus (lit. a little
rod), a bacterium, distinguished as being twice as long as it
is broad, others being more or less rounded. See
Back, Sir George, a devoted
Arctic explorer, born at Stockport, entered the navy, was a
French captive for five years, associated with Franklin in three
polar expeditions, went in search of Sir John Ross, discovered
instead and traced the Great Fish River in 1839, was knighted
in 1837, and in 1857 made admiral (1796-1878).
a Dutch painter, famous for his sea-pieces and skill in depicting
sea-waves; was an etcher as well as painter (1631-1708).
Bacon, Delia, an American
authoress, who first broached, though she did not originate,
the theory of the Baconian authorship of Shakespeare's works,
a theory in favour of which she has received small support (1811-1859).
Bacon, Francis, Lord
Verulam, the father of the inductive method of scientific
inquiry; born in the Strand, London; son of Sir Nicholas Bacon;
educated at Cambridge; called to the bar when 21, after study
at Gray's Inn; represented successively Taunton, Liverpool,
and Ipswich in Parliament; was a favourite with the queen; attached
himself to Essex, but witnessed against him at his trial, which
served him little; became at last in succession Attorney-General,
Privy Councillor, Lord Keeper, and Lord Chancellor; was convicted
of venality as a judge, deposed, fined and imprisoned, but pardoned
and released; spent his retirement in his favourite studies;
his great works were his "Advancement of Learning," "Novum
Organum," and "De Augmentis Scientiarum," but
is seen to best advantage by the generality in his "Essays,"
which are full of practical wisdom and keen observation of life;
indeed, these show such shrewdness of wit as to embolden some
(see supra) to maintain
that the plays named of Shakespeare were written by him (1561-1626).
Bacon, Roger, a Franciscan
monk, born at Ilchester, Somerset; a fearless truth-seeker of
great scientific attainments; accused of magic, convicted and
condemned to imprisonment, from which he was released only to
die; suggested several scientific inventions, such as the telescope,
the air-pump, the diving-bell, the camera obscura, and gunpowder,
and wrote some eighty treatises (1214-1294).
Bacon, Sir Nicholas,
the father of Francis, Lord Bacon, Privy Councillor and Keeper
of the Great Seal under Queen Elizabeth; a prudent and honourable
man and minister, and much honoured and trusted by the queen
Bacsanyi, Janos, a Hungarian
poet; he suffered from his liberal political opinions, like
many of his countrymen (1763-1845).
Bacte`ria, exceedingly minute
organisms of the simplest structure, being merely cells of varied
forms, in the shape of spheres, rods, or intermediate shapes,
which develop in infusions of organic matter, and multiply by
fission with great rapidity, fraught, as happens, with life
or death to the higher forms of being; conspicuous by the part
they play in the process of fermentation and in the origin and
progress of disease, and to the knowledge of which, and the
purpose they serve in nature, so much has been contributed by
the labours of M. Pasteur.
Bac`tria, a province of ancient
Persia, now Balkh (q. v.), the presumed
fatherland of the Aryans and the birthplace of the Zoroastrian
Bactrian Sage, a name given
to Zoroaster as a native of Bactria.
Bacup (23), a manufacturing town
in Lancashire, about 20 m. NE. of Manchester.
Badajoz` (28), capital of a
Spanish province of the name, on the Guadiana, near the frontier
of Portugal; a place of great strength; surrendered to Soult
in 1811, and taken after a violent and bloody struggle by Wellington
in 1812; the scene of fearful outrages after its capture.
Badakans, a Dravidian people
of small stature, living on the Nilghiri Mountains, in S. India.
Badakhshan` (100), a Mohammedan
territory NE. of Afghanistan, a picturesque hill country, rich
in minerals; it is 200 m. from E. to W. and 150 from N. to S.;
it has been often visited by travellers, from Marco Polo onwards;
the inhabitants, called Badakhshans, are of the Aryan family
and speak Persian.
Badalo`na (15), a seaport 5
m. NE. of Barcelona.
Ba`den (4), a town in the canton
of Aargau, Switzerland, 14 m. NW. of Zurich, long a fashionable
resort for its mineral springs; also a town near Vienna.
Bad`en, The Grand-Duchy
of (1,725), a German duchy, extends along the left bank
of the Rhine from Constance to Mannheim; consists of valley,
mountain, and plain; includes the Black Forest; is rich in timber,
minerals, and mineral springs; cotton fabrics, wood-carving,
and jewellery employ a great proportion of the inhabitants;
there are two university seats, Heidelberg and Freiburg.
Baden-Baden (13), a town
in the duchy of Baden, 18 m. from Carlsruhe and 22 from Strassburg,
noted for its hot mineral springs, which were known to the Romans,
and is a popular summer resort.
Bad`enoch, a forest-covered
district of the Highlands of Scotland, 45 m. long by 19 broad,
traversed by the Spey, in the SE. of Inverness-shire; belonged
originally to the Comyns, but was forfeited by them, was bestowed
by Bruce on his nephew; became finally the property of the Earl
Spaniard, born at Barcelona; travelled in the East; having acquired
a knowledge of Arabic and Arab customs, disguised himself as
a Mohammedan under the name of Ali-Bei; his disguise was so
complete that he passed for a Mussulman, even in Mecca itself;
is believed to be the first Christian admitted to the shrine
of Mecca; after a time settled in Paris, and wrote an account
of his travels (1766-1818).
Badrinath, a shrine of Vishnu,
in N.W. India, 10,000 ft. high; much frequented by pilgrims
for the sacred waters near it, which are believed to be potent
to cleanse from all pollution.
Baedeker, Karl, a German
printer in Coblenz, famed for the guide-books to almost every
country of Europe that he published (1801-1859).
Baer, Karl Ernst von,
a native of Esthonia; professor of zoology, first in Königsberg
and then in St. Petersburg; the greatest of modern embryologists,
styled the "father of comparative embryology"; the
discoverer of the law, known by his name, that the embryo when
developing resembles those of successively higher types (1792-1876).
Baffin, William, an early
English Arctic explorer, who, when acting as pilot to an expedition
in quest of the N.W. Passage, discovered Baffin Bay (1584-1622).
Baffin Bay, a strait stretching
northward between N. America and Greenland, open four months
in summer to whale and seal fishing; discovered in 1615 by William
Bagdad (185), on the Tigris,
500 m. from its mouth, and connected with the Euphrates by canal;
is the capital of a province, and one of the most flourishing
cities of Asiatic Turkey; dates, wool, grain, and horses are
exported; red and yellow leather, cotton, and silk are manufactured;
and the transit trade, though less than formerly, is still considerable.
It is a station on the Anglo-Indian telegraph route, and is
served by a British-owned fleet of river steamers plying to
Basra. Formerly a centre of Arabic culture, it has belonged
to Turkey since 1638. An imposing city to look at, it suffers
from visitations of cholera and famine.
Bagehot, Walter, an English
political economist, born in Somerset, a banker by profession,
and an authority on banking and finance; a disciple of Ricardo;
wrote, besides other publications, an important work, "The
English Constitution"; was editor of the Economist;
wrote in a vigorous style (1826-1877).
Bagge`sen, Jens Emmanuel,
a Danish poet, travelled a good deal, wrote mostly in German,
in which he was quite at home; his chief works, a pastoral epic, "Parthenais
oder die Alpenreise," and a mock epic, "Adam and Eve";
his minor pieces are numerous and popular, though from his egotism
and irritability he was personally unpopular (1764-1826).
Baghelkand, name of five
native states in Central India, Rewah the most prosperous.
Baghe`ria, a town in Sicily,
8 m. from Palermo, where citizens of the latter have more or
less stylish villas.
Bagir`mi, a Mohammedan kingdom
in Central Africa, SE. of Lake Tehad, 240 m. from N. to S. and
150 m. from E. to W.
Baglio`ni, an Italian fresco-painter
of note (1573-1641).
Bagli`vi, Giorgio, an
illustrious Italian physician, wrote "De Fibra Motrice"
in defence of the "solidist" theory, as it is called,
which traced all diseases to alterations in the solid parts
of the body (1667-1706).
Bagnères, two French
towns on the Pyrenees, well-known watering-places.
Bagnes, name given to convict
prisons in France since the abolition of the galleys.
Russian general, distinguished in many engagements; commanded
the vanguard at Austerlitz, Eylau, and Friedland, and in 1812,
against Napoleon; achieved a brilliant success at Smolensk;
fell at Borodino (1765-1812).
Bagstock, Joe, a "self-absorbed"
talking character in "Dombey & Son."
Baha`mas, The (47), a group
of over 500 low, flat coral islands in the W. Indies, and thousands
of rocks, belonging to Britain, of which 20 are inhabited, and
on one of which Columbus landed when he discovered America;
yield tropical fruits, sponges, turtle, &c.; Nassau the
Bahar (263), a town on the Ganges,
34 m. SE. of Patna; after falling into decay, is again rising
Bahawalpur (650), a feudatory
state in the NW. of India, with a capital of the name; is connected
administratively with the Punjab.
Bahi`a, or San Salvador (200),
a fine city, one of the chief seaports of Brazil, in the Bay
of All Saints, and originally the capital in a province of the
name stretching along the middle of the coast.
Bahr, an Arabic word meaning "river,"
prefixed to the name of many places occupied by Arabs.
Bähr, Felix, classical
scholar, burn at Darmstadt; wrote a "History of Roman Literature,"
in high repute (1798-1872).
Bahrein` Islands (70),
a group of islands in the Persian Gulf, under the protection
of Britain, belonging to Muscat, the largest 27 m. long and
10 broad, cap. Manamah (20); long famous for their pearl-fisheries,
the richest in the world.
Bahr-el-Ghazal, an old
Egyptian prov. including the district watered by the tributaries
of the Bahr-el-Arab and the Bahr-el-Ghazal; it was wrested from
Egypt by the Mahdi, 1884; a district of French Congo lies W.
of it, and it was through it Marchand made his way to Fashoda.
Baiæ, a small town near
Naples, now in ruins and nearly all submerged; famous as a resort
of the old Roman nobility, for its climate and its baths.
Baïf, a French poet one of
a group of seven known in French literature as the "Pléiade,"
whose aim was to accommodate the French language and literature
to the models of Greek and Latin.
Baikal, a clear fresh-water lake,
in S. of Siberia, 397 m. long and from 13 to 54 wide, in some
parts 4500 ft. deep, and at its surface 1560 ft. above the sea-level,
the third largest in Asia; on which sledges ply for six or eight
months in winter, and steamboats in summer; it abounds in fish,
especially sturgeon and salmon; it contains several islands,
the largest Olkhin, 32 m. by 10 m.
Baikie, W. Balfour, an
Orcadian, born at Kirkwall, surgeon in the Royal Navy; was attached
to the Niger Expedition in 1854, and ultimately commanded it,
opening the region up and letting light in upon it at the sacrifice
of his life; died at Sierra Leone (1825-1864).
Bailey, Nathan, an early
English lexicographer, whose dictionary, very popular in its
day, was the basis of Johnson's; d. 1742.
Bailey, Philip James, English
poet, born in Nottingham; author of "Festus," a work
that on its appearance in 1839 was received with enthusiasm,
passed through 11 editions in England and 30 in America, was
succeeded by "The Angel World," "The Mystic," "The
Universal Hymn," and "The Age";
he has been rated by some extravagantly high; b. 1816.
Bailey, Samuel, an English
author, born in Sheffield, a liberal-minded man, a utilitarian
in philosophy, who wrote on psychology, ethics, and political
economy, and left a fortune, acquired in business, to his native
Baillie, Joanna, a poetess,
born at Bothwell, child of the Presbyterian manse there; joined
a brother in London, stayed afterwards with a sister at Hampstead;
produced a series of dramas entitled "Plays of the Passions,"
besides many others, both comedies and tragedies, one of which,
the "Family Legend," was acted in the Theatre Royal,
Edinburgh, under the auspices of Sir Walter Scott; she does
not stand high either as a dramatist or a writer (1762-1851).
Baillie, Lady Grizel,
an heroic Scotch lady, famous for her songs, "And werena
my heart licht I wad dee" is well known (1665-1740).
Baillie, Matthew, physician,
brother of Joanna, wrote on Morbid Anatomy (1761-1823).
Baillie, Robert, a Scotch
Presbyterian divine, born in Glasgow; resisted Laud's attempt
to thrust Episcopacy on the Scotch nation, and became a zealous
advocate of the national cause, which he was delegated to represent
twice over in London; he was a royalist all the same, and was
made principal of Glasgow University; "His Letters and
Journals" were published by the Bannatyne Club, and are
commended by Carlyle as "veracious," forming, as they
do, the subject of one of his critical essays (1599-1662).
Baillie, Robert, a zealous
Scotch Presbyterian, tried for complicity in the Rye House Plot,
and unfairly condemned to death, and barbarously executed the
same day (in 1683) for fear he should die afterwards and cheat
the gallows of its victim.
Bailly, Jean Sylvain,
an astronomer, born at Paris; wrote the "History of Astronomy,
Ancient and Modern," in five volumes; was distracted from
further study of the science by the occurrence of the Revolution;
elected president of the National Assembly; installed mayor
of Paris; lost favour with the people; was imprisoned as an
enemy of the popular cause and cruelly guillotined. Exposed
beforehand "for hours long, amid curses and bitter frost-rain,
'Bailly, thou tremblest,' said one; 'Mon ami,' said he meekly,
'it is for cold.' Crueller end," says Carlyle, "had
Baily, E. H., a sculptor, born
in Bristol, studied under Flaxman; his most popular works were, "Eve
Listening to the Voice," "The Sleeping Girl,"
and the "Graces Seated" (1788-1867).
Bain, Alexander, born
at Aberdeen, professor of Logic in the university, and twice
Lord Rector, where he was much esteemed by and exercised a great
influence over his pupils; his chief works, "The Senses
and the Intellect," "The Emotions and the Will,"
and "Mental and Moral Science"; has written on composition
in a very uninteresting style; his psychology, which he connected
with physiology, was based on empiricism and the inductive method,
to the utter exclusion of all a priori or transcendental
speculation, such as hails from Kant and his school; he is of
the school of John Stuart Mill, who endorsed his philosophy;
Bairam, a Mohammedan festival
of three days at the conclusion of the Ramadan, followed by
another of four days, seventy days later, called the Second
Bairam, in commemoration of the offering up of Isaac, and accompanied
Baird, James, ironmaster,
founder of the Baird Lectureship, in vindication of Scotch orthodoxy;
bequeathed £500,000 to support churches (1802-1876).
Baird, Sir David, a distinguished
English general of Scotch descent, born at Newbyth, Aberdeenshire;
entered the army at 15; served in India, Egypt, and at the Cape;
was present at the taking of Seringapatam, and the siege of
Pondicherry; in command when the Cape of Good Hope was wrested
from the Dutch, and on the fall of Sir John Moore at Corunna,
wounded; he afterwards retired (1757-1829).
Baird, S. Fullerton,
an American naturalist, wrote, along with others, on the birds
and mammals of N. America, as well as contributed to fish-culture
and fisheries (1823-1887).
Bai`reuth (24), the capital
of Upper Franconia, in Bavaria, with a large theatre erected
by the king for the performance of Wagner's musical compositions,
and with a monument, simple but massive, as was fit, to the
memory of Jean Paul, who died there.
Margravine of, sister of Frederick the Great, left "Memoirs"
of her time (1709-1758).
Bajazet` I., sultan of the
Ottoman Turks, surnamed Ilderim, i. e. Lightning,
from the energy and rapidity of his movements; aimed at Constantinople,
pushed everything before him in his advance on Europe, but was
met and defeated on the plain of Angora by Tamerlane, who is
said to have shut him in a cage and carried him about with him
in his train till the day of his death (1347-1403).
Ba`jus, Michael, deputy
from the University of Louvain to the Council of Trent, where
he incurred much obloquy at the hands of the Jesuits by his
insistence of the doctrines of Augustine, as the Jansenists
did after him (1513-1580).
Baker, Mount, a volcano in
the Cascade range, 11,000 ft.; still subject to eruptions.
Baker, Sir Richard,
a country gentleman, born in Kent, often referred to by Sir
Roger de Coverley; author of "The Chronicle of the Kings
of England," which he wrote in the Fleet prison, where
he died (1603-1645).
Baker, Sir Samuel White,
a man of enterprise and travel, born in London; discovered the
Albert Nyanza; commanded an expedition under the Khedive into
the Soudan; wrote an account of it in a book, "Ismailia";
visited Cyprus and travelled over India; left a record of his
travels in five volumes with different titles (1821-1893).
Bakshish, a word used all over
the East to denote a small fee for some small service rendered.
Baku (107), a Russian port on the
Caspian Sea, in a district so impregnated and saturated in parts
with petroleum that by digging in the soil wells are formed,
in some cases so gushing as to overflow in streams, which wells,
reckoned by hundreds, are connected by pipes with refineries
in the town; a district which, from the spontaneous ignition
of the petroleum, was long ago a centre of attraction to the
Parsees or fire-worshippers of the East, and resorted to by
them as holy ground.
Baku`nin, Michael, an
extreme and violent anarchist, and a leader of the movement;
native of Moscow; was banished to Siberia, but escaped; joined
the International, but was expelled (1814-1876).
Bala, the county town of Merioneth,
in Wales. Bala Lake, the largest lake in Wales, 4 m. long, and
with a depth of 100 ft.
Ba`laam, a Midianitish soothsayer;
for the account of him see Num. xxii.-xxiv., and
, essay on the "Corn-Law Rhymes" for its application
to modern State councillors of the same time-serving type, and
their probable fate.
Balacla`va, a small port 6
m. SE. of Sebastopol, with a large land-locked basin; the head-quarters
of the British during the Crimean war, and famous in the war,
among other events, for the "Charge of the Six Hundred."
Balance of power, preservation
of the equilibrium existing among the States of Europe as a
security of peace, for long an important consideration with
Balance of trade, the
difference in value between the exports and the imports of a
country, and said to be in favour of the country whose exports
exceed in value the imports in that respect.
Balanoglos`sus, a worm-like
marine animal, regarded by the zoologist as a possible connecting
link between invertebrates and vertebrates.
Balata, a vegetable gum used
as a substitute for gutta-percha, being at once ductile and
elastic; goes under the name of bully.
Bal`aton, Lake, the largest
lake in Hungary, 48 m. long, and 10 m. broad, 56 m. SW. of Pesth;
slightly saline, and abounds in fish.
Balbi, Adriano, a geographer
of Italian descent, born at Venice, who composed in French a
number of works bearing on geography (1782-1848).
Balbo, Cæsare, an
Italian statesmen and publicist, born at Turin; devoted his
later years to literature; wrote a life of Dante; works in advocacy
of Italian independence (1789-1853).
Balbo`a. Vasco Nuñez
de, a Castilian noble, established a settlement at Darien;
discovered the Pacific; took possession of territory in the
name of Spain; put to death by a new governor, from jealousy
of the glory he had acquired and the consequent influence in
the State (1475-1517).
Baldachino, a tent-like covering
or canopy over portals, altars, or thrones, either supported
on columns, suspended from the roof, or projecting from the
Bald`er, the sun-god of the Norse
mythology, "the beautiful, the wise, the benignant,"
who is fated to die, and dies, in spite of, and to the grief
of, all the gods of the pantheon, a pathetic symbol conceived
in the Norse imagination of how all things in heaven, as on
earth, are subject in the long-run to mortality.
the faithful old domestic in Scott's "Bride of Lammermoor,"
the family he serves his pride.
Baldrick, an ornamental belt
worn hanging over the shoulder, across the body diagonally,
with a sword, dagger, or horn suspended from it.
Baldung, Hans, or Hans
Grün, a German artist, born in Suabia; a friend of
Dürer's; his greatest work, a masterpiece, a painting of
the "Crucifixion," now in Freiburg Cathedral (1300-1347).
Baldwin, archbishop of Canterbury;
crowned Richard Coeur de Lion; accompanied him on the crusade;
died at Acre in 1191.
Baldwin, the name of several
counts of Flanders, eight in all.
Baldwin I., king of Jerusalem;
succeeded his brother Godfrey de Bouillon; assuming said title,
made himself master of most of the towns on the coast of Syria;
contracted a disease in Egypt; returned to Jerusalem, and was
buried on Mount Calvary; there were five of this name and title,
the last of whom, a child of some eight years old, died in 1186
Baldwin I., the first Latin
emperor of Constantinople; by birth, count of Hainault and Flanders;
joined the fourth crusade, led the van in the capture of Constantinople,
and was made emperor; was defeated and taken prisoner by the
Bulgarians (1171-1206). B. II., nephew of Baldwin I.,
last king of the Latin dynasty, which lasted only 57 years (1217-1273).
Bale, John, bishop of Ossory,
in Ireland; born in Suffolk; a convert from Popery, and supported
by Cromwell; was made bishop by Edward VI.; persecuted out of
the country as an apostate from Popery; author of a valuable
account of early British writers (1495-1563).
Balearic Isles (312),
a group of five islands off the coast of Valencia, in Spain,
Majorca the largest; inhabitants in ancient times famous as
expert slingers, having been one and all systematically trained
to the use of the sling from early childhood; cap. Palma (58).
Balfe, Michael William,
a musical composer, of Irish birth, born near Wexford; author
of "The Bohemian Girl," his masterpiece, and world-famous
Balfour, A. J., of Whittinghame,
East Lothian; educated at Eton and Cambridge; nephew of Lord
Salisbury, and First Lord of the Treasury and leader of the
House of Commons in Lord Salisbury's ministry; author of a "Defence
of Philosophic Doubt" and a volume of "Essays and
Addresses"; b. 1848.
Balfour, Francis Maitland,
brother of the preceding; a promising biologist; career was
cut short by death in attempting to ascend the Wetterhorn (1851-1882).
Balfour, Sir James,
Lord President of the Court of Session; native of Fife; an unprincipled
man, sided now with this party, now with the opposite, to his
own advantage, and that at the most critical period in Scottish
history; d. 1583.
Balfour of Burley, leader
of the Covenanters in Scott's "Old Mortality."
Bali, one of the Samoa Islands,
75 m. long by 40 m. broad; produces cotton, coffee, and tobacco.
Baliol, Edward, son of
the following, invaded Scotland; was crowned king at Scone,
supported by Edward III.; was driven from the kingdom, and obliged
to renounce all claim to the crown, on receipt of a pension;
died at Doncaster, 1369.
Baliol, John de, son of
the following; laid claim to the Scottish crown on the death
of the Maid of Norway in 1290; was supported by Edward I., and
did homage to him for his kingdom, but rebelled, and was forced
publicly to resign the crown; died in 1314 in Normandy, after
spending some three years in the Tower; satirised by the Scotch,
in their stinging humorous style, as King Toom Tabard, i.
e. Empty King Cloak.
Baliol, Sir John de,
of Norman descent; a guardian to the heir to the Scottish crown
on the death of Alexander III.; founder of Baliol College, Oxford;
Balize, or Belize, the
capital of British Honduras, in Central America; trade in mahogany,
Balkan Peninsula, the
territory between the Adriatic and the Ægean Sea, bounded
on the N. by the Save and the Lower Danube, and on the S. by
Balkans, The, a mountain range
extending from the Adriatic to the Black Sea; properly the range
dividing Bulgaria from Roumania; mean height, 6500 ft.
Balkash, Lake, a lake in
Siberia, 780 ft. above sea-level, the waters clear, but intensely
salt, 150 m. long and 73 m. broad.
Balkh, anciently called Bactria,
a district of Afghan Turkestan lying between the Oxus and the
Hindu-Kush, 250 m. long and 120 m. broad, with a capital of
the same name, reduced now to a village; birthplace of Zoroaster.
Ball, John, a priest who had
been excommunicated for denouncing the abuses of the Church;
a ringleader in the Wat Tyler rebellion; captured and executed.
Ball, Sir R. S., mathematician
and astronomer, born in Dublin; Astronomer-Royal for Ireland;
author of works on astronomy and mechanics, the best known of
a popular kind on the former science being "The Story of
the Heavens"; b. 1840.
Ballad, a story in verse, composed
with spirit, generally of patriotic interest, and sung originally
to the harp.
Ballanche, Pierre Simon,
a mystic writer, born at Lyons, his chief work "la Palingénésie
Sociale," his aim being the regeneration of society (1814-1847).
Ballantine, James, glass-stainer
and poet, born in Edinburgh (1808-1877).
distinguished counsel in celebrated criminal cases (1812-1887).
a native of Kelso, became a printer in Edinburgh, printed all
Sir Walter Scott's works; failed in business, a failure in which
Scott was seriously implicated (1772-1833).
Ballantyne, John, brother
of preceding, a confidant of Sir Walter's in the matter of the
anonymity of the Waverley Novels; an inimitable story-teller
and mimic, very much to the delight of Sir Walter (1774-1821).
Ballarat` (40), a town in Victoria,
and since 1851 the second city in the province, about 100 m.
NW. of Melbourne; the centre of the chief gold-fields in the
colony, the precious metal being at first washed out of the
soil, and now crushed out of the quartz rocks and dug out of
deep mines; it is the seat of both a Roman Catholic and a Church
of England bishopric.
Ball`ater, a clean Aberdeenshire
village on the Dee, a favourite summer resort, stands 668 ft.
Balmat, Jacques, of Chamounix,
a celebrated Alpine guide (1796-1834).
Balmawhapple, a prejudiced
Scotch clergyman in "Waverley."
Bal`mez, an able Spanish Journalist,
author of "Protestantism and Catholicism compared in their
Effects on the Civilisation of Europe" (1810-1848).
Balmor`al, a castle on the
upper valley of the Dee, at the foot of Braemar, 52½
m. from Aberdeen, 9 m. from Ballater; the Highland residence
of Queen Victoria, on a site which took the fancy of both the
Queen and the Prince Consort on their first visit to the Highlands.
Balmung, the sharp-cutting sword
of Siegfried, so sharp that a smith cut in two by it did not
know he was so cut till he began to move, when he fell in pieces.
Balnaves, Henry, coadjutor
of John Knox in the Scottish Reformation, and a fellow-sufferer
with him in imprisonment and exile; afterwards contributed towards
formulating the creed of the Scotch Church; born at Kirkcaldy,
and educated in Germany; d. 1579.
Balsall, a thriving suburb of
Birmingham, engaged in hardware manufacture.
Baltic Provinces, Russian
provinces bordering on the Baltic.
Baltic Sea, an inland sea
in the N. of Europe, 900 m. long and from 100 to 200 m. broad,
about the size of England and Wales; comparatively shallow;
has no tides; waters fresher than those of the ocean, owing
to the number of rivers that flow into it and the slight evaporation
that goes on at the latitude; the navigation of it is practically
closed from the middle of December to April, owing to the inlets
being blocked with ice.
Baltimore (550), the metropolis
of Maryland, on an arm of Chesapeake Bay, 250 m. from the Atlantic;
is picturesquely situated; not quite so regular in design as
most American cities, but noted for its fine architecture and
its public monuments. It is the seat of the John Hopkins University.
The industries are varied and extensive, including textiles,
flour, tobacco, iron, and steel. The staple trade is in bread-stuffs;
the exports, grain, flour, and tobacco.
Balue, Cardinal, minister
of Louis XI.; imprisoned, for having conspired with Charles
the Rash, by Louis in an iron cage for eleven years (1421-1491).
Baluchistan, a country lying
to the S. of Afghanistan and extending to the Persian Gulf.
Balzac, Honoré de,
native of Tours, in France; one of the most brilliant as well
as prolific novelwriters of modern times; his productions remarkable
for their sense of reality; they show power of observation,
warmth and fertility of imagination, and subtle and profound
delineation of human passion, his design in producing them being
to make them form part of one great work, the "Comédie
Humaine," the whole being a minute dissection of the different
classes of society (1799-1850).
Balzac, Jean Louis Guez
de, born at Angoulême, a French littérateur
and gentleman of rank, who devoted his life to the refinement
of the French language, and contributed by his "Letters"
to the classic form it assumed under Louis XIV.; "he deliberately
wrote," says Prof. Saintsbury, "for the sake of writing,
and not because he had anything particular to say," but
in this way did much to improve the language; d. 1685.
Bambar`ra (2,000), a Soudan
state on the banks of the Upper Niger, opened up to trade; the
soil fertile; yields grain, dates, cotton, and palm-oil; the
natives are negroes of the Mohammedan faith, and are good husbandmen.
Bamberg (35), a manufacturing
town in Upper Franconia, Bavaria; once the centre of an independent
bishopric; with a cathedral, a magnificent edifice, containing
the tomb of its founder, the Emperor Henry II.
Bambino, a figure of the infant
Christ wrapped in swaddling bands, the infant in pictures surrounded
by a halo and angels.
an ancient fortress E. of Belford, on the coast of Northumberland,
now an alms-house.
Bambouk (800), a fertile but
unhealthy negro territory, with mineral wealth and deposits
of gold, W. of Bambarra.
Bamian`, a high-lying valley
in Afghanistan, 8500 ft. above sea-level; out of the rocks on
its N. side, full of caves, are hewn huge figures of Buddha,
one of them 173 ft. high, all of ancient date.
Bampton Lectures, annual
lectures on Christian subjects, eight in number, for the endowment
of which John Bampton, canon of Salisbury, left property which
yields a revenue worth £200 a year.
Banbury, a market-town in Oxfordshire,
celebrated for its cross and its cakes.
Banca (80), an island in the Eastern
Archipelago, belonging to the Dutch, with an unhealthy climate;
rich in tin, worked by Chinese.
Bancroft, George, an
American statesman, diplomatist, and historian, born in Massachusetts;
his chief work "The History of the United States,"
issued finally in six vols., and a faithful account (1800-1891).
Bancroft, Hubert, an
American historian, author of a "History of the Pacific
States of N. America"; b. 1832.
Bancroft, Richard, archbishop
of Canterbury, a zealous Churchman and an enemy of the Puritans;
represented the Church at the Hampton Court Conference, and
was chief overseer of the Authorised Version of the Bible (1554-1610).
Bancroft, Sir Squire,
English actor, born in London, made his first appearance in
Birmingham in 1861; married Mrs. Wilton, an actress; opened
with her the Haymarket Theatre in 1880; retired in 1885, at
which time both retired, and have appeared since only occasionally.
Banda Isles, a group of the
Moluccas, some twelve in number, belonging to Holland; yield
nutmegs and mace; are subject to earthquakes.
Banda Oriental, See
Bandello, an Italian Dominican
monk, a writer of tales, some of which furnished themes and
incidents for Shakespeare, Massinger, and other dramatists of
their time (1480-1562).
Bandie`ra, brothers, born in
Venice; martyrs, in 1844, to the cause of Italian independence.
Bandinelli, a Florentine
sculptor, tried hard to rival Michael Angelo and Cellini; his
work "Hercules and Cacus" is the most ambitious of
his productions; did a "Descent from the Cross" in
bas-relief, in Milan Cathedral (1487-1559).
Banff (7), county town of Banffshire,
on the Moray Firth, at the mouth of the Deveron; the county
itself (64) stretches level along the coast, though mountainous
on the S. and SE.; fishing and agriculture the great industries.
Banffy, Baron, Premier of
Hungary, born at Klausenburg; became in 1874 provincial prefect
of Transylvania; was elected a peer on the formation of the
Upper Hungarian Chamber, and was made Premier in 1893; he is
a strong Liberal; b. 1841.
Banga, the Hindu name for the
Delta of the Ganges.
Ban`galore (180), the largest
town in Mysore, and the capital; stands high; is manufacturing
Banghis, a low-caste people
in the Ganges valley.
Bangk`ok (500), the capital
of Siam, on the Menam; a very striking city; styled, from the
canals which intersect it, the "Venice of the East";
20 m. from the sea; the centre of the foreign trade, carried
on by Europeans and Chinese; with the royal palace standing
on an island, in the courtyard of which several white elephants
Bangor (9), an episcopal city
in Carnarvon, N. Wales, with large slate quarries; a place of
summer resort, from the beauty of its surroundings.
a controversy in the Church of England provoked by a sermon
which Hoadley, bishop of Bangor, preached before George I. in
1717, which offended the sticklers for ecclesiastical authority.
Bangweo`lo, a lake in Equatorial
Africa, discovered by Livingstone, and on the shore of which
he died; 150 m. long, and half as wide; 3690 ft. above sea-level.
Banian days, days when no
meat is served out to ships' crews.
Banjari, a non-Aryan race in
Central India, the carriers and caravan-conductors of the region.
Banim, John, Irish author,
a native of Kilkenny, novelist of Irish peasant life on its
dark side, who, along with his brother Michael, wrote 24 vols.
of Irish stories, &c.; his health giving way, he fell into
poverty, but was rescued by a public subscription and a pension;
Michael survived him 32 years (1798-1842).
Banks, Sir Joseph, a
zealous naturalist, particularly in botany; a collector, in
lands far and wide, of specimens in natural history; left his
collection and a valuable library and herbarium to the British
Museum; president of the Royal Society for 41 years (1744-1820).
Banks, Thomas, an eminent
English sculptor, born at Lambeth; first appreciated by the
Empress Catharine; his finest works, "Psyche" and "Achilles
Enraged," now in the entrance-hall of Burlington House;
he excelled in imaginative art (1735-1805).
Bannatyne Club, a club
founded by Sir Walter Scott to print rare works of Scottish
interest, whether in history, poetry, or general literature,
of which it printed 116, all deemed of value, a complete set
having been sold for £235; dissolved in 1861.
Ban`nockburn (2), a manufacturing
village 3 m. SE. of Stirling, the scene of the victory, on June
24, 1314, of Robert the Bruce over Edward II., which reasserted
and secured Scottish independence; it manufactures carpets and
Ban`shee, among the Irish, and
in some parts of the Highlands and Brittany, a fairy, believed
to be attached to a family, who gave warnings by wailings of
an approaching death in it, and kept guard over it.
Bantam, a chief town in Java,
abandoned as unhealthy by the Dutch; whence the Bantam fowl
is thought to have come.
Banting System, a dietary
for keeping down fat, recommended by a Mr. Banting, a London
merchant, in a "Letter on Corpulence" in 1863; he
recommended lean meat, and the avoidance of sugar and starchy
Bantry Bay, a deep inlet on
the SW. coast of Ireland; a place of shelter for ships.
Bantu, the name of most of the
races, with their languages, that occupy Africa from 6°
N. lat. to 20° S.; are negroid rather than negro, being
in several respects superior; the name, however, suggests rather
a linguistic than an ethnological distinction, the language
differing radically from all other known forms of speech—the
inflection, for one thing, chiefly initial, not final.
Banville, Theodore de,
a French poet, born at Moulins; well characterised as "Roi
des Rimes," for with him form was everything, and the
matter comparatively insignificant, though, there are touches
here and there of both fine feeling and sharp wit (1823-1891).
Banyan, the Indian fig; a tree
whose branches, bending to the ground, take root and form new
stocks, till they cover a large area and become a forest.
Ba`obab, a large African tropical
tree, remarkable for the girth of its trunk, the thickness of
its branches, and their expansion; its leaves and seeds are
used in medicine.
Baphomet, a mysterious image,
presumed represent Mahomet, which the Templars were accused
of worshipping, but which they may rather be surmised to have
invoked to curse them if they failed in their vow; Carlyle refers
to this cult in "Sartor," end of Bk. II. chapter vii.,
where he speaks of the "Baphometic fire-baptism" of
his hero, under which all the spectres that haunted him withered
Baptism, the Christian rite
of initiation into the membership of the Church, identified
by St. Paul (Rom. vi. 4) with that No to the world which precedes
or rather accompanies Yea to God, but a misunderstanding of
the nature of which has led to endless diversity, debate, and
alienation all over the Churches of Christendom.
Baptiste, Jean, a name
given to the French Canadians.
Baptistry, a circular building,
sometimes detached from a church, in which the rite of baptism
is administered; the most remarkable, that of Pisa.
Baptists, a denomination of
Christians, sometimes called Anabaptists to distinguish them
from Pædobaptists, who, however they may and do differ
on other matters, insist that the rite of initiation is duly
administered only by immersion, and to those who are of age
to make an intelligent profession of faith; they are a numerous
body, particularly in America, and more so in England than in
Scotland, and have included in their membership a number of
the High Church doctrine that the power of spiritual life, forfeited
by the Fall, is bestowed on the soul in the sacrament of baptism
Achille, a French marshal who fought under Napoleon
at Quatre-Bras; distinguished himself under Louis Philippe in
Algeria, as well as under Louis Napoleon; presided at the trial
of Marshal Bazaine (1795-1878).
Barataria, the imaginary island
of which Sancho Panza was formally installed governor, and where
in most comical situations he learned how imaginary is the authority
of a king, how, instead of governing his subjects, his subjects
Barbacan, or Barbican,
a fortification to a castle outside the walls, generally at
the end of the drawbridge in front of the gate.
Barba`does (182), one of the
Windward Islands, rather larger than the Isle of Wight; almost
encircled by coral reefs; is the most densely peopled of the
Windward Islands; subject to hurricanes; healthy and well cultivated;
it yields sugar, arrowroot, ginger, and aloes.
Barbara, St., a Christian
martyr of the 3rd century; beheaded by her own father, a fanatical
heathen, who was immediately after the act struck dead by lightning;
she is the patron saint of those who might otherwise die impenitent,
and of Mantua; her attributes are a tower, a sword, and a crown.
Festival, Dec. 4.
Barbarians, originally those
who could not speak Greek, and ultimately synonymous with the
uncivilised and people without culture, particularly literary;
this is the sense in which Matthew Arnold uses it.
Barbarossa, the surname of
Frederick I., emperor of Germany, of whom there is this tradition,
that "he is not yet dead; but only sleeping, till the bad
world reach its worst, when he will reappear. He sits within
a cavern near Saltzburg, at a marble table, leaning on his elbow;
winking, only half-asleep, as a peasant once tumbling into the
interior saw him; beard had grown through the table, and streamed
out on the floor. He looked at the peasant one moment, asked
something about the time it was; then drooped his eyelids again:
'Not yet time, but will be soon.'"
Barbarossa (i. e.
Red-beard), Horuk, a native of Mitylene; turned corsair;
became sovereign of Algiers by the murder of Selim the emir,
who had adopted him as an ally against Spain; was defeated twice
by the Spanish general Gomarez and slain (1473-1518).
brother and successor of the preceding; became viceroy of the
Porte, made admiral under the sultan, opposed Andrea Doria,
ravaged the coast of Italy, and joined the French against Spain;
died at Constantinople in 1546.
advocate, born at Marseilles, of which he became town-clerk;
came to Paris "a young Spartan," and became chief
of the Girondins in the French Revolution; represented Marseilles
in the Constituent Assembly and the Convention; joined the Rolands;
sent "fire-eyed" message to Marseilles for six hundred
men "who knew how to die"; held out against Marat
and Robespierre; declared an enemy of the people, had to flee;
mistook a company approaching for Jacobins, drew his pistol
and shot himself, but the shot miscarried; was captured and
Barbary ape, a tailless monkey
of gregarious habits, native of the mountainous parts of Barbary,
and of which there is a colony on the Rock of Gibraltar, the
only one in Europe.
Barbary States, the four
states of Morocco, Algeria, Tunis, and Tripoli, so called from
the Berbers who inhabit the region.
Barbauld, Anna Lætitia,
née Aiken, an English popular and accomplished
authoress, wrote "Hymns in Prose for Children," "Evenings
at Home," in which she was assisted by a brother, &c.
Barbazan, a French general
under Charles VI. and VII., who deservedly earned for himself
the name of the Irreproachable Knight; d. 1432.
Bar`becue, a feast in the open
air on a large scale, at which the animals are roasted and dressed
whole, formerly common in the SW. States of N. America.
Barberi`ni, an illustrious
and influential Florentine family, several of the members of
which were cardinals, and one made pope in 1623 under the name
Barberton, a mining town and
important centre in the Transvaal, 180 m. E. of Pretoria.
a French politician, surnamed the Bayard of Democracy; imprisoned
in 1848, liberated in 1854; expatriated himself voluntarily;
died at the Hague (1809-1870).
Barbier, Antoine Alex.,
a French bibliographer, author of a "Dictionary of Anonymous
and Pseudonymous Works" (1765-1825).
Barbier, Ed. Fr., jurisconsult
of the parliament, born in Paris; author of a journal, historical
and anecdotical, of the time of Louis XV. (1689-1771).
Barbier, Henry, a French
satirical poet, born in Paris; wrote vigorous political verses;
author of "Iambics" (1805-1882).
Barbour, John, a Scotch
poet and chronicler, archdeacon of Aberdeen, a man of learning
and sagacity; his only extant work a poem entitled "The
Bruce," being a long history in rhyme of the life and achievements
of Robert the Bruce, a work consisting of 13,000 octosyllabic
lines, and possessing both historical and literary merit; "represents,"
says Stopford Brooke, "the whole of the eager struggle
for Scottish freedom against the English, which closed at Bannockburn,
and the national spirit in it full grown into life;"
Barca (500), a Turkish province
in the N. of Africa, between Tripoli and Egypt; produces maize,
figs, dates, and olives.
Barca, name of a Carthaginian
family to which Hamilcar, Hasdrubal, and Hannibal belonged,
and determinedly opposed to the ascendency of Rome; known as
the Barcine faction.
Barcelo`na (280), the largest
town in Spain next to Madrid, on the Mediterranean,
and its chief port, with a naval arsenal, and its largest manufacturing
town, called the "Spanish Manchester," the staple
manufacture being cotton; is the seat of a bishopric and a university;
has numerous churches, convents, and theatres.
Barclay, Alex., a poet and
prose-writer, of Scotch birth; bred a monk in England, which
he ceased to be on the dissolution of the monasteries; wrote "The
Ship of Fools," partly a translation and partly an imitation
of the German "Narrerschiff" of Brandt. "It has
no value," says Stopford Brooke; "but it was popular
because it attacked the follies and questions of the time; and
its sole interest to us is in its pictures of familiar manners
and popular customs" (1475-1552).
Barclay, John, born in France,
educated by the Jesuits, a stanch Catholic; wrote the "Argenis,"
a Latin romance, much thought of by Cowper, translated more
than once into English (1582-1621).
Barclay, John, leader
of the sect of the Bereans (1734-1798).
Barclay, Robert, the celebrated
apologist of Quakerism, born in Morayshire; tempted hard to
become a Catholic; joined the Society of Friends, as his father
had done before him; his greatest work, written in Latin as
well as in English, and dedicated to Charles II., "An Apology
for the True Christian Divinity, as the same is held forth and
preached by the People called in scorn Quakers," a great
work, the leading thesis of which is that Divine Truth is not
matter of reasoning, but intuition, and patent to the understanding
of every truth-loving soul (1645-1690).
Barclay, William, father
of John (1), an eminent citizen and professor of Law at Angers;
d. 1605. All these Barclays were of Scottish descent.
Barclay de Tolly, a Russian
general and field-marshal, of Scottish descent, and of the same
family as Robert Barclay the Quaker; distinguished in successive
Russian wars; his promotion rapid, in spite of his unpopularity
as German born; on Napoleon's invasion of Russia his tactic
was to retreat till forced to fight at Smolensk; he was defeated,
and superseded in command by Kutusow; on the latter's death
was made commander-in-chief; commanded the Russians at Dresden
and Leipzig, and led them into France in 1815; he was afterwards
Minister of War at St. Petersburg, and elevated to the rank
of prince (1761-1818).
Bard of Avon, Shakespeare;
of Ayrshire, Burns; of Hope, Campbell; of Imagination,
Akenside; of Memory, Rogers; of Olney, Cowper;
of Rydal Mount, Wordsworth; of Twickenham, Pope.
Bardell`, Mrs., a widow in
the "Pickwick Papers," who sues Pickwick for breach
Bardolph, a drunken, swaggering,
worthless follower of Falstaff's.
Bardon Hill, a hill in Leicestershire,
from which one can see right across England.
Bar-Durani, the collective
name of a number of Afghan tribes between the Hindu-Kush and
the Soliman Mountains.
Cromwell's Little Parliament, met 4th July 1653; derisively
called Barebone's Parliament, from one Praise-God Barebone,
a member of it. "If not the remarkablest Assembly, yet
the Assembly for the remarkablest purpose," says Carlyle, "that
ever met in the modern world; the business being no less than
introducing of the Christian religion into real practice in
the social affairs of this nation.... In this it failed, could
not but fail, with what we call the Devil and all his angels
against it, and the Little Parliament had to go its ways again,"
12th December in the same year.
Barèges, a village on
the Hautes-Pyrénées, at 4000 ft. above the sea-level,
resorted to for its mineral waters.
Bareilly (121), a city in NW.
India, the chief town in Rohilkhand, 153 m. E. of Delhi, notable
as the place where the Mutiny of 1858 first broke out.
Barentz, an Arctic explorer,
born in Friesland; discovered Spitzbergen, and doubled the NE.
extremity of Nova Zembla, in 1596, and died the same year.
Barère, French revolutionary,
a member of the States-General, the National Assembly of France,
and the Convention; voted in the Convention for the execution
of the king, uttering the oft-quoted words, "The tree of
Liberty thrives only when watered by the blood of tyrants;"
escaped the fate of his associates; became a spy under Napoleon;
was called by Burke, from his flowery oratory, the Anacreon
of the Guillotine, and by Mercier, "the greatest liar in
France;" he was inventor of the famous fable "his
masterpiece," of the "Sinking of the Vengeur," "the
largest, most inspiring piece of blaque manufactured,
for some centuries, by any man or nation;" died in beggary
(1755-1841). See Vengeur.
Baretti, Giuseppe, an
Italian lexicographer, born in Turin; taught Italian in London,
patronised by Johnson, became secretary of the Royal Academy
Barfleur, a seaport 15 m. E.
of Cherbourg, where William the Conqueror set out with his fleet
to invade England.
a town S. of the Caspian, famous for its bazaar.
Bar`guest, a goblin long an
object of terror in the N. of England.
Bari, The, a small negro nation
on the banks of the White Nile.
Baring, Sir Francis,
founder of the great banking firm of Baring Brothers & Co.;
amassed property, value of it said to have been nearly seven
rector of Lew-Trenchard, Devonshire, celebrated in various departments
of literature, history, theology, and romance, especially the
latter; a voluminous writer on all manner of subjects, and a
man of wide reading; b. 1834.
Barham, Richard Harris,
his literary name Thomas Ingoldsby, born at Canterbury, minor
canon of St. Paul's; friend of Sidney Smith; author of "Ingoldsby
Legends," published originally as a series of papers in
Bentley's Miscellany (1788-1879).
Barkis, a carrier-lad in "David
Copperfield," in love with Peggotty. "Barkis is willin'."
Barker, E. Henry, a classical
scholar, born in Yorkshire; edited Stephens' "Thesaurus
Linguæ Græcæ," an arduous work; died
in poverty (1788-1839).
Barking, a market-town in Essex,
7 m. NE. of London, with the remains of an ancient Benedictine
Barlaam and Josaphat,
a mediæval legend, being a Christianised version of an
earlier legend relating to Buddha, in which Josaphat, a prince
like Buddha, is converted by Barlaam to a like ascetic life.
Barleycorn, John, the
exhilarating spirit distilled from barley personified.
Barlow, Joel, an American
poet and diplomatist; for his Republican zeal, was in 1792 accorded
the rights of citizenship in France; wrote
a poem "The Vision of Columbus" (1755-1812).
Barlowe, a French watchmaker,
inventor of the repeating watch; d. 1690.
Barmacide Feast, an imaginary
feast, so called from a story in the "Arabian Nights"
of a hungry beggar invited by a Barmacide prince to a banquet,
which proved a long succession of merely empty dishes, and which
he enjoyed with such seeming gusto and such good-humour as to
earn for himself a sumptuous real one.
Bar`macides, a Persian family
celebrated for their magnificence, and that in the end met with
the cruellest fate. Yâhyá, one of them, eminent
for ability and virtue, was chosen by the world-famous Haroun-Al-Raschid
on his accession to the caliphate to be his vizier; and his
four sons rose along with him to such influence in the government,
as to excite the jealousy of the caliph so much, that he had
the whole family invited to a banquet, and every man, woman,
and child of them massacred at midnight in cold blood. The caliph,
it is gratifying to learn, never forgave himself for this cruelty,
and was visited with a gnawing remorse to the end of his days;
and it had fatal issues to his kingdom as well as himself.
Bar`men (116), a long town, consisting
of a series of hamlets, 6 m. in extent, in Rhenish Prussia;
the population consists chiefly of Protestants; the staple industry,
the manufacture of ribbons, and it is the centre of that industry
on the Continent.
Barnabas, St., a member of
the first Christian brotherhood, a companion of St. Paul's,
and characterised in the Acts as "a good man"; stoned
to death at Cyprus, where he was born; an epistle extant bears
his name, but is not believed to be his work; the Epistle to
the Hebrews has by some been ascribed to him; he is usually
represented in art as a venerable man of majestic mien, with
the Gospel of St. Matthew in his hand. Festival, June 11.
Barnabites, a proselytising
order of monks founded at Milan, where Barnabas was reported
to have been bishop, in 1530; bound, as the rest are, by the
three monastic vows, and by a vow in addition, not to sue for
preferment in the Church.
Barnaby Rudge, one of Dickens'
novels, published in 1841.
Barnard, Henry, American
educationist, born in Connecticut, 1811.
Barnard, Lady Anne,
daughter of Lindsay, the 5th Earl of Balcarres, born in Fife;
authoress of "Auld Robin Gray," named after a Balcarres
herd; lived several years at the Cape, where her husband held
an appointment, and after his death, in London (1750-1825).
Barnard Castle, an old
tower W. of Darlington, in Durham; birthplace of John Baliol,
and the scene of Scott's "Rokeby."
Bar`nardine, a reckless character
in "Measure for Measure."
Barnave, Joseph Marie,
French lawyer, born at Grenoble; president of the French Constitutional
Assembly in 1780; one of the trio in the Assembly of whom it
was said, "Whatsoever those three have on hand, Dupont
thinks it, Barnave speaks it, Lameth does it;" a defender
of the monarchy from the day he gained the favour of the queen
by his gallant conduct to her on her way back to Paris from
her flight with the king to Varennes; convicted by documentary
evidence of conspiring with the court against the nation; was
Barn-burners, name formerly
given to an extreme radical party in the United States, as imitating
the Dutchman who, to get rid of the rats, burned his barns.
Barnes, Thomas, editor
of the Times, under whom the paper first rose to the
pre-eminent place it came to occupy among the journals of the
Barnes, William, a local
philologist, native of Dorsetshire; author of "Poems of
Rural Life in Dorset," in three vols.; wrote on subjects
of philological interest (1830-1886).
Barnet (5), a town in Hertfordshire,
almost a suburb of London; a favourite resort of Londoners;
has a large annual horse and cattle fair; scene of a battle
in 1471, at which Warwick, the king-maker, was slain.
Barnett, John, composer,
born at Bedford; author of operas and a number of fugitive pieces
van Olden, Grand Pensionary of Holland, of a distinguished
family; studied law at the Hague, and practised as an advocate
there; fought for the independence of his country against Spain;
concluded a truce with Spain, in spite of the Stadtholder Maurice,
whose ambition for supreme power he courageously opposed; being
an Arminian, took sides against the Gomarist or Calvinist party,
to which Maurice belonged; was arrested, tried, and condemned
to death as a traitor and heretic, and died on the scaffold
at 71 years of age, with sanction, too, of the Synod of Dort,
Barnsley (35), a manufacturing
town in W. Yorkshire, 18 m. N. of Sheffield; manufactures textile
fabrics and glass.
Barnum, an American showman;
began with the exhibition of George Washington's reputed nurse
in 1834; picked up Tom Thumb in 1844; engaged Jenny Lind for
100 concerts in 1849, and realised a fortune, which he lost;
started in 1871 with his huge travelling show, and realised
another fortune, dying worth five million dollars (1810-1891).
Barocci, a celebrated Italian
painter, imitator of the style of Correggio (1528-1612).
a French statesman, minister of Napoleon III. (1802-1870).
Baro`da (2,415), a native state
of Gujerat, in the prov. of Bombay, with a capital (101) of
the same name, the sovereign of which is called the Guicowar;
the third city in the presidency, with Hindu temples and a considerable
a great Catholic ecclesiastic, born near Naples, priest of the
Congregation of the Oratory under its founder, and ultimately
Superior; cardinal and librarian of the Vatican; his great work, "Annales
Ecclesiastici," being a history of the first 12 centuries
of the Church, written to prove that the Church of Rome was
identical with the Church of the 1st century, a work of immense
research that occupied him 30 years; failed of the popehood
from the intrigues of the Spaniards, whose political schemes
he had frustrated (1538-1607).
Barons' War, a war in England
of the barons against Henry III., headed by Simon de Montfort,
and which lasted from 1258 to 1265.
Baroque, ornamentation of a
florid and incongruous character, more lavish and showy rather
than true and tasteful; much in vogue from the 16th to the 18th
Barra, a small island, one of
the Hebrides, 5 m. SW. of S. Uist, the inhabitants of which
are engaged in fisheries.
Bar`rackpur (18), a town
on the Hooghly, 15 m. above Calcutta, where the lieutenant-governor
of Bengal has a residence; a healthy resort
of the Europeans.
ballads by Rudyard Kipling, with a fine martial strain.
Barras, Paul François,
a member of the Jacobin Club, born in Provence; "a man
of heat and haste,... tall, and handsome to the eye;" voted
in the National Convention for the execution of the king; took
part in the siege of Toulon; put an end to the career of Robespierre
and the Reign of Terror; named general-in-chief to oppose the
reactionaries; employed Bonaparte to command the artillery, "he
the commandant's cloak, this artillery officer the commandant;"
was a member of the Directory till Bonaparte swept it away (1755-1829).
Bar`ratry, the offence of inciting
and stirring up riots and quarrels among the Queen's subjects,
also a fraud by a ship captain on the owners of a ship.
Barré, Isaac, soldier
and statesman, born in Dublin, served under Wolfe in Canada,
entered Parliament, supported Pitt, charged with authorship
of "Junius' Letters"; d. 1802.
Barrel Mirabeau, Viscount
de Mirabeau, brother of the great tribune of the name, so called
from his bulk and the liquor he held.
Barrett, Wilson, English
actor, born in Essex; made his début at Halifax;
lessee of the Grand Theatre, Leeds, and of the Court and the
Princess's Theatres, London; produced his Hamlet in 1884;
Barrie, James Matthew,
a writer with a rich vein of humour and pathos, born at Kirriemuir
("Thrums"), in Forfarshire; began his literary career
as a contributor to journals; produced, among other works, "Auld
Licht Idylls" in 1888, and "A Window in Thrums,"
in 1889, and recently "Margaret Ogilvie," deemed by
some likely to prove the most enduring thing he has yet written;
Barrier Reef, The Great,
a slightly interrupted succession of coral reefs off the coast
of Queensland, of 1200 m. extent, and 100 m. wide at the S.,
and growing narrower as they go N.; are from 70 to 20 m. off
the coast, and protect the intermediate channel from the storms
of the Pacific.
Barrière, Jean François,
French historian of the Revolution (1786-1868).
would-be assassin of Henry IV. of France; broken on the wheel
Barriers, Battle of the, a
battle fought within the walls of Paris in 1814 between Napoleon
and the Allies, which ended in the capitulation of the city
and the abdication of Napoleon.
Barrington, John Shute,
1st Viscount, gained the favour of the Nonconformists by his "Rights
of Dissenters," and an Irish peerage from George I. for
his "Dissuasive from Jacobitism"; left six sons, all
more or less distinguished, particularly Daines, the fourth,
distinguished in law (1727-1800), and Samuel, the fifth, 1st
Lord of the name, distinguished in the naval service, assisted
under Lord Howe at the relief of Gibraltar, and became an admiral
in 1787 (1678-1764).
Barros, João de,
a distinguished Portuguese historian; his great work. "Asia
Portugueza," relates, in a pure and simple style, the discoveries
and conquests of the Portuguese in the Indies; he did not live
to complete it (1493-1570).
Barrot, Odilon, famous
as an advocate, born at Villefort; contributed to the Revolutions
of both 1830 and 1848; accepted office under Louis Napoleon;
retired after the coup d'état, to return to office
in 1872 (1791-1873).
Barrow, a river in Ireland rising
in the Slievebloom Mts.; falls into Waterford harbour, after
a course of 114 m.
Barrow, Isaac, English scholar,
mathematician, and divine, born in London; a graduate of Cambridge,
and fellow of Trinity College; appointed professor of Greek
at Cambridge, and soon after Gresham professor of Geometry;
subsequently Lucasian professor of Mathematics (in which he
had Newton for successor), and master of Trinity, and founder
of the library; a man of great intellectual ability and force
of character; besides mathematical works, left a "Treatise
on the Pope's Supremacy," and a body of sermons remarkable
for their vigour of thought and nervousness of expression (1630-1677).
Barrow, Sir John, secretary
to the Admiralty for 40 years, and much esteemed in that department,
distinguished also as a man of letters; wrote the Lives of Macartney,
Anson, Howe, and Peter the Great (1764-1848).
(51), a town and seaport in N. Lancashire, of recent rapid growth,
owing to the discovery of extensive deposits of iron in the
neighbourhood, which has led to the establishment of smelting
works and the largest manufacture of steel in the kingdom; the
principal landowners in the district being the Dukes of Devonshire
Barry, James, painter, born
in Cork; painted the "Death of General Wolfe"; became
professor of Painting at the Royal Academy, but was deposed;
died in poverty; his masterpiece is the "Victors at Olympia"
Barry, Sir Charles,
architect, born at Westminster; architect of the new Palace
of Westminster, besides other public buildings (1795-1860).
Barry Cornwall. See
Bart, or Barth, Jean, a
distinguished French seaman, born at Dunkirk, son of a fisherman,
served under De Ruyter, entered the French service at 20, purchased
a ship of two guns, was subsidised as a privateer, made numerous
prizes; having had other ships placed under his command, was
captured by the English, but escaped; defeated the Dutch admiral,
De Vries; captured his squadron laden with corn, for which he
was ennobled by Louis XIV.; he was one of the bravest of men
and the most independent, unhampered by red-tapism of every
Barth, Heinrich, a great
African explorer, born at Hamburg; author of "Travels in
the East and Discoveries in Central Africa," in five volumes
Auguste-Marseille, a poet and politician, born at Marseilles;
author of "Nemesis," and the best French translation
of the "Æneid," in verse; an enemy of the Bourbons,
an ardent Imperialist, and warm supporter of Louis Napoleon
The Abbé, Jean Jacques, a French historian and
antiquary, born at Cassis, in Provence; educated by the Jesuits;
had great skill in numismatics; wrote several archæological
works, in chief, "Voyage du Jeune Anacharsis en Grèce;"
long treated as an authority in the history, manners, and customs
of Greece (1716-1795).
Saint-Hilaire, Jules, a French baron and politician,
born at Paris; an associate of Odilon Barrot in the Revolutions
of 1830 and 1848, and subsequently a zealous supporter of M.
Thiers; for a time professor of Greek and Roman Philosophy in
the College of France; an Oriental as well as Greek scholar;
translated the works of Aristotle, his
greatest achievement, and the "Iliad" into verse,
as well as wrote on the Vedas, Buddhism, and Mahomet; b.
Barthez, Paul Joseph,
a celebrated physician, physiologist, and Encyclopædist,
born at Montpellier, where he founded a medical school; suffered
greatly during the Revolution; was much esteemed and honoured
by Napoleon; is celebrated among physiologists as the advocate
of what he called the Vital Principle as a physiological force
in the functions of the human organism; his work "Nouveaux
Eléments de la Science de l'Homme" has been translated
into all the languages of Europe (1734-1806).
Bartholdi, a French sculptor,
born at Colmar; his principal works, "Lion le Belfort,"
and "Liberté éclairant le Monde," the
largest bronze statue in the world, being 150 ft. high, erected
at the entrance of New York harbour; b. 1834.
Bartholomew, St., an apostle
of Christ, and martyr; represented in art with a knife in one
hand and his skin in the other; sometimes been painted as being
flayed alive, also as headless. Festival, Aug. 24.
Bartholomew Fair, an
annual market held at Smithfield, London, and instituted in
1133 by Henry I., to be kept on the saint's day, but abolished
in 1853, when it ceased to be a market and became an occasion
for mere dissipation and riot.
an hospital in Smithfield, London, founded in 1123; has a medical
school attached to it, with which the names of a number of eminent
physicians are associated.
Bartholomew's Day, St.,
24th August, day in 1572 memorable for the wholesale massacre
of the Protestants in France at the instance of Catharine de
Medici, then regent of the kingdom for her son, Charles IX.,
an event, cruelly gloried in by the Pope and the Spanish Court,
which kindled a fire in the nation that was not quenched, although
it extinguished Protestantism proper in France, till Charles
was coerced to grant liberty of conscience throughout the realm.
Bartizan, an overhanging wall-mounted
turret projecting from the walls of ancient fortifications.
Bartlett, John H., an
American ethnologist and philologist, born at Rhode Island,
U.S.; author of "Dictionary of Americanisms," among
other works particularly on ethnology (1805-1886).
Bartoli, Daniele, a learned
Italian Jesuit, born at Ferrara (1635-1685).
Bartoli, Pietro, Italian
engraver, engraved a great number of ancient works of art (1635-1700).
a Florentine sculptor, patronised by Napoleon; produced a great
number of busts (1777-1850).
Bartolomme`o, Fra, a celebrated
Florentine painter of sacred subjects, born at Florence; an
adherent of Savonarola, friend of Raphael; "St. Mark"
and "St. Sebastian" among his best productions (1469-1517).
an eminent engraver, born at Florence; wrought at his art both
in England and in Portugal, where he died; his chief works, "Clytie,"
after Annibale Caracci, the "Prometheus," after Michael
Angelo, and "Virgin and Child," after Carlo Dolci;
he was the father of Madame Vestris (1725-1815).
Barton, Bernard, the "Quaker
poet," born in London; a clerk nearly all his days in a
bank; his poems, mostly on homely subjects, but instinct with
poetic feeling and fancy, gained him the friendship of Southey
and Charles Lamb, as well as more substantial patronage in the
shape of a government pension (1784-1849).
Barton, Elizabeth, "the
Maid of Kent," a poor country servant-girl, born in Kent,
subject from nervous debility to trances, in which she gave
utterances ascribed by Archbishop Warham to divine inspiration,
till her communications were taken advantage of by designing
people, and she was led by them to pronounce sentence against
the divorce of Catharine of Aragon, which involved her and her
abettors in a charge of treason, for which they were all executed
at Tyburn (1506-1534).
Baruch, (1) the friend of the
prophet Jeremiah, and his scribe, who was cast with him into
prison, and accompanied him into Egypt; (2) a book in the Apocrypha,
instinct with the spirit of Hebrew prophecy, ascribed to him;
(3) also a book entitled the Apocalypse of Baruch, affecting
to predict the fall of Jerusalem, but obviously written after
Barye, a French sculptor, distinguished
for his groups of statues of wild animals (1795-1875).
Basaiti, a Venetian painter
of the 15th and 16th centuries, a rival of Bellini; his best
works, "Christ in the Garden" and the "Calling
of St. Peter and St. Andrew."
Basedow, Johann Bernard,
a zealous educational reformer, born at Hamburg; his method
modelled according to the principles of Rousseau; established
a normal school on this method at Dessau, which, however, failed
from his irritability of temper, which led to a rupture with
his colleagues (1723-1790).
Basel (74), in the NW. of Switzerland,
on the Rhine, just before it enters Germany; has a cathedral,
university, library, and museum; was a centre of influence in
Reformation times, and the home for several years of Erasmus;
it is now a great money market, and has manufactures of silks
and chemicals; the people are Protestant and German-speaking.
Basel, Council of, met
in 1431, and laboured for 12 years to effect the reformation
of the Church from within. It effected some compromise with
the Hussites, but was hampered at every step by the opposition
of Pope Eugenius IV. Asserting the authority of a general council
over the Pope himself, it cited him on two occasions to appear
at its bar, on his refusal declared him contumacious, and ultimately
endeavoured to suspend him. Failing to effect its purpose, owing
to the secession of his supporters, it elected a rival pope,
Felix V., who was, however, but scantily recognised. The Emperor
Frederick III. supported Eugenius, and the council gradually
melted away. At length, in 1449, the pope died, Felix resigned,
and Nicholas V. was recognised by the whole Church. The decrees
of the council were directed against the immorality of the clergy,
the indecorousness of certain festivals, the papal prerogatives
and exactions, and dealt with the election of popes and the
procedure of the College of Cardinals. They were all confirmed
by Nicholas V., but are not recognised by modern Roman canonists.
Ba`shan, a fertile and pastoral
district in NE. Palestine of considerable extent, and at one
time densely peopled; the men of it were remarkable for their
Bashahr, a native hill state
in the Punjab, traversed by the Sutlej; tributary to the British
undisciplined troops in the pay of the Sultan; rendered themselves
odious by their brutality in the Bulgarian atrocities
of 1876, as well as, more or less, in
the time of the Crimean war.
Bashkirs, originally a Finnish
nomad race (and still so to some extent) of E. Russia, professing
Mohammedanism; they number some 500,000.
a precocious Russian young lady of good family, but of delicate
constitution, who travelled a good deal with her mother, noted
her impressions, and left a journal of her life, which created,
when published after her death, an immense sensation from the
confessions it contains (1860-1884).
Basil, St., The Great,
bishop of Cæsarea, in Cappadocia, his birthplace; studied
at Athens; had Julian the Apostate for a fellow-student; the
lifelong friend of Gregory Nazianzen; founded a monastic body,
whose rules are followed by different monastic communities;
a conspicuous opponent of the Arian heresy, and defender of
the Nicene Creed; tried in vain to unite the Churches of the
East and West; is represented in Christian art in Greek pontificals,
bareheaded, and with an emaciated appearance (326-380). There
were several Basils of eminence in the history of the Church:
Basil, bishop of Ancyra, who flourished in the 4th century;
Basil, the mystic, and Basil, the friend of St. Ambrose.
Basil I., the Macedonian, emperor
of the East; though he had raised himself to the throne by a
succession of crimes, governed wisely; compiled, along with
his son Leo, surnamed the Philosopher, a code of laws that were
in force till the fall of the empire; fought successfully against
the Saracens; d. 886.
Basilica, the code of laws,
in 60 books, compiled by Basil I., and Leo, his son and successor,
first published in 887, and named after the former.
Basilica, a spacious hall,
twice as long as broad, for public business and the administration
of justice, originally open to the sky, but eventually covered
in, and with the judge's bench at the end opposite the entrance,
in a circular apse added to it. They were first erected by the
Romans, 180 B.C.; afterwards, on the adoption of Christianity,
they were converted into churches, the altar being in the apse.
Basilicon Doron (i.
e. Royal Gift), a work written by James I. in 1599, before
the union of the crowns, for the instruction of his son, Prince
Henry, containing a defence of the royal prerogative.
Basili`des, a Gnostic of Alexandria,
flourished at the commencement of the 2nd century; appears to
have taught the Oriental theory of emanations, to have construed
the universe as made up of a series of worlds, some 365 it is
alleged, each a degree lower than the preceding, till we come
to our own world, the lowest and farthest off from the parent
source of the series, of which the God of the Jews was the ruler,
and to have regarded Jesus as sent into it direct from the parent
source to redeem it from the materialism to which the God of
the Jews, as Creator and Lord of the material universe, had
subjected it; which teaching a sect called after his name accepted
and propagated in both the East and the West for more than two
Bas`ilisk, an animal fabled
to have been hatched by a toad from the egg of an old cock,
before whose breath every living thing withered and died, and
the glance of whose eye so bewitched one to his ruin that the
bravest could confront and overcome it only by looking at the
reflection of it in a mirror, as Perseus
(q. v.) was advised to do, and did, when he cut off the
head of the Medusa; seeing itself in a mirror, it burst, it
as said, at the sight.
Baskerville, John, a
printer and typefounder, originally a writing-master in Birmingham;
native of Sion Hill, Worcestershire; produced editions of classical
works prized for their pre-eminent beauty by connoisseurs in
the art of the printer, and all the more for their rarity (1706-1756).
Basnages, Jacques, a
celebrated Protestant divine, born at Rouen; distinguished as
a linguist and man of affairs; wrote a "History of the
Reformed Churches" and on "Jewish Antiquities"
Basoche, a corporation of lawyers'
clerks in Paris. See Bazoche.
Basque Provinces, a
fertile and mineral district in N. of Spain, embracing the three
provinces of Biscaya, Guipuzcoa, and Alava, of which the chief
towns are respectively Bilbao, St. Sebastian, and Vittoria;
the natives differ considerably from the rest of the Spaniards
in race, language, and customs. See Basques.
Basque Roads, an anchorage
between the Isle of Oléron and the mainland; famous for
a naval victory gained in 1809 over a French fleet under Vice-Admiral
Basques, a people of the Western
Pyrenees, partly in France and partly in Spain; distinguished
from their neighbours only by their speech, which is non-Aryan;
a superstitious people, conservative, irascible, ardent, proud,
serious in their religious convictions, and pure in their moral
Bas-relief (i. e.
low relief) a term applied to figures very slightly projected
from the ground.
Bass Rock, a steep basaltic
rock at the mouth of the Firth of Forth, 350 ft. high, tenanted
by solan geese; once used as a prison, specially in Covenanting
Bass Strait, strait between
Australia and Tasmania, about 150 m. broad.
Bassanio, the lover of Portia
in the "Merchant of Venice."
Bassano, a town in Italy, on
the Brenta, 30 m. NW. of Padua; printing the chief industry.
Bassano, Duc de, an intriguing
French diplomatist in the interest of Bonaparte, and his steadfast
auxiliary to the last (1763-1839).
Bassano, Jacopo da Ponte,
an eminent Italian painter, chiefly of country scenes, though
the "Nativity" at his native town, Bassano, shows
his ability in the treatment of higher themes (1510-1592).
de, a marshal of France, born in Lorraine; entered military
life under Henry IV., was a gallant soldier, and one of the
most brilliant wits of his time; took part in the siege of Rochelle;
incurred the displeasure of Richelieu; was imprisoned by his
order twelve years in the Bastille; wrote his Memoirs there;
was liberated on the death of Richelieu; his Memoirs contain
a lively description of his contemporaries, the manners of the
time, his own intrigues, no less than those of his friends and
Bassorah (40), a port in Asiatic
Turkey, on the Shatt-el-Arab; a place of great commercial importance
when Bagdad was the seat of the caliphate; for a time sank into
insignificance, but has of late revived.
Basti`a (22), a town in NE. Corsica,
the most commercial in the island, and once the capital; was
founded by the Genoese in 1383, and taken by the French in 1553;
exports wine, oil, fruits, &c.
Bastian, Adolf, an eminent
ethnologist, born at Bremen; travelled over and surveyed, in
the interest of his science, all quarters of the globe, and
recorded the fruits of his survey in his numerous works, no
fewer than thirty in number, beginning
with "Der Mensch in der Geschichte," in three vols.;
conducts, along with Virchow and R. Hartman, the Zeitschrift
für Ethnologie; b. 1826.
Bastian, Dr. H. C., a physiologist,
born at Truro; a materialist in his theory of life; a zealous
advocate of the doctrine of spontaneous generation; b.
an eminent political economist, born at Bayonne; a disciple
of Cobden's; a great advocate of Free Trade; wrote on behalf
of it and against Protection, "Sophismes Economiques";
a zealous Anti-Socialist, and wrote against Socialism (1801-1850).
Bastide, Jules, French
Radical writer, born in Paris; took part in the Revolution of
1848, and became Minister of Foreign Affairs (1800-1879).
Bastille (lit. the Building),
a State prison in Paris, built originally as a fortress of defence
to the city, by order of Charles V., between 1369 and 1382,
but used as a place of imprisonment from the first; a square
structure, with towers and dungeons for the incarceration of
the prisoners, the whole surrounded by a moat, and accessible
only by drawbridges; "tyranny's stronghold"; attacked
by a mob on 14th July 1789; taken chiefly by noise; overturned,
as "the city of Jericho, by miraculous sound"; demolished,
and the key of it sent to Washington; the taking of it was the
first event in the Revolution. See
Carlyle's "French Revolution" for the description
of the fall of it.
Basutoland (250), a fertile,
healthy, grain-growing territory in S. Africa, SE. of the Orange
Free State, under protection of the British crown, of the size
of Belgium; yields large quantities of maize; the natives keep
large herds of cattle.
Basutos, a S. African race of
the same stock as the Kaffirs, but superior to them in intelligence
Batangas, a port in the island
of Luzon, one of the Philippine Islands, which has a considerable
Batavia (105), the capital of
Java, on the N. coast, and of the Dutch possessions in the Eastern
Archipelago; the emporium, with a large trade, of the Far East;
with a very mixed population. Also the ancient name of Holland;
insula Batavorum it was called—that is, island
of the Batavi, the name of the native tribes inhabiting it.
Bates, Henry Walter,
a naturalist and traveller, born at Leicester; friend of, and
a fellow-labourer with, Alfred R. Wallace; author of "The
Naturalist on the Amazons"; an advocate of the Darwinian
theory, and author of contributions in defence of it (1825-1892).
Bath (54), the largest town in
Somerset, on the Avon; a cathedral city; a place of fashionable
resort from the time of the Romans, on account of its hot baths
and mineral waters, of which there are six springs; it was from
1704 to 1750 the scene of Beau Nash's triumphs; has a number
of educational and other institutions, and a fine public park.
Bath, Major, a gentleman in
Fielding's "Amelia," who stoops from his dignity to
the most menial duties when affection prompts him.
Bath, Order of the, an
English order of knighthood, traceable to the reign of Henry
IV., consisting of three classes: the first, Knights Grand Cross;
the second, Knights Commanders, and the third, Knights Companions,
abbreviated respectively into G.C.B., K.C.B., and C.B.; initiation
into the order originally preceded by immersion in a bath, whence
the name, in token of the purity required of the members by
the laws of chivalry. It was originally a military order, and
it is only since 1847 that civil Knights, Knights Commanders,
and Companions have been admitted as Knights. The first class,
exclusive of royal personages and foreigners, is limited to
102 military and 28 civil; the second, to 102 military and 50
civil; and the third, to 525 military and 200 civil. The motto
of the order is Tria juncta in uno (Three united in one);
and Henry VI.'s chapel at Westminster is the chapel of the order,
with the plates of the Knights on their stalls, and their banners
suspended over them.
Bathgate (5), largest town
in Linlithgowshire; a mining centre; the birthplace of Sir J.
Simpson, who was the son of a baker in the place.
Bathilda, St., queen of France,
wife of Clovis II., who governed France during the minority
of her sons, Clovis III., Childéric II., and Thierry;
died 680, in the monastery of Chelles.
a Polish princess, a woman of infamous memory, caused some 650
young girls to be put to death, in order, by bathing in their
blood, to renew her beauty; immersed in a fortress for life
on the discovery of the crime, while her accomplices were burnt
alive; d. 1614.
Bathos, an anti-climax, being
a sudden descent from the sublime to the commonplace.
Bath`urst (8), the capital
of British Gambia, at the mouth of the river Gambia, in Western
Africa; inhabited chiefly by negroes; exports palm-oil, ivory,
gold dust, &c.
Bathurst (10), the principal
town on the western slopes of New South Wales, second to Sydney,
with gold mines in the neighbourhood, and in a fertile wheat-growing
Bathurst, a district in Upper
Canada, on the Ottawa, a thriving place and an agricultural
Bathyb`ius, (i. e.
living matter in the deep), substance of a slimy nature found
at great sea depth, over-hastily presumed to be organic, proved
by recent investigation to be inorganic, and of no avail to
Batley (28), a manufacturing
town in the W. Riding of Yorkshire, 8 m. SW. of Leeds; a busy
Batn-el-Hajar, a stony
tract in the Nubian Desert, near the third cataract of the Nile.
Baton-Rouge (10), a city
on the E. bank of the Mississippi, 130 m. above New Orleans,
and capital of the state of Louisiana; originally a French settlement.
Baton-sinister, a bend-sinister
like a marshal's baton, an indication of illegitimacy.
Batoum` (10), a town in Transcaucasia,
on the E. of the Black Sea; a place of some antiquity; recently
ceded by Turkey to Russia, but only as a mere trading port;
has an excellent harbour, and has improved under Russian rule.
a mock-heroic poem, "The Battle of the Frogs and Mice,"
falsely ascribed to Homer.
Battas, a Malay race, native
to Sumatra, now much reduced in numbers, and driven into the
Battersea, a suburb of London,
on the Surrey side of the Thames, opposite Chelsea, and connected
with it by a bridge; with a park 185 acres in extent; of plain
and recent growth; till lately a quite rural spot.
Batthya`ni, Count, an
Hungarian patriot, who fought hard to see his country reinstated
in its ancient administrative independence, but failed in his
efforts; was arrested, tried for high treason by court-martial,
and sentenced to be shot, to the horror, at the time, of the
civilised world (1809-1849).
Battle, a market-town in Sussex,
near Hastings, so called from the battle of Senlac, in which
William the Conqueror defeated Harold in 1066.
Battle of the Spurs,
(a) an engagement at Courtrai in 1302 where the burghers
of the town beat the knighthood of France, and the spurs of
4000 knights were collected after the battle; (b) an
engagement at Guinegate, 1513, in which Henry VIII. made the
French forces take to their spurs; of the Barriers (see
Barriers); of the Books, a satire
by Swift on a literary controversy of the time; of the Standard,
a battle in 1138, in which the English, with a high-mounted
crucifix for a standard, beat the Scots at Northallerton.
Battue, method of killing game
after crowding them by cries and beating them towards the sportsmen.
French poet of the romantic school, born in Paris; distinguished
among his contemporaries for his originality, and his influence
on others of his class; was a charming writer of prose as well
as verse, as his "Petits Poèmes" in prose bear
witness. Victor Hugo once congratulated him on having "created
a new shudder"; and as has been said, "this side of
his genius attracted most popular attention, which, however,
is but one side, and not really the most remarkable, of a singular
combination of morbid but delicate analysis and reproduction
of the remotest phases and moods of human thought and passion"
Baudricourt, a French courtier
whom Joan of Arc pressed to conduct her into the presence of
Baudry, Paul, French painter,
decorated the foyer of the Grand Opera in Paris; is best
known as the author of the "Punishment of a Vestal Virgin"
and the "Assassination of Marat" (1828-1886).
Bauer, Bruno, a daring Biblical
critic, and violent polemic on political as well as theological
subjects; born at Saxe-Altenburg; regarded the Christian religion
as overlaid and obscured by accretions foreign to it; denied
the historical truth of the Gospels, and, like a true disciple
of Hegel, ascribed the troubles of the 19th century to the overmastering
influence of the "Enlightenment"
or the "Aufklärung"
(q. v.) that characterised the 18th. His last work was
entitled "Disraeli's Romantic and Bismarck's Socialistic
Gottlieb, professor of Philosophy at Frankfort-on-the-Oder;
disciple of Wolf; born at Berlin; the founder of Æsthetics
as a department of philosophy, and inventor of the name (1714-1762).
a German theologian of the school of Schleiermacher; professor
of Theology at Jena; born at Merseburg; an authority on the
history of dogma, on which he wrote (1788-1843).
Baur, Ferdinand Christian, head
of the Tübingen school of rationalist divines, born near
Stuttgart; distinguished by his scholarship and his labours
in Biblical criticism and dogmatic theology; his dogmatic treatises
were on the Christian Gnosis, the Atonement, the Trinity, and
the Incarnation, while his Biblical were on certain epistles
of Paul and the canonical Gospels, which he regarded as the
product of the 2nd century; regarded Christianity of the Church
as Judaic in its origin, and Paul as distinctively the first
apostle of pure Christianity (1792-1861).
Bausset, cardinal, born at Pondicherry,
who wrote the Lives of Bossuet and Fénélon (1748-1824).
Bautzen, a town of Saxony, an
old town on the Spree, where Napoleon defeated the Prussians
and Russians in 1813; manufactures cotton, linen, wool, tobacco,
Bavaria (5,590), next to Prussia
the largest of the German States, about the size of Scotland;
is separated by mountain ranges from Bohemia on the E. and the
Tyrol on the S.; Würtemburg lies on the W., Prussia, Meiningen,
and Saxony on the N. The country is a tableland crossed by mountains
and lies chiefly in the basin of the Danube. It is a busy agricultural
state: half the soil is tilled; the other half is under grass,
planted with vineyards and forests. Salt, coal, and iron are
widely distributed and wrought. The chief manufactures are of
beer, coarse linen, and woollen fabrics. There are universities
at Münich, Würzburg, and Erlangen. Münich, on
the Isar, is the capital; Nüremberg, where watches were
invented, and Angsburg, a banking centre, the other chief towns.
Formerly a dukedom, the palatinate, on the banks of the Rhine,
was added to it in 1216. Napoleon I. raised the duke to the
title of king in 1805. Bavaria fought on the side of Austria
in 1866, but joined Prussia in 1870-71.
Bavie`ca, the famous steed of
the Cid, held sacred after the hero's death.
Bavou, St., a soldier monk,
the patron saint of Ghent.
Baxter, Richard, an eminent
Nonconformist divine, native of Shropshire, at first a conformist,
and parish minister of Kidderminster for 19 years; sympathised
with the Puritans, yet stopped short of going the full length
with them; acted as chaplain to one of their regiments, and
returned to Kidderminster; became, at the Restoration one of
the king's chaplains; driven out of the Church by the Act of
Uniformity, was thrown into prison at 70, let out, spent the
rest of his days in peace; his popular works, "The Saint's
Everlasting Rest," and his "Call to the Unconverted"
Bay City (27), place of trade,
and of importance as a great railway centre in Michigan, U.S.;
the third city in it.
Bayadere, a dancing-girl in
India, dressed in loose Eastern costume.
Bayard, a horse of remarkable
swiftness belonging to the four sons of Aymon, and which they
sometimes rode all at once; also a horse of Amadis de Gaul.
Bayard, Chevalier de,
an illustrious French knight, born in the Château Bayard,
near Grenoble; covered himself with glory in the wars of Charles
VIII., Louis XII., and Francis I.; his bravery and generosity
commanded the admiration of his enemies, and procured for him
the thrice-honourable cognomen of "The Knight sans peur
et sans reproche"; one of his most brilliant feats
was his defence, single-handed, of the bridge over the Garigliano,
in the face of a large body of Spaniards; was mortally wounded
defending a pass at Abblategrasso; fell with his face to the
foe, who carried off his body, but restored it straightway afterwards
for due burial by his friends (1476-1524).
Bayeux (7), an ancient Norman
city in the dep. of Calvados, France; manufactures lace, hosiery, &c.;
is a bishop's seat; has a very old Gothic cathedral.
Bayeux Tapestry, representations
in tapestry of events connected with the Norman invasion of
England, commencing with Harold's visit to the Norman court,
and ending with his death at the battle
of Hastings; still preserved in the public library of Bayeux;
is so called because originally found there; it is 214 ft. long
by 20 in. wide, divided into 72 scenes, and contains a variety
of figures. It is a question whose work it was.
Bayle, Pierre, a native
of Languedoc; first Protestant (as the son of a Calvinist minister),
then Catholic, then sceptic; Professor of Philosophy at Padua,
then at Rotterdam, and finally retired to the Boompjes in the
latter city; known chiefly as the author of the famous Dictionnaire
Historique et Critique, to the composition of which he consecrated
his energies with a zeal worthy of a religious devotee, and
which became the fountain-head of the sceptical philosophy that
flooded France on the eve of the Revolution; pronounced by a
competent judge in these matters, a mere "imbroglio of
historical, philosophical, and anti-theological marine stores"
Baylen, a town in the province
of Jaen, Spain, where General Castaños defeated Dupont,
and compelled him to sign a capitulation, in 1808.
Bayley, Sir John, a learned
English judge; author of a standard work "On the Law of
Bills of Exchange"; d. 1841.
Bayonne (24), a fortified French
town, trading and manufacturing, in the dep. of Basses-Pyrénées,
at the confluence of the Adour and Nive, 4 m. from the Bay of
Biscay; noted for its strong citadel, constructed by Vauban,
and one of his chef-d'oeuvres, and its 12th-century cathedral
church; it belonged to the English from 1152 to 1451.
Achille, a marshal of France, born at Versailles; distinguished
himself in Algiers, the Crimea, and Mexico; did good service,
as commander of the army of the Rhine, in the Franco-German
war, but after the surrender at Sedan was shut up in Metz, surrounded
by the Germans, and obliged to surrender, with all his generals,
officers, and men; was tried by court-martial, and condemned
to death, but was imprisoned instead; made good his escape one
evening to Madrid, where he lived to write a justification of
his conduct, the sale of the book being prohibited in France
a French socialist, founder of the Charbonnerie Française;
a zealous but unsuccessful propagator of St. Simonianism, in
association with Enfantin (q.
v.), from whom he at last separated (1791-1832).
Bazoche, a guild of clerks of
the parliament of Paris, under a mock king, with the privilege
of performing religious plays, which they abused.
Beaches, Raised, elevated
lands, formerly sea beaches, the result of upheaval, or left
high by the recession of the sea, evidenced to be such by the
shells found in them and the nature of the débris.
Beachy Head, a chalk cliff
in Sussex, 575 ft. high, projecting into the English Channel;
famous for a naval engagement between the allied English and
Dutch fleets and those of France, in which the latter were successful.
Beaconsfield, capital of
the gold-mining district in Tasmania; also a town in Buckinghamshire,
10 m. N. of Windsor, from which Benjamin Disraeli took his title
on his elevation to the peerage.
Benjamin Disraeli, Earl of, English novelist and politician,
born in London; son of Isaac D'Israeli, littérateur,
and thus of Jewish parentage; was baptized at the age of 12;
educated under a Unitarian minister; studied law, but did not
qualify for practice. His first novel, "Vivian Grey,"
appeared in 1826, and thereafter, whenever the business of politics
left him leisure, he devoted it to fiction. "Contarini
Fleming," "Coningsby," "Tancred," "Lothair,"
and "Endymion" are the most important of a brilliant
and witty series, in which many prominent personages are represented
and satirised under thin disguises. His endeavours to enter
Parliament as a Radical failed twice in 1832; in 1835 he was
unsuccessful again as a Tory. His first seat was for Maidstone
in 1837; thereafter he represented Shrewsbury and Buckinghamshire.
For 9 years he was a free-lance in the House, hating the Whigs,
and after 1842 leading the Young England party; his onslaught
on the Corn Law repeal policy of 1846 made him leader of the
Tory Protectionists. He was for a short time Chancellor of the
Exchequer under Lord Derby in 1852, and coolly abandoned Protection.
Returning to power with his chief six years later, he introduced
a Franchise Bill, the defeat of which threw out the Government.
In office a third time in 1866, he carried a democratic Reform
Bill, giving household suffrage in boroughs and extending the
county franchise. Succeeding Lord Derby in 1868, he was forced
to resign soon afterwards. In 1874 he entered his second premiership.
Two years were devoted to home measures, among which were Plimsoll's
Shipping Act and the abolition of Scottish Church patronage.
Then followed a showy foreign policy. The securing of the half
of the Suez Canal shares for Britain; the proclamation of the
Queen as Empress of India; the support of Constantinople against
Russia, afterwards stultified by the Berlin Congress, which
he himself attended; the annexation of Cyprus; the Afghan and
Zulu wars, were its salient features. Defeated at the polls
in 1880 he resigned, and died next year. A master of epigram
and a brilliant debater, he really led his party. He was the
opposite in all respects of his protagonist, Mr. Gladstone.
Lacking in zeal, he was yet loyal to England, and a warm personal
friend of the Queen (1804-1881).
Bear, name given in the Stock Exchange
to one who contracts to deliver stock at a fixed price on a
certain day, in contradistinction from the bull, or he
who contracts to take it, the interest of the former being that,
in the intervening time, the stocks should fall, and that of
the latter that they should rise.
Bear, Great. See
Beam, an ancient prov. of France,
fell to the crown with the accession of Henry IV. in 1589; formed
a great part of the dep. of Basses-Pyrénées, capital
honour allowed by the pope to certain who are not so eminent
in sainthood as to entitle them to canonisation.
Beaton, or Bethune, David,
cardinal, archbishop of St. Andrews, and primate of the kingdom,
born in Fife; an adviser of James V., twice over ambassador
to France; on the death of James secured to himself the chief
power in Church and State as Lord High Chancellor and Papal
Legate; opposed alliance with England; persecuted the Reformers;
condemned George Wishart to the stake, witnessed his sufferings
from a window of his castle in St. Andrews, and was assassinated
within its walls shortly after; with his death ecclesiastical
tyranny of that type came to an end in Scotland (1494-1546).
Beaton, James, archbishop
of Glasgow and St. Andrews, uncle of the preceding, a prominent
figure in the reign of James V.; was partial to affiliation
with France, and a persecutor of the Reformers; d. 1539.
Beattie, James, a poet
and essayist, born at Laurencekirk; became
professor of Logic and Moral Philosophy at Marischal College,
Aberdeen; wrote an "Essay on Truth" against Hume;
his most admired poem, "The Minstrel," a didactic
piece, traces the progress of poetic genius, admitted him to
the Johnsonian circle in London, obtained for him the degree
of LL.D. from Oxford, and brought him a pension of £200
per annum from the king; died at Aberdeen (1735-1803).
Beatrice, a beautiful Florentine
maiden, Portinari, her family name, for whom Dante conceived
an undying affection, and whose image abode with him to the
end of his days. She is his guide through Paradise.
Beau Nash, a swell notability
at Bath; died in beggary (1674-1761).
Beau Tibbs, a character in
Goldsmith's "Citizen of the World," noted for his
finery, vanity, and poverty.
Beaucaire (8), a French town
near Avignon, on the Rhône, which it spans with a magnificent
bridge; once a great centre of trade, and famous, as it still
is, for its annual fair, frequented by merchants from all parts
Beauchamp, Alphonse de,
a historian, born at Monaco; wrote the "Conquest of Peru," "History
of Brazil," &c. (1769-1832).
Beauclerk, Henry I. of England,
so called from his superior learning.
Beauclerk, Topham, a
young English nobleman, the only son of Lord Sydney Beauclerk,
a special favourite of Johnson's, who, when he died, lamented
over him, as one whose like the world might seldom see again
Beaufort, Duke of, grandson
of Henry IV. of France; one of the chiefs of the Fronde; was
surnamed Roi des Halles (King of the Market-folk); appointed
admiral of France; did good execution against the pirates; passed
into the service of Venice; was killed at the siege of Candia
Beaufort, Henry, cardinal,
bishop of Winchester, son of John of Gaunt, learned in canon
law, was several times chancellor; took a prominent part in
all the political movements of the time, exerted an influence
for good on the nation, lent immense sums to Henry V. and Henry
VI., also left bequests for charitable uses, and founded the
hospital of St. Cross at Winchester (1377-1447).
Alexandre, Vicomte de, born at Martinique, where he
married a lady who, afterwards as wife of Napoleon, became the
Empress Joséphine; accepted and took part in the Revolution;
was secretary of the National Assembly; coolly remarked, on
the news of the flight of the king, "The king's gone off;
let us pass to the next business of the House"; was convicted
of treachery to the cause of the Revolution and put to death;
as the father of Hortense, who married Louis, Napoleon's brother,
he became grandfather of Napoleon III. (1760-1794).
Beauharnais, Eugene de,
son of the preceding and of Joséphine, born at Paris,
step-son of Napoleon, therefore was made viceroy of Italy; took
an active part in the wars of the empire; died at Münich,
whither he retired after the fall of Napoleon (1781-1824).
Eugenie, sister of the preceding, ex-queen of Holland;
wife of Louis Bonaparte, an ill-starred union; mother of Napoleon
III., the youngest of three sons (1783-1837).
Pierre Augustin Caron de, a dramatist and pleader of
the most versatile, brilliant gifts, and French to the core,
born in Paris, son of a watchmaker at Caen; ranks as a comic
dramatist next to Molière; author of "Le Barbier
de Seville" (1775), and "Le Mariage de Figaro"
(1784), his masterpiece; astonished the world by his conduct
of a lawsuit he had, for which "he fought against reporters,
parliaments, and principalities, with light banter, clear logic,
adroitly, with an inexhaustible toughness of resource, like
the skilfullest fencer." He was a zealous supporter of
the Revolution, and made sacrifices on its behalf, but narrowly
escaped the guillotine; died in distress and poverty. Of the
two plays he wrote, Saintsbury says, "The wit is indisputable,
but his chansons contain as much wit as the Figaro plays."
He made a fortune by speculations in the American war, and lost
by others, one of them being the preparation of a sumptuous
edition of Voltaire. For the culmination and decline, as well
as appreciation, of him, see the "French Revolution,"
by Carlyle (1732-1799).
Bauma`ris, principal town in
Anglesea, Wales, on the Menai Strait, near Bangor, a favourite
watering-place, with remains of a castle erected by Edward I.
Beaumont, Christophe de,
archbishop of Paris, born at Périgord, "spent his
life in persecuting hysterical Jansenists and incredulous non-confessors";
but scrupled to grant, though he fain would have granted, absolution
on his deathbed to the dissolute monarch of France, Louis XV.;
issued a charge condemnatory of Rousseau's "Émile,"
which provoked a celebrated letter from Rousseau in reply (1703-1781).
Beaumont, Francis, dramatic
poet, born in Leicestershire, of a family of good standing;
bred for the bar, but devoted to literature; was a friend of
Ben Jonson; in conjunction with his friend Fletcher, the composer
of a number of plays, about the separate authorship of which
there has been much discussion, the dramatic power of which
comes far short of that so conspicuous in the plays of their
great contemporary Shakespeare, though it is said contemporary
criticism gave them the preference (1585-1615).
Beaumont, Jean Baptiste Élie
de, French geologist, born in Calvados; became secretary
to the Academy of Sciences; was joint-editor of a geological
map of France. He had a theory of his own of the formation of
the crust of the earth (1798-1874).
Gustave Toutant, American Confederate general, born
at New Orleans; adopted the cause of the South, and fought in
its behalf (1818-1893).
Beaurepaire, a French officer,
noted for his noble defence of Verdun against the Prussians;
preferred death by suicide to the dishonour of surrender (1748-1792).
Beausobre, Isaac, a Huguenot
divine, born at Poitou; fled to Holland on the revocation of
the Edict of Nantes, settled in Berlin, and became a notability
in high quarters there; attracted the notice of the young Frederick,
the Great that was to be, who sought introduction to him, and
the young Frederick "got good conversation out of him";
author of a "History of Manichæism," praised
by Gibbon, and of other books famous in their day, a translation
of the New Testament for one (1659-1738).
Beatrice Cenci (q. v.).
Beauty and the Beast,
the hero and heroine of a famous fairy tale. Beauty falls in
love with a being like a monster, who has, however, the heart
of a man, and she marries him, upon which he is instantly transformed
into a prince of handsome presence and noble mien.
Beauvais (19), capital of the
dep. of Oise, in France, 34 in. SW. of Amiens, an ancient town,
noted for its cathedral, its tapestry
weaving, and the feat of Jeanne-Hachette and her female following
when the town was besieged by Charles the Bold.
Beauvais, a French prelate,
born at Cherbourg, Bishop of Senez, celebrated as a pulpit orator
Beauvillier, a statesman,
patron of letters, to whom Louis XIV. committed the governorship
of his sons; died of a broken heart due to the shock the death
of the dauphin gave him (1607-1687).
Bebek Bay, a fashionable resort
on the Bosphorus, near Constantinople, and with a palace of
one of the best painters of the Sienese school, distinguished
also as a sculptor and a worker in mosaic (1486-1550).
Cæsare Bonesana, Marquis of, an Italian publicist,
author of a celebrated "Treatise on Crimes and Punishments,"
which has been widely translated, and contributed much to lessen
the severity of sentences in criminal cases. He was a utilitarian
in philosophy and a disciple of Rousseau in politics.
Beche-de-mer, a slug, called
also the trepang, procured on the coral reefs of the Pacific,
which is dried and eaten as a dainty by the Chinese.
Becher, Johann Joachim,
chemist, born at Spires; distinguished as a pioneer in the scientific
study of chemistry (1635-1682).
Bechstein, a German naturalist,
wrote "Natural History of Cage Birds" (1757-1822).
Bechuana-land, an inland
tract in S. Africa, extends from the Orange River to the Zambesi;
has German territory on the W., the Transvaal and Matabele-land
on the E. The whole country is under British protection; that
part which is S. of the river Molopo was made a crown colony
in 1885. On a plateau 4000 ft. above sea-level, the climate
is suited for British emigrants. The soil is fertile; extensive
tracts are suitable for corn; sheep and cattle thrive; rains
fall in summer; in winter there are frosts, sometimes snow.
The Kalahari Desert in the W. will be habitable when sufficient
wells are dug. Gold is found near Sitlagoli, and diamonds at
Vryburg. The Bechuanas are the most advanced of the black races
of S. Africa.
Bechua`nas, a wide-spread
S. African race, totemists, rearers of cattle, and growers of
maize; are among the most intelligent of the Bantu peoples,
and show considerable capacity for self-government.
Becker, Karl, German philologist;
bred to medicine; author of a German grammar (1775-1842).
Becker, Nicolaus, author
of the "Wacht am Rhein," was an obscure lawyer's clerk,
and unnoted for anything else (1810-1845).
Becker, William Adolphe,
an archæologist, born at Dresden; was professor at Leipzig;
wrote books in reproductive representation of ancient Greek
and Roman life; author of "Manual of Roman Antiquities"
Becket, Thomas a, archbishop
of Canterbury, born in London, of Norman parentage; studied
at Oxford and Bologna; entered the Church; was made Lord Chancellor;
had a large and splendid retinue, but on becoming archbishop,
cast all pomp aside and became an ascetic, and devoted himself
to the vigorous discharge of the duties of his high office;
declared for the independence of the Church, and refused to
sign the Constitutions of Clarendon
(q. v.); King Henry II. grew restive under his assumption
of authority, and got rid of him by the hands of four knights
who, to please the king, shed his blood on the steps of the
altar of Canterbury Cathedral, for which outrage the king did
penance four years afterwards at his tomb. The struggle was
one affecting the relative rights of Church and king, and the
chief combatants in the fray were both high-minded men, each
inflexible in the assertion of his claims (1119-1170).
Beckford, William, author
of "Vathek," son of a rich alderman of London, who
bequeathed him property to the value of £100,000 per annum;
kept spending his fortune on extravagancies and vagaries; wrote "Vathek,"
an Arabian tale, when a youth of twenty-two, at a sitting of
three days and two nights, a work which established his reputation
as one of the first of the imaginative writers of his country.
He wrote two volumes of travels in Italy, but his fame rests
on his "Vathek" alone (1759-1844).
Beckmann, a professor at Göttingen;
wrote "History of Discoveries and Inventions" (1738-1811).
Beckx, Peter John, general
of the Jesuits, born in Belgium (1790-1887).
Becquerel, Antoine Cæsar,
a French physicist; served as engineer in the French army in
1808-14, but retired in 1815, devoting himself to science, and
obtained high distinction in electro-chemistry, working with
Ampère, Biot, and other eminent scientists (1788-1878).
Bed of Justice, a formal
session of the Parlement of Paris, under the presidency of the
king, for the compulsory registration of the royal edicts, the
last session being in 1787, under Louis XVI., at Versailles,
whither the whole body, now "refractory, rolled out, in
wheeled vehicles, to receive the order of the king."
Bedchamber, Lords or
Ladies of, officers or ladies of the royal household
whose duty it is to wait upon the sovereign—the chief
of the former called Groom of the Stole, and of the latter,
Mistress of the Robes.
Beddoes, Thomas Lovell,
born at Clifton, son of Thomas Beddoes; an enthusiastic student
of science; a dramatic poet, author of "Bride's Tragedy";
got into trouble for his Radical opinions; his principal work, "Death's
Jest-Book, or the Fool's Tragedy," highly esteemed by Barry
Bede, or Beda, surnamed "The
Venerable," an English monk and ecclesiastical historian,
born at Monkwearmouth, in the abbey of which, together with
that of Jarrow, he spent his life, devoted to quiet study and
learning; his writings numerous, in the shape of commentaries,
biographies, and philosophical treatises; his most important
work, the "Ecclesiastical History" of England, written
in Latin, and translated by Alfred the Great; completed a translation
of John's Gospel the day he died. An old monk, it is said, wrote
this epitaph over his grave, Hac sunt in fossâ Bedæ
... ossa, "In this pit are the bones ... of Beda,"
and then fell asleep; but when he awoke he found some invisible
hand had inserted venerabilis in the blank which he had
failed to fill up, whence Bede's epinomen it is alleged.
Bedell, bishop of Kilmore and
Ardagh, born in Essex; studied at Cambridge; superintended the
translation of the Old Testament into Irish; though his virtues
saved him and his family for a time from outrage by the rebels
in 1641, he was imprisoned at the age of 70, and though released,
died soon after (1571-1642).
Bedford (160), a midland agricultural
county of England, generally level, with some flat fen-land;
also the county town (28), on the Great Ouse, clean and well
paved, with excellent educational institutions, famous in connection
with the life of John Bunyan, where relics
of him are preserved, and where a bronze statue of him by Boehm
has been erected to his memory by the Duke of Bedford in 1871;
manufactures agricultural implements, lace, and straw plaiting;
Elstow, Bunyan's birthplace, is not far off.
Bedford, John, Duke of,
brother of Henry V., protector of the kingdom and regent of
France during the minority of Henry VI., whom, on the death
of the French king, he proclaimed King of France, taking up
arms thereafter and fighting for a time victoriously on his
behalf, till the enthusiasm created by Joan of Arc turned the
tide against him and hastened his death, previous to which,
however, though he prevailed over the dauphin, and burnt Joan
at the stake, his power had gone (1389-1435).
Bedford Level, a flat marshy
district, comprising part of six counties, to the S. and W.
of the Wash, about 40 m. in extent each way, caused originally
by incursions of the sea and the overflowing of rivers; received
its name from the Earl of Bedford, who, in the 17th century,
undertook to drain it.
Bedlam, originally a lunatic
asylum in London, so named from the priory "Bethlehem"
in Bishopsgate, first appropriated to the purpose, Bedlam being
a corruption of the name Bethlehem.
Bedmar, Marquis de,
cardinal and bishop of Oviedo, and a Spanish diplomatist, notorious
for a part he played in a daring conspiracy in 1618 aimed at
the destruction of Venice, but which, being betrayed, was defeated,
for concern in which several people were executed, though the
arch-delinquent got off; he is the subject of Otway's "Venice
Preserved"; it was after this he was made cardinal, and
governor of the Netherlands, where he was detested and obliged
to retire (1572-1655).
Bedouins, Arabs who lead a
nomadic life in the desert and subsist by the pasture of cattle
and the rearing of horses, the one element that binds them into
a unity being community of language, the Arabic namely, which
they all speak with great purity and without variation of dialect;
they are generally of small stature, of wiry constitution, and
dark complexion, and are divided into tribes, each under an
Bee, The, a periodical started
by Goldsmith, in which some of his best essays appeared, and
his "Citizen of the World."
Beecher, Henry Ward,
a celebrated American preacher, born at Litchfield, Connecticut;
pastor of a large Congregational church, Brooklyn; a vigorous
thinker and eloquent orator, a liberal man both in theology
and politics; wrote "Life Thoughts"; denied the eternity
of punishment, considered a great heresy by some then, and which
led to his secession from the Congregational body (1813-1887).
Harriet Elizabeth, sister of the above, authoress of "Uncle
Tom's Cabin," of which probably over a million copies have
been sold. Born at Litchfield, Connecticut, U.S.A., in 1812;
born in London, son of the following; accompanied Franklin in
1818 and Parry in 1819 to the Arctic regions; commanded the
Blossom in the third expedition of 1825-1828 to the same
regions; published "Voyage of Discovery towards the North
Beechy, Sir William,
portrait-painter, born in Oxfordshire; among his portraits were
those of Lord Nelson, John Kemble, and Mrs. Siddons (1753-1839).
Beef-eaters, yeomen of the
royal guard, whose institution dates from the reign of Henry
VII., and whose office it is to wait upon royalty on high occasions;
the name is also given to the warders of the Tower, though they
are a separate body and of more recent origin; the name simply
means (royal) dependant, a corruption of the French word
buffetier, one who attends the sideboard.
Beehive houses, small
stone structures, of ancient date, remains of which are found
(sometimes in clusters) in Ireland and the W. of Scotland, with
a conical roof formed of stones overlapping one another, undressed
and without mortar; some of them appear to have been monks'
Beel`zebub, the god of flies,
protector against them, worshipped by the Phoenicians; as being
a heathen deity, transformed by the Jews into a chief of the
devils; sometimes identified with Satan, and sometimes his aide-de-camp.
Beerbohm Tree, Herbert,
actor, born in London, son of a grain merchant; his first appearance
was as the timid curate in the "Private Secretary,"
and then as the spy Macari in "Called Back"; is lessee
of the Haymarket Theatre, London, and has had many notable successes;
he is accompanied by his wife, who is a refined actress;
Beer`sheba, a village in the
S. of Canaan, and the most southerly, 27 m. from Hebron; associated
with Dan, in the N., to denote the limit of the land and what
lies between; lies in a pastoral country abounding in wells,
and is frequently mentioned in patriarchal history; means "the
Well of the Oath."
Beeswing, a gauze-like film
which forms on the sides of a bottle of good port.
Beethoven, Ludwig von,
one of the greatest musical composers, born in Bonn, of Dutch
extraction; the author of symphonies and sonatas that are known
over all the world; showed early a most precocious genius for
music, commenced his education at five as a musician; trained
at first by a companion named Pfeiffer, to whom he confessed
he owed more than all his teachers; trained at length under
the tuition of the most illustrious of his predecessors, Bach
and Händel; revealed the most wonderful musical talent;
quitted Bonn and settled in Vienna; attracted the attention
of Mozart; at the age of 40 was attacked with deafness that
became total and lasted for life; continued to compose all the
same, to the admiration of thousands; during his last days was
a prey to melancholy; during a thunderstorm he died. Goethe
pronounced him at his best "an utterly untamed character,
not indeed wrong in finding the world detestable, though his
finding it so did not," he added, "make it more enjoyable
to himself or to others" (1770-1827).
Beets, Nicolas, a Dutch
theologian and poet, born at Haarlem; came, as a poet, under
the influence of Byronism; b. 1814.
Befa`na, an Italian female Santa
Claus, who on Twelfth Night fills the stockings of good children
with good things, and those of bad with ashes.
Begg, James, Scotch ecclesiastic,
born at New Monkland, Lanark; was a stalwart champion of old
Scottish orthodoxy, and the last (1808-1883).
Beghards, a religious order
that arose in Belgium in the 13th century, connected with the
Beguins, a mystic and socialistic sect.
Beguins, a sisterhood confined
now to France and Germany, who, without taking any monastic
vow, devote themselves to works of piety and benevolence.
Begum, name given in the E. Indies
to a princess, mother, sister, or wife of a native ruler.
Behaim, Martin, a geographer
and chartographer, born in Nüremberg;
accompanied Diego Cam on a voyage of discovery along W. coast
of Africa; constructed and left behind him a famous terrestrial
globe; some would make him out to be the discoverer of America
Behar (24,393), a province of
Bengal, in the valley of the Ganges, which divides it into two;
densely peopled; cradle of Buddhism.
Behe`moth, a large animal mentioned
in Job, understood to be the hippopotamus.
Behis`tun, a mountain in Irak-Ajemi,
a prov. of Persia, on which there are rocks covered with inscriptions,
the principal relating to Darius Hystaspes, of date about 515
B.C., bearing on his genealogy, domains, and victories.
Behm, Ernst, a German geographer,
born in Gotha (1830-1884).
Behn, Afra, a licentious writer,
born in Kent, for whom, for her free and easy ways, Charles
II. took a liking; sent by him as a spy to Holland, and through
her discovered the intention of the Dutch to burn the shipping
in the Thames. She wrote plays and novels (1640-1689).
Behring Strait, a strait
about 50 m. wide between Asia and N. America, which connects
the Arctic Ocean with the Pacific; discovered by the Danish
navigator Vitus Behring in 1728, sent out on a voyage of discovery
by Peter the Great.
Beira (1,377), a central province
of Portugal, mountainous and pastoral; gives title to the heir-apparent
to the Portuguese throne.
Beke, Dr., traveller, born in
London; travelled in Abyssinia and Palestine; author of "Origines
Biblicæ," or researches into primeval history as
shown not to be in keeping with the orthodox belief.
Bekker, Immanuel, philologist,
born in Berlin, and professor in Halle; classical textual critic;
issued recensions of the Greek and Latin classics (1780-1871).
Bel and the Dragon,
History of, one of the books of the Apocrypha, a spurious
addition to the book of Daniel, relates how Daniel persuaded
Cyrus of the vanity of idol-worship, and is intended to show
Bela I., king of Hungary from
1061 to 1063; an able ruler; introduced a great many measures
for the permanent benefit of the country, affecting both religion
and social organisation.
Bela IV., king of Hungary, son
of Andreas II., who had in 1222 been compelled to sign the Golden
Bull, the Magna Charta of Hungarian liberty; faithfully
respected the provisions of this charter, and incurred the enmity
of the nobles by his strenuous efforts to subdue them to the
Belch, Sir Toby, a reckless,
jolly, swaggering character in "Twelfth Night."
Belcher, Sir Edward,
admiral, was engaged in several exploring and surveying expeditions;
sailed round the world, and took part in the operations in China
Belfast (256), county town of
Antrim, and largest and most flourishing city in the N. of Ireland;
stands on the Lagan, at the head of Belfast Lough, 100 m. N.
of Dublin; is a bright and pleasant city, with some fine streets
and handsome buildings, Presbyterian, Catholic, and Methodist
colleges. It is the centre of the Irish linen and cotton manufactures,
the most important shipbuilding centre, and has also rope-making,
whisky, and aerated-water industries. Its foreign trade is larger
than even Dublin's. It is the capital of Ulster, and head-quarters
of Presbyterianism in Ireland.
Belfort (83), a fortified town
in dep. of Haut-Rhin, and is its capital, 35 m. W. by N. of
Basel; capitulated to the Germans in 1870; restored to France;
its fortifications now greatly strengthened. The citadel was
Belgæ, Cæsar's name
for the tribes of the Celtic family in Gaul N. of the Seine
and Marne; mistakenly rated as Germans by Cæsar.
Belgium (6,136), a small European
State bordering on the North Sea, with Holland to the N., France
to the S., and Rhenish Prussia and Luxemburg on the E.; is less
than a third the size of Ireland, but it is the most densely
populated country on the Continent. The people are of mixed
stock, comprising Flemings, of Teutonic origin; Walloons, of
Celtic origin; Germans, Dutch, and French. Roman Catholicism
is the predominant religion. Education is excellent; there are
universities at Ghent, Liège, Brussels, and Louvain.
French is the language of educated circles and of the State;
but the prevalence of dialects hinders the growth of a national
literature. The land is low and level and fertile in the N.
and W., undulating in the middle, rocky and hilly in the S.
and E. The Meuse and Scheldt are the chief rivers, the basin
of the latter embracing most of the country. Climate is similar
to the English, with greater extremes. Rye, wheat, oats, beet,
and flax are the principal crops. Agriculture is the most painstaking
and productive of the world. The hilly country is rich in coal,
iron, zinc, and lead. After mining, the chief industries are
textile manufactures and making of machinery: the former at
Antwerp, Ghent, Brussels, and Liège; the latter at Liège,
Mons, and Charleroi. The trade is enormous; France, Germany,
and Britain are the best customers. Exports are coal to France;
farm products, eggs, &c., to England; and raw material imported
from across seas, to France and the basin of the Rhine. It is
a small country of large cities. The capital is Brussels (480),
in the centre of the kingdom, but communicating with the ocean
by a ship canal. The railways, canals, and river navigation
are very highly developed. The government is a limited monarchy;
the king, senate, and house of representatives form the constitution.
There is a conscript army of 50,000 men, but no navy. Transferred
from Spain to Austria in 1713. Belgium was under French sway
from 1794 till 1814, when it was united with Holland, but established
its independence in 1830.
Belgrade (54), the capital
of Servia, on the confluence of the Save and Danube; a fortified
city in an important strategical position, and the centre of
many conflicts; a commercial centre; once Turkish in appearance,
now European more and more.
Belgra`via, a fashionable
quarter in the southern part of the West End of London.
Belial, properly a good-for-nothing,
a child of worthlessness; an incarnation of iniquity and son
of perdition, and the name in the Bible for the children of
Belief, a word of various application,
but properly definable as that which lies at the heart of a
man or a nation's convictions, or is the heart and soul of all
their thoughts and actions, "the thing a man does practically
lay to heart, and know for certain concerning his vital relations
to this mysterious universe, and his duty and destiny there."
Belinda, Arabella Fermor,
the heroine in Pope's "Rape of the Lock."
Belisa`rius, a general under
the Emperor Justinian, born in Illyria; defeated the Persians,
the Vandals, and the Ostrogoths; was falsely accused of conspiracy,
but acquitted, and restored to his dignities by the emperor;
though another tradition, now discredited,
alleges that for the crimes charged against him he had his eyes
put out, and was reduced to beggary (505-565).
Belize, British Honduras, a fertile
district, and its capital (6); exports mahogany, rosewood, sugar,
Bell, Acton. See
Bell, Andrew, LL.D., educationist,
born at St. Andrews; founder of the Monitorial system of education,
which he had adopted, for want of qualified assistants, when
in India as superintendent of an orphanage in Madras, so that
his system was called "the Madras system"; returned
from India with a large fortune, added to it by lucrative preferments,
and bequeathed a large portion of it, some £120,000, for
the endowment of education in Scotland, and the establishment
of schools, such as the Madras College in his native city (1753-1832).
Bell, Bessy, and Mary Gray,
the "twa bonnie lassies" of a Scotch ballad, daughters
of two Perthshire gentlemen, who in 1666 built themselves a
bower in a spot retired from a plague then raging; supplied
with food by a lad in love with both of them, who caught the
plague and gave it to them, of which they all sickened and died.
Bell, Book, and Candle,
a ceremony at one time attending the greater excommunication
in the Romish Church, when after sentence was read from the "book,"
a "bell" was rung, and the "candle" extinguished.
Bell, Currer. See
Bell, Ellis. See
Bell, George Joseph,
a brother of Sir Charles, distinguished in law; author of "Principles
of the Law of Scotland" (1770-1843).
Bell, Henry, bred a millwright,
born in Linlithgowshire; the first who applied steam to navigation
in Europe, applying it in a small steamboat called the Comet,
driven by a three horse-power engine (1767-1830).
Bell, Henry Glassford,
born in Glasgow, a lawyer and literary man, sheriff of Lanarkshire;
wrote a vindication of Mary, Queen of Scots, and some volumes
of poetry (1803-1874).
Bell, John, of Antermony, a
physician, born at Campsie; accompanied Russian embassies to
Persia and China; wrote "Travels in Asia," which were
much appreciated for their excellency of style (1690-1780).
Bell, Peter, Wordsworth's
simple rustic, to whom the primrose was but a yellow flower
and nothing more.
Bell, Robert, journalist
and miscellaneous writer, born at Cork; edited "British
Poets, from Chaucer to Cowper," his best-known work, which
he annotated, and accompanied with careful memoirs of each (1800-1867).
Bell, Sir Charles, an
eminent surgeon and anatomist, born in Edinburgh, where he became
professor of Surgery; distinguished chiefly for his discoveries
in connection with the nervous system, which he published in
his "Anatomy of the Brain" and his "Nervous System,"
and which gained him European fame; edited, along with Lord
Brougham, Paley's "Evidences of Natural Religion"
Bell, Thomas, a naturalist,
born at Poole; professor of Zoology in King's College, London;
author of "British Quadrupeds" and "British Reptiles," "British
Stalk-eyed Crustacea," and editor of "White's Natural
History of Selborne" (1792-1880).
Bell Rock, or Inchcape Rock,
a dangerous reef of sandstone rocks in the German Ocean, 12
m. SE. of Arbroath, on which a lighthouse 120 ft. high was erected
in 1807-10; so called from a bell rung by the sway of the waves,
which the abbot of Arbroath erected on it at one time as a warning
Douglas, Earl of Arran, so called from his offer to dispose
by main force of an obnoxious favourite of the king, James III.
Bella, Stephano della,
a Florentine engraver of great merit, engraved over 1000 plates;
was patronised by Richelieu in France, and the Medici in Florence
Bell`amy, Jacob, a Dutch
poet, born at Flushing; his poems highly esteemed by his countrymen
Bellange, a celebrated painter
of battle-pieces, born at Paris (1800-1866).
cardinal, born in Tuscany; a learned Jesuit, controversial theologian,
and in his writings, which are numerous, a valiant defender
at all points of Roman Catholic dogma; the greatest champion
of the Church in his time, and regarded as such by the Protestant
theologians; he was at once a learned man and a doughty polemic
Bellay, Joachim du,
French poet; author of sonnets entitled "Regrets,"
full of vigour and poetry; wrote the "Antiquités
de Rome"; was called the Apollo of the Pléiade,
the best poet and the best prose-writer among them (1524-1560).
Belle France, (i. e.
Beautiful France), a name of endearment applied to France, like
that of "Merry" applied to England.
Belle-Isle (60), a fortified
island on the W. coast of France, near which Sir Edward Hawke
gained a brilliant naval victory over the French, under M. de
Conflans, in 1759.
Charles Louis Auguste Fouquet, Count of, marshal of
France; distinguished in the war of the Spanish Succession;
an ambitious man, mainly to blame for the Austrian Succession
war; had grand schemes in his head, no less than the supremacy
in Europe and the world of France, warranting the risk; expounded
them to Frederick the Great; concluded a fast and loose treaty
with him, which could bind no one; found himself blocked up
in Prague with his forces; had to force his way out and retreat,
but it was a retreat the French boast comparable only to the
retreat of the Ten Thousand; was made War Minister after, and
wrought important reforms in the army (1684-1761). See
for a graphic account of him and his schemes, specially in Bk.
xii. chap. ix.
Bellenden, John, of Moray,
a Scottish writer in the 16th century; translated, at the request
of James V., Hector Boece's "History of Scotland,"
and the first five books of Livy, which remain the earliest
extant specimens of Scottish prose, and remarkable specimens
they are, for the execution of which he was well rewarded, being
made archdeacon of Moray for one thing, though he died in exile;
a Scottish writer, distinguished for diplomatic services to
Queen Mary, and for the purity of his Latin composition; a professor
of belles-lettres in Paris University (1550-1613).
Beller`ophon, a mythical
hero, son of Glaucus and grandson of Sisyphus; having unwittingly
caused the death of his brother, withdrew from his country and
sought retreat with Proetus, king of Argos, who, becoming jealous
of his guest, but not willing to violate the laws of hospitality,
had him sent to Iobates, his son-in-law, king of Lycia, with
instructions to put him to death. Iobates, in consequence, imposed
upon him the task of slaying the Chimæra, persuaded that
this monster would be the death of him.
Bellerophon, mounted on Pegasus, the winged horse given him
by Pallas, slew the monster, and on his return received the
daughter of Iobates to wife.
Bellerophon, Letters of,
name given to letters fraught with mischief to the bearer. See
department of literature which implies literary culture and
belongs to the domain of art, whatever the subject may be or
the special form; it includes poetry, the drama, fiction, and
Belleville, a low suburb
of Paris, included in it since 1860; the scene of one of the
outrages of the Communists.
Belliard, Comte de,
a French general and diplomatist; fought in most of the Napoleonic
wars, but served under the Bourbons on Napoleon's abdication;
was serviceable to Louis Philippe in Belgium by his diplomacy
Belli`ni, the name of an illustrious
family of Venetian painters.
Bellini, Gentile, the
son of Jacopo Bellini, was distinguished as a portrait-painter;
decorated along with his brother the council-chamber of the
ducal palace; his finest picture the "Preaching of St.
Bellini, Giovanni, brother
of the preceding, produced a great many works; the subjects
religious, all nobly treated; had Giorgione and Titian for pupils;
among his best works, the "Circumcision," "Feast
of the Gods," "Blood of the Redeemer"; did much
to promote painting in oil (1426-1516).
Bellini, Jacopo, a painter
from Florence who settled in Venice, the father and founder
of the family; d. 1470.
Bellini, Vincenzo, a
musical composer, born at Catania, Sicily; his works operas,
more distinguished for their melody than their dramatic power;
the best are "Il Pirati," "La Somnambula," "Norma,"
and "Il Puritani" (1802-1835).
Bellmann, the poet of Sweden,
a man of true genius, called the "Anacreon of Sweden,"
patronised by Gustavus Adolphus (1741-1795).
Bello`na, the goddess of fury
in war among the Romans, related by the poets to Mars as sister,
wife, or daughter; inspirer of the war-spirit, and represented
as armed with a bloody scourge in one hand and a torch in the
Bellot, Joseph René,
a naval officer, born in Paris, distinguished in the expedition
of 1845 to Madagascar, and one of those who went in quest of
Sir John Franklin; drowned while crossing the ice (1826-1853).
Belloy, a French poet, born at
St. Flour; author of "Le Siège du Calais" and
numerous other dramatic works (1727-1775).
Belon, Pierre, a French
naturalist, one of the founders of natural history, and one
of the precursors of Cuvier; wrote in different departments
of natural history, the chief, "Natural History of Birds";
murdered by robbers while gathering plants in the Bois de Boulogne
Bel`phegor, a Moabite divinity.
Belphoebe (i. e. Beautiful
Diana), a huntress in the "Faërie Queene," the
impersonation of Queen Elizabeth, conceived of, however, as
a pure, high-spirited maiden, rather than a queen.
Belsham, Thomas, a Unitarian
divine, originally Calvinist, born at Bedford; successor to
the celebrated Priestley at Hackney, London; wrote an elementary
work on psychology (1750-1829).
Belshazzar, the last Chaldean
king of Babylon, slain, according to the Scripture account,
at the capture of the city by Cyrus in 538 B.C.
Belt, Great and Little,
gateways of the Baltic: the Great between Zealand and Fünen,
15 m. broad; the Little, between Fünen and Jutland, half
as broad; both 70 m. long, the former of great depth.
Belt of Calms, the region
in the Atlantic and Pacific, 4° or 5° latitude broad,
where the trade-winds meet and neutralise each other, in which,
however, torrents of rain and thunder-storms occur almost daily.
Beltane, or Beltein,
an ancient Celtic festival connected with the sun-worship, observed
about the 1st of May and the 1st of November, during which fires
were kindled on the tops of hills, and various ceremonies gone
Belted Will, name given to
Lord William Howard, warden in the 16th and 17th centuries of
the Western Marches of England.
Belu`chistan (200 to 400),
a desert plateau lying between Persia and India, Afghanistan
and the Arabian Sea; is crossed by many mountain ranges, the
Suliman, in the N., rising to 12,000 ft. Rivers in the NE. are
subject to great floods. The centre and W. is a sandy desert
exposed to bitter winds in winter and sand-storms in summer.
Fierce extremes of temperature prevail. There are few cattle,
but sheep are numerous; the camel is the draught animal. Where
there is water the soil is fertile, and crops of rice, cotton,
indigo, sugar, and tobacco are raised; in the higher parts,
wheat, maize, and pulse. Both precious and useful metals are
found; petroleum wells were discovered in the N. in 1887. The
population comprises Beluchis, robber nomads of Aryan stock,
in the E. and W., and Mongolian Brahuis in the centre. All are
Mohammedan. Kelat is the capital; its position commands all
the caravan routes. Quetta, in the N., is a British stronghold
and health resort. The Khan of Kelat is the ruler of the country
and a vassal of the Queen.
Be`lus, another name for
Baal (q. v.), or the legendary god
of Assyria and Chaldea.
Bel`vedere, name given a gallery
of the Vatican at Rome, especially that containing the famous
statue of Apollo, and applied to picture-galleries elsewhere.
Belzo`ni, Giovanni Battista,
a famous traveller and explorer in Egypt, born at Padua, of
poor parents; a man of great stature; figured as an athlete
in Astley's Circus, London, and elsewhere, first of all in London
streets; applied himself to the study of mechanics; visited
Egypt as a mechanician and engineer at the instance of Mehemet
Ali; commenced explorations among its antiquities, sent to the
British Museum trophies of his achievements; published a narrative
of his operations; opened an exhibition of his collection of
antiquities in London and Paris; undertook a journey to Timbuctoo,
was attacked with dysentery, and died at Gato (1778-1823).
Bem, Joseph, a Polish general,
born in Galicia; served in the French army against Russia in
1812; took part in the insurrection of 1830; joined the Hungarians
in 1848; gained several successes against Austria and Russia,
but was defeated at Temesvar; turned Mussulman, and was made
pasha; died at Aleppo, where he had gone to suppress an Arab
insurrection; he was a good soldier and a brave man (1791-1850).
Bemba, a lake in Africa, the highest
feeder of the Congo, of an oval shape, 150 m. long and over
70 m. broad, 3000 ft. above the sea-level.
Bembo, Pietro, cardinal,
an erudite man of letters and patron of literature and the arts,
born at Venice; secretary to Pope Leo X.; historiographer of
Venice, and librarian of St. Mark's; made cardinal by Paul III.,
and bishop of Bergamo; a fastidious stylist
and a stickler for purity in language (1470-1547).
Ben Lawers, a mountain in
Perthshire, 3984 ft. high, on the W. of Loch Tay.
Ben Ledi, a mountain in Perthshire,
2873 ft. high, 4½ m. NW. of Callander.
Ben Lomond, a mountain in
Stirlingshire, 3192 ft. high, on the E. of Loch Lomond.
Ben Nevis, the highest mountain
in Great Britain, in SW. Inverness-shire, 4406 ft. high, and
a sheer precipice on the NE. 1500 ft. high, and with an observatory
on the summit supported by the Scottish Meteorological Society.
Ben Rhydding, a village
in the West Riding of Yorkshire, 15 m. NW. of Leeds, with a
thoroughly equipped hydropathic establishment, much resorted
Benares (219), the most sacred
city of the Hindus, and an important town in the NW. Provinces;
is on the Ganges, 420 m. by rail NW. of Calcutta. It presents
an amazing array of 1700 temples and mosques with towers and
domes and minarets innumerable. The bank of the river is laid
with continuous flights of steps whence the pilgrims bathe;
but the city itself is narrow, crocked, crowded, and dirty.
Many thousand pilgrims visit it annually. It is a seat of Hindu
learning; there is also a government college. The river is spanned
here by a magnificent railway bridge. There is a large trade
in country produce, English goods, jewellery, and gems; while
its brass-work, "Benares ware," is famous.
Benbow, John, admiral, born
at Shrewsbury; distinguished himself in an action with a Barbary
pirate; rose rapidly to the highest post in the navy; distinguished
himself well in an engagement with a French fleet in the W.
Indies; he lost a leg, and at this crisis some of his captains
proved refractory, so that the enemy escaped, were tried by
court-martial, and two of them shot; the wound he received and
his vexation caused his death. He was a British tar to the backbone,
and of a class extinct now (1653-1702).
Bencoolen, a town and a Dutch
residency in SW. of Sumatra; exports pepper and camphor.
Bender, a town in Bessarabia,
remarkable for the siege which Charles XII. of Sweden sustained
there after his defeat at Pultowa.
Benedek, Ludwig von,
an Austrian general, born in Hungary; distinguished himself
in the campaigns of 1848-1849; was defeated by the Prussians
at Sadowa; superseded and tried, but got off; retired to Grätz,
where he died (1804-1871).
Benedetti, Count Vincent,
French diplomatist, born at Bastia, in Corsica; is remembered
for his draft of a treaty between France and Prussia, published
in 1870, and for his repudiation of all responsibility for the
Franco-German war; b. 1817.
Benedict, the name of fourteen
popes: B. I., from 574 to 575; B. II., from 684
to 685; B. III., from 855 to 858; B. IV., from
900 to 907; B. V., from 964 to 965; B. VI., from
972 to 974; B. VII., from 975 to 984; B. VIII.,
from 1012 to 1024; extended the territory of the Church by conquest,
and effected certain clerical reforms; B. IX., from 1033
to 1048, a licentious man, and deposed; B. X., from 1058
to 1059; B. XI., from 1303 to 1304; B. XII., from
1334 to 1342; B. XIII., from 1724 to 1730; B. XIV.,
from 1740 to 1758. Of all the popes of this name it would seem
there is only one worthy of special mention.
Benedict XIV., a native
of Bologna, a man of marked scholarship and ability; a patron
of science and literature, who did much to purify the morals
and elevate the character of the clergy, and reform abuses in
Benedict, Biscop, an
Anglo-Saxon monk, born in Northumbria; made two pilgrimages
to Rome; assumed the tonsure as a Benedictine monk in Provence;
returned to England and founded two monasteries on the Tyne,
one at Wearmouth and another at Jarrow, making them seats of
learning; b. 628.
Benedict, St., the founder
of Western monachism, born near Spoleto; left home at 14; passed
three years as a hermit, in a cavern near Subiaco, to prepare
himself for God's service; attracted many to his retreat; appointed
to an abbey, but left it; founded 12 monasteries of his own;
though possessed of no scholarship, composed his "Regula
Monachorum," which formed the rule of his order; represented
in art as accompanied by a raven with sometimes a loaf in his
bill, or surrounded by thorns or by howling demons (480-543).
Benedict, Sir Julius,
musician and composer, native of Stuttgart; removed to London
in 1835; author of, among other pieces, the "Gipsy's Warning,"
the "Brides of Venice," and the "Crusaders";
conducted the performance of "Elijah" in which Jenny
Lind made her first appearance before a London audience, and
accompanied her as pianist to America in 1850 (1806-1885).
Benedictines, the order
of monks founded by St. Benedict and following his rule, the
cradle of which was the celebrated monastery of Monte Casino,
near Naples, an institution which reckoned among its members
a large body of eminent men, who in their day rendered immense
service to both literature and science, and were, in fact, the
only learned class of the Middle Ages; spent their time in diligently
transcribing manuscripts, and thus preserving for posterity
the classic literature of Greece and Rome.
Benedictus, part of the musical
service at Mass in the Roman Catholic Church; has been introduced
into the morning service of the English Church.
Benefit of Clergy, exemption
of the persons of clergymen from criminal process before a secular
Be`neke, Friedrich Eduard,
a German philosopher and professor in Berlin of the so-called
empirical school, that is, the Baconian; an opponent of the
methods and systems of Kant and Hegel; confined his studies
to psychology and the phenomena of consciousness; was more a
British thinker than a German (1798-1854).
Benenge`li, an imaginary Moorish
author, whom Cervantes credits with the story of "Don Quixote."
Bénetier, the vessel
for holding the holy water in Roman Catholic churches.
Benevento (20), a town 33
m. NE. of Naples, built out of and amid the ruins of an ancient
one; also the province, of which Talleyrand was made prince
Benevolence, the name of
a forced tax exacted from the people by certain kings of England,
and which, under Charles I., became so obnoxious as to occasion
the demand of the Petition
of Rights (q. v.), that no tax should be levied without
consent of Parliament; first enforced in 1473, declared illegal
Benfey, Theodor, Orientalist,
born near Göttingen, of Jewish birth; a great Sanskrit
scholar, and professor of Sanskrit and Comparative Philology
at his native place; author of "Lexicon of Greek Roots," "Sanskrit
Grammar," &c. (1809-1881).
Bengal (76,643), one of the three
Indian presidencies, but more particularly
a province lying in the plain of the Lower Ganges and the delta
of the Ganges-Brahmaputra, with the Himalayas on the N. At the
base of the mountains are great forests; along the seaboard
dense jungles. The climate is hot and humid, drier at Behar,
and passing through every gradation up to the snow-line. The
people are engaged in agriculture, raising indigo, jute, opium,
rice, tea, cotton, sugar, &c. Coal, iron, and copper mines
are worked in Burdwân. The manufactures are of cotton
and jute. The population is mixed in blood and speech, but Hindus
speaking Bengali predominate. Education is further advanced
than elsewhere; there are fine colleges affiliated to Calcutta
University, and many other scholastic institutions. The capital,
Calcutta, is the capital of India; the next town in size is
Benga`zi (7), the capital of
Barca, on the Gulf of Sidra, in N. Africa, and has a considerable
Bengel, Johann Albrecht,
a distinguished Biblical scholar and critic, born at Würtemberg;
best known by his "Gnomon Novi Testamenti," being
an invaluable body of short notes on the New Testament; devoted
himself to the critical study of the text of the Greek Testament
Bengue`la, a fertile Portuguese
territory in W. Africa, S. of Angola, with considerable mineral
wealth; has sunk in importance since the suppression of the
Benicia, the former capital
of California, 30 m. NE. of San Francisco; has a commodious
harbour and a U.S. arsenal.
Beni-Hassan, a village in
Middle Egypt, on the right bank of the Nile, above Minieh, with
remarkable catacombs that have been excavated.
Beni-Israel (i. e.
Sons of Israel), a remarkable people, few in number, of Jewish
type and customs, in the Bombay Presidency, and that have existed
there quite isolatedly for at least 1000 years, with a language
of their own, and even some literature; they do not mingle with
the Jews, but they practise similar religious observances.
Benin`, a densely populated and
fertile country in W. Africa, between the Niger and Dahomey,
with a city and river of the name; forms part of what was once
a powerful kingdom; yields palm-oil, rice, maize, sugar, cotton,
Beni-souef`, a town in Middle
Egypt, on the right bank of the Nile, 70 m. above Cairo; a centre
of trade, with cotton-mills and quarries of alabaster.
Benjamin, Jacob's youngest
son, by Rachel, the head of one of the twelve tribes, who were
settled in a small fertile territory between Ephraim and Judah;
the tribe to which St. Paul belonged.
Bennett, James Gordon,
an American journalist, born at Keith, Scotland; trained for
the Catholic priesthood; emigrated, a poor lad of 19, to America,
got employment in a printing-office in Boston as proof-reader;
started the New York Herald in 1835 at a low price as
both proprietor and editor, an enterprise which brought him
great wealth and the success he aimed at (1795-1872).
Bennett, James Gordon,
son of preceding, conductor of the Herald; sent Stanley
out to Africa, and supplied the funds.
Bennett, Sir Sterndale,
an English musical composer and pianist, born at Sheffield,
whose musical genius recommended him to Mendelssohn and Schumann;
became professor of Music in Cambridge, and conductor of the
Philharmonic Concerts; was president of the Royal Academy of
Bennett, Wm., a High-Churchman,
celebrated for having provoked the decision that the doctrine
of the Real Presence is a dogma not inconsistent with the creed
of the Church of England (1804-1886).
a Russian general, born at Brunswick; entered the Russian service
under Catherine II.; was commander-in-chief at Eylau, fought
at Borodino, and victoriously at Leipzig; he died at Hanover,
whither he had retired on failure of his health (1745-1826).
Bentham, George, botanist,
born near Plymouth, nephew of Jeremy and editor of his works,
besides a writer on botany (1800-1884).
Bentham, Jeremy, a writer
on jurisprudence and ethics, born in London; bred to the legal
profession, but never practised it; spent his life in the study
of the theory of law and government, his leading principle on
both these subjects being utilitarianism, or what is called
the greatest happiness principle, as the advocate of which he
is chiefly remembered; a principle against which Carlyle never
ceased to protest as a philosophy of man's life, but which he
hailed as a sign that the crisis which must precede the regeneration
of the world was come; a lower estimate, he thought, man could
not form of his soul than as "a dead balance for weighing
hay and thistles, pains and pleasures, &c.," an estimate
of man's soul which he thinks mankind will, when it wakes up
again to a sense of itself, be sure to resent and repudiate
Bentinck, Lord George,
statesman and sportsman, a member of the Portland family; entered
Parliament as a Whig, turned Conservative on the passing of
the Reform Bill of 1832; served under Sir Robert Peel; assumed
the leadership of the party as a Protectionist when Sir Robert
Peel became a Free-trader, towards whom he conceived a strong
personal animosity; died suddenly; the memory of him owes something
to the memoir of his life by Lord Beaconsfield (1802-1848).
Lord William Henry Cavendish, Indian statesman, governor
of Madras in 1806, but recalled for an error which led to the
mutiny at Vellore; but was in 1827 appointed governor-general
of India, which he governed wisely, abolishing many evils, such
as Thuggism and Suttee, and effecting many beneficent reforms.
Macaulay held office under him. He returned to England in 1835,
became member for Glasgow in 1837, and died before he made any
mark on home politics (1774-1839).
Bentinck, William, a
distinguished statesman, first Earl of Portland, born in Holland;
a favourite, friend, and adviser of William III., whom he accompanied
to England, and who bestowed on him for his services great honours
and large domains, which provoked ill-will against him; retired
to Holland, after the king died in his arms, but returned afterwards
Bentivoglio, an Italian
family of princely rank, long supreme in Bologna; B., Guido,
cardinal, though a disciple of Galileo, was one of the Inquisitors-General
who signed his condemnation (1579-1641).
Bentley, Richard, scholar
and philologist, born in Yorkshire; from the first devoted to
ancient, especially classical, learning; rose to eminence as
an authority on literary criticism, his "Dissertation upon
the Epistles of Phalaris," which he proved to be a forgery,
commending him to the regard and esteem of all the scholars
of Europe, a work which may be said to have inaugurated a new
era in literary historical criticism (1662-1742).
Benuë, an affluent of the
Niger, 300 m. long, falling into it 230 m. up, described by
Dr. Barth and explored by Dr. Baikic,
and offers great facilities for the prosecution of commerce.
Benvolio, a cantankerous, disputatious
gentleman in "Romeo and Juliet."
Benyow`sky, Count, a
Hungarian, fought with the Poles against Russia; taken prisoner;
was exiled to Kamchatka; escaped with the governor's daughter;
came to France; sent out to Madagascar; was elected king by
the natives over them; fell in battle against the French (1741-1786).
Benzene, a substance compounded
of carbon and hydrogen, obtained by destructive distillation
from coal-tar and other organic bodies, used as a substitute
for turpentine and for dissolving grease.
Benzoin, a fragrant concrete
resinous juice flowing from a styrax-tree of Sumatra, used as
a cosmetic, and burned as incense.
Beowulf, a very old Anglo-Saxon
romance consisting of 6356 short alliterative lines, and the
oldest extant in the language, recording the exploits of a mythical
hero of the name, who wrestled Hercules-wise, at the cost of
his life, with first a formidable monster, and then a dragon
that had to be exterminated or tamed into submission before
the race he belonged to could live with safety on the soil.
Jean de, a celebrated French song-writer, born at Paris,
of the lower section of the middle class, and the first of his
countrymen who in that department rose to the high level of
a true lyric poet; his first struggles with fortune were a failure,
but Lucien Bonaparte took him up, and under his patronage a
career was opened up for him; in 1815 appeared as an author,
and the sensation created was immense, for the songs were not
mere personal effusions, but in stirring accord with, and contributed
to influence, the great passion of the nation at the time; was,
as a Republican—which brought him into trouble with the
Bourbons—a great admirer of Napoleon as an incarnation
of the national spirit, and contributed not a little to the
elevation of his nephew to the throne, though he declined all
patronage at his hands, refusing all honours and appointments;
has been compared to Burns, but he lacked both the fire and
the humour of the Scottish poet. "His poetical works,"
says Professor Saintsbury, "consist entirely of chansons
political, amatory, bacchanalian, satirical, philosophical after
a fashion, and of almost every other complexion that the song
can possibly take" (1780-1859).
Berar` (896), one of the central
provinces of India, E. of Bombay; it occupies a fertile, well-watered
valley, and yields large quantities of grain, and especially
a French poet and composer, author of a great number of popular
Berber, native language spoken
in the mountainous parts of Barbary.
Berber (8), a town in Nubia,
on the Nile, occupied by the English; starting-point of caravans
for the Red Sea; railway was begun to Suakim, but abandoned.
Ber`berah, the seaport of Somaliland,
under Britain, with an annual fair that brings together at times
as many as 30,000 people.
Berbers (3,000), a race aboriginal
to Barbary and N. Africa, of a proud and unruly temper; though
different from the Arab race, are of the same religion.
Berbice, the eastern division
of British Guiana; produces sugar, cocoa, and timber.
Berbrugger, a French archæologist
and philologist; wrote on Algiers, its history and monuments
Berchta, a German Hulda, but
of severer type. See Bertha.
Bercy, a commune on the right
bank of the Seine, outside Paris, included in it since 1860;
is the great mart for wines and brandies.
Bere`ans, a sect formed by John
Barclay in 1778, who regard the Bible as the one exclusive revelation
Berenger, or Berenga`rius,
of Tours, a distinguished theologian, born at Tours; held
an ecclesiastical office there, and was made afterwards archdeacon
of Angers; ventured to deny the doctrine of transubstantiation,
a denial for which he was condemned by successive councils of
the Church, and which he was compelled more than once publicly
to retract, though he so often and openly recalled his retractation
that the pope, notwithstanding the opposition of the orthodox,
deemed it prudent at length to let him alone. After this he
ceased to trouble the Church, and retired to an island on the
Loire, where he gave himself up to quiet meditation and prayer
Berenger I., king of Italy,
grandson of Louis the Débonnaire, an able general; provoked
the jealousy of the nobles, who dreaded the abridgment of their
rights, which led to his assassination at their hands in 934.
B. II., king of Italy, grandson of the preceding, was
dethroned twice by the Emperor Otho, who sent him a prisoner
to Bamberg, where he died, 966.
Berenger, Thomas, a French
criminalist and magistrate (1785-1866).
Bereni`ce, a Jewish widow,
daughter of Herod Agrippa, with whom Titus was fascinated, and
whom he would have taken to wife, had not the Roman populace
protested, from their Anti-Jewish prejudice, against it. The
name was a common one among Egyptian as well as Jewish princesses.
Carr, Viscount, an English general, natural son of the
first Marquis of Waterford; distinguished himself in many a
military enterprise, and particularly in the Peninsular war,
for which he was made a peer; he was a member of the Wellington
administration, and master-general of the ordnance (1770-1854).
Beresi`na, a Russian river,
affluent of the Dnieper, into which it falls after a course
of 350 m.; it is serviceable as a water conveyance for large
rafts of timber to the open sea, and is memorable for the disastrous
passage of the French in their retreat from Moscow in 1812.
Berezov`, a town in Siberia,
in the government of Tobolsk; a place of banishment.
Berg, Duchy of, on right
bank of the Rhine, between Düsseldorf and Cologne, now
part of Prussia; Murat was grand-duke of it by Napoleon's appointment.
Ber`gamo (42), a Lombard town,
in a province of the same name, and 34 m. NE. of Milan, with
a large annual fair in August, the largest in Italy; has grindstone
quarries in the neighbourhood.
Bergasse, French jurisconsult,
born at Lyons; celebrated for his quarrel with Beaumarchais;
author of an "Essay on Property" (1750-1832).
Bergen (52), the old capital
of Norway, on a fjord of the name, open to the Gulf Stream,
and never frozen; the town, consisting of wooden houses, is
built on a slope on which the streets reach down to the sea,
and has a picturesque appearance; the trade, which is considerable,
is in fish and fish products; manufactures gloves, porcelain,
leather, etc.; the seat of a bishop, and has a cathedral.
a town in N. Brabant, once a strong place, and much coveted
and frequently contested for by reason
of its commanding situation; has a large trade in anchovies.
Ber`genroth, Gustav Adolph,
historian, born in Prussia; held a State office, but was dismissed
and exiled because of his sympathy with the revolutionary movement
of 1848; came to England to collect materials for a history
of the Tudors; examined in Simancas, in Spain, under great privations,
papers on the period in the public archives; made of these a
collection and published it in 1862-68, under the title of "Calendar
of Letters, Despatches, &c., relating to Negotiations between
England and Spain" (1813-1869).
Bergerac (11), a manufacturing
town in France, 60 m. E. of Bordeaux, celebrated for its wines;
it was a Huguenot centre, and suffered greatly in consequence.
Cyrano de, an eccentric man with comic power, a Gascon
by birth; wrote a tragedy and a comedy; his best work a fiction
entitled "Histoire Comique des États et Empires
de la Lune et du Soleil"; fought no end of duels in vindication,
it is said, of his preposterously large nose (1619-1655).
a geographer of note, born at Clèves; served in both
the French and Prussian armies as an engineer, and was professor
of mathematics at Berlin; his "Physical Atlas" is
well known (1797-1884).
Berghem, a celebrated landscape-painter
of the Dutch school, born at Haarlem (1624-1683).
Bergman, Torbern Olof,
a Swedish chemist, studied under Linnæus, and became professor
of Chemistry at Upsala; discovered oxalic acid; was the first
to arrange and classify minerals on a chemical basis (1735-1784).
Beri, a town in the Punjab, 40
m. NW. of Delhi, in a trading centre.
Berkeley, a town in Gloucestershire,
famous for its cattle.
Berkeley, George, bishop
of Cloyne, born in Kilkenny; a philanthropic man, who conducted
in a self-sacrificing spirit practical schemes for the good
of humanity, which failed, but the interest in whom has for
long centred, and still centres, in his philosophic teaching,
his own interest in which was that it contributed to clear up
our idea of God and consolidate our faith in Him, and it is
known in philosophy as Idealism; only it must be understood,
his idealism is not, as it was absurdly conceived to be, a denial
of the existence of matter, but is an assertion of the doctrine
that the universe, with every particular in it, as man sees
it and knows it, is not the creation of matter but the creation
of mind, and a reflex of the Eternal Reason that creates and
dwells in both it and him; for as Dr. Stirling says, "the
object can only be known in the subject, and therefore is subjective,
and if subjective, ideal." The outer, as regards our knowledge
of it, is within; such is Berkeley's fundamental philosophical
principle, and it is a principle radical to the whole recent
philosophy of Europe (1684-1753).
Berkshire (238), a midland
county of England, with a fertile, well-cultivated soil on a
chalk bottom, in the upper valley of the Thames, one of the
smallest but most beautiful counties in the country. In the
E. part of it is Windsor Forest, and in the SE. Bagshot Heath.
It is famous for its breed of pigs.
Berlichingen, Goetz von,
surnamed "The Iron Hand," a brave but turbulent noble
of Germany, of the 15th and 16th centuries, the story of whose
life was dramatised by Goethe, "to save," as he said, "the
memory of a brave man from darkness," and which was translated
from the German by Sir Walter Scott.
Berlin` (1,579), capital of Prussia
and of the German empire; stands on the Spree, in a flat sandy
plain, 177 m. by rail SE. of Hamburg. The royal and imperial
palaces, the great library, the university, national gallery
and museums, and the arsenal are all near the centre of the
city. There are schools of science, art, agriculture, and mining;
technical and military academies; a cathedral and some old churches;
zoological and botanical gardens. Its position between the Baltic
and North Seas, the Spree, the numerous canals and railways
which converge on it, render it a most important commercial
centre; its staple trade is in grain, cattle, spirits, and wool.
Manufactures are extensive and very varied; the chief are woollens,
machinery, bronze ware, drapery goods, and beer.
Berlin Decree, a decree
of Napoleon of Nov. 21, 1806, declaring Britain in a state of
blockade, and vessels trading with it liable to capture.
Berlioz, Hector, a celebrated
musical composer and critic, born near Grenoble, in the dep.
of Isère, France; sent to study medicine in Paris; abandoned
it for music, to which he devoted his life. His best known works
are the "Symphonie Fantastique," "Romeo and Juliet,"
and the "Damnation of Faust"; with the "Symphonie,"
which he produced while he was yet but a student at the Conservatoire
in Paris, Paganini was so struck that he presented him with
20,000 francs (1803-1869).
Ber`mondsey, a busy SE. suburb
of London, on the S. bank of the Thames.
Bermoo`thes, the Bermudas.
Bermu`das (15), a group of
400 coral islands (five inhabited) in mid-Atlantic, 677 m. SE.
of New York; have a delightful, temperate climate, and are a
popular health resort for Americans. They produce a fine arrowroot,
and export onions. They are held by Britain as a valuable naval
station, and are provided with docks and fortifications.
Baptiste Jules, a marshal of France, born at Pau; rose
from the ranks; distinguished himself in the wars of the Revolution
and the Empire, though between him and Napoleon there was constant
distrust; adopted by Charles XIII., king of Sweden; joined the
Allies as a naturalised Swede in the war against France in alliance
with Russia; became king of Sweden himself under the title of
Charles XIV., to the material welfare, as it proved, of his
adopted country (1764-1844).
Bernard, Claude, a distinguished
French physiologist, born at St. Julien; he studied at Paris;
was Majendie's assistant and successor in the College of France;
discovered that the function of the pancreas is the digestion
of ingested fats, that of the liver the transformation into
sugar of certain elements in the blood, and that there are nervous
centres in the body which act independently of the great cerebro-spinal
Bernard, St., abbot of Clairvaux,
born at Fontaines, in Burgundy; pronounced one of the grandest
figures in the church militant; studied in Paris, entered the
monastery of Citeaux, founded in 1115 a monastery at Clairvaux,
in Champagne; drew around him disciples who rose to eminence
as soldiers of the cross; prepared the statutes for the Knights-Templar;
defeated Abelard in public debate, and procured his condemnation;
founded 160 monasteries; awoke Europe to a second crusade; dealt
death-blows all round to no end of heretics, and declined all
honours to himself, content if he could only awake some divine
passion in other men; represented in art
as accompanied by a white dog, or as contemplating an apparition
of the Virgin and the Child, or as bearing the implements of
Christ's passion (1091-1174). Festival, Aug. 20.
Bernard, Simon, a French
engineer, born at Dôle; distinguished as such in the service
of Napoleon, and for vast engineering works executed in the
United States, in the construction of canals and forts (1779-1839).
Bernard of Menthon,
an ecclesiastic, founder of the monasteries of the Great and
the Little St. Bernard, in the passage of the Alps (923-1008).
Festival, June 15.
Bernard of Morlaix,
a monk of Cluny, of the 11th century; wrote a poem entitled "De
Contemptu Mundi," translated by Dr. Neale, including "Jerusalem
Bernardin de Saint-Pierre,
commonly called Saint-Pierre simply, a celebrated French writer,
born at Havre; author of "Paul and Virginia," written
on the eve of the Revolution, called by Carlyle "the swan-song
of old dying France," (1739-1814).
Bernardine, St., of Siena,
born at Massa Carrara, in Italy, of noble family; founder of
the Observantines, a branch, and restoration on strict lines,
of the Franciscan order; established 300 monasteries of the
said branch; his works, written in a mystical vein, fill five
folio vols. (1380-1444).
Bernauer, Agnes, wife
of Duke Albrecht of Bavaria, whom his father, displeased at
the marriage, had convicted of sorcery and drowned in the Danube.
Berne (47), a fine Swiss town
on the Aar, which almost surrounds it, in a populous canton
of the same name; since 1848 the capital of the Swiss Confederation;
commands a magnificent view of the Bernese Alps; a busy trading
and manufacturing city.
Berners, John Bouchier,
Lord, writer or translator of romance; was Chancellor
of the Exchequer in 1516, and governor of Calais from 1520;
translated Froissart's "Huon of Bordeaux," &c.
Berners, Juliana, writer
on hunting and hawking; lived in the 14th century; said to have
been prioress of a nunnery.
Bernese Alps, a chain in
the Middle Alps, of which the eastern half is called the Bernese
Oberland; form the watershed between the Aar and the Rhône.
Bernhard, Duke of Weimar,
a great German general; distinguished himself on the Protestant
side in the Thirty Years' war; fought under the standard of
Gustavus Adolphus; held command of the left wing at the battle
of Lützen, and completed the victory after the fall of
Gustavus; died at Neuburg, as alleged, without sufficient proof,
by poison (1604-1639).
Bernhardt, Sarah, a dramatic
artiste, born in Paris; of Jewish descent, but baptized as a
Christian; distinguished specially as a tragédienne;
of abilities qualifying her to shine in other departments of
the profession and of art, of which she has given proof;
Berni, Francesco, an
Italian poet, born in Tuscany, who excelled in the burlesque,
to whom the Italian as a literary language owes much; remodelled
Boiardo's "Orlando Innamorato" in a style surpassing
that of the original.
Bernier, a French physician
and traveller, born at Angers; physician for 12 years to Aurungzebe,
the Great Mogul; published "Travels," a work full
of interest, and a model of exactitude (1625-1688).
Bernier, The Abbé,
born in Mayenne, France; one of the principal authors of the
Concordat; promoted afterwards to be Bishop of Orleans (1762-1806).
Berni`na, a mountain in the
Swiss canton of Grisons, 13,290 ft. high, remarkable for its
Bernini, Giovanni Lorenzo,
an Italian painter, sculptor, and architect, born at Naples;
produced his "Apollo and Daphne" at eighteen, his
masterpiece; was architect to the Pope, and designed the colonnade
of St. Peter's; he died wealthy (1598-1680).
Bernouil`li, name of a Swiss
family of mathematicians, born at Basel, though of Dutch origin—James,
John, and Daniel, of whom John is the most celebrated;
was professor first at St. Petersburg and then at Basel; discovered
the exponential calculus and the method of integrating rational
fractions, as well as the line of swiftest descent (1667-1748).
Bernstorff, Count, a
celebrated statesman, diplomatist, and philanthropist of Denmark;
called the Danish Oracle by Frederick the Great; founded an
Agricultural Society and an hospital at Copenhagen, and obtained
the emancipation of the serfs (1711-1772).
a nephew of the preceding; also statesman and diplomatist (1712-1772).
Danish minister, son of the preceding, a guardian of civil and
political liberty (1735-1797).
Bero`sus, a priest of the temple
of Belus in Babylon, who, 3rd century B.C., translated into
Greek certain records of Babylonish history, valuable fragments
of which are preserved by Josephus and Eusebius; these have
been collected and published by W. Richter, in Germany.
Berri, an ancient province of
France, forms dep. of Indre and Cher, which became crown property
in 1100 under Philippe I., and a duchy in 1630, giving title
to a succession of French princes.
Berri, Duc de, second son
of Charles X. and father of Count de Chambord, a benevolent
man; assassinated by a fanatic, Louvel, as he was leaving the
Opera House (1778-1820).
Berri, Duchesse de,
dowager of preceding, distinguished herself by her futile efforts
to restore the Bourbon dynasty in the reign of Louis Philippe
Berryer, Pierre Antoine,
an eminent French barrister, born at Paris; a red-hot Legitimist,
which brought him into trouble; was member of the National Assembly
of 1848; inimical to the Second Empire, and openly protested
against the coup d'état (1790-1868).
Ber`serker, a Norse warrior
who went into battle unharnessed, whence his name (which means
bare of sark or shirt of mail), and is said to have been inspired
with such fury as to render him invulnerable and irresistible.
Bert, Paul, a French physiologist
and statesman, born at Auxerre; was professor of Physiology
at Paris; took to politics after the fall of the Empire; Minister
of Public Instruction under Gambetta; sent governor to Tonquin;
died of fever soon after; wrote a science primer for children
entitled "La Première Année d'Enseignement
Bertha, goddess in the S. German
mythology, of the spinning-wheel principally, and of the household
as dependent on it, in behalf of which and its economical management
she is often harsh to idle spinners; at her festival thrift
is the rule.
Bertha, St., a British princess,
wife of Ethelbert, king of Kent; converted him to Christianity.
Berthe "au Grand Pied"
(i. e. Long Foot), wife of Pepin the Short, and mother
of Charlemagne, so called from her club foot.
Berthelier, a Swiss patriot,
an uncompromising enemy of the Duke of Savoy in his ambition
to lord it over Geneva.
Berthelot, Pierre Eugène,
a French chemist, born at Paris; professor in the College of
France; distinguished for his researches in organic chemistry,
and his attempt to produce organic compounds; the dyeing trade
owes much to his discoveries in the extraction of dyes from
coal-tar; he laid the foundation of thermo-chemistry; b.
prince of Wagram and marshal of France, born at Versailles;
served with Lafayette in the American war, and rose to distinction
in the Revolution; became head of Napoleon's staff, and his
companion in all his expeditions; swore fealty to the Bourbons
at the restoration of 1814; on Napoleon's return retired with
his family to Bamberg; threw himself from a window, maddened
at the sight of Russian troops marching past to the French frontier
Berthollet, Count, a famous
chemist, native of Savoy, to whom we owe the discovery of the
bleaching properties of chlorine, the employment of carbon in
purifying water, &c., and many improvements in the manufactures;
became a senator and officer of the Legion of Honour under Napoleon;
attached himself to the Bourbons on their return, and was created
a peer (1744-1822).
Berthoud, a celebrated clockmaker,
native of Switzerland; settled in Paris; invented the marine
chronometer to determine the longitude at sea (1727-1807).
or the Elder, a French journalist, born at Paris; founder and
editor of the Journal des Débats, which he started
in 1799; friend of Châteaubriand (1766-1841).
Bertin, Pierre, introduced
stenography into France, invented by Taylor in England (1751-1819).
Bertin, Rose, milliner to
Marie Antoinette, famed for her devotion to her.
Bertinazzi, a celebrated
actor, born at Turin, long a favourite in Paris (1710-1788).
Bertrand and Raton,
two personages in La Fontaine's fable of the Monkey and the
Cat, of whom R. cracks the nut and B. eats it.
Ber`trand, Henri Gratien,
Comte, a French general, and faithful adherent of Napoleon,
accompanied him in all his campaigns, to and from Elba, as well
as in his exile at St. Helena; conducted his remains back to
France in 1840 (1770-1844).
Bertrand de Molleville,
Minister of Marine under Louis XVI.; a fiery partisan of royalty,
surnamed the enfant terrible of the monarchy (1744-1818).
Berton, Pierre, French
composer of operas (1726-1780). Henri, his son, composed operas;
wrote a treatise on harmony (1761-1844).
born at Troyes; founder of the order of Carmelites, and of the
Congregation of the Oratory (1576-1629).
Fitz-James, Duke of, a natural son of James II., a naturalised
Frenchman; defended the rights of his father; was present with
him at the battle of the Boyne; distinguished himself in Spain,
where he gained the victory of Almanza; was made marshal of
France; fell at the siege of Philippsburg; left "Memoirs"
Berwick, North, a place
on the S. shore of the Forth, in Haddingtonshire; a summer resort,
specially for the golfing links.
a town on the Scotch side of the Tweed, at its mouth, reckoned
since 1835 in Northumberland, though at one time treated as
a separate county; of interest from its connection with the
Border wars, during which it frequently changed hands, till
in 1482 the English became masters of it.
Berwickshire (32), a fertile
Scottish county between the Lammermoors, inclusive, and the
Tweed; is divided into the Merse, a richly fertile plain in
the S., the Lammermoors, hilly and pastoral, dividing the Merse
from Mid and East Lothian, and Lauderdale, of hill and dale,
along the banks of the Leader; Greenlaw the county town.
Berze`lius, Johan Jakob,
Baron, a celebrated Swedish chemist, one of the creators of
modern chemistry; instituted the chemical notation by symbols
based on the notion of equivalents; determined the equivalents
of a great number of simple bodies, such as cerium and silenium;
discovered silenium, and shared with Davy the honour of propounding
the electro-chemical theory; he ranks next to Linnæus
as a man of science in Sweden (1779-1848).
Besançon (57), capital
of the dep. of Doubs, in France; a very strong place; fortified
by Vauban; abounds in relics of Roman and mediæval times;
watchmaking a staple industry, employing some 15,000 of the
inhabitants; manufactures also porcelain and carpets.
Besant, Mrs. Annie,
née Wood, born in London; of Irish descent;
married to an English clergyman, from whom she was legally separated;
took a keen interest in social questions and secularism; drifted
into theosophy, of which she is now an active propagandist;
is an interesting woman, and has an interesting address as a
lecturer; b. 1847.
Besant, Sir Walter, a man
of letters, born at Portsmouth; eminent chiefly as a novelist
of a healthily realistic type; wrote a number of novels jointly
with James Rice, and is the author of "French Humourists,"
as well as short stories; champion of the cause of Authors
versus Publishers, and is chairman of the committee;
Besenval, Baron, a Swiss,
commandant of Paris under Louis XVI.; a royalist stunned into
a state of helpless dismay at the first outbreak of the Revolution
in Paris; could do nothing in the face of it but run for his
Besika Bay, a bay on the Asiatic
coast, near the mouth of the Dardanelles.
Besme, a Bohemian in the pay of
the Duke of Guise; assassinated Coligny, and was himself killed
by Berteauville, a Protestant gentleman, in 1571.
Bess, Good Queen, a familiar
name of Queen Elizabeth.
Bessara`bia (1,688), a government
in the SW. of Russia, between the Dniester and the Pruth; a
cattle-breeding province; exports cattle, wool, and tallow.
Bessar`ion, John, cardinal,
native of Trebizond; contributed by his zeal in Greek literature
to the fall of scholasticism and the revival of letters; tried
hard to unite the Churches of the East and the West; joined
the latter, and was made cardinal; too much of a Grecian to
recommend himself to the popehood, to which he was twice over
nearly elevated (1395-1472).
Bessel, Friedrich Wilhelm,
a Prussian astronomer of prominent ability, born at Minden;
professor of Mathematics at Königsberg, and director of
the Observatory; discovered—what
was a great achievement—the parallax of the fixed
star 61 Cygne; his greatest work, "Fundamenta Astronomiæ,"
on which he spent 10 years, a marvel, like all he did, of patient
toil and painstaking accuracy (1784-1846).
Bessemer, Sir Henry, civil
engineer and inventor, born at Charlton, Herts; of his many
inventions the chief is the process, named after him, of converting
pig-iron into steel at once by blowing a blast of air through
the iron while in fusion till everything extraneous is expelled,
and only a definite quantity of carbon is left in combination,
a process which has revolutionised the iron and steel trade
all over the world, leading, as has been calculated, to the
production of thirty times as much steel as before and at one-fifth
of the cost per ton (1813-1898).
Bessemer process. See
Baptiste, Duke of Istria, marshal of France, born at
Languedoc, of humble parentage; rose from the ranks; a friend
and one of the ablest officers of Napoleon, and much esteemed
by him; distinguished himself in the Italian campaign, in Egypt,
and at Marengo; was shot at Lützen the day before the battle
Bessus, a satrap of Bactria under
Darius, who assassinated his master after the battle of Arbela,
but was delivered over by Alexander to Darius's brother, by
whom he was put to death, 328 B.C.
Bestiary, a name given to a
class of books treating of animals, viewed allegorically.
Bethany, village on E. of the
Mount of Olives, abode of Lazarus and his sisters.
Bethel (i. e. house of
God), a place 11 m. N. of Jerusalem, scene of Jacob's dream,
and famous in the history of the patriarchs.
Bethencourt, a Norman baron,
in 1425 discovered and conquered the Canaries, and held them
as a fief of the crown of Castile.
Bethlehem (3), a village 6
m. S. of Jerusalem, the birthplace of Jesus Christ and King
David, with a convent containing the Church of the Nativity;
near it is the grotto where St. Jerome translated the Bible
of Transylvania, assumed the title of king of Hungary; assisted
Bohemia in the Thirty Years' war (1580-1629).
Bethnal Green (129), an
eastern suburb of London, a parliamentary borough, a poor district,
and scene of benevolent enterprises.
Betterton, Thomas, born
at Westminster, a tragic actor, and as such an interpreter of
Shakespeare on, it is believed, the traditional lines.
Bettina, the Countess of Arnim,
a passionate admirer of Goethe.
Betty, W. Henry, a boy actor,
known as the Infant Roscius; amassed a fortune; lived afterwards
Beule, a French statesman and
archæologist; superintended excavations on the Acropolis
of Athens; held office under Macmahon (1826-1874).
Beust, Count von, a German
statesman, born at Dresden; Minister for Foreign Affairs in
Saxony; of strong conservative leanings, friendly to Austria;
became Chancellor of the Austro-Hungarian empire; adopted a
liberal policy; sympathised with France in the Franco-German
war; resigned office in 1871; left "Memoirs" (1809-1886).
Beuthen (36), a manufacturing
town in Prussian Silesia, in the centre of a mining district.
Beverley (12), a Yorkshire
manufacturing town, 8 m. NW. of Hull, with a Gothic minster,
which contains the tombs of the Percys.
Beverley, John, a learned
man, tutor to the Venerable Bede, archbishop of York, and founder
of a college for secular priests at Beverley; was one of the
most learned men of his time; d. 721.
Bevis of Southampto,
or Hampton, Sir, a famous knight of English mediæval
romance, a man of gigantic stature, whose marvellous feats are
recorded in Drayton's "Polyolbion."
Bewick, Thomas, a distinguished
wood-engraver, born in Northumberland, apprenticed to the trade
in Newcastle; showed his art first in woodcuts for his "History
of Quadrupeds," the success of which led to the publication
of his "History of British Birds," in which he established
his reputation both as a naturalist, in the truest sense, and
an artist (1753-1828).
Bewick, William, a great
wood-engraver; did a cartoon from the Elgin Marbles for Goethe
Beyle, Marie Henri,
French critic and novelist, usually known by his pseudonym "De
Stendal," born at Grenoble; wrote in criticism "De
l'Amour," and in fiction "La Chartreuse de Parme"
and "Le Rouge et le Noir"; an ambitious writer and
a cynical (1788-1842).
Beypur, a port in the Madras
presidency, a railway terminus, with coal and iron in the neighbourhood.
Beyrout (200), the most nourishing
commercial city on the coast of Syria, and the port of Damascus,
from which it is distant 55 m.; a very ancient place.
Beza, Theodore, a French
Protestant theologian, born in Burgundy, of good birth; professor
of Greek at Lausanne; deputed from Germany to intercede for
the Huguenots in France, persuaded the king of Navarre to favour
the Protestants; settled in Geneva, became the friend and successor
of Calvin; wrote a book, "De Hereticis a Civili Magistratu
Puniendis," in which he justified the burning of Servetus,
and a "History of the Reformed Churches" in France;
died at 86 (1519-1605).
Bezants, Byzantine gold coins
of varying weight and value, introduced by the Crusaders into
England, where they were current till the time of Edward III.
Béziers (42), a manufacturing
town in the dep. of Hérault, 49 m. SW. of Montpellier;
manufactures silk fabrics and confectionary.
Bhagalpur` (69), a town in
Bengal, on the right bank of the Ganges, 265 m. NW. of Calcutta.
(i. e. Song of Krishna), a poem introduced into the Mahâbhârata,
divided into three sections, and each section into six chapters,
called Upanishads; being a series of mystical lectures addressed
by Krishna to his royal pupil Arjuna on the eve of a battle,
from which he shrunk, as it was with his own kindred; the whole
conceived from the point of view or belief, calculated to allay
the scruples of Arjuna, which regards the extinction of existence
as absorption in the Deity.
Bhamo` (6), a town in Burmah,
the chief centre of trade with China, conducted mainly by Chinese,
and a military station, only 40 m. from the Chinese frontier.
Bhartpur` (68), a town in Rajputana,
in a native state of the name; yielding wheat, maize, cotton,
sugar, with quarries of building stone; 30 m. W. of Agra; carries
on an industry in the manufacture of chowries.
Bhartrihari, Indian author
of apothegms, who appears to have lived in the 11th century
B.C., and to have been of royal rank.
Bhils, a rude pro-Aryan race of
Central India, still untrained to settled life; number 750,000.
Bhod-pa, name given to the aborigines
of Thibet, and applied by the Hindus to
all the Thibetan peoples.
Bhopal` (952), a well-governed
native state in Central India, under British protection, with
a capital city (70) of the same name; under a government that
has been always friendly to Britain.
Bhutan (20), an independent state
in the Eastern Himalayas, with magnificent scenery; subsidised
by Britain; has a government like that of Thibet; religion the
same, though the people are at a low stage of civilisation;
the country exports horses, musk, and salt.
Biaf`ra, Bight of, a large
bay in the Gulf of Guinea, in W. Africa; includes several islands,
and receives into it the waters of the Calabar rivers.
Biard, Auguste François,
French genre painter, born at Lyons; journeyed round
the world, sketching by the way; was successful in rendering
burlesque groups (1800-1882).
Biarritz, a bathing-place on
the Bay of Biscay, 6 m. SW. of Bayonne; became a place of fashionable
resort by the visits of the Empress Eugenie.
Bias, one of the seven wise men
of Greece, born at Priene, in Ionia; lived in the 6th century
B.C.; many wise sayings are ascribed to him; was distinguished
for his indifference to possessions, which moth and rust can
corrupt, and thieves break through and steal.
Bible, The (i. e. the
Book par excellence, and not so much a book as a library
of books), a collection of sacred writings divided into two
parts, the Old Testament and the New; the Old, written in Hebrew,
comprehending three groups of books, the Pentateuch, the Prophets,
and the Hagiographa, bearing on the religion, the history, the
institutions, and the manners of the Jews; and the New, written
in Greek, comprehending the Four Gospels, the Acts of the Apostles,
and the Epistles. The Old Testament was translated into Greek
at Alexandria by 72 Jews, 280 B.C., and is known as the Septuagint;
and the whole book, Old and New, was translated into Latin in
a grotto near Bethlehem by St. Jerome, A.D. 385-404, and is
known as the Vulgate, after which the two came to be regarded
by the Church as of equal divine authority and as sections of
one book. It may be permitted to note that the Bible is written
throughout, not in a speculative or a scientific, but a spiritual
interest, and that its final aim is to guide men in the way
of life. The spirit in which it is composed is the spirit of
conviction; its essence, both in the root of it and the fruit
of it, is faith, and that primarily in a moral power above,
and ultimately a moral principle within, both equally divine.
The one principle of the book is that loyalty to the divine
commands is the one foundation of all well-being, individual
Biblia Pauperum (i.
e. Bible of the Poor), a book consisting of some 50 leaves,
with pictures of scenes in the Life of Christ, and explanatory
inscriptions, printed, from wooden blocks, in the 15th century,
and before the invention of printing by movable types.
Bibulus, a colleague of Julius
Cæsar; a mere cipher, a fainéant.
Bicêtre, a hospital, originally
a Carthusian monastery, in the S. side of Paris, with a commanding
view of the Seine and the city; since used for old soldiers,
and now for confirmed lunatics.
François Xavier, an eminent French anatomist
and physiologist; physician to the Hôtel-Dieu, Paris;
one of the first to resolve the structure of the human body
into, as "Sartor" has it, "cellular, vascular,
and muscular tissues;" his great work "Anatomie Générale
appliquée à la Physiologie et à la Medecine";
died at 31 (1771-1802).
an Irish dramatist of 18th century, whose name was adopted as
a nom de plume by Swift and Steele.
English clergyman; author of several evangelical works, and
one of the founders of the Evangelical Alliance (1786-1850).
Bickerton, Sir Richard,
vice-admiral, served in several naval engagements, and died
commander-in-chief at Plymouth in 1792.
Biddery ware, ware of tin,
copper, lead, and zinc, made at Bidar, in India.
Bidding Prayer, an exhortation
to prayer in some special reference, followed by the Lord's
Prayer, in which the congregation joins.
Biddle, John, a Socinian
writer in the time of Charles I. and the Commonwealth; much
persecuted for his belief, and was imprisoned, but released
by Cromwell; regarded as the founder of English Unitarianism;
author of a "Confession of Faith concerning the Holy Trinity"
Bidpaï, or Pilpaï,
the presumed author of a collection of Hindu fables of ancient
date, in extensive circulation over the East, and widely translated.
Biela's Comet, a comet discovered
by Biela, an Austrian officer, in 1826; appears, sometimes unobserved,
every six years.
Bielefeld (39), a manufacturing
town in Westphalia, with a large trade in linen, and the centre
of the trade.
Bielu`ka, with its twin peaks,
highest of the Altai Mountains, 11,100 ft.
Bienne, Lake of, in the
Swiss canton of Berne; the Aar is led into it when in flood,
so as to prevent inundation below; on the shores of it are remains
of lake-dwellings, and an island in it, St. Pierre, the retreat
of Rousseau in 1765.
Bifröst, a bridge in the
Norse mythology stretching from heaven to earth, of firm solidity
and exquisite workmanship, represented in the rainbow, of which
the colours are the reflections of the precious stones.
Bigelow, Erastus Brigham,
American inventor of weaving machines, born in Massachusetts
Big-endians, a name given
to the Catholics, as Little-endians is the name given to the
Protestants, in the imaginary kingdom of Lilliput, of which
the former are regarded as heretics by the latter because they
break their eggs at the big end.
Biggar, a town in Lanarkshire,
birthplace of Dr. John Brown and of the Gladstone ancestry.
Biglow, imaginary author of poems
in the Yankee dialect, written by James Russell Lowell.
Bijapur`, city in the presidency
of Bombay, once the capital of an extensive kingdom, now deserted,
but with remains of its former greatness.
Bilba`o (50), capital of the
Basque prov. of Biscay, in Spain; a commercial city of ancient
date, famous at one time for its steel, specially in Queen Elizabeth's
time, when a rapier was called a "bilbo."
Dutch poet, born at Amsterdam (1756-1831).
Bile, a fluid secreted from the
blood by the liver to aid in digestion, the secretion of which
is most active after food.
Jean Nicolas, "a grim, resolute, unrepentant"
member of the Jacobin Club; egged on the mob during the September
massacres in the name of liberty; was president of the Convention;
assisted at the fall of Robespierre, but could not avert his
own; was deported to Surinam, and content to die there rather
than return to France, which Bonaparte
made him free to do; died at Port-au-Prince (1756-1819).
Billaut, Adam, the carpenter
poet, called "Maître Adam," born at Nevers,
and designated "Virgile au Rabot" (a carpenter's plane);
Billings, Robert William,
architect, born in London; delineator of old historical buildings;
his great work "Baronial and Ecclesiastical Antiquities
of Scotland," richly illustrated; was engaged in the restoration
of old buildings, as well as delineating them (1813-1874).
Billingsgate, a fish-market
in London, below London Bridge; also a name given to low, coarse
language indulged in there.
née Weichsel, a celebrated singer, born
in London, of German descent; kept up her celebrity to the last;
died at Venice in 1817.
Bilney, Thomas, martyr,
born in Norfolk, a priest who adopted the reformed doctrine;
was twice arraigned, and released on promise not to preach,
but could not refrain, and was at last burned as a heretic in
Bilocation, the power or
state, ascribed to certain of the saints, of appearing in two
places at the same time.
Bimetallism, the employment
of two metals (gold and silver) in the currency of a country
as legal tender at a fixed relative value, the ratio usually
proposed being 1 to 15½.
Bimini, a fabulous island with
a fountain possessed of the virtue of restoring youth.
Binet, a French littérateur,
translator of Horace and Virgil (1732-1812).
Bingen, a manufacturing and trading
town on the left bank of the Rhine, in Grand-Duchy of Hesse
Darmstadt, opposite which is the tower associated with the myth
of Bishop Hatto.
Bingham, Joseph, an English
divine, born at Wakefield; author of "Origines Ecclesiasticæ,"
a laborious and learned work; lost his all in the South-Sea
Scheme and died (1668-1723).
Biogenesis, name of the theory
that derives life from life, and opposed to
Abiogenesis (q. v.).
Biology, the science of animal
life in a purely physical reference, or of life in organised
bodies generally, including that of plants, in its varied forms
and through its successive stages.
Bion, a Greek pastoral poet of
3rd century B.C., born at Smyrna; a contemporary of Theocritus;
settled in Sicily; was poisoned, it is said, by a rival; little
of his poetry survives.
Biot, Jean Baptiste,
an eminent French mathematician, astronomer, and physicist,
born at Paris; professor of Physics in the College of France;
took part in measuring an arc of the meridian along with Arago;
made observations on the polarisation of light, and contributed
numerous memoirs to scientific journals; wrote works on astronomy
Birague, René de,
cardinal and chancellor of France, born at Milan; charged, especially
by contemporary historians, as the chief instigator of the St.
Bartholomew Massacre (1507-1583).
Birch, Samuel, archæologist
and Egyptologist, born in London; keeper of Oriental antiquities
in the British Museum; had an extensive knowledge of Egyptology,
wrote largely, and contributed articles on that and kindred
archæological subjects (1813-1885).
Birch, Thomas, antiquary,
born in London; wrote a history of the Royal Society (1705-1765).
actress, born in Stuttgart; acted in Berlin; wrote dramas (1800-1868).
Bird, Edward, an English
genre painter, born in Wolverhampton, settled in Bristol;
among his works are the "Choristers Rehearsing," the "Field
of Chevy Chase," and the "Day after the Battle,"
pronounced his masterpiece (1772-1819).
Bird, Golding, M.D., a great
authority in kidney disease, of which he himself died (1815-1854).
Bird, William, a musician
in the time of Elizabeth, composed madrigals; "Non Nobis,
Domine," is ascribed to him (1563-1623).
Bird's nest, the nest of a
species of swift, formed from a marine plant that has been first
digested by a bird, and esteemed a great luxury by the Chinese.
Biren, Duke of Courland,
son of a peasant, favourite of the Russian Empress Anne; held
the reins of government even after her death; ruled with great
cruelty; was banished to Siberia, but recalled, and had his
honours restored to him, which in six years after he relinquished
in favour of his eldest son (1687-1772).
Birkbeck, George, M.D.,
a Yorkshireman, a zealous promoter all over the country of mechanics'
institutes, was founder of the London Institute, in consociation
with Brougham and others interested in the diffusion of useful
Birkenhead (100), in Cheshire,
on the Mersey, opposite Liverpool and a suburb of it; a town
of rapid growth, due to the vicinity of Liverpool; has large
shipbuilding-yards and docks.
Birkenhead, Sir John,
a political writer, several times imprisoned during the Commonwealth
for his obtrusive royalism (1615-1679).
Birmingham (478), in the
NW. of Warwickshire, 112 m. NW. of London by rail; is the chief
town of the Midlands, and celebrated all over the world for
its metal ware. All kinds of engines and machinery, fine gold,
silver, copper, and brass ware, cutlery and ammunition are made
here; steel pens, buttons, nails, and screws are specialties.
It is a picturesque town with many fine buildings, libraries,
art gallery and museums, educational institutions, a cathedral,
and a great town-hall, where the triennial musical festival
is held. Of this town Burne-Jones was a native, and Priestley,
George Dawson, and Dale were dissenting ministers.
Birnam, a hill near Dunkeld,
in Perthshire; contains part of a forest mentioned in "Macbeth."
Biron, a madcap lord in "Love's
Biron, Baron de, marshal
of France, born at Périgord; served bravely under Henry
IV.; though a Catholic, favoured the Huguenots; narrowly escaped
at the Massacre of St. Bartholomew; was killed at the siege
of Épernay; carried a note-book with him everywhere,
and so observant was he that it passed into proverb, "You
will find it in Biron's note-book" (1524-1592).
Biron, Duc de, son of the
preceding; served also bravely under Henry IV.; but being a
man of no principle and discontented with the reward he got
for his services, intrigued with the Duke of Savoy and with
Spain against Henry; was arrested and sent to the Bastille,
where, after trial, he was beheaded (1562-1602).
Biscay, Bay of, a bay in
the Atlantic, extending from Cape Ortegal, in Spain, to Cape
Finisterre, in France, and 400 m. broad, of depth varying from
20 to 200 fathoms, and, under SW. winds particularly, one of
the stormiest of seas.
Bischof, Karl Gustav,
chemist, born at Nüremberg, professor at Bonn; experimented
on the inflammable power of gas (1792-1870).
Ludwig Wilhelm, distinguished biologist, born at Hanover;
made a special study of embryology; was professor of Anatomy
at Heidelberg, of Physiology at Giessen,
and of both at Münich (1807-1882).
Bishop, originally an overseer
of souls, eventually an overseer of churches, especially of
a district, and conceived of by High-Churchmen as representing
the apostles and deriving his powers by transmission from them.
Bishop, Sir Henry Rowley,
an English composer, born in London, composer and director of
music in Covent Garden Theatre for 14 years; produced 60 pieces,
of which "Guy Mannering," "The Miller and his
Men," are still in favour; was for a brief space professor
of Music in Edinburgh University, and eventually held a similar
chair in Oxford (1786-1855).
Bishop of Hippo, St. Augustine,
as once in office there.
a market-town 9 m. SW. of Durham, where the bishop of Durham
has his residence, a palatial structure; it has coal-mines close
by; manufactures machinery and cotton goods.
(188), an archipelago formerly called New Britain, NE. of New
Guinea; under the protectorate of Germany.
Eduard Leopold, Prince von, born at Schönhausen;
woke up into civil life by the events of 1848; took a bold stand
against revolutionary ideas and measures; conceived the idea
of freeing the several States of Germany from foreign control,
and welding them into one under the crown of Prussia. Summoned
in 1862 by King William to be his political adviser, his influence
was at first distrusted, but the annexation of Sleswig-Holstein
by force of arms in 1863 raised him into general favour. His
next feat, the humiliation of Austria at Königgrätz
in 1866, and the consequent erection of a German Confederation,
with Prussia at its head, made him the idol of the nation. His
treatment of Napoleon III. provoked the latter into a declaration
of war, and to an advance on the part of the French against
Berlin. To the surprise of nearly all Europe, the Germans proved
to be a nation of soldiers, marshalled as army never was before,
and beat the French ignominiously back from the Rhine. Count
Bismarck had the satisfaction of seeing the power of France,
that still threatened, as well as that of Austria, helpless
at his feet, the German empire restored under a Hohenzollern
king, and himself installed as chancellor of the monarch he
had served so well. Nothing he did after this—though he
reformed the coinage, codified the law, established protection,
increased the army, and repressed Socialism—equalled this
great feat, and for this a grateful nation must ever honour
his name. If he ceased to be chancellor of Germany on the accession
of William II., it was because the young king felt he would
have a freer hand with a minister more likely to be under his
Bissa`gos, a group of some
20 volcanic islands off the coast of Senegambia, with a large
negro population; yield tropical products, and belong now to
Bissen, a Danish sculptor, born
in Sleswig; a pupil of Thorwaldsen; intrusted by him to finish
a statue he left unfinished at his death; he produced some fine
works, but his best known are his "Cupid Sharpening his
Arrow" and "Atalanta Hunting" (1798-1868).
Bithur, a town on the right bank
of the Ganges, 12 m. above Cawnpore, where Nana Sahib lived,
and concocted the conspiracy which developed into the mutiny
Bithynia, a country in the
NW. of Asia Minor, anciently so called; the people of it were
of Thracian origin.
Bitlis (25), a high-lying town
in Asiatic Turkey, 62 m. W. of Van; stands in a valley 8470
ft. above, the sea-level, with a population of Mohammedans and
Bitumen, an inflammable mineral
substance, presumably of vegetable origin, called Naphtha when
liquid and light-coloured, Petroleum when less fluid and darker,
Maltha when viscid, and Asphalt when solid.
Bitzius, a Swiss author, composed
stories of Swiss life under the nom de plume of Jeremias
Gotthelf, fascinating from their charming simplicity and truth;
he is much admired by Ruskin; was by profession a Protestant
pastor, the duties of which he continued to discharge till his
Bizerta (10), a seaport of Tunis,
northernmost town in Africa, 38 m. NW. of the capital, with
an excellent harbour.
Bizet, Georges, an operatic
composer, born at Paris; his greatest work "Carmen";
died of heart-disease shortly after its appearance (1838-1875).
Björnsen, a Norwegian
author, born at Kvikne; composed tales, dramas, and lyrics,
all of distinguished merit and imbued with a patriotic spirit;
his best play "Sigurd the Bastard"; an active and
zealous promoter of liberalism, sometimes extreme, both in religion
and politics; his writings are numerous, and they rank high;
his songs being highly appreciated by his countrymen; b.
Black, Joseph, a celebrated
chemist, born at Bordeaux, of Scotch parents; the discoverer
of what has been called latent heat, but what is really transformed
energy; professor of Chemistry, first in Glasgow, then in Edinburgh,
where his lectures were very popular; his discoveries in chemistry
were fruitful in results (1728-1799).
Black, William, novelist,
born in Glasgow; started life as a journalist in connection
with the Morning Star; has written several novels, over
30 in number, about the West Highlands of Scotland, rich in
picturesque description; the best known and most admired, "A
Daughter of Heth," the "Madcap Violet," "Macleod
of Dare," "The Strange Adventures of a Phæton,"
and "A Princess of Thule." "But when are you
going to write a book, Mr. Black?" said Carlyle to him
one day (1841-1898).
Black Art, name given to the
presumed power of evoking evil spirits.
Black Assize, a plague at
Oxford in 1557, which carried off 300 victims; caught at the
assize from the prisoners under trial.
Black Death, a name given
to a succession of fatal epidemics that devastated the world
from China to Ireland in the 14th century, believed to be the
same as the Oriental plague, though attended with peculiar symptoms;
the most serious was that of 1348, which, as is reckoned, stripped
England alone of one-third of its inhabitants.
Black Forest (488), a wooded
mountain chain 4000 ft. high (so called from the black pines
that cover it), which runs parallel with the Rhine, and E. of
it, through Würtemberg and Baden, from the Swiss frontier
to Carlsruhe; is remarkable for its picturesque scenery and
its mineral wealth; it possesses many health resorts, as Baden-Baden
and Wildbad, where are mineral springs; silver, copper, cobalt,
lead, and iron are wrought in many places; the women and children
of the region make articles of woodwork, such as wooden clocks, &c.
Black Friars, monks of the
Dominican order; name of a district in London where they had
Black Hole of Calcutta,
a confined apartment 13 ft. square, into which 146 English prisoners
were crammed by the orders of Surajah Dowia on the 19th June
1756; their sufferings were excruciating, and only 23 survived
Black Lands, lands in the
heart of Russia, extending between the Carpathians and the Urals,
constituting one-third of the soil, and consisting of a layer
of black earth or vegetable mould, of from 3 to 20 ft. in thickness,
and a chief source, from its exhaustless fertility, of the wealth
of the country.
Black Monday, Easter Monday
in 1351, remarkable for the extreme darkness that prevailed,
and an intense cold, under which many died.
Black Prince, Prince of
Wales, son of Edward III., so called, it is said, from the colour
of his armour; distinguished himself at Crécy, gained
the battle of Poitiers, but involved his country in further
hostilities with France; returned to England, broken in health,
to die (1330-1376).
Black Rod, Gentleman
Usher of, an official of the House of Lords, whose badge
of office is a black rod surmounted by a gold lion; summons
the Commons to the House, guards the privileges of the House, &c.
Black Saturday, name given
in Scotland to Saturday, 4th August 1621; a stormy day of great
darkness, regarded as a judgment of Heaven against Acts then
passed in the Scottish Parliament tending to establish Episcopacy.
Black Sea, or Euxine,
an inland sea, lying between Europe and Asia, twice the size
of Britain, being 700 m. in greatest length and 400 m. in greatest
breadth; communicates in the N. with the Sea of Azov, and in
the SW., through the Bosphorus, the Sea of Marmora, and the
Dardanelles, with the Mediterranean. It washes the shores of
Turkey, Rumelia, Bulgaria, Russia, and Asia Minor; receives
the waters of the Danube, Dneister, Bug, and Don, from Europe,
and the Kizil-Irmak and Sakaria from Asia—three times
as much as is received by the Mediterranean. It has but one
island, Adassi, off the mouths of the Danube; no reefs or shoals;
hence in summer navigation is very safe. In winter it is harassed
by severe storms. Among the chief ports are Odessa, Kherson,
Batoum, Trebizond, and Sinope; the first two are ice-bound in
January and February. For three centuries the Turks excluded
all other nations from its waters; but the Russians (1774),
Austrians (1784), French and English (1802) secured trading
rights. Russia and Turkey keep fleets in it, but other warships
are excluded. Its waters are fresher than those of the ocean,
and it has no noticeable tides.
Black Watch, two Highland
regiments, the 42nd and 73rd, so called from the dark colour
of the tartan; raised originally for the preservation of the
peace in the Highlands.
Blackburn (120), a manufacturing
town in Lancashire, 21 m. NW. of Manchester, a centre of the
cotton industry, and the greatest in the world; is the birthplace
of Hargreaves, the inventor of the spinning-jenny.
Blackheath, a common 7 m.
SE. of London, once a favourite haunt of highwaymen, now a place
of holiday resort for Londoners; for long provided the only
golfing-course in England.
Blackie, John Stuart,
a man of versatile gifts and warm human sympathies, born in
Glasgow; bred to the bar, but devoted to literary pursuits;
studied German; executed a metrical translation of Goethe's "Faust,"
Part I.; filled the chair of Humanity in Aberdeen, and afterwards
that of Greek in Edinburgh; was a zealous educational reformer;
took an active interest in everything affecting the welfare
and honour of Scotland; founded a Celtic Chair in Edinburgh
University; spoke much and wrote much in his day on manifold
subjects; Æschylus, and Homer's "Iliad" in verse;
among his works, which are numerous, "Self-Culture"
is the most likely to survive him longest (1809-1895).
Blacklock, Thomas, a
clergyman, born in Annan, blind from early infancy; after occupying
a charge for two years, set up as a teacher in Edinburgh; was
influential in inducing Burns to abandon his intention to emigrate,
and may be credited, therefore, with saving for his country
and humanity at large one of the most gifted of his country's
Doddridge, novelist, born in Berks; bred to the bar;
has written several novels, the best known "Lorna Doone,"
which, though coldly received at first, became highly popular;
he is pronounced unrivalled in his day as a writer of rustic
comedy; b. 1825.
Blackmore, Sir Richard,
physician, born in Wilts; the most voluminous of poetasters,
published four long worthless poems, besides essays and psalms, &c.,
and made himself the butt of all the wits of the period;
Blackpool (23), a watering-place
on the coast of Lancashire, 18 m. NW. of Preston, sometimes
called the "Brighton of the North."
Blackstone, Sir William,
an eminent jurist and judge, born in London, the son of a silk-mercer;
was fellow of Pembroke College, Oxford, and in 1746 called to
the bar; became first Vinerian professor of Law at Oxford; had
Jeremy Bentham for one of his pupils; author of the well-known "Commentaries
on the Laws of England," an authority on the subject and
a work that has appeared in many editions (1723-1780).
adventurer, born in Aberdeen; studied medicine; took to printing;
thrown into prison for debt; was supported by his wife; on his
release went to Sweden, was patronised by the king; convicted
of conspiracy, and beheaded in 1747.
a lady doctor, born in Bristol, and the first to hold a medical
diploma in the United States; graduated in 1849; was admitted
into the Maternity Hospital in Paris, and to St. Bartholomew's
in London, and has since distinguished herself as a social reformer;
Blackwood, Sir Henry,
British admiral, much trusted by Nelson; distinguished at Aboukir
Bay and Trafalgar; was present at Nelson's death; held subsequently
high naval positions (1770-1832).
born in Edinburgh, originator of Blackwood's Magazine;
originally a bookseller; started Maga, as it was called,
in 1817, his principal literary advisers being Professor Wilson
and Lockhart; conducted it as editor till his death (1776-1834).
John, his third son, his successor, no less distinguished
in the cause of literature (1818-1879).
Blaeu, Willem Janzsoon,
Dutch cartographer, born at Alkmaar; his terrestrial and celestial
globes have been admired for their excellence and accuracy (1571-1638).
His son Jan edited a valuable atlas called "Atlas
Major," in 11 volumes; d. 1673.
Blainville, Henri Marie,
a French naturalist; devoted himself to medicine; became assistant
to Cuvier; succeeded him as professor of Comparative Anatomy;
wrote largely on natural science, and
particularly on subjects connected with his appointment as a
Blair, Hugh, clergyman, born
in Edinburgh; held in succession several charges in Scotland,
and became professor of Rhetoric in Edinburgh University; author
of "Lectures on Rhetoric" and "Sermons,"
which latter are of the nature of moral essays rather than sermons,
were much esteemed at one time for their polished style, and
procured him a pension of £200 from the king; he was a
man of great critical acumen, and the celebrated Schleiermacher
did not think it beneath him to translate some of them into
Blair, Robert, author of "The
Grave," a thoughtful and cultured man, born in Edinburgh;
minister of Athelstaneford, where he was succeeded by Home,
the author of "Douglas." His poem has the merit of
having been illustrated by William Blake (1699-1743).
Blake, Robert, the great
English admiral and "Sea King," born at Bridgewater;
successful as a soldier under the Commonwealth, before he tried
seamanship; took first to sea in pursuit of Prince Rupert and
the royalist fleet, which he destroyed; beat the Dutch under
Van Tromp de Ruyter and De Witt; sailed under the great guns
of Tunis into the harbour, where he fired a fleet of Turkish
pirates; and finally, his greatest feat, annihilated a Spanish
fleet in Santa Cruz Bay under the shadow of the Peak of Teneriffe, "one
of the fiercest actions ever fought on land or water" (1598-1657).
Blake, William, poet, painter,
and engraver, born in London, where, with rare intervals, he
spent his life a mystic from his very boyhood; apprenticed to
an engraver, whom he assisted with his drawings; started on
original lines of his own as illustrator of books and a painter;
devoted his leisure to poetry; wrote "Songs of Innocence," "Marriage
of Heaven and Hell," "Gates of Paradise," and "Songs
of Experience"; was an intensely religious man of deep
spiritual insight, most vivid feeling and imagination; illustrated
Young's "Night Thoughts," Blair's "Grave,"
and the "Book of Job." He was a man of stainless character
but eccentric habits, and had for wife an angel, Catherine Boucher
Blanc, Charles, a French
art critic, brother of Louis Blanc (1813-1882).
Blanc, Jean Joseph Louis,
a French Socialist, born at Madrid; started as a journalist,
founded the Revue du Progrès, and published separately
in 1840 "Organisation of Labour," which had already
appeared in the Revue, a work which gained the favour
of the working-classes; was member of the Provisional Government
of 1848, and eventually of the National Assembly; threatened
with impeachment, fled to England; returned to France on the
fall of the Empire, and was elected to the Chamber of Deputies
in 1871; wrote an "elaborate and well-written" "History
of the French Revolution"; died at Cannes (1811-1882).
Blanc, Mont, the highest mountain
in Europe, 15,780 ft., almost entirely within France; sends
numerous glaciers down its slopes, the Mer de Glace the chief.
a celebrated French aëronaut, inventor of the parachute;
he fell from his balloon and was killed at the Hague (1738-1809).
Blanchard, Laman, a prolific
periodical and play writer, born at Yarmouth; a man of a singularly
buoyant spirit, crushed by calamities; died by suicide (1803-1845).
Blanche of Castile,
wife of Louis VIII. of France and mother of St. Louis; regent
of France during the minority of her son and during his absence
in crusade; governed with great discretion and firmness; died
of grief over the long absence of her son and his rumoured intention
to stay in the Holy Land (1186-1252).
Blanchet, The Abbé,
French littérateur; author of "Apologues and Tales,"
much esteemed (1707-1784).
Piedmontese physician, who for his religious opinions was compelled
to take refuge, first in Poland, then in Transylvania, where
he sowed the seeds of Unitarianism (1515-1590).
Blanqui, Adolphe, a celebrated
French publicist and economist, born at Nice; a disciple of
J. B. Say, and a free-trader; his principal work, "History
of Political Economy in Europe" (1798-1854).
Blanqui, Louis Auguste,
a brother of the preceding, a French republican of extreme views
and violent procedure; would appear to have posed as a martyr;
spent nearly half his life in prison (1805-1881).
Blarney-stone, a stone
in Castle Blarney, Cork, of difficult access, which is said
to endow whoso kisses it with a fair-spoken tongue, hence the
application of the word.
Blasius, St., bishop of Sebaste,
in Armenia; the patron of wool-combers; suffered martyrdom in
Blasphemy, defined by Ruskin
as the opposite of euphemy, and as wishing ill to anything,
culminating in wishing ill to God, as the height of "ill-manners."
Blatant Beast, Spenser's
name for the ignorant, slanderous, clamour of the mob.
Blavatsky, Mme., a theosophist,
born in Russia; a great authority on theosophy, the doctrines
of which she professed she derived from the fountain-head in
Bleek, Friedrich, eminent
German Biblical exegete and critic of the Schleiermacher school,
born in Holstein; professor at Bonn; his chief work, "Commentary
on the Hebrews," a great work; others are Introductions
to the Old and to the New Testaments (1793-1859).
Bleek, Wm., son of preceding,
a philologist; accompanied Colenso to Natal; author of "Comparative
Grammar of the S. African Languages" (1827-1875).
Blefuscu, an island separated
from Lilliput by a strait 800 yards wide, inhabited by pigmies;
understood to represent France.
Blenheim, a village in Bavaria,
near Augsburg; famous for Marlborough's victory in 1704, and
giving name to it.
Blenheim Park, near Woodstock,
Oxford, the gift, with the Woodstock estate, of the country
to the Duke of Marlborough, for his military services in the
Spanish Succession war.
of, an Irish lady celebrated for her beauty and wit;
figured much in intellectual circles in London; had her salon
at Kensington; was on intimate terms with Byron, and published "Conversations
with Byron," and wrote several novels; being extravagant,
fell into debt, and had to flee the country (1789-1849).
Blicher, Steen Steensen,
Danish poet of rural life (1782-1848).
Bligh, Wm., a naval officer;
served under Captain Cook; commanded the Bounty at Tahiti,
when his crew mutinied under his harsh treatment, and set him
adrift, with 18 others, in an open boat, in which, after incredible
privations, he arrived in England; was afterwards governor of
N.S. Wales, but dismissed for his rigorous and arbitrary conduct
Blimber, Mrs. Cornelia,
a prim school-matron in "Dombey & Son."
Blind, Karl, revolutionist
and journalist, born at Mannheim; took
part in the risings of 1848, and sentenced to prison in consequence
of a pamphlet he wrote entitled "German Hunger and German
Princes," but rescued by the mob; found refuge in England,
where he interested himself in democratic movements, and cultivated
his literary as well as his political proclivities by contributing
to magazines, and otherwise; b. 1826.
Blind Harry, a wandering
Scottish minstrel of the 15th century; composed in verse "The
Life of that Noble Champion of Scotland, Sir William Wallace."
Blinkert Dune, a dune near
Haarlem, 197 ft. above the sea-level.
Bloch, Marcus Elieser,
a naturalist, born at Anspach, of Jewish descent; his "Ichthyology"
is a magnificent national work, produced at the expense of the
wealthiest princes of Germany (1723-1799).
Bloemært, a family of
Flemish painters and engravers in 16th and 17th centuries.
Blois, capital of the deps. of
Loire and Cher, France, on the Loire, 35 m. S. of Orleans; a
favourite residence of Francis I. and Charles IX., and the scene
of events of interest in the history of France.
a clergyman, born at Norfolk; author of "Topographical
History of the County of Norfolk" (1705-1751).
Blomfield, bishop of London,
born at Bury St. Edmunds; Greek scholar; active in the Church
extension of his diocese (1785-1857).
Blondel, a troubadour of the
12th century; a favourite of Richard Coeur de Lion, who, it
is said, discovered the place of Richard's imprisonment in Austria
by singing the first part of a love-song which Richard and he
had composed together, and by the voice of Richard in responding
to the strain.
Blondin, Charles, an
acrobat and rope-dancer, born at St. Omer, France; celebrated
for his feats in crossing Niagara Falls on the tight-rope;
Blood, Thomas, Colonel,
an Irish desperado, noted for his daring attempts against the
life of the Duke of Ormonde, and for carrying off the regalia
in the Tower; unaccountably pardoned by Charles II., and received
afterwards into royal favour with a pension of £500 per
annum. He was afterwards charged with conspiracy, and committed
to the King's Bench, and released.
Bloody Assizes, the judicial
massacres and cruel injustices perpetrated by Judge Jeffreys
during Circuit in 1685.
Bloody Bones, a hobgoblin
feared by children.
Bloody Statute, statute
of Henry VIII. making it a crime involving the heaviest penalties
to question any of the fundamental doctrines of the Romish Church.
an English poet, born in Suffolk, by trade a shoemaker; author
of the "Farmer's Boy," a highly popular production,
translated into French and Italian; spent his last days in ill-health
struggling with poverty, which brought on dejection of mind
Blount, Charles, a deist,
born in London; assailant of revealed religion; was involved
in all the controversies of the time; died by his own hand (1654-1693).
Blowpipe, a contrivance by
which a current of air is driven through a flame, and the flame
directed upon some fusible substance to fuse or vitrify it.
Blücher, Prussian field-marshal,
familiarly named "Marshal Forwards," born at Rostock;
served first in the Swedish army, then in the Prussian; distinguished
as a leader of cavalry, and met with varying fortune; at the
age of 70 commanded the centre of the Allied Army in 1813; distinguished
himself at Lützen and Leipzig; pursued the French across
the Rhine; pressed forward to Paris at the time of Napoleon's
abdication; defeated by Napoleon at Ligny, 16th June 1815; arrived
on the field of Waterloo just as the French were preparing to
make their last charge, and contributed to decide the fate of
the day (1742-1819).
Blue Mountains, a range
of thickly wooded mountains traversing Jamaica from E. to W.,
from 5000 to 7000 ft. in height; also a chain of mountains in
New South Wales of two parallel ranges, with a deep chasm between,
and full of gloomy ravines and beetling precipices, the highest
Blue Nose, a nickname given
to an inhabitant of Nova Scotia or New Brunswick.
Bluebeard, a wealthy seigneur,
the owner of a castle; marries a beautiful woman, and leaves
her in charge of the keys of the apartments in his absence,
with injunctions not to unlock any of the doors, an injunction
which she fails to respect, and finds to her horror the remains
of his former wives locked up in one of them; her disobedience
is discovered, and she is to prepare for death, but is rescued,
as she lies with her head on the block, by the timely arrival
of her brothers, who at once despatch the husband to his merited
documents bound in blue paper, as the corresponding documents
in France are in yellow; they have been published regularly
since the beginning of the 18th century, those of a single session
now forming a collection of some 60 folio volumes.
Blue-coat School, a
name given to Christ's Hospital, London, founded in the reign
of Edward VI., from the blue coats worn by the boys.
Blue-gown, in Scotland a beggar,
a bedesman of the king, who wore a blue gown, the gift of the
king, and had his license to beg.
Blue-stocking, a female
pedant or femme savante, a name derived from a learned
coterie, formed in the 15th century, at Venice, who wore blue
stockings as a badge.
Bluff Hal, or Harry,
Henry VIII. of England.
Blum, a German politician, born
at Cologne; tried by court-martial and shot for abetting a political
movement in Vienna in 1848, a proceeding which created a wide-spread
sensation at the time all over Europe; b. 1807.
Friedrich, a distinguished German naturalist and ethnologist,
born at Gotha; studied at Jena; became professor at Göttingen,
an office he filled for 60 years; his works gave a great impulse
to scientific research in all directions; the chief were "Institutiones
Physiologicæ," "Manual of Natural History," "Manual
of Comparative Anatomy and Physiology"; he made craniology
a special study; was a great advocate for religious liberty
Blumenthal, Leonard von,
field-marshal in the Prussian army; distinguished in the wars
with Denmark, Austria, and France; an eminent strategist;
Blumi`ne, the siren that Calypsowise
in "Sartor" seduced Teufelsdröckh at the commencement
of his career, but who opened his eyes to see that it is not
in sentiment, however fine, that the soul's cravings can find
Blunt, John Henry, D.D.,
born at Chelsea; wrote largely on theological and ecclesiastical
Bluntschli, Johann Kaspar,
a distinguished jurist, born at Zurich;
an authority in international law; a liberal conservative both
in Church and State; founder and president of the Protestant
Union called the Protestantenverein (1808-1881).
Boabdil, or Abu-Abdallah,
surnamed "The Unfortunate," the last Moorish king
of Granada, from 1481 to 1492; expelled from his throne by Ferdinand
of Castile and Aragon; as he rode off he halted on a hill called "The
Last Sigh of the Moor," and wept as he looked back on the
Alhambra, while his mother added to his bitterness with the
cutting sarcasm, "Weep as a woman for a throne you have
not been able to defend as a man"; died shortly after in
Africa, recklessly throwing away his life on a field of battle.
Boadice`a, a British heroine,
queen of the Iceni, who occupied Norfolk and Suffolk; roused
by indignity done to her and her people by the Romans, gathered
round her an army, who, with a murderous onslaught, attacked
their settlements and destroyed them; but being attacked and
defeated in turn by Suetonius Paulinus, the Roman governor,
she put, in her despair, an end to her life by poison, A.D.
61. Cowper made her the theme of one of his poems.
Boanerges (i. e. Sons
of Thunder), applied by Christ to the sons of Zebedee for the
vehemence of their zeal.
Boaz and Jachin, two pillars
of brass at the entrance of Solomon's Temple, signifying respectively
strength and stability.
Bob`adil, Captain, a
braggadocio in Ben Jonson's "Every Man in his Humour."
Bobèche, a French theatrical
clown, under the Empire and the Restoration, son of an upholsterer
of the St. Antoine faubourg, the type of the merry-andrew at
the celebrated Italian raconteur, born near Florence;
showed early a passion for literature; sent by his father to
Naples to pursue a mercantile career; gave himself up to story-telling
in prose and verse; fell in love with Maria, a beautiful woman,
daughter of the king, styled by him Fiammetta, for whom he wrote
several of his works, and his great work, the "Decameron";
early formed a lifelong friendship with Petrarch, along with
whom he contributed to the revival and study of classic literature;
lectured on Dante in Florence; Petrarch's death deeply affected
him, and he died the year after (1313-1375).
Boccherini, Luigi, a
celebrated Italian musical composer, born at Lucca; was associated
with Manfredi, the violinist; his works were numerous; appears
to have lived in poverty and obscurity (1740-1805).
Bochart, Samuel, a Protestant
divine, born at Rouen; pastor at Caen; a geographer and an Orientalist;
wrote a treatise on sacred geography; celebrated for a nine-days'
discussion with the Jesuit Verin (1599-1667).
Bode, Johann Elert,
an astronomer, born at Hamburg; was professor of Astronomy and
director of Observatory at Berlin; produced a number of astronomical
works, one of his best, "An Introduction to the Knowledge
of the Starry Heavens;" gave name to the law of the planetary
distances, called Bode's Law, although it was observed by Kepler
long before his day (1747-1826).
Bodel, a celebrated troubadour
of the 13th century, born at Arras.
Bodensee, another name for
the Lake of Constance, well called the filter of the Rhine.
Bodin, Jean, a publicist and
diplomatist, born at Angers; author of "The Republic,"
in six books, published at first in French and then in Latin,
which summed up all the political philosophy of his time, and
contributed to prepare the way for subsequent speculations;
was the precursor of Hobbes and Montesquieu (1530-1596).
Bodleian Library, the
university library of Oxford, founded, or rather restored, by
Sir Thomas Bodley in 1593; enlarged from time to time by bequests,
often munificent. It possesses 400,000 printed volumes and 30,000
Bodley, Sir Thomas,
born at Exeter; employed on embassies by Elizabeth on the Continent,
where he collected a number of valuable books; bequeathed them
and his fortune to the university library of Oxford, named after
Bodmer, Johann Jacob,
a distinguished Swiss critic, born near Zurich; the first, by
study of the masters in literature of Greece and Rome, France,
England, and Italy, to wake up Germany to a sense of its poverty
in that line, and who aided, along with others, in the inauguration
of a new era, which he did more by his republication of the
Minnesingers and part of the "Nibelungen Lied" than
by his advocacy (1698-1783).
Bodmin (5), the county town of
Cornwall, supersedes Truro as capital; an important agricultural
centre; has large annual fairs for cattle, horses, and sheep.
Bodoni, an Italian printer; settled
at Parma, where his press was set up in the ducal palace, whence
issued magnificent editions of the classics, Horace, Virgil,
Tacitus, Tasso, and, last of all, Homer. He was often tempted
to Rome, but he refused to quit Parma and the patronage of the
ducal house there (1740-1813).
a Danish lyric poet, born at Copenhagen; lived chiefly in Italy
Boece, Hector, a humanist
and Scottish historian, born at Dundee; professor of Philosophy
at Paris; friend of Erasmus; was principal of university at
Aberdeen; wrote "History of Bishops of Mortlach and Aberdeen,"
and "History of Scotland" in excellent Latin (1465-1536).
Boeckh, Philip August,
classical antiquary, born at Carlsruhe; professor of Ancient
Literature in Berlin; a classic of the first rank, and a contributor
on a large scale to all departments of Greek classical learning;
was an eminently learned man, and an authority in different
departments of learning (1785-1867).
Boehm, Sir Joseph Edgar,
sculptor, born in Vienna, of Hungarian parentage; settled in
England; executed a colossal statue of the Queen at Windsor,
a seated statue of Carlyle on the Thames Embankment, a statue
of Bunyan at Bedford, &c.; patronised by the Queen and royal
family; buried in St. Paul's by the Queen's desire (1785-1869).
Boehme, Jacob, a celebrated
German mystic, born at Görlitz; of an imaginatively meditative
turn from boyhood as a neat-herd, and afterwards in his stall
as a shoemaker; spent his whole life in meditation on divine
things; saw in the Bible a revelation of these as in no other
book; seemed to have eyes given him to see visions of these
things himself, for which he felt he had no organ to express,
and which he conveyed to others in mystical, apocalyptical speech;
a thinker very fascinating to all minds of the seer class. He
was subject to persecution, as all of his stamp are, by the
men of the letter, and bore up with the meekness which all men
of his elevation of character ever do—"quiet, gentle,
and modest," as they all are to the very core, in his way
of thinking; and his philosophy would seem to have anticipated
the secret of Hegel, who acknowledges him as one of the fathers
of German philosophy. He left writings which embody a scheme
of mystical theology, setting forth the
trinity in unity of the Hegelian system, that is, viewing the
divine as it is in itself, as it comes out in nature, and as
it returns to itself in the human soul (1575-1624).
Boehmer, a German historian,
born at Frankfort; author of works on the Carlovingian period
of history (1795-1863).
Boeo`tia, a country of ancient
Greece, N. of the Gulf of Corinth; the natives, though brave,
were mere tillers of the soil under a heavy atmosphere, innocent
of culture, and regarded as boors and dullards by the educated
classes of Greece, and particularly of Athens, and yet Hesiod,
Pindar, and Plutarch were natives of Boeotia.
Boerhaave, a great physician,
born near Leyden, and son of a pastor; ultimately professor
of Medicine and Botany there, as well as of Chemistry; chairs
of which he filled and adorned with the greatest distinction;
his reputation spread over Europe, and even as far as China—a
letter from which bore the simple address, "To M. Boerhaave,
Europe," and found him; his system was adopted by the profession,
and patients from far and wide came to consult him—among
others, Pope Benedict VIII. and Peter the Great; his character
was as noble as his abilities were great; his principal works
were "Institutiones Medicæ," "Aphorismi
de Cognoscendis et Curandis Morbis," "Libellus de
Materia Medica," and "Institutiones Chemicæ"
Boers (i. e. peasants engaged
in tillage), Dutch colonists of an independent republican temper,
who in the 17th century squatted in S. Africa; gave themselves
to agriculture and cattle-rearing; settled at length in the
Transvaal in a self-governed community by themselves.
Anicius Manlius Severinus, a Roman statesman, born at
Rome, of Consular rank, a profoundly learned man, held the highest
offices, Consul among others, under Theodoric the Goth; his
integrity and opposition to injustice procured him enemies,
who accused him of treason; he was cast into prison, and finally
put to death; wrote in prison his "De Consolatione Philosophiæ,"
in five parts, employing verse and prose alternately, which
King Alfred translated into Anglo-Saxon; he was canonised as
a martyr, and his influence was great during the Middle Ages
Boeuf, Front de, a character
Bogatzky, Karl Heinrich
von, religious writer; wrote hymns and an autobiography;
is best known as the author of the "Golden Treasury"
Bogdanovitch, a Russian
poet, called by his countrymen the "Russian Anacreon";
his best-known poem "Psyche" (1743-1803).
Bogermann, Johann, Dutch
divine, translated the Bible into Dutch, and was President of
the Synod of Dort (1576-1633).
Bogota` (100), capital of the
United State of Colombia, situated on a remarkable, almost mountain-encircled,
plateau, on the river Bogotá, 65 m. SE. of its port,
Honda, the highest navigable point of the Magdalena, is 8600
ft. above sea-level, and has a spring-like climate. It is regularly
built, with innumerable churches, a mint, university, library,
and observatory, and several schools. Though the country is
fertile and the mountains rich in coal, iron, salt, and precious
metals, its situation and the want of a railway hinder trade.
Bog-trotter, a name given
to the Scottish moss-troopers, now to certain Irish for their
agility in escaping over bogs.
Bogue, David, born in Berwickshire,
a Congregational minister; one of the founders of the London
Foreign Missionary, the Foreign Bible, and the Religious Tract
Bohemia (5,843), the most northerly
province in Austria, two-thirds the size of Scotland; is encircled
by mountains, and drained by the upper Elbe and its tributaries.
The Erzgebirge separate it from Saxony; the Riesengebirge, from
Prussia; the Böhmerwald, from Bavaria; and the Moravian
Mountains, from Moravia. The mineral wealth is varied and great,
including coal, the most useful metals, silver, sulphur, and
porcelain clay. The climate is mild in the valleys, the soil
fertile; flax and hops the chief products; forests are extensive.
Dyeing, calico-printing, linen and woollen manufactures, are
the chief industries. The glassware is widely celebrated; there
are iron-works and sugar-refineries. The transit trade is very
valuable. The people are mostly Czechs, of the Slavonic race,
Roman Catholics in religion; there is a large and influential
German minority of about two millions, with whom the Czechs,
who are twice as numerous, do not amalgamate; the former being
riled at the official use of the Czech language, and the latter
agitating for the elevation of the province to the same status
as that of Hungary. Education is better than elsewhere in Austria;
there is a university at Prague, the capital. In the 16th century
the crown was united with the Austrian, but in 1608 religious
questions led to the election of the Protestant Frederick V.
This was followed by the Thirty Years' War, the extermination
of the Protestants, and the restoration of the Austrian House.
Bohemian, name given to one
who lives by his wits and shuns conventionality.
a fraternity of an extreme sect of the Hussites, organised as
United Brethren in 1455; broken up in the Thirty Years' War,
met in secret, and were invited, under the name of Moravians
or Herrnhuters, by Count Zinzendorf to settle on his estate.
Bohemond, first prince of Antioch,
son of Robert Guiscard; set out on the first crusade; besieged
and took Antioch; was besieged in turn by the Saracens, and
imprisoned for two years; liberated, he collected troops and
recaptured the city (1056-1111).
Bohlen, von, a German Orientalist,
professor at Königsberg (1796-1840).
Bonn, Henry George,
an enterprising publisher, a German, born in London; issued
a series of works identified with his name (1796-1884).
Sanskrit scholar, a German, born in St. Petersburg; author,
among other works, of a Sanskrit dictionary in 7 vols.; b.1815.
Boiardo, Matteo Maria,
Count of Scandiano, surnamed the "Flower of Chivalry";
an Italian poet, courtier, diplomatist, and statesman; author
of "Orlando Innamorato" (1456), the model of Ariosto's "Orlando
Furioso," which eclipsed it (1434-1494).
Boieldieu, Adrien François,
a distinguished French musical composer of operas; author of
the "Calife de Bagdad," "Télémaque,"
and "La Dame Blanche," reckoned his masterpiece; called
the French Mozart (1775-1834).
Boigne, Count de, a French
soldier of fortune, born at Chambéry; served under France,
Russia, East India Company, and the prince of the Mahrattas,
to whom he rendered signal service; amassed wealth, which he
dealt out generously and for the benefit of his country (1751-1830).
Boii, an ancient people of Gaul,
occupying territory between the Allier and the Loire.
Boileau, Nicolas (surnamed Despréaux,
to distinguish him from his brother), poet and critic,
born in Paris; brought up to the law,
but devoted to letters, associating himself with La Fontaine,
Racine, and Molière; author of "Satires" and "Epistles," "L'Art
Poétique," "Le Lutrin," &c., in which
he attached and employed his wit against the bad taste of his
time; did much to reform French poetry, as Pascal did to reform
the prose, and was for long the law-giver of Parnassus; was
an imitator of Pope, but especially of Horace (1636-1711).
Boisard, a French fabulist of
remarkable fecundity (1743-1831).
Bois-Guillebert, a French
economist, cousin of Vauban; advocate of free trade; d.
Bois-le-Duc (27), capital
of North Brabant, 45 m. SE. of Amsterdam, and with a fine cathedral;
seat of an archbishop.
Boismont, The Abbé,
one of the best French pulpit orators of the 18th century (1715-1786).
Boisrobert, The Abbé,
a French poet, one of the first members of the French Academy;
patronised by Richelieu (1592-1662).
Boissonade, Jean François,
a French Greek scholar; for a time carried away by the revolutionary
movement, but abandoned politics for letters (1774-1857).
Boissiere, a French lexicographer
Boissy d'Anglas, Count,
a member and president of the Convention in Paris, noted for
his firmness and coolness during the frenzy of the Revolution:
one day the Parisian mob burst in upon the Convention, shot
dead a young deputy, Féraud, "sweeping the members
of it before them to the upper-bench ... covered, the president
sat unyielding, like a rock in the beating of seas; they menaced
him, levelled muskets at him, he yielded not; they held up Féraud's
bloody head to him; with grave, stern air he bowed to it, and
yielded not"; became a senator and commander of the Legion
of Honour under Napoleon; was made a peer by Louis XVIII. (1756-1826).
Boiste, a French lexicographer
Bokha`ra (1,800), a Mohammedan
State in Central Asia, N. of Afghanistan, nominally independent;
but the Khan is a vassal of the Czar. The surface is arid, and
cultivation possible only near the rivers-the Oxus, Zarafshan,
and Karshi. In the sands of the Oxus, gold and salt are found.
Rice, cotton, and cereals are grown; silk, cotton-thread, jewellery,
cutlery, and firearms are manufactured. The people are of Turk
and Persian origin. The capital, Bokhara (70), is on the plain
of the Zarafshan, a walled, mud-built city, 8 or 9 m. in circumference,
with numerous colleges and mosques, the centre of learning and
religious life in Central Asia. It has important trade and large
Bolan` Pass, a high-lying,
deep, narrow gorge, extending between Quetta (Beluchistan) and
Kandahar (Afghanistan), sloping upwards at an inclination of
90 ft. a mile; is traversed by a torrent.
Boleslaus, the name of several
dukes of Poland, of whom the most famous is Boleslaus I. the
Great, who ruled from 992 to 1025.
Boleyn, Anne, or Bullen,
second wife of Henry VIII. and mother of Elizabeth, daughter
of Sir Thoman Bullen (afterwards Earl of Wiltshire); after a
three years' residence at the French Court became maid of honour
to Queen Katherine; attracted the admiration of Henry; was married
to him, and became queen; charged with adultery and conspiracy,
was found guilty and beheaded; was of the Reformed faith; her
marriage with Henry had important bearings on the English Reformation
Henry St. John, Viscount, English statesman, orator,
and political writer, born at Battersea; Prime Minister of Queen
Anne in the Tory interest, after her dismissal of the Whigs;
on the accession of George I. fled to France and joined the
Pretender; was impeached and attainted; returned in 1723 to
his estates, but denied a seat in the House of Lords, an indignity
which he resented by working the overthrow of Walpole; was the
friend of Pope and Swift, and the author of "Letters"
bearing upon politics and literature. "Bolingbroke,"
says Prof. Saintsbury, "is a rhetorician pure and simple,
but the subjects of his rhetoric were not the great and perennial
subjects, but puny ephemeral forms of them—the partisan
and personal politics of his day, the singularly shallow form
of infidelity called Deism and the like; and his time deprived
him of many, if not most, of the rhetorician's most telling
weapons. The 'Letter to Windham,' a sort of apologia, and the
'Ideal of a Patriot King,' exhibit him at his best." It
was he who suggested to Pope his "Essay on Man" (1678-1751).
Bolivar, Simon, surnamed
the Liberator, general and statesman, born at Caracas; a man
of good birth and liberal education; seized with the passion
for freedom during a visit to Madrid and Paris, devoted himself
to the cause of S. American independence; freed from the yoke
of Spain Venezuela and New Grenada, which, in 1819, he erected
into a republic under the name of Colombia; achieved in 1824
the same for Upper Peru, henceforth called Bolivia, after his
name; accused of aspiring to the Dictatorship, he abdicated,
and was preparing to leave the country when he died of fever,
with the sage reflection on his lips, "The presence of
a soldier, however disinterested he may be, is always dangerous
in a State that is new to freedom"; he has been called
the Washington of S. America (1783-1830).
Bolivia (1,500), an inland republic
of S. America, occupying lofty tablelands E. of the Andes, and
surrounded by Peru, Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina, and Chili.
The S. is chiefly desert; in the N. are Lake Titicaca and many
well-watered valleys. The very varied heights afford all kinds
of vegetation, from wheat and maize to tropical fruits. In the
lower plains coffee, tobacco, cotton, and cinchona are cultivated.
The most important industry is mining: gold, silver, copper,
and tin. Trade is hampered by want of navigable rivers, but
helped by railways from Chili, Peru, and Argentina. Silver is
the chief export; manufactured goods are imported. The country
has been independent since 1825; it lost its sea provinces in
the war with Chili, 1879-83. The capital is Sucre (12), but
La Pay (45) and Cochabamba (14) are larger towns.
Bolland, John, a Jesuit
of Antwerp, born in Belgium; compiled five vols. of the Lives
of the Saints called "Acta Sanctorum," which was continued
by others, called after him "Bollandists."
Bollandists, a succession
of Jesuits who produced the Lives of the Saints, now extended
to sixty vols.
Bologna (147), an ancient walled
city of Italy, on a fertile plain, at the foot of the Lower
Apennines, 83 m. N. of Florence; has many fine buildings, a
university, one of the oldest in Europe, schools of music and
art, libraries, and art collections. There are some silk and
other industries, and considerable trade.
Bologna, John Of, one
of the most celebrated sculptors of art in his time, born at
Douai, settled at Florence (1524-1608).
Bolor-Tagh, a high tableland
in Central Asia, stretching from the Hindu Kush mountains northwards
to the Tian Shan.
Bolse`na, a small town in Italy,
on the E. shore of Lake Bolsena.
Bolsena, a lake with clear
water in a hollow crater of a volcano, and abounding with fish,
but with an unwholesome atmosphere.
Bolton (115), manufacturing town
Bolton Abbey, an old abbey
in Yorkshire, 6 m. E. of Skipton; was founded by the Augustinian
Boma, a station on the Lower Congo,
in the Congo Independent State; once a great slave mart.
Bomarsund, a fortress of the
island of Aland occupied by Russia, destroyed by the Anglo-French
fleet in 1854; the Russians bound not to restore it.
Bomba, nickname of Ferdinand II.,
late king of the Two Sicilies, given him, it is alleged, from
his calling upon his soldiers to bombard his people during an
an opera by Thomas Rhodes in ridicule of the bombastic style
of certain tragedies in vogue.
Bombay (26,960), the western
Presidency of India, embraces 26 British districts and 19 feudatory
states. N. of the Nerbudda River the country is flat and fertile;
S. of it are mountain ranges and tablelands. In the fertile
N. cotton, opium, and wheat are the staple products. In the
S., salt, iron, and gold are mined; but coal is wanting. The
climate is hot and moist on the coast and in the plains, but
pleasant on the plateaux. Cotton manufacture has developed extensively
and cotton cloths, with sugar, tea, wool, and drugs are exported.
Machinery, oil, coal, and liquors are imported. Bombay
(822), the chief city, stands on an island, connected with the
coast by a causeway, and has a magnificent harbour and noble
docks. It is rapidly surpassing Calcutta in trade, and is one
of the greatest of seaports; its position promises to make it
the most important commercial centre in the East, as it already
is in the cotton trade of the world. It swarms with people of
every clime, and its merchandise is mainly in the hands of the
Parsees, the descendants of the ancient fire-worshippers. It
is the most English town in India. It came to England from Portugal
as dowry with Catherine of Braganza, wife of Charles II., who
leased it to the East India Company for £10 a year. Its
prosperity began when the Civil War in America afforded it an
opening for its cotton.
Bon Gaultier, nom de
plume assumed by Professor Aytoun and Sir Theodore Martin.
Bona (30), a seaport in Algeria,
in the province of Constantine, on a bay of the Mediterranean,
with an excellent harbour and a growing trade; is much improved
since its occupation by the French in 1832. Near it are the
ruins of Hippo, the episcopal city of Augustine.
Bona, an ascetic writer, surnamed
the Fénélon of Italy, one of feuillant order of
Bona Dea (the good goddess),
a Roman goddess of fertility, worshipped by women; her priests
vestals and her worship by rites from which men were excluded.
Her symbol was a serpent, but the name under which she was worshipped
is not known.
Bonald, Vicomte de,
a French publicist, a violent royalist and ultramontanist; looked
upon the Catholic religion and the royal authority as fundamental
to the stability of the social fabric, and was opposed to the
law of divorce, which led to its alteration. He denied that
language was innate, but revealed, and that causation was inherent
in matter (1758-1840).
Bonaparte, name of a celebrated
family of Italian origin settled in Corsica; the principal members
of it were: Charles Marie, born at Ajaccio, 1744; died
at Montpellier, 1785; married, 1767. Marie-Lætitia
Ramolino, born at Ajaccio, 1750; died at Rome, 1836; of
this union were born eight children: Joseph, became king
of Naples, 1806; king of Spain from 1808 to 1813; retired to
United States after Waterloo; returned to Europe, and died at
Florence, 1844. Napoleon I.
(q. v.). Lucien, b. 1775; became president
of the Council of the Five Hundred, and prince of Canino; died
in Viterbo, 1840. Marie-Anne-Eliza, b. 1777; married
Felix Bacciochi, who became prince of Lucca; died at Trieste,
1826. Louis, b. 1778; married Hortense de Beauharnais;
father of Napoleon III.; king of Holland (from 1806 to 1810);
died at Leghorn, 1846. Marie Pauline, b. 1780;
married General Leclerc, 1801; afterwards, in 1803, Prince Camille
Borghese; became Duchess of Guastalla; died at Florence, 1825.
Caroline-Marie, b. 1782; married Marat in 1800;
became Grand-duchess of Berg and Clèves, then queen of
Naples; died at Florence, 1839. Jerome, b. 1784, king
of Westphalia (from 1807 to 1813); marshal of France in 1850;
married, by second marriage, Princess Catherine of Würtemburg;
died in 1860; his daughter, the Princess Mathilde, b.
1820, and his son, Prince Napoleon, called Jerome, b.
1822, married Princess Clothilde, daughter of Victor Emmanuel,
of which marriage was born Prince Victor Napoleon in 1862.
Bonar, Horatius, a clergyman
of the Free Church of Scotland, and a celebrated hymn writer,
born at Edinburgh (1808-1889).
Bonaventura, St., cardinal,
surnamed the Seraphic Doctor, his real name John Fidenza, born
in Tuscany; entered the Franciscan Order; was chosen general
of the Order and papal legate at the Council of Lyons in 1274,
during the session of which he died; was a mystic in theology;
ascribed knowledge of the truth to union with God, such as existed
between man and his Maker prior to the Fall, a state which could
be recovered only by a life of purity and prayer; his writings
were admired by Luther (1221-1274).
Marquis de, French general, born in Anjou, served in
the American war; became one of the chiefs of the Vendéan
army; fell at the battle of Cholet, and when dying, relented
over the blood already shed; ordered the release of 5000 prisoners
which his party, in their revenge, was about to massacre;
Bond, William, a distinguished
American astronomer (1789-1815), who with his son, George
Phillips, discovered a satellite of Neptune and an eighth
satellite of Saturn (1826-1865).
Bondu (30), a country of Senegambia,
a dependency of France; yields maize, cotton, fruits.
Bone, Henry, a celebrated
enamel painter, especially in miniature on ivory; born at Truro
Boner, Ulrich, a German
fabulist and Dominican monk of the 14th century, author of "Der
Edelstein" (The Jewel), a book of fables.
Bonheur, Rosa, a celebrated
French animal painter, born at Bordeaux; brought up in poverty
from ill-fortune; taught by her father; exhibited when she was
19; her best-known works are the "Horse Fair" and
the "Hay Harvest in Auvergne," "Ploughing
with Oxen," considered her masterpiece; through the Empress
Eugenie she received the Cross of the Legion of Honour; during
the siege of Paris her studio was spared by order of the Crown
Prince; b. 1822.
Bonhomme, Jacques, a
name of contempt given by the nobility of France to the peasants
in the 14th century.
Boniface, the name of nine
Popes. B. I., pope from 418 to 422, assumed the title
of First Bishop of Christendom; B. II., pope from 530
to 532; B. III., pope for 10 months, from 607 to 608;
B. IV., pope from 608 to 614; B. V., pope from
617 to 625; B. VI., pope in 896; B. VII., pope
from 974 to 985; B. VIII., pope from 1294 to 1303, a
strenuous assertor of the papal supremacy over all princes,
and a cause of much turmoil in Europe, provoked a war with Philip
the Fair of France, who arrested him at Anagni, and though liberated
by the citizens died on his way to Rome; B. IX., pope
from 1389 to 1405, the first pope to wear the Triple Crown.
Boniface, St., the Apostle
of Germany, born in Devonshire, his real name Winfried; consecrated
Pepin le Bref; was made Primate of Germany; was, with 53 companions,
massacred by the barbarians of Friesland, whom he sought to
Bonin`, a group of rocky islands
SE. of Japan, and since 1878 subject to it.
an eminent English landscape painter of exceptional precocity,
born near Nottingham; painted the "Ducal Palace" and "Grand
Canal" at Venice, his masterpieces (1801-1828).
de, a Genevese patriot and historian, twice imprisoned
by Charles III., a Duke of Savoy, for his sympathy with the
struggles of the Genevese against his tyranny, the second time
for six years in the Castle of Chillon; immortalised by Lord
Byron in his "Prisoner of Chillon"; he was released
at the Reformation, and adopted Protestantism (1496-1571).
Bonn (38), a Prussian town on the
Rhine, SE. of Cologne, an old Roman station, with a famous university;
the birthplace of Beethoven, with a monument to his memory;
it is a stronghold of the old Catholics.
Bonnat, Joseph Leon,
a French painter, born at Bayonne; imitated for a time the religious
paintings of the old masters, but since 1862 has followed a
style of his own; "Christ at the Cross" in the Palais
de Justice, Paris, is his work; b. 1833.
Bonner, Edmund, bishop
of London, born at Worcester; was chaplain to Wolsey; sided
with Henry VIII. against the Pope; fell into disgrace under
Edward VI.; was restored by Mary, whom he served in her Anti-Protestant
zeal; affected to welcome Elizabeth to the throne; was again
deposed and imprisoned for refusing to take the oath of supremacy
under Elizabeth; died in the Marshalsea Prison: he does not
deserve all the odium that has been heaped on his memory; he
was faithful as a bishop, consistent in his conduct, and bore
the indignities done him with manly fortitude (1495-1569).
Bonnet, Charles de,
Swiss naturalist and philosopher, born at Geneva; his studies
as a naturalist gave a materialistic cast to his philosophy;
though he did not deny the existence of mind, still less that
of its sovereign Author, he gave to material impressions a dominant
influence in determining its manifestations (1720-1793).
Bonnet-piece, a gold coin
of James V. of Scotland, so called from the king being represented
on it as wearing a bonnet instead of a crown.
Claude-Alexandre, Comte de. See
Bonnie Dundee, Graham of
Claverhouse, Viscount Dundee.
a French botanist and traveller, born at Rochelle; companion
of Alexander von Humboldt in his S. American scientific explorations;
brought home a large collection of plants, thousands of species
of them new to Europe; went out again to America, arrested by
Dr. Francia in Paraguay as a spy, kept prisoner there for about
nine years; released, settled in the prov. of Corrientes, where
he died; wrote several works bearing on plants (1773-1858).
Victor de, a Swiss publicist and judge, born at Berne;
wrote on anthropology, psychology, &c. (1745-1832).
Bontemps, Roger, a French
personification of a state of leisure and freedom from care.
Bonze, a Buddhist priest in China,
Japan, Burmah, &c.
Boole, English mathematician,
born at Lincoln; mathematical professor at Cork; author of "Laws
of Thought," an original work, and "Differential Equations"
Boomerang, a missile of hard
curved wood used by the Australian aborigines of 2½ ft.
long; a deadly weapon, so constructed that, though thrown forward,
it takes a whirling course upwards till it stops, when it returns
with a swoop and falls in the rear of the thrower.
Boone, Daniel, a famous
American backwoodsman; d. 1822, aged 84.
Boötes (the ox-driver or
waggoner), a son of Ceres; inventor of the plough in the Greek
mythology; translated along with his ox to become a constellation
in the northern sky, the brightest star in which is Arcturus.
Booth, Barton, English actor,
acted Shakespearean, characters and Hamlet's ghost (1681-1733).
Booth, John Wilkes,
son of an actor, assassinated Lincoln, and was shot by his captors
Booth, William, founder
and general of the Salvation Army, born in Nottingham; published "In
Darkest England"; a man of singular self-devotion to the
religious and social welfare of the race; b. 1839.
Boothia, a peninsula of British
N. America, W. of the Gulf of Boothia, and in which the N. magnetic
pole of the earth is situated; discovered by Sir John Boss in
Booton, an island in the Malay
Archipelago, SE. of Celebes; subject to the Dutch.
Bopp, Franz, a celebrated
German philologist and Sanskrit scholar, born at Mayence; was
professor of Oriental Literature and General Philology at Berlin;
his greatest work, "A Comparative Grammar of Sanskrit,
Zend, Greek, Latin, Lithuanian, Old Slave, Gothic, and German";
translated portions of the "Mahâbhârata,"
q. v. (1791-1867).
Bora, Katharina, the wife
of Luther, born in Meissen, originally a nun, who, with eight
others, was at Luther's instance released from her convent;
proved "a pious and faithful wife" to Luther, as he
says of her, and became the mother to him of six children, three
sons and three daughters (1499-1552).
Borda, a French mathematician
and physicist, born at Dax, in the dep. of Landes, served in
both army and navy; one of those employed in measuring an arc
of the meridian to establish the metric system in France (1733-1799).
Bordeaux (256), a great industrial
and commercial city, and chief seat of the wine trade in
France and the third seaport on the Garonne; cap. of the dep.
of Gironde; the birthplace of Rosa Bonheur and Richard II.,
his father, the Black Prince, having had his seat here as governor
of Aquitaine. There are sugar-refineries, potteries, foundries,
glass and chemical works. The cod-fishing industry has its base
here. A cathedral dates from the 11th century. There are schools
of science, art, theology, medicine, and navigation, a library,
museum, and rich picture-gallery.
Border Minstrel, Sir
Borders, the, the shifting
boundary between Scotland and England before the Union, a centre
of endless fighting and marauding on the opposite sides for
Bordone, an Italian painter,
born at Treviso, a pupil of Titian and Giorgione; his most celebrated
picture, "The Gondolier presenting the Ring of St. Mark
to the Doge" (1500-1570).
Bore, a watery ridge rushing violently
up an estuary, due to a strong tidal wave travelling up a gradually
narrowing channel. Bores are common in the estuary of the Ganges
and other Asiatic rivers, in those of Brazil, and at the mouth
of the Severn, in England.
Boreas, the god of the north
wind, and son of the Titan Astræus and of Aurora.
Borghese, name of a family
of high position and great wealth in Rome: Camillo, having become
Pope in 1605 under the title of Paul V.; and Prince Borghese
having married Pauline Bonaparte, sister of Napoleon, who separated
himself from her on the fall of her brother (1775-1832); the
palace of the family one of the finest in Rome, and has a rich
collection of paintings.
Borghesi, Count, an Italian
savant skilled in numismatics (1781-1860).
Borgia, Cæsar, fourth
son of Pope Alexander VI.; was made cardinal at the age of 17,
an honour he relinquished to become a soldier, in which capacity
it is alleged he gave himself up to deeds of inhumanity, which
have made his name a synonym for every action that is most crafty,
revolting, and cruel; a portrait of him by Raphael, in the Borghese
gallery, is a masterpiece. Notwithstanding the execration in
which his memory is held, he is reputed to have been just as
a ruler in his own domain, and a patron of art and literature;
Borgia, Franceso, third
general of the Order of the Jesuits, a post he filled with great
zeal as well as prudent management; was beatified by Urban VIII.,
and canonised by Clement IX., 1671 (1510-1572).
Borgia, Lucretia, sister
of Cæsar Borgia, born at Rome; her father annulled her
first marriage, and gave her to a nephew of the king of Naples,
who was murdered by her brother's assassins, when she married
the Duke of Ferrara; was celebrated for her beauty and her patronage
of letters, though she has been accused of enormities as well
as her brother (1480-1523).
Borgu, fertile and densely-peopled
state in Africa, traversed by the Niger, subject to the Royal
Niger Company, in one of the chief towns of which Mungo Park
lost his life.
Borlase, William, antiquary
and naturalist, born in St. Just, Cornwall; author of "Observations
on the Antiquities of Cornwall" and "Natural History
of Cornwall"; was vicar in his native parish (1696-1772).
Born, Bertrand, one of
the most celebrated troubadours of the 12th century, born in
Périgord; aggravated the quarrel between Henry II. of
England and his sons; is placed by Dante in the "Inferno."
Borne, Ludwig, a political
writer, born at Frankfort, of Jewish parentage; disgusted with
the state of things in Germany, went to Paris after the Revolution
there of 1830; was disappointed with the result, and turned
Radical; he and Heine were at deadly feud (1787-1837).
Borneo (1,800), an island in
the Malay Archipelago, the third largest in the globe, Australia
and New Guinea being larger; its length 800 m., and its breadth
700, covered with mountains in the interior, Kinabalu the highest
(13,000 ft.); has no volcanoes; bordered all round with wide
plains and low marshy ground; rich in vegetation and in minerals,
in gold and precious stones; its forests abound with valuable
timber, teak, ebony, &c.; all tropical crops and spices
are cultivated; the population is Dyak, Malay, and Chinese;
possessed in great part by the Dutch, and in the north part
by the British.
Bornholm (35), an island belonging
to Denmark, in the Baltic; has no good harbour; agriculture,
cattle-breeding, and fishing the occupation of the inhabitants.
Bornu (5,000), a Mohammedan State
in the Central Soudan, W. and S. of Lake Tehad; famed for a
breed of horses; population mostly negroes; the ruling race
of Arab descent, called Shuwas; climate hot and unhealthy in
the low ground, but temperate in the high.
Boro Budor, the ruin of a
magnificent Buddhist temple in Java, ornamented with figures
of Buddha and scenes in his life, with representations of battles,
processions, chariot races, &c.
Borodino, a village 70 m. W.
of Moscow; the scene of a bloody battle between Napoleon and
the Russians, Sept. 7, 1812.
Bororo, a large Brazilian nation
between Cuyaba and Goyaz.
Borough, in Scotland Burgh,
is in its modern sense primarily a town that sends a representative
to Parliament; but it is further an area of local government,
exercising police, sanitary, and sometimes educational, supervision,
and deriving its income from rates levied on property within
its bounds, and in Scotland sometimes from "common good"
and petty customs. Its charter may be held from the Crown or
granted by Parliament.
Borough English, descent
of lands to a youngest son.
Borowlaski, Count, a
Polish dwarf, of perfect symmetry, though only three feet in
height; attained the age of 98.
four islands in Lago Maggiore, of which three were converted
into gardens by Count Borromeo in 1671, on one of which stands
a palace of the Borromeos, enriched with fine paintings and
other works of art.
Borrome`o, St. Carlo,
cardinal and archbishop of Milan, a prominent member of the
Council of Trent, and contributed to the Tridentine Catechism;
conspicuous by his self-sacrificing offices during a plague
in the city of which he was the archbishop (1538-1584).
nephew and successor of the preceding, of equal status in the
Church, and similar character (1584-1631).
Borrow, George Henry,
traveller and philologist, born in Norfolk; showed early a passion
for adventure and a facility in languages; was appointed agent
for the Bible Society in Russia and Spain; in his fondness for
open-air life, associated much with the gipsies; wrote an account
of those in Spain, and a famous book, entitled "The Bible
In Spain"; wrote "Lavengro," his masterpiece
(a gipsy designation applied to him, meaning "word-master,"
which he was), which is chiefly autobiography (1803-1831).
Borrowdale, a valley in the
Lake District, W. Cumberland, celebrated for its beautiful scenery.
Borthwick Castle, a
ruined peel tower, 13 m. SE. of Edinburgh, where Queen Mary
and Bothwell spent four days together in June 1567.
Bory de Saint-Vincent,
Jean Baptiste, a French traveller and naturalist (1780-1846).
Boscawen, Edward, a British
admiral, known from his fearlessness as "Old Dreadnought";
distinguished himself in engagements at Puerto Bello, Cathagena,
Cape Finisterre, and the Bay of Lagos, where, after a "sea
hunt" of 24 hours, he wrecked and ruined a fine French
fleet, eager to elude his grasp (1711-1761).
Boscovich, Roger Joseph,
an Italian mathematician and astronomer, born at Ragusa; entered
the Order of the Jesuits; was professor in Pavia, and afterwards
at Milan; discovered the equator of the sun and the period of
its rotation; advocated the molecular theory of physics, with
which his name is associated; died insane (1701-1787).
Bosio, Baron, a celebrated
Italian sculptor; patronised in France (1769-1845).
Bosna-Serai (38), capital
of Bosnia, and seat of authority.
Bosnia (1,200), a province in
NW. of the Balkan Peninsula, under Austria-Hungary; the inhabitants
of Servian nationality.
Bos`phorus (Ox-ford), a channel
17 m. long and from 3 to ½ m. broad, and about 30 fathoms
deep, strongly defended by forts, extending from the Sea of
Marmora to the Black Sea; subject to Turkey. It derives its
name from the channel which, according to the Greek myth, Zeus,
in the form of an ox, crossed into Europe with Europa on his
François Joseph, a marshal of France, distinguished
in Algiers and the Crimea; was wounded at the storming of the
Bos`suet, Jacques Bénigne,
bishop of Meaux, born at Dijon, surnamed the "Eagle of
Meaux," of the see of which he became bishop; one of the
greatest of French pulpit orators, and one of the ablest defenders
of the doctrines of the Catholic Church; the great aim of his
life the conversion of Protestants back to the Catholic faith;
took a leading part in establishing the rights of the Gallican
clergy, or rather of the Crown, as against the claims of the
Pope; proved himself more a time-server than a bold, outspoken
champion of the truth; conceived a violent dislike to Madame
Guyon, and to Fénélon for his defence of her and
her Quietists; and he is not clear of the guilt of the Revocation
of the Edict of Nantes; wrote largely; his "Discourse on
Universal History" is on approved lines, and the first
attempt at a philosophy of history; his Funeral Orations are
monuments of the most sublime eloquence; while his "Politique
founded on Holy Scripture" is a defence of the divine right
of kings. "Bossuet," says Professor Saintsbury, "was
more of a speaker than a writer. His excellence lies in his
wonderful survey and grasp of the subject, in the contagious
enthusiasm and energy with which he attacks his point, and in
his inexhaustible metaphors and comparisons.... Though he is
always aiming at the sublime, he scarcely ever oversteps it,
or falls into the bombastic or ridiculous.... The most unfortunate
incident of his life was his controversy with Fénélon"
Bossut, Charles, French
mathematician, born near Lyons, confrère of the
Encyclopaedists; his chief work "L'Histoire Générale
des Mathématiques"; edited Pascal's works (1730-1814).
Boston (19), a Lincolnshire seaport,
on the Witham, 30 m. SE. of Lincoln; exports coal, machinery,
corn, and wool, and imports timber and general goods. There
is a large cattle and sheep market, also canvas and sail-cloth
works. Fox, the martyrologist, was a native. It has a spacious
church, which is a conspicuous landmark and beacon at sea.
Boston (561), on Massachusetts
Bay, is the capital of Massachusetts and the chief city of New
England, one of the best-built and best-appointed cities of
the Union. With an excellent harbour and eight converging railways
it is an emporium of trade, and very wealthy. Sugar, wool, hides,
and chemicals are imported; farm produce, cattle, cotton, and
tobacco exported; boot and shoe making is one of many varied
industries. The many educational institutions and its interest
in literature and art have won for it the title of American
Athens. Among famous natives were Franklin, Poe, and Emerson;
while most American men of letters have been associated with
it. The Boston riots of 1770 and 1773 were the heralds of the
revolution, and the first battle was fought at Bunker Hill,
not far off, now included in it.
Boston, Thomas, a Scottish
divine, born at Duns, educated at Edinburgh, became minister
of Ettrick; author of the "Fourfold State," a popular
exposition of Calvinism, and "The Crook in the Lot,"
both at one time much read and studied by the pious Presbyterian
burghers and peasantry of Scotland; the former an account of
the state of man, first in innocence, second as fallen, third
as redeemed, and fourth as in glory. He was a shrewd man and
a quaint writer; exercised a great influence on the religious
views of the most pious-minded of his countrymen (1676-1732).
Boston Tea-party, the
insurgent American colonists who, disguised as Indians, boarded,
on Dec. 16, 1773, three English ships laden with tea, and hurled
several hundred chests of it into Boston harbour, "making
it black with unexpected tea."
Boswell, James, the biographer
of Johnson, born at Edinburgh, showed early a penchant for writing
and an admiration for literary men; fell in with Johnson on
a visit to London in 1763, and conceived for him the most devoted
regard; made a tour with him to the Hebrides in 1773, the "Journal"
of which he afterwards published; settled in London, and was
called to the English bar; succeeded, in 1782, to his father's
estate, Auchinleck, in Ayrshire, with an income of £1600
a year. Johnson dying in 1784, Boswell's "Life" of
him appeared five years after, a work unique in biography, and
such as no man could have written who was not a hero-worshipper
to the backbone. He succumbed in the end to intemperate habits,
aggravated by the death of his wife (1740-1795).
Boswell, Sir Alexander,
son and heir of the preceding, an antiquary; mortally wounded
in a duel with James Stuart of Dunearn, who had impugned his
character, for which the latter was tried, but acquitted (1775-1822).
Bosworth, a town in Leicestershire,
near which Richard III. lost both crown and life in 1485, an
event which terminated the Wars of the Roses and led to the
accession of the Tudor dynasty to the throne of England in the
person of Henry VII.
Bosworth, Joseph, an
Anglo-Saxon scholar, born in Derbyshire; became professor of
Anglo-Saxon at Oxford; was the author of an Anglo-Saxon Grammar
and Dictionary (1789-1876).
Botany Bay, an inlet in New
South Wales, 5 m. S. of Sydney; discovered by Captain Cook in
1770; so called, by Sir Joseph Banks, from the variety and beauty
of its flora; was once an English convict settlement.
Both, John and Andrew,
Flemish painters of the 17th century, the former a landscape
and the latter a figure painter; worked frequently on the same
Bothnia, a prov. of Sweden,
divided into E. and W. by a gulf of the name.
Bothwell, a village in Lanarkshire,
on the Clyde, 8 m. SE. of Glasgow; scene of a battle between
Monmouth and the Covenanters in 1679.
Bothwell, James Hepburn,
Earl of, one of the envoys sent in 1560 to convey Mary, Queen
of Scots, from France home; was made Privy Councillor the year
after; had to flee to France for an act of conspiracy; was recalled
by Mary on her marriage with Darnley; was a great favourite
with the queen; was believed to have murdered Darnley, though
when tried, was acquitted; carried off Mary to Dunbar Castle;
pardoned; was made Duke of Orkney, and married to her at Holyrood;
parted with her at Carberry Hill; fled to Norway, and was kept
captive there at Malmöe; after ten years of misery he died,
insane, as is believed (1525-1577).
Botocudos, a wandering wild
tribe in the forests of Brazil, near the coast; a very low type
of men, and at a very low stage of civilisation; are demon-worshippers,
and are said to have no numerals beyond one.
Bo-tree, a species of Ficus,
sacred to the Buddhists as the tree under which Buddha sat when
the light of life first dawned on him. See
Botta, Carlo Giuseppe,
an Italian political historian, born in Piedmont; his most important
work is his "History of Italy from 1789 to 1814";
was the author of some poems (1766-1837).
Botta, Paul Émile,
Assyriologist, born at Turin, son of the preceding; when consul
at Mosul, in 1843, discovered the ruins of Nineveh; made further
explorations, published in the "Memoire de l'Ecriture Cunéiform
Assyrienne" and "Monuments de Ninive" (1802-1870).
Böttger, an alchemist who,
in his experiments on porcelain, invented the celebrated Meissen
Botticelli, Sandro, or
Alessandro, a celebrated painter of the Florentine school;
began as a goldsmith's apprentice; a pupil of Fra Lippo Lippi;
the best-known examples of his art are on religious subjects,
though he was no less fascinated with classical—mythological
conceptions; is distinguished for his attention to details and
for delicacy, particularly in the drawing of flowers; and it
is a rose on the petticoat of one of his figures, the figure
of Spring, which Ruskin has reproduced on the title-page of
his recent books, remarking that "no one has ever yet drawn,
or is likely to draw, roses as he has done;... he understood,"
he adds, "the thoughts of heathens and Christians equally,
and could in a measure paint both Aphrodité and the Madonna"
Böttiger, Karl Auguste,
German archæologist, was a voluminous writer on antiquities,
especially classical (1760-1835).
Bottom, a weaver in the interlude
in "Midsummer-Night's Dream," whom, with his ass's
head, Titania falls in love with under the influence of a love-potion.
Botzaris, one of the heroes
of the war of Greek independence (1789-1823).
Bouchardon, a celebrated
French sculptor (1698-1762).
Boucher, a French painter, born
at Paris (1703-1770).
Boucher de Perthes,
French naturalist and anthropologist, born in Ardennes (1783-1868).
Boucicault, Dion, a dramatic
writer, author of popular Irish pieces, as "The Colleen
Bawn" and "The Shaughraun" (1822-1890).
Boucicaut, Marshal de,
one of the bravest and noblest of French soldiers, born at Tours;
distinguished in several famous battles; was taken captive by
the English at Agincourt; died in England (1364-1421).
Boufflers, Chevalier de,
field-marshal of France, courtier and author (1737-1815).
Boufflers, Marquis de,
marshal of France, distinguished for his defence of Namur (1695)
and of Lille (1708), and his masterly retreat from Malplaquet
Antoine de, a French navigator, born in Paris; voyaged
round the world, which occupied him two years and a half; his "Travels"
had a remarkably stimulating effect on the imaginations of the "philosophies,"
as described by him in "Un Voyage autour du Monde"
Bough, Sam, landscape painter,
born at Carlisle, and settled in Edinburgh for 20 years (1822-1878).
Bouguer, Pierre, French
physicist, born in Brittany; wrote on optics and the figure
of the earth (1698-1758).
a distinguished French painter, born at Rochelle in 1825; his
subjects both classical and religious, as well as portraits.
Bouhour, le Père,
French littérateur, born at Paris (1628-1702).
Bouillé, Marquis de,
a French general, born in Auvergne, distinguished in the Seven
Years' War, in the West Indies and during the Revolution; "last
refuge of royalty in all straits"; favoured the flight
of Louis XVI.; a "quick, choleric, sharp-discerning, stubbornly-endeavouring
man, with suppressed-explosive resolution, with valour, nay,
headlong audacity; muzzled and fettered by diplomatic pack-threads,...
an intrepid, adamantine man"; did his utmost for royalty,
failed, and quitted France; died in London, and left "Memoirs
of the French Revolution" (1759-1800). See for the part
he played in it, Carlyle's "French
Bouillon, district in Belgium,
originally a German duchy; belonged to Godfrey, the crusader,
who pledged it to raise funds for the crusade.
Bouilly, Jean Nicolas,
a French dramatist, born near Tours, nicknamed, from his sentimentality "poète
Boulainvilliers, a French
historian, author of a "History of Mahomet" (1658-1722).
Boulak (20), the port of Cairo,
on the Nile.
Boulan`ger, Jean Marie,
a French general, born at Rennes; of note for the political
intrigues with which he was mixed up during the last years of
his life, and the dangerous popular enthusiasm which he excited;
accused of peculation; fled the country, and committed suicide
at Brussels (1837-1891).
Boulay de la Meurthe,
a French statesman, distinguished as an orator; took part in
the redaction of the Civil Code; was a faithful adherent of
Napoleon (1761-1840). Henri, a son, vice-president of the Republic
from 1849 to 1851 (1797-1858).
Boulder, a large mass or block
of rock found in localities often far removed from the place
of its formation, and transported thither on the ice of the
Boulevard, the rampart of
a fortified city converted into a promenade flanked by rows
of trees and a feature of Paris in particular,
though the boulevard is not always on the line of a rampart.
Boulogne, Bois de, a
promenade between Paris and St. Cloud, much frequented by people
of fashion, and a favourite place of recreation; it rivals that
of the Champs Elysées.
a fortified seaport in France, on the English Channel, in the
dep. of Pas-de-Calais, 27 m. SW. of Calais, one of the principal
ports for debarkation from England; where Napoleon collected
in 1803 a flotilla to invade England; is connected by steamer
with Folkestone, and a favourite watering-place; the chief station
of the North Sea fisheries; is the centre of an important coasting
trade, and likely to become a naval station.
(32), a town on the right bank of the Seine, 5 m. SW. of Paris,
from which it is separated by the Bois-de-Boulogne.
Boulton, Matthew, an
eminent engineer, born at Birmingham; entered into partnership
with James Watt, and established with him a manufactory of steam-engines
at Soho, on a barren heath near his native place; contributed
to the improvement of the coinage (1728-1809).
Mutiny of the, a mutiny which took place on the ship
Bounty, on the 28th April 1789, bound from Otaheite to
the West Indies, on the part of 25 of the crew, who returned
to Otaheite after setting the captain (Bligh) adrift with others
in an open boat. Bligh reached England after a time, reported
the crime, to the seizure at length of certain of the offenders
and the execution of others. Those who escaped founded a colony
on Pitcairn Island.
Denis Soter, a French general, born at Pau, served in
the Crimean War and in Italy, suffered disastrously in the Franco-German
War, and attempted suicide; served for a time under Gambetta,
afterwards retired; b. 1816.
Bourbon, a family of French
origin, hailing from Bourbonnais, members of which occupied
for generations the thrones of France, Naples, and Spain, and
who severally ruled their territories under a more or less overweening
sense of their rights as born to reign. Two branches, both of
which trace back to Henry IV., held sway in France, one beginning
with Louis XIV., eldest son of Louis XIII., and the other, called
the Orleans, with Philip of Orleans, second son of Louis XIII.,
the former ending with Charles X. and his family, and the latter
ending with Louis Philippe and his line. The branches of the
family ruling in Spain and Naples began with Philip VI., grandson
of Louis XIV., the former branch still (1899) in power, the
latter ending with Francis II. in 1860.
Bourbon, Charles de,
styled the Constable de Bourbon, acquired immense wealth by
the death of an elder brother and by his marriage, and lived
in royal state; was for his daring in the field named Constable
of France by Francis I.; offended at some, perhaps imaginary,
injustice Francis did him, he clandestinely entered the service
of the Emperor Charles V., defeated the French at Pavia, and
took Francis captive; parted from Charles, laid siege to Rome,
and fell in the assault, mortally wounded, it is said, by Benvenuto
Bourbonnais, ancient province
in the centre of France, being the duchy of Bourbon; united
to the crown in 1531; cap. Moulins.
Bourdaloue, Louis, a
French Jesuit, born at Bourges, called the "king of preachers,
and preacher of kings"; one of the most eloquent pulpit
orators of France; did not suffer by comparison with Bossuet,
his contemporary, though junior; one of the most earnest and
powerful of his sermons, the one entitled "The Passion,"
is deemed the greatest. His sermons are ethical in their matter
from a Christian standpoint, carefully reasoned, and free from
ornament, but fearless and uncompromising (1632-1704).
a French painter, born at Montpellier; his chef-d'oeuvre "The
Crucifixion of St. Peter," executed for the church of Notre
Bourdon de l'Oise, a
French revolutionist, member of the Convention; banished to
Guiana, where he died in 1791.
Bourgelat, a famous French
veterinary surgeon, born at Lyons, and founder of veterinary
colleges at Lyons in 1762; was an authority on horse management,
and often consulted on the matter (1712-1779).
Bourgeois, Sir Francis,
painter to George III.; left his collection to Dulwich College,
and £10,000 to build a gallery for them (1756-1811).
Bourgeoisie, the name given
in France to the middle class, professional people, and merchants,
as distinguished from the nobles and the peasants, but applied
by the Socialists to the capitalists as distinct from the workers.
Bourges (43), a French town
in the dep. of Cher; birthplace of Louis XI. and Bourdaloue.
Bourget, Paul, an eminent
French novelist and essayist, born at Amiens; a subtle analyst
of character, with a clear and elegant style, on which he bestows
great pains; his novels are what he calls "psychological,"
and distinct from the romantist and naturalistic; b.
a Flemish visionary and fanatic; resolved religion into emotion;
brought herself into trouble by the wild fancies she promulgated,
to the derangement of others as well as herself (1615-1680).
Louis Auguste Victor, Comte de, a French marshal; at
the Revolution joined the Bourbons on the frontiers; served
the royal cause in La Vendée; held high commands under
Napoleon; commanded under Ney on Napoleon's return from Elba;
deserted on the eve of Waterloo to Louis XVIII.; gave evidence
against Ney to his execution; commanded the expedition against
Algiers; refused allegiance to Louis Philippe on his accession,
and was dismissed the service (1773-1846).
Bourne, Hugh, founder of
the Primitive Methodists, and a zealous propagator of their
principles; he was a carpenter by trade, and he appears to have
wrought at his trade while prosecuting his mission, which he
did extensively both in Britain and America (1772-1852).
Bournemouth (38), a town
in Hants, on Poole Bay, 37 m. SW. of Southampton, with a fine
sandy beach; a great health resort; is of recent, and has been
of rapid, growth.
Antoine Fauvelet, secretary of Napoleon, and a school
friend, born at Sens; held the post for five years, but dismissed
for being implicated in disgraceful money transactions; joined
the Bourbons at the Restoration; the Revolution of 1830 and
the loss of his fortune affected his mind, and he died a lunatic
at Caen; wrote "Memoirs" disparaging to Napoleon (1769-1834).
Boussa, a town in Central Africa,
capital of a State of the same name, where Mungo Park lost his
life as he was going up the Niger.
Boustrophe`don, an ancient
mode of writing from right to left, and then from left to right,
as in ploughing a field.
a German philosopher and professor of Philosophy at Göttingen;
a disciple of Kant, then of Jacobi, and expounder of their doctrines;
wrote "History of Poetry and Eloquence among the Modern
Bowdich, Thomas Edward,
an English traveller, born at Bristol; sent on a mission to
Guinea, and penetrated as far as Coomassie; wrote an interesting
account of it in his "Mission to Ashanti" (1791-1824).
American mathematician, born at Salem, Massachusetts; a practical
scientist; published "Practical Navigation," translated
the "Mécanique Céleste" of Laplace,
accompanied with an elaborate commentary (1773-1838).
Bowdler, Thomas, an English
physician; edited expurgated editions of Shakespeare and Gibbon
in the interest of moral purity; added in consequence a new
term to the English language, Bowdlerism (1754-1825).
Bowdoin, James, an American
statesman, born in Boston, of French extraction; a zealous advocate
of American independence; author of "Discourse on the Constitution
of the United States" (1727-1790).
Bowen, Richard, a gallant
British naval commander, distinguished himself in several engagements,
and by his captures of the enemy's ships; killed by grape-shot
at the storming of Santa Cruz, at the moment when Nelson was
Bower, Walter, abbot of
Inchcolm, Scottish chronicler; continued Fordun's History down
to the death of James I. in 1437 from 1153 (1385-1449).
Bowles, William Lisle,
a poet, born in Northamptonshire; his sonnets, by their "linking,"
as Professor Saintsbury has it, "of nature's aspect to
human feeling," were much admired by Coleridge, and their
appearance is believed to have inaugurated a new era in English
poetry, as developed in the Lake School (1762-1850).
Bowling, Tom, a typical British
sailor in "Roderick Random."
Bowling, Sir John, linguist
and political writer, born at Exeter; friend and disciple of
Bentham as well as editor of his works; first editor of Westminster
Review; at the instance of the English Government visited
the Continental States to report on their commercial relations;
became governor of Hong-Kong; ordered the bombardment of Canton,
which caused dissatisfaction at home (1792-1872).
Bowyer, William, printer
and scholar, born in London; wrote on the origin of printing,
and published an edition of the Greek New Testament with notes
"Box and Cox,"
a farce by J. M. Morton, remarkable for a successful run such
as is said to have brought the author £7000.
Boy Bishop, a boy chosen on
6th December, St. Nicholas' Day, generally out of the choir,
to act as bishop and do all his episcopal duties, except celebrate
mass. For the term of his office, which varied, he was treated
as bishop, and if he died during his tenure of it was buried
with episcopal honours. The term of office was limited in 1279
to 24 hours.
Boyars, the old nobility of Russia,
whose undue influence in the State was broken by Peter the Great;
also the landed aristocracy of Roumania.
Boyce, William, composer,
chiefly of church music, born in London; published a collection
of the "Cathedral Music of the Old English Masters";
composed "Hearts of Oak," a naval song sung by ships'
crews at one time before going into action (1710-1779).
Boycott, Captain, an
Irish landlord's agent in Connemara, with whom the population
of the district in 1880 refused to have any dealings on account
of disagreements with the tenantry.
Boyd, Andrew Kennedy
Hutchison, a Scottish clergyman and writer; bred for
the bar, but entered the Church; known to fame as A. K. H. B.;
author of "Recreations of a Country Parson," which
was widely read, and of Reminiscences of his life; died at Bournemouth
by mischance of swallowing a lotion instead of a sleeping-draught
Boyd, Zachary, a Scottish
divine; regent of a Protestant college at Samur, in France;
returned to Scotland in consequence of the persecution of the
Huguenots; became minister of Barony Parish, Glasgow, and rector
of the University; preached before Cromwell after the battle
of Dunbar; author of the "Last Battell of the Soule in
Death" and "Zion's Flowers," being mainly metrical
versions of Scripture, called "Boyd's Bible" (1585-1653).
Boydell, John, an English
engraver and print-seller, famous for his "Shakespeare
Gallery," with 96 plates in illustration of Shakespeare,
and the encouragement he gave to native artists; he issued also
Hume's "History of England," with 196 plates in illustration
Boyer, Baron, French anatomist
and surgeon; attendant on Napoleon, afterwards professor in
the University of Paris; wrote works on anatomy and surgical
diseases, which continued for long text-books on those subjects;
was a man of very conservative opinions (1757-1833).
Boyer, Jean Pierre,
president of Hayti, born at Port-au-Prince of a negress and
a Creole father; secured the independence of the country; held
the presidency for 25 years from 1818, but suspected of consulting
his own advantage more than that of the country, was driven
from power by a revolution in 1843; retired to Paris, where
he spent the rest of his life and died (1776-1850).
Boyle, Charles, fourth
Earl of Orrery, distinguished for the connection of his name
with the Bentley controversy, and for its connection with an
astronomical contrivance by one Graham to illustrate the planetary
Boyle, Richard, first and
great Earl of Cork, distinguished among Irish patriots and landlords
for what he did to improve his estates and develop manufactures
and the mechanical arts in Ireland, also for the honours conferred
upon him for his patriotism; when Cromwell saw how his estates
were managed he remarked, that had there been one like him in
every province in Ireland rebellion would have been impossible
Boyle, The Hon. Robert,
a distinguished natural philosopher, born at Lismore, of the
Orrery family; devoted his life and contributed greatly to science,
especially chemistry, as well as pneumatics; was one of the
originators of the "Royal Society"; being a student
of theology, founded by his will an endowment for the "Boyle
Lectures" in defence of Christianity against its opponents
and rivals; refused the presidentship of the Royal Society,
and declined a peerage (1626-1691).
Boyle Lectures, the lectureship
founded by the Hon. Robert Boyle in 1691, and held for a tenure
of three years, the endowment being £50 per annum; the
lecturer must deliver eight lectures in defence of Christianity,
and some of the most eminent men have held the post.
Boyle's Law, that the volume
of a gas is inversely as the pressure.
Boyne, a river in Ireland, which
flows through Meath into the Irish Sea; gives name to the battle
in which William III. defeated the forces of James II. on 30th
Boz, a nom de plume under
which Dickens wrote at first, being his nickname when a boy
for a little brother.
Bozzy, Johnson's familiar name
Brabant, in mediæval times
was an important prov. of the Low Countries, inhabitants Dutch,
cap. Breda; is now divided between Holland and Belgium. It comprises
three provs., the N. or Dutch Brabant; Antwerp, a Belgian prov.,
inhabitants Flemings, cap. Antwerp; and S. Brabant, also Belgian,
inhabitants Walloons, cap. Brussels; the whole mostly a plain.
Bracton, Henry de, an
English "justice itinerant," a writer on English law
of the 13th century; author of "De Legibus et Consuetudinibus
Angliæ," a "Treatise on the Laws and Customs
of England," and the first attempt of the kind; d.
Bradamante, sister to Rinaldo,
and one of the heroines in "Orlando Furioso"; had
a lance which unhorsed every one it touched.
Braddock, Edward, British
general, born in Perthshire; entered the Coldstream Guards,
and became major-general in 1754; commanded a body of troops
against the French in America, fell in an attempt to invest
Fort Duquesue, and lost nearly all his men (1695-1755).
Braddon, Miss (Mrs. John
Maxwell), a popular novelist, born in London; authoress of "Lady
Audley's Secret," "Aurora Floyd," and some 50
other novels; contributed largely to magazines; b. 1837.
Bradford (216), a Yorkshire
manufacturing town, on a tributary of the Aire, 9 m. W. of Leeds;
it is the chief seat of worsted spinning and weaving in England,
and has an important wool market; coal and iron mines are at
hand, and iron-works and machinery-making are its other industries.
Also the name of a manufacturing town on the Avon, in Wilts.
Bradlaugh, Charles, a social
reformer on secularist lines, born in London; had a chequered
career; had for associate in the advocacy of his views Mrs.
Annie Besant; elected M.P. for Northampton thrice over, but
not allowed to sit till he took the oath, which he did in 1886;
died respected by all parties in the House of Commons; wrote
the "Impeachment of the House of Brunswick" (1833-1891).
Bradley, James, astronomer,
born in Gloucestershire; professor of Astronomy at Oxford, and
astronomer-royal at Greenwich; discovered the aberration of
light and the nutation of the earth's axis; made 60,000 astronomical
Bradshaw, George, an
engraver of maps in Manchester; published maps illustrative
of certain canal systems, and did the same service for railways,
which developed into the well-known "Railway Guide"
Bradshaw, John, president
of the High Court of Justice for trial of Charles I., born at
Stockport; bred for the bar; a friend of Milton; a thorough
republican, and opposed to the Protectorate; became president
of the Council on Cromwell's death; was buried in Westminster;
his body was exhumed and hung in chains at the Restoration (1586-1659).
archbishop of Canterbury, surnamed "Doctor Profundus"
from his treatise "De Causa Dei" against Pelagianism;
chaplain to Edward III.; was present at Crécy and at
the taking of Calais; died of the black death shortly after
his consecration (1290-1348).
Bradwardine, the name of
a baron and his daughter, the heroine of "Waverley."
Braemar`, a Scottish Highland
district SW. of Aberdeenshire; much frequented by tourists,
and resorted to for summer country quarters.
Brag, Jack, a pretender who
ingratiates himself with people above him.
Braga (23), a city, 34 m. NE.
of Oporto, Portugal; the residence of the Primate; the capital
Braganza, capital of Traz-os-Montes,
in Portugal; gives name to the ruling dynasty of Portugal, called
the House of Braganza, the eighth duke of Braganza having ascended
the throne in 1640, on the liberation of Portugal from the yoke
Bragi, the Norse god of poetry
and eloquence, son of Odin and Frigga; represented as an old
man with a long flowing beard and unwrinkled brow, with a mild
expression of face; received in Valhalla the heroes who fell
Braham, John, a celebrated
tenor singer, the most so in Europe of his day, and known all
over Europe; was particularly effective in rendering the national
songs; born in London, of Jewish parents; composed operas, which,
however, were only dramas interspersed with songs. Scott described
him as "a beast of an actor, but an angel of a singer"
Brahé, Tycho, a Swedish
astronomer, of noble birth; spent his life in the study of the
stars; discovered a new star in Cassiopeia; had an observatory
provided for him on an island in the Sound by the king, where
he made observations for 20 years; he was, on the king's death,
compelled to retire under persecution at the hand of the nobles;
accepted an invitation of the Kaiser Rudolf II. to Prague, where
he continued his work and had Kepler for assistant and pupil
Brahma, in the Hindu religion
and philosophy at one time the formless spirit of the Universe,
from which all beings issue and into which they all merge, and
as such is not an object of worship, but a subject of meditation;
and at another the creator of all things, of which
Vishnu (q. v.) is the preserver
and Siva (q. v.) the destroyer,
killing that he may make alive. See
Brahman, or Brahmin,
one of the sacred caste of the Hindus that boasts of direct
descent from, or immediate relationship with, Brahma, the custodians
and mediators of religion, and therefore of high-priestly rank.
Brahmanas, treatises on the
ceremonial system of Brahminism, with prescriptions bearing
upon ritual, and abounding in legends and speculations.
Brahmaputra (i. e.
son of Brahma), a river which rises in Tibet, circles round
the E. of the Himalayas, and, after a course of some 1800 m.,
joins the Ganges, called the Sampo in Tibet, the Dihong in Assam,
and the Brahmaputra in British India; it has numerous tributaries,
brings down twice as much mud as the Ganges, and in the lower
part of its course overflows the land, particularly Assam, like
an inland sea.
Brahminism, the creed and
ritual of the Brahmans, or that social, political, and religious
organisation which developed among the Aryans in the valley
of the Ganges under the influence of the Brahmans. According
to the religious conception of this class, Brahma, or the universal
spirit, takes form or incarnates himself successively as Brahma,
Vishnu, and Siva, which triple incarnation constitutes a trimurti
or trinity. In this way Brahma, the first
incarnation of the universal spirit, had four sons, from whom
issued the four castes of India—Brahmans, Kshatriyas,
Vaisyas, and Sudras—all the rest being outcasts or pariahs.
Brahmo-Somaj (i. e.
church of God), a secession from traditional Hinduism, originated
in 1830 by Rammohun Roy, and developed by Chunder Sen; founded
on theistic, or rather monotheistic, i. e. unitarian,
principles, and the rational ideas and philosophy of Europe,
as well as a profession of a sense of the brotherhood of man
no less than the unity of God.
Brahms, Johannes, a distinguished
composer, born at Hamburg; of great promise from a boy; settled
in Vienna; has no living rival; the appearance of compositions
of his an event in the musical world; approaches Beethoven as
no other does; distinguished as a performer as well as a composer;
Braidwood, James, born
in Edinburgh; director of the London fire brigade; distinguished
for his heroism on the occasion of great fires both in Edinburgh
and London (1790-1861).
Braille, a blind Frenchman,
invented printing in relief for the blind (1809-1852).
Brainerd, American missionary
to the Red Indians, born in Connecticut; his Life was written
by Jonathan Edwards, in whose house he died (1718-1747).
Bramah, Joseph, an engineer,
born in Barnsley, Yorkshire; author of many mechanical inventions,
18 of which were patented, among others the hydraulic press,
named after him (1748-1814).
Bramante, Donato, architect;
laid the foundation of St. Peter's at Rome, which he did not
live to complete (1444-1514).
Bramble, Matthew, a gouty
humorist in "Humphrey Clinker"; of a fretful temper,
yet generous and kind, who has a sister, Miss Tabitha,
an ungainly maiden at forty-five, and of anything but a sweet
Bramhall, John, archbishop
of Armagh, born in Yorkshire, a high-handed Churchman and imitator
of Laud; was foolhardy enough once to engage, nowise to his
credit, in public debate with such a dialectician as Thomas
Hobbes on the questions of necessity and free-will (1594-1663).
Bramwell, Sir Frederick,
civil engineer, president of the British Association in 1888,
and previously of Association of Engineers; b. 1818.
Bran, name given to Fingal's dog.
Brand, John, antiquary, born
in Durham, wrote a "Popular Antiquities" (1744-1784).
Brandan, St., Island of,
an island reported of by St. Brandan as lying W. of the Canary
Islands, and that figured on charts as late as 1755, in quest
of which voyages of discovery were undertaken as recently as
the beginning of the 18th century, up to which time it was believed
Brande, chemist, born in London;
author of "Manual of Chemistry" and other works (1788-1866).
Brandenburg (2,542), in
the great northern plain of Germany, is a central Prussian province,
and the nucleus of the Prussian kingdom; most of it a sandy
plain, with fertile districts and woodlands here and there.
Brandenburg, the House
of, an illustrious German family dating from the 10th
century, from which descended the kings of Prussia.
Brandes, George, a literary
critic, born at Copenhagen, of Jewish parents; his views of
the present tendency of literature in Europe provoked at first
much opposition in Denmark, though they were received with more
favour afterwards; the opposition to his views were such that
he was forced to leave Copenhagen, but, after a stay in Berlin,
he returned to it in 1862, with the support of a strong party
in his favour.
Brandt, a Swedish chemist; chanced
on the discovery in 1669 of phosphorus while in quest of a solvent
to transmute metals, such as silver, into gold; d. 1692.
Brandt, Sebastian, a
satirical writer, born at Strassburg; author of the "Narrenschiff"
or "Ship of Fools," of which there have been many
translations and not a few imitations (1458-1521).
Brandy Nan, a nickname for
Queen Anne, from her fondness for brandy.
Brandywine Creek, a
small river in Delaware; scene of a victory of the British over
the Americans in 1777.
Brangtons, The, a vulgar,
evil-spoken family in Miss Burney's "Evelina."
Brant, Joseph, Indian chief
who sided with the British in the American war; a brave and
good man; d. 1807.
Pierre de Bourdeilles, a French chronicler, contemporary
of Montaigne, born in Périgord; led the life of a knight-errant,
and wrote Memoirs remarkable for the free-and-easy, faithful,
and vivid delineations of the characters of the most celebrated
of his contemporaries (1527-1614).
Brasidas, a Spartan general,
distinguished in the Peloponnesian war; his most celebrated
action, the defeat at the expense of his life, in 422 B.C.,
of the flower of the Athenian army at Amphipolis, with a small
body of helots and mercenaries.
Brass, Sampson, a knavish
attorney in "Old Curiosity Shop"; affected feeling
for his clients, whom he fleeced.
Brasses, sepulchral tablets
of a mixed metal, called latten, inlaid in a slab of stone,
and insculpt with figures and inscriptions of a monumental character;
the oldest in England is at Stoke d'Abernon, in Surrey.
Brassey, Thomas, a great
railway contractor, born in Cheshire; contracted for the construction
of railways in all parts of the world (1805-1870).
Braun, Auguste Emil,
German archæologist, born at Gotha; works numerous, and
of value (1809-1856).
Bravest of the Brave,
Marshal Ney, so called from his fearlessness in battle; Napoleon
had on one occasion said, "That man is a lion."
Braxy, an inflammatory disease
in sheep, due to a change in food from succulent to dry; and
the name given to the mutton of sheep affected with it.
Bray, a Berkshire village, famous
for Simon Aleyn, its vicar from 1540 to 1588, who, to retain
his living, never scrupled to change his principles; he lived
in the reigns of Charles II., James II., William III., Queen
Anne, and George I.
Brazen Age, in the Greek mythology
the age of violence, that succeeded the weak Silver Age. See
Brazil (14,000), the largest
South American State, almost equal to Europe, occupies the eastern
angle of the continent, and comprises the Amazon basin, the
tablelands of Matto Grosso, the upper basin of the Paraguay,
and the maritime highlands, with the valleys of the Paraná
and San Francisco. Great stretches of the interior are uninhabitable
swamp and forest lands; forests tenanted by an endless variety
of brilliant-plumed birds and insects; the coasts are often
humid and unhealthy, but the upper levels have a fine climate.
Almost all the country is within the tropics. The population
at the seaports is mostly white; inland
it is negro, mulatto, and Indian. Vegetable products are indescribably
rich and varied; timber of all kinds, rubber, cotton, and fruit
are exported; coffee and sugar are the chief crops. The vast
mineral wealth includes diamonds, gold, mercury, and copper.
Most of the trade is with Britain and America. The language
is Portuguese; the religion, Roman Catholic; education is very
backward, and government unsettled. Discovered in 1500, and
annexed by Portugal; the Portuguese king, expelled by the French
in 1808, fled to his colony, which was made a kingdom 1815,
and an empire in 1822. The emperor, Pedro II., was driven out
in 1889, and a republic established on the federal system, which
has been harassed ever since by desultory civil war. The capital
is Rio Janeiro; Bahia and Pernambuco, the other seaports.
Brazil-wood, a wood found
in Brazil, of great value for dyeing red, the colouring principle
being named Brasilin.
Brazza (22), an island in the
Adriatic, belonging to Austria; is richly wooded; noted for
its wines; yields marble.
Brazza, Pierre Savorgnan
de, explorer, born in Rome; acquired land N. of the
Congo for France, and obtained a governorship; b. 1852.
Breadfruit-tree, a South
Sea island tree producing a fruit which, when roasted, is used
Bréal, Michel, a
French philologist, born at Landau; translator into French of
Bopp's "Comparative Grammar"; b. 1832.
a gorge in the dep. of the Haute-Pyrénées, which,
according to tradition, Charlemagne's Paladin of the name of
Roland cleft with one stroke of his sword when he was beset
by the Gascons.
Brechin, a town in Forfarshire,
W. of Montrose, on the S. Esk, with a cathedral and an old round
tower near it, 85 ft. high, the only one of the kind in Scotland
besides being at Abernethy.
Breda (23), fortified town, the
capital of N. Brabant; a place of historical interest; Charles
II. resided here for a time during his exile, and issued hence
his declaration prior to his restoration.
Breeches Bible, the Geneva
Bible, so called from its rendering in Gen. iii. 7, in which "aprons"
is rendered "breeches."
Breeches Review, the
Westminster, so called at one time, from one Place, an
authority in it, who had been a leather-breeches maker at Charing
Brégnet, a French chronometer-maker,
born at Neuchâtel; a famous inventor of astronomical instruments
Brehm, Alfred Edmund,
German naturalist; his chief work "Illustrirtes Thierleben"
Brehon Laws, a body of judge-created
laws that for long formed the common law of Ireland, existed
from prehistoric times till Cromwell's conquest. The origin
of the code is unknown, and whether it was at first traditional;
many manuscript redactions of portions exist still.
Bremen (126), the chief seaport
of Germany, after Hamburg; is on the Weser, 50 m. from its mouth,
and is a free city, with a territory less than Rutlandshire.
Its export and import trade is very varied; half the total of
emigrants sail from its docks; it is the head-quarters of the
North German Lloyd Steamship Company. Textiles, tobacco, and
paper industries add to its prosperity; was one of the principal
cities of the Hanseatic League.
Bremer, Fredrika, a highly
popular Swedish novelist, born in Finland; "The Neighbours," "The
President's Daughter," and "Strife and Peace,"
are perhaps her best stories; has been called the Jane Austen
Bremer, Sir James, rear-admiral;
distinguished in the Burmese and Chinese wars (1786-1850).
Bremerhaven, the port of
Bremen, on the estuary of the Weser, founded for the accommodation
of large vessels in 1830, with a large hospice for emigrants.
Brendan, St., an Irish saint,
born at Tralee, celebrated for his voyages in quest of "a
land beyond human ken" and his discovery of "a paradise
amid the waves of the sea"; founded a monastery at Clonfert;
died in 577, in his ninety-fourth year.
Brenner Pass, pass on the
central Tyrolese Alps, 6853 ft. high, between Innsbruck and
Botzen, crossed by a railway, which facilitates trade between
Venice, Germany, and Austria.
Brennus, a Gallic chief, who,
300 B.C., after taking and pillaging Rome, invested the Capitol
for so long that the Romans offered him a thousand pounds' weight
of gold to retire; as the gold was being weighed out he threw
his sword and helmet into the opposite scale, adding Væ
victis, "Woe to the conquered," an insolence which
so roused Camillus, that he turned his back and offered battle
to him and to his army, and totally routed the whole host.
Brenta, an Italian river; rises
in the Tyrol, waters Bassano, and debouches near Venice.
Brentano, Clemens, poet
of the romanticist school, born at Frankfort-on-the-Main, brother
of Goethe's Bettina von Arnim; was a roving genius (1778-1849).
Brentford, market-town in
Middlesex, on the Brent, 10 m. W. of London, that figures in
history and literature.
Brenz, Johann, the reformer
of Würtemberg, and one of the authors of the Würtemberg
Confession, as well as a catechism extensively used (1499-1570).
Brescia (43), a city of Lombardy,
on the Mella and Garza, 50 m. E. of Milan; has two cathedrals,
an art gallery and library, a Roman temple excavated in 1822,
and now a classical museum; its manufactures are woollens, silks,
leather, and wine.
Breslau (335), the capital of
Silesia, second city in Prussia; an important commercial and
manufacturing centre, and has a first-class fortress; is on
the Oder, 150 m. by rail SE. of Frankfort; it stands in the
centre of the Baltic, North Sea, and Danube trade, and has a
large woollen industry and grain market; there are a cathedral,
university, and library.
Bressay, one of the Shetland
Isles, near Lerwick, with one of the best natural harbours in
Brest (76), a strongly-fortified
naval station in the extreme NW. of France; one of the chief
naval stations in France, with a magnificent harbour, and one
of the safest, first made a marine arsenal by Richelieu; has
large shipbuilding yards and arsenal; its industries are chiefly
related to naval equipment, with leather, waxcloth, and paper
Bréton, Jules Adolphe,
a French genre and landscape painter, born at Courrières,
in Pas-de-Calais, 1827.
Breton de los Herreros,
Spanish poet and dramatist; wrote comedies and satires in an
easy, flowing style (1800-1873).
Breteuil, Baron de,
an ex-secretary of Louis XVI. (1733-1807).
Brethren of the Common
Life, a Dutch branch of the "Friends of God,"
founded at Deventer by Gerard Groote.
Henry Gottfried von, a German satirical writer, born
at Gera; led a bohemian life; served in the army; held political
posts; composed, besides satirical writings, "Almanach
der Heiligen auf das Jahr, 1788," "Wallers Leben und
Sitten," and the comic epic, "Graf Esau" (1739-1810).
Gottlieb, a German rationalistic theologian; much regarded
for his sound judgment in critical matters; his theological
writings are of permanent value; his chief works, "Handbuch
der Dogmatik," and an edition of Melanchthon's works.
Bretwalda, a title apparently
of some kind of acknowledged supremacy among the Anglo-Saxon
kings, and the leader in war.
Breughel, a family of Butch
painters, a father and two sons, the father, Peter, called
"Old" B. (1510-1570); a son, John, "Velvet"
B., either from his dress or from the vivid freshness of
his colours (1560-1625); and the other, Peter, "Hellish"
B., from his fondness for horrible subjects (1559-1637).
Brevet`, a commission entitling
an officer in the army to a nominal rank above his real rank.
Breviary, a book containing
the daily services in the Roman Catholic Church and corresponding
to the English Prayer-Book; differs from the "Missal,"
which gives the services connected with the celebration of the
Eucharist, and the "Pontifical," which gives those
for special occasions.
Brewer, John Sherren,
historian, professor of English Literature in King's College,
London; author of "Calendar of Letters and Papers of Henry
VIII.'s Reign," his work the sole authority on Henry's
early reign (1810-1879).
Brewer of Ghent, Jacob
Brewster, Sir David,
an eminent Scottish natural philosopher, born at Jedburgh; edited
the "Edinburgh Encyclopædia," in the pages of
which Carlyle served his apprenticeship; specially distinguished
for his discoveries in light, his studies in optics, and for
his optical inventions, such as the kaleidoscope and the stereoscope;
connected with most scientific associations of his time; wrote
largely on scientific and other subjects, e. g., a Life
of Newton, as well as Lives of Euler, Kepler, and others of
the class; Principal of the United Colleges of St. Andrews,
and afterwards of Edinburgh, being succeeded at St. Andrews
by James David Forbes, who years before defeated him as candidate
for the Natural Philosophy chair in Edinburgh; bred originally
for the Church, and for a time a probationer (1781-1868).
Brewster, William, leader
of the Pilgrim Fathers in the Mayflower, who conveyed
them to Plymouth, Massachusetts, in 1620; had been a clergyman
of the Church of England.
Brian Boroihme, an Irish
chief, who early in the 10th century established his rule over
a great part of Ireland, and made great efforts for the civilisation
of the country; died defeating the Danes at Clontarf, being,
it is said, the twenty-fifth battle in which he defeated them.
Briançon, the highest
town in France, 4300 ft. above sea-level, 42 m. SE. from Grenoble,
with a trade in cutlery.
Briareus, a Uranid with 50
heads and 100 arms, son of Ouranos and Gaia, i. e. Heaven
and Earth, whom Poseidon cast into the sea and buried under
Etna, but whom Zeus delivered to aid him against the Titans;
according to another account, one of
the Giants (q. v.).
Brice, St., bishop of Tours
in the beginning of the 5th century, and disciple of St. Martin.
Festival, Nov. 19.
Brice's, St., a day in 1002
on which a desperate attempt was made to massacre all the Danes
in England and stamp them wholly out, an attempt which was avenged
by the Danish king, Sweyn.
Brick, Jefferson, an
American politician in "Martin Chuzzlewit."
Bride of the Sea, Venice,
so called from a ceremony in which her espousals were celebrated
by the Doge casting a ring into the Adriatic.
Bridewell, a house of correction
in Blackfriars, London, so called from St. Bridget's well, near
Bridge of Allan, a village
on Allan water, 3 m. N. of Stirling, with a mild climate and
Bridge of Sighs, a covered
way in Venice leading from the Ducal Palace to the State prison,
and over which culprits under capital sentence were transported
to their doom, whence the name.
Bridgenorth, Major Ralph,
a Roundhead in "Peveril of the Peak."
Bridgeport (48), a thriving
manufacturing town and seaport of Connecticut, U.S., 58 m. NE.
from New York.
Bridget, Mrs., a character
in "Tristram Shandy."
Bridget, St., an Irish saint,
born at Dundalk; entered a monastery at 14; founded monasteries;
takes rank in Ireland with St. Patrick and St. Columba. Festival,
Feb. 1 (453-523). Also the name of a Swedish saint in the 14th
century; founded a new Order, and 72 monasteries of the Order.
Bridgeton, a manufacturing
town in New Jersey, 38 m. S. of Philadelphia.
Bridgetown (21), capital
of Barbadoes, seat of the government, the bishop, a college, &c.;
it has suffered frequently from hurricane and fever.
Francis Egerton, 3rd Duke of, celebrated for his self-sacrificing
devotion to the improvement and extension of canal navigation
in England, embarking in it all his wealth, in which he was
aided by the skill of Brindley; he did not take part in politics,
though he was a supporter of Pitt; died unmarried (1736-1803).
Bridgewater, Francis Henry
Egerton, 8th Earl of, educated for the Church, bequeathed £8000
for the best work on natural theology, which his trustees expended
in the production of eight works by different eminent men, called "Bridgewater
Treatises," all to be found in Bohn's Scientific Library
Bridgman, Laura, a deaf,
dumb, and blind child, born in New Hampshire, U.S.; noted for
the surprising development of intellectual faculty notwithstanding
these drawbacks; Dickens gives an account of her in his "American
Bridgwater, a seaport town
in Somersetshire, 29 m. SW. of Bristol.
a judge in Rabelais' "Pantagruel," who decided cases
by the throw of dice.
Bridlington, a watering-place
in Yorkshire, 6 m. SW. of Flamborough Head, with a chalybeate
a British admiral, distinguished in several engagements (1797-1814).
Brieg (20), a thriving, third,
commercially speaking, town in Prussian Silesia, 25 m. SE. of
Brienne, Jean de, descendant
of an old French family; elected king of Jerusalem, then emperor
of Constantinople; d. 1237.
Brienz, Lake of, lake in
the Swiss canton of Bern, 8 m. long, 2 m. broad, over 800 ft.
above sea-level, and of great depth in certain parts, abounding
in fish. Town of, a favourite resort for tourists.
Brieuc, St., (19), a seaport
and an episcopal city in the dep. of Côtes-du-Nord, France.
Brigade, a body of troops under
a general officer, called brigadier, consisting of a number
of regiments, squadrons, or battalions.
Brigantes, a powerful British
tribe that occupied the country between the Humber and the Roman
Briggs, Henry, a distinguished
English mathematician; first Savilian professor at Oxford; made
an important improvement on the system of logarithms, which
was accepted by Napier, the inventor, and is the system now
in use (1561-1631).
Brigham Young, the chief
of the Mormons (1801-1877).
Bright, James Franck,
historian, Master of University College, Oxford; author of "English
History for the Use of Public Schools," a book of superior
literary merit; b. 1832.
Bright, John, English statesman,
son of a Lancashire cotton spinner, born near Rochdale; of Quaker
birth and profession; engaged in manufacture; took an early
interest in political reform; he joined the Anti-Corn-Law League
on its formation in 1839, and soon was associated with Cobden
in its great agitation; entering Parliament in 1843, he was
a strong opponent of protection, the game laws, and later of
the Crimean war; he advocated financial reform and the reform
of Indian administration; and on the outbreak of the American
Civil War supported the North, though his business interests
suffered severely; he was closely associated with the 1867 Reform
Act, Irish Church Disestablishment 1869, and the 1870 Irish
Land Act; his Ministerial career began in 1868, but was interrupted
by illness; in 1873, and again in 1881, he was Chancellor of
the Duchy of Lancaster; he seceded from Gladstone's Government
on the Egyptian policy in 1882, and strenuously opposed Home
Rule in 1886; in 1880 he was Lord Rector of Glasgow University;
he was a man of lofty and unblemished character, an animated
and eloquent orator; at his death Mr. Gladstone pronounced one
of the noblest eulogiums one public man has ever paid to another
Brighton (128), a much-frequented
watering-place in Sussex, 50 m. S. of London, of which it is
virtually a suburb; a place of fashionable resort ever since
George IV. took a fancy to it; a fine parade extends along the
whole length of the sea front; has many handsome edifices, a
splendid aquarium, a museum, schools of science and art, public
library and public gallery; the principal building is the Pavilion
or Marine Palace, originally built for George IV. Also the name
of a suburb of Melbourne.
Blight's Disease, a disease
in the kidneys, due to several diseased conditions of the organ,
so called from Dr. Richard Bright, who first investigated its
Bril Brothers, Matthew
and Paul, landscape painters, born at Antwerp; employed
in the 16th century by successive Popes to decorate the Vatican
at Rome; of whom Paul, the younger, was the greater artist;
his best pictures are in Rome.
Brillat-Savarin, a French
gastronomist, author of "Physiologie du Goût,"
a book full of wit and learning, published posthumously; was
professionally a lawyer and some time a judge (1755-1825).
Brin`disi (15), a seaport of
Southern Italy, on the Adriatic coast; has risen in importance
since the opening of the Overland Route as a point of departure
for the East; it is 60 hours by rail from London, and three
days by steam from Alexandria; it was the port of embarkation
for Greece in ancient times, and for Palestine in mediæval.
Brindley, James, a mechanician
and engineer, born in Derbyshire; bred a millwright; devoted
his skill and genius to the construction of canals, under the
patronage of the Duke of Bridgewater, as the greatest service
he could render to his country; regarded rivers as mere "feeders
to canals" (1716-1772).
Brink, Jan Ten, a Dutch
writer, distinguished as a critic in the department of belles-lettres;
de, notorious for her gallantries and for poisoning
her father, brother, and two sisters for the sake of their property;
was tortured and beheaded; the poison she used appears to have
been the Tofana poison, an art which one of her paramours taught
her (1630-1676). See Aqua Tofana.
Brisbane (49), capital of Queensland,
on the Brisbane River, 25 m. from the sea, 500 m. N. of Sydney,
is the chief trading centre and seaport of the Colony; it has
steam communication with Australian ports and London, and railway
communication with Sydney, Melbourne, and Adelaide; prosperity
began when the colony was opened to free settlement in 1842;
it was dissociated from New South Wales and the city incorporated
Sir Charles, a naval officer of distinction under Lords
Hood and Nelson; captured in 1796 Dutch warships, three ships
of the line among them, in Saldanha Bay, and in 1807 the island
of Curaçoa; was made governor of St. Vincent (1769-1829).
Brisbane, Sir James,
naval officer, brother of the preceding, served under Lord Howe
and under Nelson at Copenhagen (1774-1829).
Brisbane, Sir Thomas
Macdougall, British general, a man of science and an
astronomer, born near Largs, Ayrshire; saw service as a soldier;
was appointed governor of New South Wales to the profit of the
colony; gave name to the capital of Queensland; catalogued over
7000 stars; succeeded Scott as president of the Royal Society
Brise`is, a young virgin priestess,
who fell to the lot of Achilles among the spoil of a victory,
but whom Agamemnon carried off from him, whereupon he retired
to his tent and sullenly refused to take any further part in
the war, to its prolongation, in consequence, as Homer relates,
for ten long years; the theme of the "Iliad" being
the "wrath of Achilles" on this account, and what
it led to.
Brissac, the name of a noble
family which supplied several marshals to France.
Brisson, Henri, French
publicist and journalist; after holding presidentships in the
Chamber became premier in 1885, but resigned after a few months;
formed a Radical administration in 1898, which was short-lived;
Brissot de Warville,
Jean Pierre, a French revolutionary, born at Chartres,
son of a pastry-cook; bred to the bar, took to letters; became
an outspoken disciple of Rousseau; spent some time in the Bastille;
liberated, he went to America; returned on the outbreak of the
Revolution, sat in the National Assembly, joined the Girondists;
became one of the leaders, or rather of a party of his own,
named after him Brissotins, midway between the Jacobins and
them; fell under suspicion like the rest
of the party, was arrested, tried and guillotined (1754-1793).
Bristol (286), on the Avon,
6 m. from its mouth, and 118 m. W. of London, is the largest
town in Gloucestershire, the seventh in England, and a great
seaport, with Irish, W. Indian, and S. American trade; it manufactures
tobacco, boots and shoes; it has a cathedral, two colleges,
a library and many educational institutions; by a charter of
Edward III. it forms a county in itself.
Bristol Channel, an inlet
in SW. of England, between S. Wales and Devon and Cornwall,
8 m. in length, from 5 to 43 in breadth, and with a depth of
from 5 to 40 fathoms; is subject to very high tides, and as
such dangerous to shipping; numerous rivers flow into it.
Britannia, a name for Britain
as old as the days of Cæsar, and inhabited by Celts, as
Gaul also was.
Britannia Tubular Bridge,
a railway bridge spanning the Menai Strait, designed by Robert
Stephenson, and completed in 1850; consists of hollow tubes
of wrought-iron plates riveted together, and took five years
Britannicus, the son of
Claudius and Messalina, poisoned by Nero.
name applied to Andrew Marvell from his corresponding incorruptible
integrity in life and poverty at death.
an association, of Sir David Brewster's suggestion, of men of
all departments of science for the encouragement of scientific
research and the diffusion of scientific knowledge, which holds
its meetings annually under the presidency of some distinguished
scientist, now in this, now in that selected central city of
the country; it is divided into eight sections—mathematical,
chemical, geological, biological, geographical, economic, mechanical,
British Columbia (98),
a western fertile prov. of British America, extending between
the Rocky Mountains and the Pacific, and from the United States
on the S. to Alaska on the N., being 800 m. long and four times
the size of Great Britain; rich in timber and minerals; rain
is abundant, and cereals do well.
British Lion, the name given
to John Bull when roused by opposition.
British Museum, a national
institution in London for the collection of MSS., books, prints
and drawings, antiquities, and objects of natural history, ethnology, &c.;
founded as far back as 1700, though not opened, in Montagu House
as it happened, for the public benefit till 1759.
Britomart, is a lady knight
in the "Faërie Queene," representing chastity
with a resistless magic spear.
Brittany (3,162), an old French
prov., land of the Bretons, comprising the peninsula opposite
Devon and Cornwall, stretching westward between the Bays of
Cancale and Biscay, was in former times a duchy; a third of
its inhabitants still retain their Breton language.
Britton, John, topographer
and antiquary, born in Wiltshire in humble position; author
of "Beauties of Wiltshire," instalment of a work embracing
all the counties of England and Wales; his principal works,
and works of value, are "Antiquities of Great Britain"
and "Cathedral Antiquities of England"; his chief
work is 14 volumes; the "Antiquities in Normandy"
did much to create an interest in antiquarian subjects (1771-1857).
Brixton, a southern suburb of
London, on the Surrey side, a district of the city that has
of late years extended immensely.
Broad Arrow, a stamp like
an arrow-head to indicate government property.
Broad Bottom Ministry,
a coalition of great weight under Mr. Pelham, from Nov. 1744
to Mar. 1755, so called from the powerful parties represented
Broad Church, that section
of the Church which inclines to liberal opinions in theology,
and is opposed to the narrowing of either spirit or form, perhaps
to an undue degree and to the elimination of elements distinctive
of the Christian system.
Broads, The Norfolk, are a series
of inland lakes in the E. of Norfolkshire, which look like expansions
of the rivers; they are favourite holiday resorts on account
of the expanse of strange scenery, abundant vegetation, keen
air, fishing and boating attractions.
Brob`dingnag, an imaginary
country in "Gulliver's Travels," inhabited by giants,
each as tall "as an ordinary spire-steeple"; properly
a native of the country, in comparison with whom Gulliver was
a pigmy "not half so big as a round little worm plucked
from the lazy finger of a maid."
Broca, Paul, an eminent French
surgeon, anthropologist, and one of the chief French evolutionists;
held a succession of important appointments, and was the author
of a number of medical works (1824-1880).
Brochant de Villiers,
a mineralogist and geologist, born in Paris; director of the
St. Gobin manufactory (1773-1810).
Brochs, dry-stone circular towers,
called also Picts' towers and Duns, with thick Cyclopean walls,
a single doorway, and open to the sky, found on the edge of
straths or lochs in the N. and W. of Scotland.
Brocken, or Blocksberg,
the highest peak (3740 ft.) of the Harz Mts., cultivated to
the summit; famous for a "Spectre" so called,
long an object of superstition, but which is only the beholder's
shadow projected through, and magnified by, the mists.
Arnold, a German publisher, born at Dortmund; a man
of scholarly parts; began business in Amsterdam, but settled
in Leipzig; publisher of the famous "Conversations Lexikon,"
and a great many other important works (1772-1823).
Brocoliando, a forest in
Brittany famous in Arthurian legend.
Brodie, Sir Benjamin,
surgeon, born in Wiltshire; professor of surgery; for 30 years
surgeon in St. George's Hospital; was medical adviser to three
sovereigns; president of the Royal Society (1783-1862).
Brodie, William, a Scottish
sculptor, born in Banff; did numerous busts and statues (1815-1881).
Broglie, Albert, son of
the following, a Conservative politician and littérateur,
author of "The Church and the Roman Empire in the 4th century";
Broglie, Charles Victor,
Duc de, a French statesman, born at Paris; a Liberal
politician; was of the party of Guizot and Royer-Collard; held
office under Louis Philippe; negotiated a treaty with England
for the abolition of slavery; was an Orleanist, and an enemy
of the Second Empire; retired after the coup d'état
Broglie, Victor François,
Duc de, marshal of France, distinguished in the Seven
Years' War, being "a firm disciplinarian"; was summoned
by royalty to the rescue as "war god" at the outbreak
of the Revolution; could not persuade his troops to fire on
the rioters; had to "mount and ride";
took command of the Emigrants in 1792, and died at Münster
Broke, Sir Philip Bowes
Vere, rear-admiral, born at Ipswich, celebrated for
the action between his ship Shannon, 38 guns, and the
American ship Chesapeake, 49 guns, in June 1813, in which
he boarded the latter and ran up the British flag; one of the
most brilliant naval actions on record, and likely to be long
remembered in the naval annals of the country (1776-1841).
Bromberg (41), a busy town
on the Brahe, in Prussian Posen; being a frontier town, it suffered
much in times of war.
Brome, Alexander, a cavalier,
writer of songs and lampoons instinct with wit, whim, and spirit;
and of his songs some are amatory, some festive, and some political
Brome, Richard, an English
comic playwright, contemporary with Ben Jonson, and a rival;
originally his servant; his plays are numerous, and were characterised
by his enemies as the sweepings of Jonson's study; d.
Bromine, an elementary fluid
of a dark colour and a disagreeable smell, extracted from bittern,
a liquid which remains after the separation of salt.
Bromley (21), a market-town
in Kent, 10 m. SE. of London, where the bishops of Rochester
had their palace, and where there is a home called Warner's
College for clergymen's widows.
Brompton, SW. district of London,
in Kensington, now called S. Kensington; once a rustic locality,
now a fashionable district, with several public buildings and
Bröndsted, Peter Olaf,
a Danish archæologist; author of "Travels and Researches
in Greece," where by excavations he made important discoveries;
his great work "Travels and Archæological Researches
in Greece" (1780-1842).
French botanist, son of the succeeding, the first to discover
and explain the function of the pollen in plants (1801-1876).
a French chemist and zoologist, collaborateur with Cuvier, born
at Paris; director of the porcelain works at Sèvres;
revived painting on glass; introduced a new classification of
reptiles; author of treatises on mineralogy and the ceramic
Bronte (16), a town in Sicily,
on the western slope of Etna, which gave title of duke to Nelson.
Brontë, the name of three
ladies, Charlotte, Emily, and Anne, daughters of a Yorkshire
clergyman of Irish extraction: Charlotte, born at Thornton,
Yorkshire; removed with her father, at the age of four, to Haworth,
a moorland parish, in the same county, where she lived most
of her days; spent two years at Brussels as a pupil-teacher;
on her return, in conjunction with her sisters, prepared and
published a volume of poems under the pseudonyms respectively
of "Currer, Ellis, and Acton Bell," which proved a
failure. Nothing daunted, she set to novel writing, and her
success was instant; first, "Jane Eyre," then "Shirley,"
and then "Villette," appeared, and her fame was established.
In 1854 she married her father's curate, Mr. Nicholls, but her
constitution gave way, and she died (1816-1855). Emily
(Ellis), two years younger, poet rather than novelist; wrote "Wuthering
Heights," a remarkable production, showing still greater
genius, which she did not live to develop. Anne (Acton),
four years younger, also wrote two novels, but very ephemeral
Bronze Age, the age in the
history of a race intermediate between the Stone Age and the
Iron, and in some cases overlapping these two, when weapons
and tools were made of bronze.
Bronzi`no, a Florentine painter,
painted both in oil and fresco; a great admirer of Michael Angelo;
his famous picture, "Descent of Christ into Hell"
Brook Farm, an abortive literary
community organised on Fourier's principles, 8 m. from Boston,
U.S., by George Ripley in 1840; Nathaniel Hawthorne was one
of the community, and wrote an account of it.
Brooke, Henry, Irish dramatist
and novelist, born in co. Cavan; author of the "Fool of
Quality," a book commended by John Wesley and much lauded
by Charles Kingsley, and the only one of his works that survives;
wrote, among other things, a poem called "Universal Beauty,"
and a play called "Gustavus Vasa" (1703-1783).
Brooke, Sir James, rajah
of Sarawak, born at Benares, educated in England; entered the
Indian army; was wounded in the Burmese war, returned in consequence
to England; conceived the idea of suppressing piracy and establishing
civilisation in the Indian Archipelago; sailed in a well-manned
and well-equipped yacht from the Thames with that object; arrived
at Sarawak, in Borneo; assisted the governor in suppressing
an insurrection, and was made rajah, the former rajah being
deposed in his favour; brought the province under good laws,
swept the seas of pirates, for which he was rewarded by the
English government; was appointed governor of Labuan; finally
returned to England and died, being succeeded in Sarawak by
a nephew (1803-1868).
Brooke, Stopford, preacher
and writer, born in Donegal; after other clerical appointments
became incumbent of Bedford Chapel, Bloomsbury, and Queen's
chaplain; from conscientious motives seceded from the Church,
but continued to preach in Bloomsbury; wrote the "Life
of Robertson of Brighton," a "Primer of English Literature," "History
of English Poetry," "Theology in the English Poets,"
and "Life of Milton," all works in evidence of critical
ability of a high order; b. 1832.
Brooklyn (806), a suburb of
New York, on Long Island, though ranking as a city, and the
fourth in the Union; separated from New York by the East River,
a mile broad, and connected with it by a magnificent suspension
bridge, the largest in the world, as well as by some 12 lines
of ferry boats plied by steam; it is now incorporated in Greater
New York; has 10 m. of water front, extensive docks and warehouses,
and does an enormous shipping trade; manufactures include glass,
clothing, chemicals, metallic wares, and tobacco; there is a
naval yard, dock, and storehouse; the city is really a part
of New York; has many fine buildings, parks, and pleasure grounds.
William Shirley, novelist and journalist, born in London;
was on the staff of the Morning Chronicle; sent to Russia
to inquire into and report on the condition of the peasantry
and labouring classes there, as well as in Syria and Egypt;
his report published in his "Russians of the South";
formed a connection with Punch in 1851, writing the "Essence
of Parliament," and succeeded Mark Lemon as editor in 1870;
he was the author of several works (1816-1874).
Brosses, Charles de,
a French archæologist, born at Dijon; wrote among other
subjects on the manners and customs of primitive and prehistoric
Brossette, a French littérateur,
born at Lyons; friend of Boileau, and his editor and commentator
Brothers, Richard, a
fanatic, born in Newfoundland, who believed and persuaded others
to believe that the English people were
the ten lost tribes of Israel (1757-1824).
Lord Brougham and Vaux, born in Edinburgh, and educated
at the High School and University of that city; was admitted
to the Scotch bar in 1800; excluded from promotion in Scotland
by his liberal principles, he joined the English bar in 1808,
speedily acquired a reputation as a lawyer for the defence in
Crown libel actions, and, by his eloquence in the cause of Queen
Caroline, 1820, won universal popular favour; entering Parliament
in 1810, he associated with the Whig opposition, threw himself
into the agitation for the abolition of slavery, the cause of
education, and law reform; became Lord Chancellor in 1830, but
four years afterwards his political career closed; he was a
supporter of many popular institutions; a man of versatile ability
and untiring energy; along with Horner, Jeffrey, and Sidney
Smith, one of the founders of the Edinburgh Review, also
of London University, and the Society for the Diffusion of Useful
Knowledge; a writer on scientific, historical, political, and
philosophical themes, but his violence and eccentricity hurt
his influence; spent his last days at Cannes, where he died
Broughton, Lord. See
Broughton, Rhoda, novelist,
her best work "Not Wisely but Too Well"; wrote also "Cometh
Up as a Flower," "Red as a Rose is She," &c.;
Broughton, William Robert,
an English seaman, companion of Vancouver; discovered a portion
of Oceania (1763-1822).
Broughty Ferry (9), a
watering-place, with villas, near Dundee, and a favourite place
of residence of Dundee merchants.
Broussa (37), a city in the
extreme NW. of Asiatic Turkey, at the foot of Mt. Olympus, 12
m. from the Sea of Marmora; the capital of the Turkish empire
till the taking of Constantinople in 1453; abounds in mosques,
and is celebrated for its baths.
Broussais, Joseph Victor,
a French materialist, founder of the "physiological school"
of medicine; resolved life into excitation, and disease into
too much or too little (1772-1838).
Broussel, a member of the Parlement
of Paris, whose arrest, in 1648, was the cause of, or pretext
for, the organisation of the Fronde.
Brousson, a French Huguenot
who returned to France after the Revocation of the Edict of
Nantes, and was broken on the wheel, 1698.
Brouwer, a Dutch painter, mostly
of low, vulgar life, which, as familiar with it, he depicted
with great spirit (1605-1638).
Brown, Amy, the first wife
of the Duc de Berri, born in England, died in France; the Pope,
in 1816, annulled her marriage, but declared her two daughters
Brown, Charles Brockden,
an American novelist, born in Philadelphia, of Quaker connection;
his best-known fictions are "Wieland," "Edgar
Huntly," &c. (1771-1810).
Brown, Ford Madox, an
English painter, born at Calais; his subjects nearly all of
a historical character, one of which is "Chaucer reciting
his Poetry at the Court of Edward III."; anticipated Pre-Raphaelitism
Brown, Sir George, British
general, born near Elgin, distinguished both in the Peninsular
and in the Crimean war, was severely wounded at Inkerman, when
in command of the Light Division (1790-1863).
Brown, Henry Kirke,
an American sculptor, did a number of statues, a colossal one
of Washington among them (1814-1886).
Brown, John, American slavery
abolitionist; settled in Kansas, and resolutely opposed the
project of making it a slave state; in the interest of emancipation,
with six others, seized on the State armoury at Harper's Ferry
in hope of a rising, entrenched himself armed in it, was surrounded,
seized, tried, and hanged (1800-1859).
Brown, John, of Haddington,
a self-educated Scotch divine, born at Carpow, near Abernethy,
Perthshire, son of a poor weaver, left an orphan at 11, became
a minister of a Dissenting church in Haddington; a man of considerable
learning, and deep piety; author of "Dictionary of the
Bible," and "Self-interpreting Bible" (1722-1787).
Brown, John, M.D., great-grandson
of the preceding, born at Biggar, educated in Edinburgh High
School and at Edinburgh University, was a pupil of James Syme,
the eminent surgeon, and commenced quiet practice in Edinburgh;
author of "Horæ Subsecivæ," "Rab
and his Friends," "Pet Marjorie," "John
Leech," and other works; was a fine and finely-cultured
man, much beloved by all who knew him, and by none more than
by John Ruskin, who says of him, he was "the best and truest
friend of all my life.... Nothing can tell the loss to me in
his death, nor the grief to how many greater souls than mine
that had been possessed in patience through his love" (1810-1882).
Brown, John, M.D., founder
of the Brunonian system of medicine, born at Bunkle, Berwickshire;
reduced diseases into two classes, those resulting from redundancy
of excitation, and those due to deficiency of excitation; author
of "Elements of Medicine" and "Observations on
the Old and New Systems of Physic" (1735-1788). See
Brown, Jones, and Robinson,
three middle-class Englishmen on their travels abroad, as figured
in the pages of Punch, and drawn by Richard Doyle.
Brown, Mount (16,000 ft.),
the highest of the Rocky Mts., in N. America.
Brown, Oliver Madox,
son of Ford Madox, a youth of great promise both as an artist
and poet; died of blood-poisoning (1855-1874).
Brown, Rawdon, historical
scholar, spent his life at Venice in the study of Italian history,
especially in its relation to English history, which he prosecuted
with unwearied industry; his great work, work of 20 years' hard
labour, "Calendar of State Papers and Manuscripts relating
to English Affairs existing in the Archives of Venice and Northern
Italy," left unfinished at his death; died at Venice, where
he spent a great part of his life, where Ruskin found him and
conceived a warm friendship for him (1803-1883).
Brown, Robert, a distinguished
botanist, born at Montrose, son of an Episcopal clergyman; accompanied
an expedition to survey the coast of Australia in 1801, returned
after four years' exploration, with 4000 plants mostly new to
science, which he classified and described in his "Prodromus
Floræ Novæ Hollandiæ"; became librarian
to, and finally president of, the Linnean Society; styled by
Humboldt botanicorum facile princeps; he was a man of
most minute and accurate observation, and of a wide range of
knowledge, much of which died along with him, out of the fear
of committing himself to mistakes (1773-1858).
Brown, Samuel, M.D., chemist,
born in Haddington, grandson of John Brown of Haddington, whose
life was devoted, with the zeal of a mediæval alchemist,
to a reconstruction of the science of atomics, which he did
not live to see realised: a man of genius, a brilliant conversationist
and an associate of the most intellectual
men of his time, among the number De Quincey, Carlyle, and Emerson;
wrote "Lay Sermons on the Theory of Christianity," "Lectures
on the Atomic Theory," and two volumes of "Essays,
Scientific and Literary" (1817-1856).
Brown, Thomas, Scottish
psychologist, born in Kirkcudbrightshire, bred to medicine;
professor of Moral Philosophy in the University of Edinburgh,
colleague and successor to Dugald Stewart; his lectures, all
improvised on the spur of the moment, were published posthumously; "Lectures
on the Philosophy of the Human Mind" established a sixth
sense, which he called the "muscular." He was a man
of precocious talent, and a devoted student, to the injury of
his health and the shortening of his life; he was obliged from
ill-health to resign his professorship after 10 years (1778-1820).
Brown Willy, the highest
peak (1368 ft.) in Cornwall.
Browne, Charles Farrar, a humorist
and satirist, known by the pseudonym of "Artemus Ward,"
born in Maine, U.S.; his first literary effort was as "showman"
to an imaginary travelling menagerie; travelled over America
lecturing, carrying with him a whimsical panorama as affording
texts for his numerous jokes, which he brought with him to London,
and exhibited with the same accompaniment with unbounded success;
he spent some time among the Mormons, and defined their religion
as singular, but their wives plural (1834-1867).
Browne, Hablot Knight,
artist, born in London; illustrated Dickens's works, "Pickwick"
to begin with, under the pseudonym of "Phiz," as well
as the works of Lever, Ainsworth, Fielding, and Smollett, and
the Abbotsford edition of Scott; he was skilful as an etcher
and an architectural draughtsman (1815-1882).
Browne, Robert, founder
of the Brownists, born in Rutland; the first seceder from the
Church of England, and the first to found a Church of his own
on Congregational principles, which he did at Norwich, though
his project of secession proved a failure, and he returned to
the English Church; died in jail at Northampton, where he was
imprisoned for assaulting a constable; he may be accounted the
father of the Congregational body in England (1540-1630).
Browne, Sir Thomas,
physician and religious thinker, born in London; resided at
Norwich for nearly half a century, and died there; was knighted
by Charles II.; "was," Professor Saintsbury says, "the
greatest prose writer perhaps, when all things are taken together,
in the whole range of English"; his principal works are "Religio
Medici," "Inquiries into Vulgar Errors," and "Hydriotaphia,
or Urn-Burial, a Discourse of the Sepulchral Urns found in Norfolk"; "all
of the very first importance in English literature,..."
adds the professor, "the 'Religio Medici' the greatest
favourite, and a sort of key to the others;" "a man,"
says Coleridge, "rich in various knowledge, exuberant in
conceptions and conceits, contemplative, imaginative, often
truly great, and magnificent in his style and diction.... He
is a quiet and sublime enthusiast, with a strong tinge of the
fantastic. He meditated much on death and the hereafter, and
on the former in its relation to, or leading on to, the latter"
Browne William, English
pastoral poet, born at Tavistock; author of "Britannia's
Pastorals" and "The Shepherd's Pipe," a collection
of eclogues and "The Inner Temple and Masque," on
the story of Ulysses and Circe, with some opening exquisitely
beautiful verses, "Steer hither, steer," among them;
was an imitator of Spenser, and a parallel has been instituted
between him and Keats (1590-1645).
Brownie, a good-natured household
elf, believed in Scotland to render obliging services to good
housewives, and his presence an evidence that the internal economies
were approved of, as he favoured good husbandry, and was partial
to houses where it was observed.
Barrett, née Barrett, poetess,
born at Carlton Hall, Durham; a woman of great natural abilities,
which developed early; suffered from injury to her spine; went
to Torquay for her health; witnessed the death by drowning of
a brother, that gave her a shock the effect of which never left
her; published in 1838 "The Seraphim," and in 1844 "The
Cry of the Children"; fell in with and married Robert Browning
in 1846, who immediately took her abroad, settling in Florence;
wrote in 1850 "Sonnets from the Portuguese," in 1851 "Casa
Guidi Windows," and in 1856 "Aurora Leigh," "a
novel in verse," and in 1860 "Poems before Congress";
ranks high, if not highest, among the poetesses of England;
she took an interest all through life in public affairs; her
work is marked by musical diction, sensibility, knowledge, and
imagination, which no poetess has rivalled (1806-1861).
Browning, Robert, poet,
one of the two greatest in the Victorian era, born in Camberwell;
early given to write verses; prepared himself for his literary
career by reading through Johnson's Dictionary; his first poem "Pauline"
(q. v.) published in 1833, which was followed by "Paracelsus"
in 1835, "Sordello" in 1840; after a time, in which
he was not idle, appeared, with some of his "Dramatic Romances
and Lyrics," in 1855 his "Men and Women," and
in 1868 "The Ring and
the Book" (q. v.), his longest poem, and more
analytic than poetic; this was succeeded by a succession of
others, finishing up with "Asolando," which appeared
the day he died at Venice; was a poet of great subtlety, deep
insight, creative power, and strong faith, of a genius and learning
which there are few able to compass the length and breadth of;
lies buried in Westminster Abbey; of Browning it has been said
by Professor Saintsbury, "Timor mortis non conturbabat,
'the fear of death did not trouble him.' In the browner shades
of age as well as in the spring of youth he sang, not like most
poets, Love and Death, but Love and Life.... 'James Lee,' 'Rabbi
Ben Ezra,' and 'Prospice' are among the greatest poems of the
century." His creed was an optimism of the brightest, and
his restful faith "it is all right with the world"
physiologist, born in Mauritius, of American parentage; studied
in Paris; practised in New York, and became a professor in the
Collège de France; made a special study of the nervous
system and nervous diseases, and published works on the subject;
Bruant, a French architect, born
in Paris; architect of the Invalides and the Salpétrière;
Bruat, a French admiral, commanded
the French fleet at the Crimea (1796-1885).
Bruce, a family illustrious in
Scottish history, descended from a Norman knight, Robert de
Bruis, who came over with the Conqueror, and who acquired lands
first in Northumberland and then in Annandale.
Bruce, James, traveller,
called the "Abyssinian," born at Kinnaird House, Stirlingshire,
set out from Cairo in 1768 in quest of the source of
the Nile: believed he had discovered it;
stayed two years in Abyssinia, and returned home by way of France,
elated with his success; felt hurt that no honor was conferred
on him, and for relief from the chagrin wrote an account of
his travels in five quarto vols., the general accuracy of which,
as far as it goes, has been attested by subsequent explorers
Bruce, Michael, a Scotch
poet, born near Loch Leven, in poor circumstances, in the parish
of Portmoak; studied for the Church; died of consumption; his
poems singularly plaintive and pathetic; his title to the authorship
of the "Ode to the Cuckoo" has been matter of contention
Bruce, Robert, rival with
John Baliol for the crown of Scotland on the death of Margaret,
the Maiden of Norway, against whose claim Edward I. decided
in favour of Baliol (1210-1295).
Bruce, Robert, son of
the preceding, earl of Carrick, through Marjory his wife; served
under Edward at the battle of Dunbar for one instance; sued
for the Scottish crown in vain (1269-1304).
Bruce, Robert, king of
Scotland, son of the preceding, did homage for a time to Edward,
but joined the national party and became one of a regency of
four, with Comyn for rival; stabbed Comyn in a quarrel at Dumfries,
1306, and was that same year crowned king at Scone; was defeated
by an army sent against him, and obliged to flee to Rathlin,
Ireland; returned and landed in Carrick; cleared the English
out of all the fortresses except Stirling, and on 24th June
1314 defeated the English under Edward II. at Bannockburn, after
which, in 1328, the independence of Scotland was acknowledged
as well as Bruce's right to the crown; suffering from leprosy,
spent his last two years at Cardross Castle, on the Clyde, where
he died in the thirty-third year of his reign (1274-1329).
Brucin, an alkaloid, allied in
action to strychnine, though much weaker, being only a twenty-fifth
of the strength.
Brückenau, small town
in Bavaria, 17 m. NW. of Kissingen, with mineral springs good
for nervous and skin diseases.
Brucker, historian of philosophy,
born at Augsburg, and a pastor there; author of "Historia
Critica Philosophiæ" (1696-1770).
Brueys, David Augustin
de, French dramatist, born at Aix, an abbé converted
by Bossuet, and actively engaged in propagating the faith; managed
to be joint editor with Palaprat in the production of plays
Bruges (49), cap. of W. Flanders,
in Belgium, intersected by canals crossed by some 50 bridges,
whence its name "Bridges"; one of these canals, of
considerable depth, connecting it with Ostend; though many of
them are now, as well as some of the streets, little disturbed
by traffic, in a decayed and a decaying place, having once had
a population of 200,000; has a number of fine churches, one
specially noteworthy, the church of Notre Dame; it has several
manufactures, textile and chemical, as well as distilleries,
sugar-refineries, and shipbuilding yards.
Brugsch, Heinrich Karl,
a German Egyptologist, born at Berlin; was associated with Mariette
in his excavations at Memphis; became director of the School
of Egyptology at Cairo; his works on the subject are numerous,
and of great value; b. 1827.
Count von, minister of Augustus III., king of Poland,
an unprincipled man, who encouraged his master, and indulged
himself, in silly foppery and wasteful extravagance, so that
when the Seven Years' War broke out he and his master had to
flee from Dresden and seek refuge in Warsaw (1700-1763).
Bruin, the bear personified in
the German epic of "Reynard the Fox."
Brumaire, the 18th (i. e.
the 9th November 1799, the foggy month), the day when Napoleon,
on his return from Egypt, overthrew the Directory and established
himself in power.
Brummell, Beau, born in
London, in his day the prince of dandies; patronised by the
Prince of Wales, afterwards George IV.; quarrelled with the
prince; fled from his creditors to Calais, where, reduced to
destitution, he lived some years in the same reckless fashion;
settled at length in Caen, where he died insane (1778-1805).
Brunck, an able French Hellenist,
classical scholar, and critic, born at Strassburg; edited several
classical works, played a perilous part in the French Revolution;
was imprisoned, and, on his release, had to sell his library
in order to live (1729-1803).
Brune, G. Marie, French
marshal, saw service in the Vendéan war and in Italy,
distinguished himself under Napoleon in Italy and Holland; submitted
to Bourbons in 1814; joined Napoleon on his return from Elba;
was appointed to a post of command in the S. of France, but
had to surrender after Waterloo, and was attacked by a mob of
Royalists at Avignon as he was setting out for Paris, and brutally
murdered and his body thrown into the Rhône (1763-1815).
Brunel, Sir Isambard,
engineer, born in Rouen, entered the French navy, emigrated
to the United States; was chief engineer of New York; settled
in England, became block-maker to the Royal Navy; constructed
the Thames tunnel, begun in 1825 and finished in 1843 (1759-1849).
Brunel, Isambard Kingdom,
son of the preceding, assisted his father in his engineering
operations, in particular the Thames tunnel; was engineer of
the Great Western Railway; designed the Great Western
steamship, the first to cross the Atlantic; was the first to
apply the screw propeller to steam navigation; designed and
constructed the Great Eastern; constructed bridges and
naval docks (1806-1859).
Brunelleschi, Italian architect,
born in Florence, bred a goldsmith, studied at Rome; returned
to his native city, built the Duomo of the Cathedral, the Pitti
Palace, and the churches of San Lorenzo and Spirito Santo (1377-1444).
critic, connected with the Revue des Deux Mondes and
now editor; a very sound and sensible critic; his chief work,
begun in the form of lectures in 1890, entitled "L'Évolution
des Genres de l'Histoire de la Littérature Française";
according to Prof. Saintsbury, promises to be one of the chief
monuments that the really "higher" criticism has yet
furnished; b. 1849.
Italian writer, who played an important part among the Guelfs,
and was obliged to flee to Paris, where he had Dante for a pupil
Brunhilda, a masculine queen
in the "Nibelungen Lied" who offered to marry the
man that could beat her in feats of strength, was deceived by
Siegfried into marrying Gunther, and meditated the death of
Siegfried, who had married her rival Chriemhilda, which she
accomplished by the hand of Hagen. Also a queen of Austrasia,
who, about the 7th century, had a lifelong quarrel with Fredegunde,
queen of Neustria, the other division of the Frankish world,
which at her death she seized possession of for a time, but
was overthrown by Clothaire II., Fredegunde's son, and dragged
to death at the heels of an infuriated wild horse.
Bruni, Leonardo, Italian
humanist, born at Arezzo, hence called Aretino; was papal secretary;
settled in Florence, and wrote a history of it; did much by
his translations of Greek authors to promote the study of Greek
Brünn (95), Austrian city,
capital of Moravia, beautifully situated, 93 m. N. of Vienna,
with large manufactures; woollens the staple of the country;
about one-half of the population Czechs.
Brunnow, Count von,
a Russian diplomatist, born at Dresden; represented Russia in
several conferences, and was twice ambassador at the English
Bruno, Giordano, a bold
and fervid original thinker, born at Nola, in Italy; a Dominican
monk, quitted his monastery, in fact, was for heterodoxy obliged
to flee from it; attached himself to Calvin for a time, went
for more freedom to Paris, attacked the scholastic philosophy,
had to leave France as well; spent two years in England in friendship
with Sir Philip Sidney, propagated his views in Germany and
Italy, was arrested by the Inquisition, and after seven years
spent in prison was burned as a heretic; he was a pantheist,
and regarded God as the living omnipresent soul of the universe,
and Nature as the living garment of God, as the Earth-Spirit
does in Goethe's "Faust"—a definition of Nature
in relation to God which finds favour in the pages of "Sartor
Resartus"; d. 1600.
Bruno, St., born at Cologne,
retired to a lonely spot near Grenoble with six others, where
each lived in cells apart, and they met only on Sundays; founder
of the Carthusian Order of Monks, the first house of which was
established in the desert of Chartreuse (1030-1101). Festival,
Bruno the Great, third
son of Henry the Fowler; archbishop of Cologne, chancellor of
the Empire, a great lover of learning, and promoter of it among
the clergy, who he thought should, before all, represent and
encourage it (928-965).
Brunonian System, a
system which regards and treats diseases as due to defective
or excessive excitation, as sthenic or asthenic. See
Brunswick (404), a N. German
duchy, made up of eight detached parts, mostly in the upper
basin of the Weser; is mountainous, and contains part of the
Harz Mts.; climate and crops are those of N. Germany generally.
Brunswick (101), the capital, a busy commercial town,
once a member of the Hanseatic League, and fell into comparative
decay after the decay of the League, on the Oker, 140 m. SW.
of Berlin; an irregularly built city, it has a cathedral, and
manufactures textiles, leather, and sewing-machines.
William, Duke of, Prussian general, commanded the Prussian
and Austrian forces levied to put down the French Revolution;
emitted a violent, blustering manifesto, but a Revolutionary
army under Dumouriez and Kellermann met him at Valmy, and compelled
him to retreat in 1792; was beaten by Davout at Auerstädt,
and mortally wounded (1735-1806).
William, Duke of, brother of Queen Caroline; raised
troops against France, which, being embarked for England, took
part in the Peninsular war; fell fighting at Ligny, two days
before the battle of Waterloo (1771-1815).
Brussels (477), on the Senne,
27 m. S. of Antwerp, is the capital of Belgium, in the heart
of the country. The old town is narrow and crooked, but picturesque;
the town-hall a magnificent building. The new town is well built,
and one of the finest in Europe. There are many parks, boulevards,
and squares; a cathedral, art-gallery, museum and library, university
and art schools. It is Paris in miniature. The manufactures
include linen, ribbons, and paper; a ship-canal and numerous
railways foster commerce.
Brutus, Lucius Junius,
the founder of Republican Rome, in the 6th century B.C.; affected
idiocy (whence his name, meaning stupid); it saved his life
when Tarquin the Proud put his brother to death; but when Tarquin's
son committed an outrage on Lucretia, he threw off his disguise,
headed a revolt, and expelled the tyrant; was elected one of
the two first Consuls of Rome; sentenced his two sons to death
for conspiring to restore the monarchy; fell repelling an attempt
to restore the Tarquins in a hand-to-hand combat with Aruns,
one of the sons of the banished king.
Brutus, Marcus Junius,
a descendant of the preceding, and son of Cato Uticensis's sister;
much beloved by Cæsar and Cæsar's friend, but persuaded
by Cassius and others to believe that Cæsar aimed at the
overthrow of the republic; joined the conspirators, and was
recognised by Cæsar among the conspirators as party to
his death; forced to flee from Rome after the event, was defeated
at Philippi by Antony and Augustus, but escaped capture by falling
on a sword held out to him by one of his friends, exclaiming
as he did so, "O Virtue, thou art but a name!" (85-42
Bruyère, a French writer,
author of "Charactères de Théophraste,"
a satire on various characters and manners of his time (1644-1696).
Bryan, William Jennings,
American statesman, born in Salem, Illinois; bred to the bar
and practised at it; entered Congress in 1890 as an extreme
Free Silver man; lost his seat from his uncompromising views
on that question; was twice nominated for the Presidency in
opposition to Mr McKinley, but defeated; b. 1860.
Bryant, William Cullen,
American poet; his poems were popular in America, the chief, "The
Age," published in 1821; was 50 years editor of the
New York Evening Post; wrote short poems all through his
life, some of the later his best (1794-1878).
Bryce, James, historian and
politician, born at Belfast; Fellow of Oriel College, Oxford;
bred to the bar; for a time professor of Civil Law at Oxford;
entered Parliament in 1880; was member of Mr. Gladstone's last
cabinet; his chief literary work, "The Holy Roman Empire,"
a work of high literary merit; b. 1838.
Brydges, Sir Samuel
Egerton, English antiquary, born at Wootton House, in
Kent; called to the bar, but devoted to literature; was M.P.
for Maidstone for six years; lived afterwards and died at Geneva;
wrote novels and poems, and edited old English writings of interest
Bubastis, an Egyptian goddess,
the Egyptian Diana, the wife of Ptah; and a city in Lower Egypt,
on the eastern branch of the Nile.
Buccaneers, an association,
chiefly English and French, of piratical adventurers in the
16th and 17th centuries, with their head-quarters in the Caribbean
Sea, organised to plunder the ships of the Spaniards in resentment
of the exclusive right they claimed to the wealth of the S.
American continent, which they were carrying home across the
Buccleuch, a glen 18 m. SW.
of Selkirk, with a stronghold of the Scott family, giving the
head the title of earl or duke.
Bucen`taur, the state galley,
worked by oars and manned by 168 rowers, in which the Doge of
Venice used to sail on the occasion of the annual ceremony of
wedding anew the Adriatic Sea by sinking a ring in it.
Buceph`alus (i. e.
ox-head), the horse which Alexander the Great, while yet a youth,
broke in when no one else could, and on which he rode through
all his campaigns; it died in India from a wound. The town,
Bucephala, on the Hydaspes, was built near its grave.
Bucer Martin, a German Reformer,
born at Strassburg; originally a Dominican, adopted the Reformed
faith, ministered as pastor and professor in his native place,
differed in certain matters from both Luther and Zwingli, while
he tried to reconcile them; invited by Cranmer to England, he
accepted the invitation, and became professor of Divinity at
Cambridge, where he died, but his bones were exhumed and burned
a few years later (1491-1551).
Buch, Leopold von, a
German geologist, a pupil of Werner and fellow-student of Alexander
von Humboldt, who esteemed him highly; adopted the volcanic
theory of the earth; wrote no end of scientific memoirs (1774-1853).
Buchan, a district in the NE.
of Aberdeenshire, between the rivers Deveron and Ythan; abounds
in magnificent rock scenery. The Comyns were earls of it till
they forfeited the title in 1309.
born at Cambuslang, near Glasgow, chaplain in Barrackpur under
the East India Company, vice-provost of the College at Fort
William, Calcutta; one of the first to awaken an interest in
India as a missionary field; wrote "Christian Researches
in Asia" (1756-1815).
Buchanan, George, a most
distinguished scholar and humanist, born at Killearn, Stirlingshire;
educated at St. Andrews and Paris; professor for three years
in the College at St. Barbe; returned to Scotland, became tutor
to James V.'s illegitimate sons; imprisoned by Cardinal Beaton
for satires against the monks, escaped to France; driven from
one place to another, imprisoned in a monastery in Portugal
at the instance of the Inquisition, where he commenced his celebrated
Latin version of the Psalms; came back to Scotland, was appointed
in 1562 tutor to Queen Mary, in 1566 principal of St. Leonard's
College, in St. Andrews, in 1567 moderator of the General Assembly
in 1570 tutor to James VI., and had several offices of State
conferred on him; wrote a "History of Scotland," and
his book "De Jure Regni," against the tyranny of peoples
by kings; died in Edinburgh without enough to bury him; was
buried at the public expense in Greyfriars' churchyard; when
dying, it is said he asked his housekeeper to examine his money-box
and see if there was enough to bury him, and when he found there
was not, he ordered her to distribute what there was among his
poor neighbours and left it to the city to bury him or not as
they saw good (1506-1582).
Buchanan, James, statesman
of the United States, was ambassador in London in 1853, made
President in 1856, the fifteenth in order, at the time when
the troubles between the North and South came to a head, favoured
the South, retired after his Presidentship into private life
Buchanan, Robert, a writer
in prose and verse, born in Warwickshire, educated at Glasgow
University; his first work, "Undertones," a volume
of verse published by him in 1863, and he has since written
a goodly number of poems, some of them of very high merit, the
last "The Wandering Jew," which attacks the Christian
religion; besides novels, has written magazine articles, and
one in particular, which involved him in some trouble; b.1841.
Buchanites, a fanatical sect
who appeared in the W. of Scotland in 1783, named after a Mrs.
Buchan, who claimed to be the woman mentioned in Rev. xii.
Bucharest (220), capital of
Roumania, picturesquely situated on the Dambovitza, a tributary
of the Danube, in a fertile plain, 180 m. from the Black Sea;
is a meanly built but well-fortified town, with the reputation
of the most dissolute capital in Europe; there is a Catholic
cathedral and a university; it is the emporium of trade between
the Balkan and Austria; textiles, grain, hides, metal, and coal
are the chief articles in its markets.
Buchez, Joseph, a French
historian, politician, and Socialist; joined the St. Simonian
Society, became a Christian Socialist, and a collaborateur in
an important historical work, the "Parliamentary History
of the French Revolution"; figured in political life after
the Revolution of 1848, but retired to private life after the
establishment of the Empire (1796-1865).
physician and materialist, born at Darmstadt; lectured at Tübingen
University; wrote a book entitled "Kraft und Stoff,"
i. e. Force and Matter, and had to retire into private
practice as a physician on account of its materialistic philosophy,
which he insisted on teaching (1824-1899).
Buchon, a learned Frenchman;
wrote chronologies of French history (1791-1846).
Villiers, Duke of, favourite of James I. and Charles
I., born in Leicestershire; rose under favour of the former
to the highest offices and dignities of the State; provoked
by his conduct wars with Spain and France; fell into disfavour
with the people; was assassinated at Portsmouth by Lieutenant
Felton, on the eve of his embarking for Rochelle (1592-1628).
George Villiers, Duke of, son of the preceding; served
under Charles I. in the Civil War, was at the battle of Worcester;
became minister of Charles II.; a profligate courtier and an
unprincipled man (1627-1688).
Buckingham, James Silk,
traveller and journalist, born in Falmouth; conducted a journal
in Calcutta, and gave offence to the East India Company by his
outspokenness; had to return to England, where his cause was
warmly taken up; by his writings and speeches paved the way
for the abolition of the Company's charter (1784-1855).
English S. midland county, lying E. of Oxford, W. of Bedford
and Hertford, is full of beautiful and varied scenery; hill,
dale, wood, and water. The Thames forms the southern boundary,
the Ouse flows through the N., and the Thame through the centre.
The Chiltern Hills cross the county. Agriculture is the prevailing
industry; dairy produce, cattle and poultry feeding, and sheep
rearing the sources of wealth. The county town is Buckingham
(3), on the Ouse, 60 m. NW. of London.
Buckland, Francis (Frank),
naturalist, son of the succeeding, bred to medicine; devoted
to the study of animal life; was inspector of salmon fisheries;
wrote "Curiosities of Natural History," "Familiar
History of British Fishes," &c.; contributed largely
to the journals, such as the Field, and edited Land
and Water, which he started in 1866 (1826-1880).
Buckland, William, a
distinguished geologist, born at Tiverton; had a predilection
from boyhood for natural science; awoke in Oxford University
an interest in it by his lectures on mineralogy and geology;
his pen was unceasingly occupied with geological subjects; exerted
himself to reconcile the teachings of
science with the accounts in Genesis; was made Dean of Westminster
by Sir Robert Peel; his intellect gave way in 1850, and he remained
in mental weakness till his death (1784-1856).
Buckle, George Earle,
editor of the Times, born near Bath; studied at Oxford,
where he distinguished himself; is a Fellow of All Souls' College;
became editor in 1884, having previously belonged to the editorial
staff; b. 1854.
Buckle, Henry Thomas,
an advanced thinker, born in Lee, in Kent; in delicate health
from his infancy, too ambitious for his powers, thought himself
equal to write the "History of Civilisation in England,"
in connection with that of Europe, tried it, but failed; visited
the East for his health, and died at Damascus; his theory as
regards the development of civilisation is, that national character
depends on material environment, and that progress depends upon
the emancipation of rationality, an extremely imperfect reading
and rendering of the elements at work, and indeed a total omission
of nearly all the more vital ones; he was distinguished as a
Buckstone, John Baldwin,
an able comic actor and popular dramatist, born in London; for
a long period the lessee of the Haymarket Theatre, London (1802-1870).
Buda-Pesth (506), a twin
city, the capital of Hungary, on the Danube; Buda (Ger. Ofen)
on the right bank and Pesth on the left, the two cities being
connected by a suspension bridge, the former on a rocky elevation
and the latter on level ground; a great commercial centre.
Budastis, an ancient town in
Lower Egypt, where festivals in honour of Bacchus used to be
held every year.
Buddha, Gautama, or Sakya-muni,
the founder of Buddhism about the 5th century B.C., born a Hindu,
of an intensely contemplative nature, the son of a king, who
did everything in his power to tempt him from a religious life,
from which, however, in his contemplation of the vanity of existence,
nothing could detain him; retired into solitude at the age of
30, as Sakyamuni, i. e. solitary of the Sakyas, his tribe;
consulted religious books, could get no good out of them, till,
by-and-by, he abstracted himself more and more from everything
external, when at the end of ten years, as he sat brooding under
the Bo-tree alone with the universe, soul with soul, the light
of truth rose full-orbed upon him, and he called himself henceforth
and gave himself out as Buddha, i. e. the Enlightened;
now he said to himself, "I know it all," as Mahomet
in his way did after him, and became a preacher to others of
what had proved salvation to himself, which he continued to
do for 40 years, leaving behind him disciples, who went forth
without sword, like Christ's, to preach what they, like Christ's,
believed was a gospel to every creature.
Buddhism, the religion of Buddha,
a religion which, eschewing all speculation about God and the
universe, set itself solely to the work of salvation, the end
of which was the merging of the individual in the unity of being,
and the "way" to which was the mortification of all
private passion and desire which mortification, when finished,
was the Buddhist Nirvâna. This is the primary doctrine
of the Buddhist faith, which erelong became a formality, as
all faiths of the kind, or of this high order, ever tend to
do. Buddha is not answerable for this, but his followers, who
in three successive councils resolved it into a system of formulæ,
which Buddha, knowing belike how the letter killeth and only
the spirit giveth life, never attempted to do. Buddha wrote
none himself, but in some 300 years after his death his teachings
assumed a canonical form, under the name of Tripitaka, or triple
basket, as it is called. Buddhism from the first was a proselytising
religion; it at one time overran the whole of India, and though
it is now in small favour there, it is, in such form as it has
assumed, often a highly beggarly one, understood to be the religion
of 340 millions of the human race.
Bude-light, a very brilliant
light produced by introducing oxygen into the centre of an Argand
burner, so called from the place of the inventor's abode.
Budweis (28), a Bohemian trading
town on the Moldau, 133 m. NW. of Vienna.
Buenos Ayres (543), capital
of the Argentine Republic, stands on the right bank of the broad
but shallow river Plate, 150 m. from the Atlantic; it is a progressing
city, improving in appearance, with a cathedral, several Protestant
churches, a university and military school, libraries and hospitals;
printing, cigar-making, cloth and boot manufacture are the leading
industries; it is the principal Argentine port, and the centre
of export and import trade; the climate does not correspond
with the name it bears; a great deal of the foreign trade is
conducted through Monte Video, but it monopolises all the inland
Buffalo (256), a city of New
York State, at the E. end of Lake Erie, 300 m. due NW. of New
York; is a well-built, handsome, and healthy city; the railways
and the Erie Canal are channels of extensive commerce in grain,
cattle, and coal; while immense iron-works, tanneries, breweries,
and flour-mills represent the industries; electric power for
lighting, traction, &c., is supplied from Niagara.
Louis Leclerc, Comte de, a great French naturalist,
born at Montbard, in Burgundy; his father one of the noblesse
de robe; studied law at Dijon; spent some time in England,
studying the English language; devoted from early years to science,
though more to the display of it, and to natural science for
life on being appointed intendant of the Jardin du Roi; assisted,
and more than assisted, by Daubenton and others, produced 15
vols. of his world-famous "Histoire Naturelle" between
the years 1749 and 1767. The saying "Style is the man"
is ascribed to him, and he has been measured by some according
to his own standard. Neither his style nor his science is rated
of any high value now: "Buffon was as pompous and inflated
as his style" (1707-1780).
Bugeaud, Thomas, marshal
of France, born at Limoges; served under Napoleon; retired from
service till 1830; served under Louis Philippe; contributed
to the conquest of Algiers; was made governor, and created duke
for his victory over the forces of the emperor of Morocco at
the battle of Isly in 1844; his motto was Ense et aratro, "By
sword and plough" (1784-1849).
a German Reformer, a convert of Luther's and coadjutor; helpful
to the cause as an organiser of churches and schools (1485-1558).
Bugge, Norwegian philologist,
professor at Christiania; b. 1833.
Buhl, ornamental work for furniture,
which takes its name from the inventor (see
infra), consisted in
piercing or inlaying metal with tortoise-shell or enamel, or
with metals of another colour; much in fashion in Louis XIV.'s
Buhl, Charles André,
an Italian cabinet-maker, inventor of
the work which bears his name (1642-1732).
Bukowina (640), a small prov.
and duchy in the E. of Austria-Hungary; rich in minerals, breeds
cattle and horses.
Bulgaria, with Eastern Roumelia
(3,154), constitutes a Balkan principality larger than Ireland,
with hills and fertile plains in the N., mountains and forests
in the S.; Turkey is the southern boundary, Servia the western,
the Danube the northern, while the Black Sea washes the eastern
shores. The climate is mild, the people industrious; the chief
export is cereals; manufactures of woollens, attar of roses,
wine and tobacco, are staple industries; the chief import is
live stock. Sofia (50), the capital, is the seat of a
university. Varna (28), on the Black Sea, is the principal
port. Bulgaria was cut out of Turkey and made independent in
1878, and Eastern Roumelia incorporated with it in 1885.
Bull, an edict of the Pope, so
called from a leaden seal attached to it.
Bull, George, bishop of St.
Davids, born at Wells; a stanch Churchman; wrote "Harmonia
Apostolica" in reconciliation of the teachings of Paul
and James on the matter of justification, and "Defensio
Fidei Nicenæ," in vindication of the Trinity as enunciated
in the Athanasian Creed
(q. v.), and denied or modified by Arians, Socinians,
and Sabellians (1634-1709).
Bull, John, a humorous impersonation
of the collective English people, conceived of as well-fed,
good-natured, honest-hearted, justice-loving, and plain-spoken;
the designation is derived from Arbuthnot's satire, "The
History of John Bull," in which the Church of England figures
as his mother.
Bull, Ole Bornemann,
a celebrated violinist, born in Bergen, Norway, pupil of Paganini;
was a wise man at making money, but a fool in spending it (1810-1880).
Bull Run, a stream in Virginia,
U.S., 25 m. from Washington, where the Union army was twice
defeated by the Confederate, July 1861 and August 1862.
Bullant, a French architect
and sculptor; built the tombs of Montmorency, Henry II., and
Catherine de Medicis, as well as wrought at the Tuileries and
the Louvre (1510-1578).
Buller, Charles, a politician,
born in Calcutta, pupil of Thomas Carlyle; entered Parliament
at 24, a Liberal in politics; held distinguished State appointments;
died in his prime, universally beloved and respected (1806-1848).
Sir Redvers Henry, served in China, Ashanti, South Africa,
Egypt, and the Soudan, with marked distinction in the 60th King's
Royal Rifles; has held staff appointments, and was for a short
time Under-Secretary for Ireland; b. 1839.
a Swiss Reformer, born in Aargau; friend and successor of Zwingli;
assisted in drawing up the Helvetic Confession; was a correspondent
of Lady Jane Grey (1504-1575).
Bulls and Bears, in the
Stock Exchange, the bull being one who buys in the hope that
the value may rise, and the bear one who sells in the hope that
it may fall. See Bear.
Bülow, Bernard von,
Foreign Secretary of the German empire; early entered the Foreign
Office, and has done important diplomatic work in connection
with it, having been secretary to several embassies and chargé
d'affaires to Greece during the Russo-Turkish war; b.
Wilhelm, Baron von, a Prussian general; served his country
in the war with Revolutionary France; defeated the French under
the Empire in several engagements, and contributed to the victory
at Waterloo, heading the column that first came to Wellington's
aid at the decisive moment (1755-1816).
Bülow, Guido von,
a famous pianist, pupil of Liszt (1830-1894).
Buloz, a French littérateur,
born near Geneva; originator of the Revue des Deux Mondes
Bulwer, Henry Lytton,
an experienced and successful diplomatist, served the Liberal
interest; was party to the conclusion of several important treaties;
wrote several works, "An Autumn in Greece," a "Life
of Byron," &c. (1801-1872).
Bumble, Mr., a beadle in "Oliver
Bunau, a German historian, author
of a "History of the Seven Years' War" (1697-1762).
Buncombe, a district in N.
Carolina, for the ears of the constituency of which a dull speech
was some years ago delivered in the U.S. Congress, whence the
phrase to "talk Buncombe," i. e. to please
Bundelkhand (2,000), a territory
in NW. Provinces, India, between the Chambal and the Jumna;
has been extensively irrigated at great labour and expense.
Bunker Hill, an eminence
112 ft., now included in Boston, the scene on 19th June 1775
of the first great battle in the American War of Independence.
Bunsby, Jack, commander of
a ship in "Dombey & Son," regarded as an oracle
by Captain Cuttle.
Bunsen, Baron von, a
diplomatist and man of letters, born at Korbach; in Waldeck;
studied at Marburg and Göttingen; became acquainted with
Niebuhr at Berlin; studied Oriental languages under Silvestre
de Sacy at Paris; became secretary, under Niebuhr, to the Prussian
embassy at Rome; recommended himself to the king, and succeeded
Niebuhr; became ambassador in Switzerland and then in England;
was partial to English institutions, and much esteemed in England;
wrote the "Church of the Future," "Hippolytus
and his Age," &c. (1791-1860).
Bunsen, Robert William,
a distinguished German chemist, born at Göttingen, settled
as professor of Chemistry at Heidelberg; invented the charcoal
pile, the magnesian light, and the burner called after him;
discovered the antidote to arsenic, with hydrate of iron and
the Spectrum Analysis
(q. v.); b. 1811.
Bunsen Burner, a small
gas-jet above which is screwed a brass tube with holes at the
bottom of it to let in air, which burns with the gas, and causes
at the top a non-luminous flame; largely used in chemical operations.
Bunyan, John, author of the "Pilgrim's
Progress," born in Elstow, near Bedford, the son of a tinker,
and bred himself to that humble craft; he was early visited
with religious convictions, and brought, after a time of resistance
to them, to an earnest faith in the gospel of Christ, his witness
for which to his poor neighbours led to his imprisonment, an
imprisonment which extended first and last over twelve and a
half years, and it was towards the close of it, and in the precincts
of Bedford jail, in the spring of 1676, that he dreamed his
world-famous dream; here two-thirds of it were written, the
whole finished the year after, and published at the end of it;
extended, it came out eventually in two parts, but it is the
first part that is the Pilgrim's Progress, and ensures it the
place it holds in the religious literature of the world; encouraged
by the success of it—for it leapt
into popularity at a bound—Bunyan wrote some sixty other
books, but except this, his masterpiece, not more than two of
these, "Grace Abounding" and the "Holy War,"
continue to be read (1628-1688).
Buontalenti, an Italian
artist, born at Florence, one of the greatest, being, like Michael
Angelo, at once architect, painter, and sculptor (1536-1608).
Burbage, Richard, English
tragedian, born in London, associate of Shakespeare, took the
chief rôle in "Hamlet," "King Lear," "Richard
III.," &c. (1562-1618).
Burchell, Mr., a character
in the "Vicar of Wakefield," noted for his habit of
applying "fudge" to everything his neighbours affected
Burckhardt, Swiss historian
and archæologist, born at Bâle, author of "Civilisation
in Italy during the Renaissance"; b. 1818.
Burckhardt, John Ludvig,
traveller, born at Lausanne, sent out from England by the African
Association to explore Africa; travelled by way of Syria; acquired
a proficiency in Arabic, and assumed Arabic customs; pushed
on to Mecca as a Mussulman pilgrim—the first Christian
to risk such a venture; returned to Egypt, and died at Cairo
just as he was preparing for his African exploration; his travels
were published after his death, and are distinguished for the
veracious reports of things they contain (1784-1817).
Burder, George, Congregational
minister, became secretary to the London Missionary Society,
author of "Village Sermons," which were once widely
Burdett, Sir Francis,
a popular member of Parliament, married Sophia, the youngest
daughter of Thomas Coutts, a wealthy London banker, and acquired
through her a large fortune; becoming M.P., he resolutely opposed
the government measures of the day, and got himself into serious
trouble; advocated radical measures of reform, many of which
have since been adopted; was prosecuted for a libel; fined £1000
for condemning the Peterloo massacre, and imprisoned three months;
joined the Conservative party in 1835, and died a member of
Burdett-Coutts, The Right Honourable Angela Georgina, Baroness,
daughter of Sir Francis, inherited the wealth of Thomas Coutts,
her grandfather, which she has devoted to all manner of philanthropic
as well as patriotic objects; was made a peeress in 1871; received
the freedom of the city of London in 1874, and in 1881 married
Mr. William Lehman Ashmead-Bartlett, an American, who obtained
the royal license to assume the name of Burdett-Coutts; b.
Bureau, a name given to a department
of public administration, hence bureaucracy, a name for government
August, a German lyric poet, author of the ballads "Lenore,"
which was translated by Sir Walter Scott, and "The Wild
Huntsman," as well as songs; led a wild life in youth,
and a very unhappy one in later years; died in poverty (1747-1794).
Burgkmair, Hans, painter
and engraver, born at Augsburg; celebrated for his woodcuts,
amounting to nearly 700 (1473-1531).
Burgos (34), ancient cap. of
Old Castile, on the Arlanzon, 225 m. N. of Madrid by rail; boasts
a magnificent cathedral of the Early Pointed period, and an
old castle; was the birthplace of the Cid, and once a university
seat; it has linen and woollen industries.
Burgoyne, John, English
general, and distinguished as the last sent out to subdue the
revolt in the American colonies, and, after a victory or two,
being obliged to capitulate to General Gates at Saratoga, fell
into disfavour; defended his conduct with ability and successfully
afterwards; devoted his leisure to poetry and the drama, the "Heiress"
in the latter his best (1723-1792).
Burgoyne, Sir John,
field-marshal, joined the Royal Engineers, served under Abercromby
in Egypt, and under Sir John Moore and Wellington in Spain;
was present at the battles of Alma, Balaclava, and Inkerman
in the Crimea; was governor of the Tower (1782-1871).
Burgundy was, prior to the
16th century, a Teutonic duchy of varying extent in the SE.
and E. of France; annexed to France as a province in the 6th
century; the country is still noted for its wines.
Burhanpur (32), a town in
the Central Provinces of India, in the Nimar district, 280 m.
NE. of Bombay; was at one time a centre of the Mogul power in
the Deccan, and a place of great extent; is now in comparative
decay, but still famous, as formerly, for its muslins, silks,
Buridan, Jean, a scholastic
doctor of the 14th century, born in Artois, and famous as the
reputed author, though there is no evidence of it in his works,
of the puzzle of the hungry and thirsty ass, called after him
Buridan's Ass, between a bottle of hay and a pail of water,
a favourite illustration of his in discussing the freedom of
Burke, Edmund, orator and
philosophic writer, born at Dublin, and educated at Dublin University;
entered Parliament in 1765; distinguished himself by his eloquence
on the Liberal side, in particular by his speeches on the American
war, Catholic emancipation, and economical reform; his greatest
oratorical efforts were his orations in support of the impeachment
of Warren Hastings; he was a resolute enemy of the French Revolution,
and eloquently denounced it in his "Reflections,"
a weighty appeal; wrote in early life two small but notable
treatises, "A Vindication of Natural Society," and
another on our ideas of the "Sublime and Beautiful,"
which brought him into contact with the philosophic intellects
of the time, and sometime after planned the "Annual Register,"
to which he was to the last chief contributor. "He was,"
says Professor Saintsbury, "a rhetorician (i. e.
an expert in applying the art of prose literature to the purpose
of suasion), and probably the greatest that modern times has
ever produced" (1730-1797).
Burke, Sir John Bernard,
genealogist, born in London, of Irish descent, author of the "Peerage
and Baronetage of the United Kingdom"; produced, besides
editing successive editions of it, a number of works on aristocratic
Burke, Robert O'Hara,
Australian explorer, born in Galway; conducted an expedition
across Australia, but on the way back both he and his companion
Wells perished, after terrible sufferings from privation and
Burke, William, a notorious
murderer, native of Ireland; executed in 1828 for wholesale
murders of people in Edinburgh by suffocation, after intoxicating
them with drink, whose bodies he sold for dissection to an Edinburgh
anatomist of the name of Knox, whom the citizens mobbed; he
had an accomplice as bad as himself, who, becoming informer,
Burkitt, William, Biblical
expositor, born in Suffolk; author of "Expository Notes
on the New Testament," once held in high esteem (1650-1703).
Burleigh, William Cecil, Lord,
a great statesman, born in Lincolnshire; bred to the legal profession,
and patronised and promoted by the Protector Somerset; managed
to escape the Marian persecution; Queen Elizabeth recognised
his statesman-like qualities, and appointed him chief-secretary
of state, an office which, to the glory of the queen and the
good of the country, he held for forty years, till his death.
His administration was conducted in the interest of the commonweal
without respect of persons, and nearly all his subordinates
were men of honour as well as himself (1520-1598).
Burlingame, Anson, American
diplomatist; sent ambassador to China, and returned as Chinese
envoy to the American and European courts; concluded treaties
between them and China (1820-1870).
Burma (9,606), a vast province
of British India, lying E. of the Bay of Bengal, and bounded
landward by Bengal, Tibet, China, and Siam; the country is mountainous,
drained by the Irawadi, Salween, and Sittang Rivers, whose deltas
are flat fertile plains; the heights on the Chinese frontier
reach 15,000 ft; the climate varies with the elevation, but
is mostly hot and trying; rice is the chief crop; the forests
yield teak, gum, and bamboo; the mines, iron, copper, lead,
silver, and rubies. Lower Burma is the coast-land from Bengal
to Siam, cap. Rangoon, and was seized by Britain in 1826 and
1854. Upper Burma, cap. Mandalay, an empire nearly as large
as Spain, was annexed in 1886.
Burn, Richard, English vicar,
born in Westmoreland; compiled several law digests, the best
known his "Justice of the Peace" and "Ecclesiastical
Burnaby, Colonel, a traveller
of daring adventure, born at Bedford, a tall, powerful man;
Colonel of the Horse Guards Blue; travelled in South and Central
America, and with Gordon in the Soudan; was chiefly distinguished
for his ride to Khiva in 1875 across the steppes of Tartary,
of which he published a spirited account, and for his travels
next year in Asia Minor and Persia, and his account of them
in "On Horseback through Asia Minor"; killed, pierced
by an Arab spear, at Abu Klea as he was rallying a broken column
to the charge; he was a daring aëronaut, having in 1882
crossed the Channel to Normandy in a balloon (1842-1885).
Burnand, Francis Cowley,
editor of Punch; studied for the Church, and became a
Roman Catholic; an expert at the burlesque, and author of a
series of papers, entitled "Happy Thoughts," which
give evidence of a most keen, observant wit: b. 1836.
Burne-Jones, Sir Edward,
artist, born at Birmingham, of Welsh descent; came early under
the influence of the Pre-Raphaelite movement, and all along
produced works imbued with the spirit of it, which is at once
mystical in conception and realistic in execution; he was one
of the foremost, if not the foremost, of the artists of his
day; imbued with ideas that were specially capable of art-treatment;
William Morris and he were bosom friends from early college
days at Oxford, and used to spend their Sunday mornings together
Burnes, Sir Alexander,
born at Montrose, his father a cousin of Robert Burns; was an
officer in the Indian army; distinguished for the services he
rendered to the Indian Government through his knowledge of the
native languages; appointed Resident at Cabul; was murdered,
along with his brother and others, by an Afghan mob during an
Burnet, Gilbert, bishop
of Salisbury, born at Edinburgh, of an old Aberdeen family;
professor of Divinity in Glasgow; afterwards preacher at the
Rolls Chapel, London; took an active part in supporting the
claims of the Prince of Orange to the English throne; was rewarded
with a bishopric, that of Salisbury; wrote the "History
of the Reformation," an "Exposition of the Thirty-nine
Articles," the "History of His Own Times"; he
was a Whig in politics, a broad Churchman in creed, and a man
of strict moral principle as well as Christian charity; the
most famous of his works is his "History of His Own Times,"
a work which Pope, Swift, and others made the butt of their
Burnet, John, engraver and
author, born at Fisherrow; engraved Wilkie's works, and wrote
on art (1784-1868).
Burnet, Thomas, master
of the Charterhouse, born in Yorkshire, author of the "Sacred
Theory of the Earth," eloquent in descriptive parts, but
written wholly in ignorance of the facts (1635-1715).
Burnett, Frances Hodgson,
novelist, born in Manchester, resident for a time in America;
wrote "That Lass o' Lowrie's," and other stories of
Lancashire manufacturing life, characterised by shrewd observation,
pathos, and descriptive power; b. 1849.
Burney, Charles, musical
composer and organist, born at Shrewsbury; a friend of Johnson's;
author of "The History of Music," and the father of
Madame d'Arblay; settled in London as a teacher of music (1726-1814).
Burney, Charles, son
of preceding, a great classical scholar; left a fine library,
purchased by the British Museum for £13,500 (1757-1817).
Burney, James, brother of
preceding, rear-admiral, accompanied Cook in his last two voyages;
wrote "History of Voyages of Discovery" (1750-1821).
Burnley (87), a manufacturing
town in Lancashire, 27 m. N. of Manchester; with cotton mills,
foundries, breweries, &c.
Burnouf, Eugene, an illustrious
Orientalist, born in Paris; professor of Sanskrit in the College
of France; an authority on Zend or Zoroastrian literature; edited
the text of and translated the "Bhâgavata Purána,"
a book embodying Hindu mythology; made a special study of Buddhism;
wrote an introduction to the history of the system (1801-1852).
Burns, John, politician and
Socialist, born at Vauxhall, of humble parentage; bred to be
an engineer; imbibed socialistic ideas from a fellow-workman,
a Frenchman, a refugee of the Commune from Paris; became a platform
orator in the interest of Socialism, and popular among the working
class; got into trouble in consequence; was four times elected
member of the London County Council for Battersea; and has been
twice over chosen to represent that constituency in Parliament;
Burns, Robert, celebrated
Scottish poet, born at Alloway, near Ayr, in 1759, son of an
honest, intelligent peasant, who tried farming in a small way,
but did not prosper; tried farming himself on his father's decease
in 1784, but took to rhyming by preference; driven desperate
in his circumstances, meditated emigrating to Jamaica, and published
a few poems he had composed to raise money for that end; realised
a few pounds thereby, and was about to set sail, when friends
and admirers rallied round him and persuaded him to stay; he
was invited to Edinburgh; his poems were reprinted, and money
came in; soon after he married, and took a farm, but failing,
accepted the post of exciseman in Dumfries;
fell into bad health, and died in 1796, aged 37. "His sun
shone as through a tropical tornado, and the pale shadow of
death eclipsed it at noon.... To the ill-starred Burns was given
the power of making man's life more venerable, but that of wisely
guiding his own life was not given.... And that spirit, which
might have soared could it but have walked, soon sank to the
dust, its glorious faculties trodden under foot in the blossom;
and died, we may almost say, without ever having lived."
See Carlyle's "Miscellanies"
for by far the justest and wisest estimate of both the man and
the poet that has yet by any one been said or sung. He is at
his best in his "Songs," he says, which he thinks "by
far the best that Britain has yet produced.... In them,"
he adds, "he has found a tune and words for every mood
of man's heart; in hut and hall, as the heart unfolds itself
in many-coloured joy and woe of existence, the name,
the voice of that joy and that woe, is the name and voice
which Burns has given them."
Burra-Burra, a copper-mine
in S. Australia, about 103 m. NE. of Adelaide.
Burrard Inlet, an inlet
of river Fraser, in British Columbia, forming one of the best
harbours on the Pacific coast.
Burritt, Elihu, a blacksmith,
born in Connecticut; devoted to the study of languages, of which
he knew many, both ancient and modern; best known as the unwearied
Advocate of Peace all over America and a great part of Europe,
on behalf of which he ruined his voice (1810-1879).
Burroughs, John, popular
author, born in New York; a farmer, a cultured man, with a great
liking for country life and natural objects, on which he has
written largely and con amore; b. 1837.
Burrus, a Roman general, who
with Seneca had the conduct of Nero's education, and opposed
his tyrannical acts, till Nero, weary of his expostulations,
got rid of him by poison.
Burschenschaft, an association
of students in the interest of German liberation and unity;
formed in 1813, and broken up by the Government in 1819.
Burslem (31), a pottery-manufacturing
town in Staffordshire, and the "mother of the potteries";
manufactures porcelain and glass.
Burton, John Hill, historian
and miscellaneous writer, born at Aberdeen; an able man, bred
for the bar; wrote articles for the leading reviews and journals, "Life
of Hume," "History of Scotland," "The Book-Hunter," "The
Scot Abroad," &c.; characterised by Lord Rosebery as
a "dispassionate historian"; was Historiographer-Royal
for Scotland (1809-1881).
Burton, Sir Richard
Francis, traveller, born in Hertfordshire; served first
as a soldier in Scind under Sir C. Napier; visited Mecca and
Medina as an Afghan pilgrim; wrote an account of his visit in
his "Personal Narrative of a Pilgrimage, &c.";
penetrated Central Africa along with Captain Speke, and discovered
Lake Tanganyika; visited Utah, and wrote "The City of the
Saints"; travelled in Brazil, Palestine, and Western Africa,
accompanied through many a hardship by his devoted wife; translated
the "Arabian Nights"; his works on his travels numerous,
and show him to have been of daring adventure (1821-1890).
Burton, Robert, an English
clergyman, born in Leicestershire; Scholar of Christ Church,
Oxford; lived chiefly in Oxford, spending his time in it for
some 50 years in study; author of "The Anatomy of Melancholy,"
which he wrote to alleviate his own depression of mind, a book
which is a perfect mosaic of quotations on every conceivable
topic, familiar and unfamiliar, from every manner of source
(1576-1640). See Anatomy
a town in Staffordshire; brews and exports large quantities
of ale, the water of the place being peculiarly suitable for
Bury (56), a manufacturing town
in Lancashire, 10 m. NW. of Manchester; originally but a small
place engaged in woollen manufacture, but cotton is now the
staple manufacture in addition to paper-works, dye-works, &c.
Bury St. Edmunds, or
St. Edmundsbury (16), a market-town in Suffolk, 26 m.
NW. of Ipswich, named from Edmund, king of East Anglia, martyred
by the Danes in 870, in whose honour it was built; famous for
its abbey, of the interior life of which in the 12th century
there is a matchlessly graphic account in
Carlyle's "Past and Present."
Busa`co, a mountain ridge in
the prov. of Beira, Portugal, where Wellington with 40,000 troops
beat Masséna with 65,000.
Busby, Richard, distinguished
English schoolmaster, born at Lutton, Lincolnshire; was head-master
of Winchester School; had a number of eminent men for his pupils,
among others Dryden, Locke, and South (1606-1695).
Friedrich, a celebrated German geographer; his "Erdbeschreibung,"
the first geographical work of any scientific merit; gives only
the geography of Europe (1724-1793).
Bushire (27), the chief port
of Persia on the Persian Gulf, and a great trading centre.
Bushmen, or Bosjesmans,
aborigines of South-west Africa; a rude, nomadic race, at one
time numerous, but now fast becoming extinct.
Bushrangers, in Australia
a gang made up of convicts who escaped to the "bush,"
and there associated with other desperadoes; at one time caused
a great deal of trouble in the colony by their maraudings.
Busiris, a king of Egypt who
used to offer human beings in sacrifice; seized Hercules and
bound him to the altar, but Hercules snapped the bonds he was
bound with, and sacrificed him.
Busk, Hans, one of the originators
of the Volunteer movement, born in Wales; author of "The
Rifle, and How to Use it" (1815-1882).
Buskin, a kind of half-boot worn
after the custom of hunters as part of the costume of actors
in tragedy on the ancient Roman stage, and a synonym for tragedy.
Bute, an island in the Firth of
Clyde, about 16 m. long and from 3 to 5 broad, N. of Arran,
nearly all the Marquis of Bute's property, with his seat at
Mount Stuart, and separated from the mainland on the N. by a
winding romantic arm of the sea called the "Kyles of Bute."
Bute, John Stuart,
third Earl of, statesman, born of an old Scotch family;
Secretary of State, and from May 1762 to April 1763 Prime Minister
under George III., over whom he had a great influence; was very
unpopular as a statesman, his leading idea being the supremacy
of the king; spent the last 24 years of his life in retirement,
devoting himself to literature and science (1712-1792).
Bute, Marquis of, son
of the second marquis, born in Bute; admitted to the Roman Catholic
Church in 1868; devoted to archæological studies, and
interested in university education; b. 1849.
Butler, Alban, hagiographer,
born in Northampton; head of the college at St. Omer; wrote "Lives
of the Saints" (1710-1773).
Butler, Charles, an English
barrister, born in London; wrote "Historical
Account of the Laws against the Catholics" (1750-1832).
Butler, Joseph, an eminent
English divine, born at Wantage, in Berks; born a Dissenter;
conformed to the Church of England; became preacher at the Rolls,
where he delivered his celebrated "Sermons," the first
three of which contributed so much to the stability of moral
science; was raised, in virtue of his merits alone, to the see
of Bristol; made dean of St. Paul's, and finally bishop of Durham;
his great work, "The Analogy of Religion, Natural and Revealed,
to the Constitution and Course of Nature," the aim of which
is twofold—first, to show that the objections to revealed
religion are equally valid against the constitution of nature;
and second, to establish a conformity between the divine order
in revelation and the order of nature; his style is far from
interesting, and is often obscure (1692-1752).
Butler, Samuel, a master
of burlesque, born at Strensham, in Worcestershire, the son
of a small farmer; the author of "Hudibras," a poem
of about 10,000 octosyllabic lines, in which he subjects to
ridicule the ideas and manners of the English Puritans of the
Civil War and the Commonwealth; it appeared in three parts,
the first in 1663, the second soon after, and the third in 1678;
it is sparkling with wit, yet is hard reading, and few who take
it up read it through; was an especial favourite with Charles
II., who was never weary of quoting from it. "It represents,"
says Stopford Brooke, "the fierce reaction that (at the
Restoration) had set in against Puritanism. It is justly famed,"
he adds, "for wit, learning, good sense, and ingenious
drollery, and, in accordance with the new criticism, is absolutely
without obscurity. It is often as terse as Pope's best work;
but it is too long; its wit wearies us at last, and it undoes
the force of its attacks on the Puritans by its exaggeration"
Butler, William Archer,
a philosophical writer, born near Clonmel, Ireland; professor
of Moral Philosophy at Dublin; author of "Lectures on the
History of Ancient Philosophy" (1814-1848).
Butt, Clara, operatic singer,
born in Sussex; made her début in London at the
Albert Hall in the "Golden Legend," and in "Orfeo"
at the Lyceum, ever since which appearances she has been much
in demand as a singer; b. 1872.
Butt, Isaac, Irish patriot,
distinguished for his scholarship at Dublin University; became
editor of the Dublin University Magazine; entered Parliament,
and at length took the lead of the "Home Rule" party,
but could not control it, and retired (1813-1879).
Buttmann, Philipp, a
German philologist, born at Frankfort-on-the-Main; professor
of Philology in Berlin; best known by his "Greek Grammar"
Buxton, a high-lying town in
Derbyshire, noted for its calcareous and chalybeate springs,
and a resort for invalids; is also famous for its rock crystals,
stalactite cavern, and fine scenery.
Buxton, Sir Thomas Fowell,
a philanthropist, born in Essex, a tall man of energetic character;
entered life as a brewer, and made his fortune; was conspicuous
for his interest in benevolent movements, such as the amelioration
of criminal law and the abolition of slavery; represented Weymouth
in Parliament from 1818 to 1837; was made a baronet in 1840;
he was Wilberforce's successor (1786-1845).
Buxton, Sir Thomas Fowell,
once governor of S. Australia, grandson of the preceding; educated
at Harrow and Cambridge; a Liberal in politics, and member for
King's Lynn from 1865 to 1868; a philanthropist and Evangelical
Churchman; b. 1837.
Buxtorf, a celebrated Hebraist,
born in Westphalia, member of a family of Orientalists; professor
of Hebrew for 39 years at Basle; was known by the title, "Master
of the Rabbis" (1564-1629).
Byblis, in the Greek mythology
a daughter of Miletus, in love with her brother Caunus, whom
she pursued into far lands, till, worn out with sorrow, she
was changed into a fountain.
Byng, George, Viscount
Torrington, admiral, favoured the Prince of Orange,
and won the navy over to his interest; commanded the squadron
that took Gibraltar in 1704: conquered the Spaniards off Cape
Passaro; was made First Lord of the Admiralty in 1727, an office
he held till his death (1663-1733).
Byng, John, admiral, fourth
son of the preceding; having failed to compel the French to
raise the blockade of Minorca, was recalled, in deference to
popular clamour, and being tried and condemned as guilty of
treason, was shot at Portsmouth, a fate it is now believed he
did not deserve, and which he bore like a man and a Christian
Byrom, John, poet and stenographer,
born near Manchester; invented a system of shorthand, now superseded,
and which he had the sole right of teaching for 21 years; contributed
as "John Shadow" to the Spectator; author of
the pastoral, "My Time, O ye Muses, was Happily Spent";
his poetry satirical and genial (1692-1763).
Byron, George Gordon,
sixth Lord, an English poet, born in London, son of
Captain Byron of the Guards, and Catherine Gordon of Gight,
Aberdeenshire; spent his boyhood at Aberdeen under his mother,
now a widow, and was educated at Harrow and Cambridge, spending,
when at the latter, his vacations in London, where his mother
had taken a house; wrote "Hours of Idleness," a poor
first attempt, which called forth a severe criticism in the
Edinburgh Review, and which he satirised in "English
Bards and Scotch Reviewers," and soon afterwards left England
and spent two years in foreign travel; wrote first part of "Childe
Harold," "awoke one morning and found himself famous";
produced the "Giaour," "Bride of Abydos," "Hebrew
Melodies," and other work. In his school days he had fallen
in love with Mary Chaworth, but she had not returned his affection,
and in 1815 he married Miss Millbank, an heiress, who in a year
left him never to return, when a storm raised against him on
account of his private life drove him from England, and he never
came back; on the Continent, moved from place to place, finished "Childe
Harold," completed several short poems, and wrote "Don
Juan"; threw himself into revolutionary movements in Italy
and Greece, risked his all in the emancipation of the latter,
and embarking in it, died at Missolonghi in a fit, at the age
of 36. His poems, from the character of the passion that breathed
in them, made a great impression on his age, but the like interest
in them is happily now passing away, if not already past; the
earth is looking green again once more, under the breath, it
is believed, of a new spring-time, or anyhow, the promise of
such. See "Organic Filaments" in "Sartor Resartus"
Byron, Henry James,
dramatist, born in Manchester, wrote "Our Boys" (1834-1884).
Byron, John, naval officer,
grandfather of the poet, nicknamed from his misfortunes "Foul-weather
Jack"; accompanied Anson in his voyage round the world,
but was wrecked in his ship the Wager; suffered almost
unexampled hardships, of which he wrote
a classical account on his safe return home; he rose to the
rank of admiral, and commanded the squadron in the West Indies
during the American war; died in England (1723-1786).
Byrsa, a celebrated citadel of
Byzantine Art, a decorative
style of art patronised by the Romans after the seat of empire
was removed to the East; it has been described by Mr. Fairholt
as "an engraftment of Oriental elaboration of detail upon
classic forms, ending in their debasement."
Byzantine Empire, called
also the Eastern, the Lower, or the Greek Empire; dates from
395 A.D., when, by the death of Theodosius, the Roman empire
was divided between his two sons, Arcadius and Honorius, the
Eastern section falling to the share of the former, who established
the seat of his government at Byzantium; the empire included
Syria, Asia Minor, Pontus, Egypt in Africa, and Ancient Greece,
and it lasted with varied fortune for ten centuries after the
accession of Arcadius, till Constantinople was taken by the
Turks in 1453.
Byzantium, the ancient name
of Constantinople; founded by Greek colonists in 667 B.C.