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Jabalpur (84), a town, district, and one of the four divisions of the Central Provinces, India; the town is an important commercial and railway centre, situated 228 m. SW. of Allahabad; cotton and carpets are amongst its chief manufactures.

Jack, a familiar form of John, the most widely spread of Christian names, and said to be derived from the French Jacques or, as others maintain, from Jankin, a distinctive form of Johan or John; Johnkin gives us Jock and Jockey; from its extreme commonness it has acquired that slightly contemptuous signification observable in such compounds as "every man Jack," "Jack-of-all-trades," "Jack-an-apes," and the name as applied to the knaves in playing-cards, and to the small white ball used as a mark in the game of bowls is an example of its transferred sense.

Jackaroo, name given in Australia to a green-horn from England inexperienced in bush life.

Jackdaw of Rheims, one of the Ingoldsby Legends (q. v.).

Jackson, 1, a prosperous manufacturing city (21) in Michigan, U.S.A., on the Grand River, 70 m. W. of Detroit; has various mills, iron-works, breweries, &c., and bituminous coal-mines on its outskirts. 2, A cotton market-town (10), capital of Madison County, Tennessee, on the South Fork of the Forked Deer River, 107 m. SE. of Cairo, Illinois.

Jackson, Andrew, General, president of the United States, born at Waxhaw, N. Carolina, adopted law as a profession, and in 1788 became public prosecutor at Nashville; took a prominent part in establishing the State of Tennessee, of which he subsequently became a senator and a, judge; during the war with Britain (1812-14) be came to the front and crowned a series of successes by his great victory over Sir E. Pakenham at New Orleans; for a time he was governor of the newly purchased State of Florida, but resigning, he again entered the U.S. Senate in 1823; five years later he became President, and in 1832 was again elected; his Presidency is associated with the readjustment of the tariff on a purely protective basis, which led to disputes with S. Carolina, the sweeping away of the United States Bank, the wiping out of the national debt in 1835, and the vigorous enforcement of claims against the French for damage done during the Napoleonic wars; his imperious yet honest nature led him to make a more frequent use of the President's veto than any of his predecessors (1767-1845).

Jackson, Thomas Jonathan, known as Stonewall Jackson, an American general, born in Virginia; bred for the army; distinguished himself in the Mexican War; retired from the army in 1853, and became a professor in Mathematics and Military Science in Virginia; was appointed brigadier-general in the Confederate army at the outbreak of the Civil War, and earned the nom de guerre of "Stonewall" by his firmness at the battle of Bull Run, July 21, 1861; distinguished himself in subsequent engagements; at Chancellorville was by mistake fired at in the dark and mortally wounded by his own men on May 6, 1863; he was a man of the Cromwell stamp, and his death was not only a blow to his own party, but matter of grief to the whole American nation (1824-1863).

Jacksonville, 1, the chief seat of commerce (17) in Florida State, is situated on St. John's River, some 20 m. from its mouth; is a busy railway centre, and has an active river trade in lumber, cotton, fruits, &c., and is a health resort. 2, Capital (13) of Morgan County, Illinois, is pleasantly situated on a fertile plain, 34 m. SW. of Springfield; is noted as an educational centre, and for its many charity asylums; its manufactures embrace woollens, paper, &c.

Jacob, a Hebrew patriarch, younger son of Isaac and Rebecca, the favourite of his mother, and had twelve sons, the fathers of the twelve tribes of Israel; his character and the story of his life are naïvely delineated in the book of Genesis.

Jacob, Jean Claude, a serf from the Jura Mountains, 120 years old, who was brought from his native place to figure as "dean of the human race" in Paris at the great federation festival of June 1790.

Jacobi, Friedrich Heinrich, a German philosopher, born at Düsseldorf; bred for business, and after engaging in it for a time threw it up for a revenue appointment; devoted all his by-hours to philosophy and correspondence with eminent men, and was appointed President of the Academy of Sciences at Münich in 1807; he formed no system and he founded no school; his thoughts present themselves in a detached form, and are to be gathered from letters, dialogues, and imaginative works; he contended for the dogma of "immediate cognition as the special organ of the supersensuous," and failed to see, as Schwegler notes, that said cognition "has already described a series of subjective intermediating movements, and can pretend to immediacy only in entire oblivion of its own nature and origin" (1743-1819).

Jacobi, Karl Gustavo, a celebrated German mathematician, born at Potsdam, of Jewish birth; was professor at Königsberg and Berlin, and one of the founders of the theory of determinants (1801-1851).

Jacobins, a political club, originally known as the Club Breton, which was founded in Paris during the French Revolution; so called from its place of meeting in the Rue St. Honoré, which had previously been a Jacobin friar convent; it exercised a great influence over the course of the Revolution, and had affiliated societies all over the country, working along with it; its members were men of extreme revolutionary views, procured the death of the king, exterminated the Girondists, roused the lowest classes against the middle, and were the ruling spirits during the Reign of Terror, of whom Robespierre was the chief, the fall of whom sealed their doom; they were mobbed out of their place of meeting with execrations on Hallow-Eve 1794.

Jacobites, a name given to certain partisans of Eutychean sect in the 17th century in the East, from the name of their leader.

Jacobites, the name given to the adherents of the Stuart dynasty in Great Britain after their expulsion from the throne in 1688, and derived from that of James II., the last Stuart king; they made two great attempts to restore the exiled dynasty, in 1715 and 1745, but both were unsuccessful, after which the movement exhausted itself in an idle sentimentality, which also is by this time as good as extinct.

Jacobs, a German Greek scholar, born at Gotha; editor of "Anthologia Græca" (1767-1847).

Jacobus, a gold coin of the reign of James I., worth 25 shillings.

Jacoby, Johan, a Prussian politician, born in Königsberg; bred to medicine, but best known as a politician in a liberal interest, which involved him in prosecutions; was imprisoned for protesting against the annexation of Alsace and Lorraine; he was a man of fearless honesty, and one day had the courage to say to the Emperor William I., "It is the misfortune of kings that they will not listen to the truth" (1805-1877).

Jacotot, Jean Joseph, a celebrated educationalist, born at Dijon, France; after holding various educational appointments, he in 1818 became professor of the French Language and Literature at Louvain, and subsequently held the post of Director of the Military Normal School; he is noted for his "Universal Method" of education, which is based on his assumption that men's minds are of equal calibre (1770-1840).

Jacquard Loom, a loom with an apparatus for weaving figures in textiles, such as silks, muslins, and carpets, which was the invention of an ingenious Frenchman, born in Lyons, of the name of Joseph Marie Jacquard (1752-1834).

Jacquerie, the name given to an insurrection of French peasants against the nobles in the Ile of France (q. v.), which broke out on May 21, 1358, during the absence of King John as a prisoner in England; it was caused by the oppressive exactions of the nobles, and was accompanied with much savagery and violence, but the nobles combined against the revolt, as they did not do at the time of Revolution, preferring rather to leave the country in a pet, and it was extinguished on the 9th June following.

Jacques Bonhomme, a name given to a French peasant as tamely submissive to taxation.

Jade, is the common name of about 150 ornamental stones, but belongs properly only to nephrite, a pale grey, yellowish, or white mineral found in New Zealand, Siberia, and chiefly in China, where it is highly valued.

Jael, the Jewish matron who slew Sisera the Canaanitish captain, smiting a nail into his temples as he lay asleep in her tent, Judges iv. 18, 21.

Jaen (26), a picturesque cathedral city, capital of a province of the same name, in Andalusia, Spain, on a tributary of the Guadalquivir, 50 m. NW. of Granada; the province (438) lies along the valley of the Guadalquivir, and was once a Moorish kingdom.

Jaggannatha. See Juggernaut.

Jaghir, revenue from land or the produce of it, assigned in India by the Government to an individual as a reward for some special service.

Jahn, Fred. L., a German patriot, born in Pomerania; did much to rouse his country into revolt against the domination of France in 1813 (1778-1852).

Jahn, Johan, a Catholic theologian and Orientalist, born in Moravia; held professorships in Olmütz and Vienna; was distinguished as a Biblical scholar, author of "Biblical Archæology," in five vols., as well as an Introduction to the Old Testament, with Grammar, Lexicons, &c., in connection with the Biblical languages (1750-1816).

Jahn, Otto, philologist and archæologist, born at Kiel; after holding the post of lecturer at Kiel and Greifswald he, in 1847, was appointed to the chair of Archæology in Leipzig; becoming involved in the political troubles of 1848-49, he lost his professorial position, but subsequently held similar appointments at Bonn and Berlin; his voluminous writings, which cover the field of Greek and Roman art and literature, and include valuable contributions to the history of music, are of first-rate importance (1813-1869).

Jail Fever, the popular name of a fever now known to be a severe form of typhus, such as happened in 1579 at the "Black Assize," so called as so many of those in the conduct of it died infected by the prisoners.

Jainas, sects of Hindus scattered up and down India, allied to the Buddhists, though ecclesiastically in open antagonism to them; they reject the Veda of the Brahmans, and oppose to it another of their own, as also their caste and their sacerdotalism, though they observe the rules of caste among themselves; like the Buddhists, they are divided into an ascetic class and a lay, but monasticism is not developed to the same degree among them. There are two principal sects, "the white-gowns" and "the air-clad," i. e. naked, though it is only at meals, which they eat in common, that the latter strip naked; "Not only do they abstain from animal food, but they drink only filtered water, breathe only through a veil, and go sweeping the ground before them for fear of swallowing or crushing any smallest animalcule." In religion they are atheists, and admit of no Creator or of any perfection of being at the beginning, only at the end. They distinguish between soul and body, and regard the former as eternal; evil is not in mere existence, but in life, and their Nirvâna is a blessedness without break or end. We know little or nothing of the history of these sects; with them conduct is everything; their origin is of later date than that of the Buddhists. See Barth's "Religions of India," translated by the Editor.

Jalapa (16), capital of the Mexican State of Vera Cruz, is prettily situated at the base of the Cordilleras, 60 m. NW. of Vera Cruz city.

Jalisco (1,250), a maritime state in Mexico facing the Pacific; consists chiefly of elevated plateau; enjoys a fine climate; has long-established mining industries, some agriculture, and a growing trade in cotton and woollen goods, tobacco, &c.; capital, Guadalajara.

Jamaica ("Land of Springs") (640, of which 15 are whites), a British crown colony, the largest and most important of the British West India Islands; is one of the Greater Antilles group, and lies some 90 m. S. of the eastern end of Cuba; its greatest length E. and W. 144 m.; is traversed by the Blue Mountains (7400 ft.), whose slopes are clad with luxuriant forests of mahogany, cedar, satin-wood, palm, and other trees; of the numerous rivers, only one, the Black River, is navigable and that for only flat-bottomed boats and canoes; there are many harbours (Kingston finest), while good roads intersect the island; the climate is oppressively warm and somewhat unhealthy on the coast, but delightful in the interior highlands; for administrative purposes the land area is divided into three counties, Surrey, Middlesex, and Cornwall; the chief trade-products are dye-woods, fruit, sugar, rum, coffee, and spices; discovered in 1494 by Columbus, and since 1670 a possession of England.

James, the name of three disciples of Christ; James, the elder son of Zebedee, by order of the high-priest was put to death by Herod Agrippa; James, the younger son of Alphæus; and James, the brother of the Lord, stoned to death.

James I., king of Scotland from 1406 to 1437, son of Robert III., born at Dunfermline; in 1406, while on a voyage to France, he was captured by the English and detained by Henry IV. for 18 years, during which time, however, he was carefully trained in letters and in all knightly exercises; returning to Scotland in 1424 with his bride, Jane Beaufort, niece of the English king, he took up the reins of government with a firm hand; he avenged himself on the nobles by whose connivance he had been kept so long out of his throne, reduced the turbulent Highlanders to order, and introduced a number of beneficial reforms (e. g. a wider parliamentary franchise, a fixed standard for the coinage, a supreme court of civil jurisdiction, a renovated system of weights and measures), and widened Scotland's commercial relations with the Continent; he was a man of scholarly tastes, a patron of learning, and exhibits no mean poetic gift in his well-known poem the "King's Quhair"; his vigorous and sometimes harsh and vindictive efforts to lower the powers of the nobility procured him their inveterate hatred, and in 1437 he was murdered in the Dominican monastery at Perth by a band of conspirators (1394-1437).

James II., king of Scotland from 1437 to 1460, son of preceding; during his minority the country was torn by rival factions amongst the nobility, the chief point of contest being the wardship of the young king; an attempt on the part of the conspirators who had murdered James I. to place their leader, the Earl of Athole, on the throne, was frustrated; in 1449 James assumed the duties of his kingship, and in the same year married Mary, the daughter of the Duke of Gueldres; an English war then being waged on the Borders was brought to a close, and the young king entered vigorously upon administrative reforms; in these efforts he was hampered by the opposition of the nobility, and his fiery temper led him to participate in the murder of the chief obstructionist, the Earl of Douglas; protection given to the exiled Douglases by the Yorkists led James to support the claims of Henry VI. in England; he was killed by the bursting of a cannon at the siege of Roxburgh Castle (1430-1460).

James III., king of Scotland from 1460 to 1488, son of James II.; was during his minority under the care of his mother and Bishop Kennedy of St. Andrews, the Earl of Angus being lieutenant-general of the kingdom; but the bishop and the earl died before he was 14, and the nobility fell into faction and disorder again; the first to gain power was Lord Boyd (whose son married the king's sister), but a charge of treason brought about his downfall and exile; the king married Princess Margaret of Denmark in 1469, and gave himself up to a life of quiet ease surrounded by men of art and culture, while his brothers Albany and Mar, by their military tastes and achievements, won the affections of the nobles; James, becoming jealous, imprisoned them; Albany, who had intrigued with Edward IV., fled to France, Mar died in Craigmillar Castle; while the king and his army were marching to meet expected English action in 1482 the nobles, instigated by Archibald, Bell-the-Cat, seized and hanged the royal favourites at Lauder, and committed the king to Edinburgh Castle; a short reconciliation was effected, but was soon broken, and civil war ensued; the defeat of the royalist forces at Sauchieburn took place in 1488; the king escaped from the field, but was thrown from his horse, and taking refuge in a house at Beaton's Mill, was there slain (1462-1488).

James IV., king of Scotland from 1488 to 1513, participated in the rebellion which overthrew his father, James III., and succeeded him; but in remorse for his unfilial conduct wore an iron belt all his life; during his youth his supporters carried on the government in their own interests, and despoiled the nobles who had been loyal to the late king; but when he came of age he showed his independence in choosing good advisers, among them Sir Andrew Wood; his reign was marked by resistance to the claims of the Roman pontiff, by the firm and wise administration of law, the fostering of agriculture, of shipbuilding, and other industries; in 1503 James married Margaret, daughter of Henry VII.; after that king's death relations between the two countries became strained; two English men-of-war captured Andrew Barton's privateers; the jewels which the queen inherited from her father were retained by Henry VIII., and James maintained an alliance with Henry's enemy, France; at the solicitation of the French queen, against the advice of his own queen and nobles, he invaded England in 1513, but the invasion ended in disaster at Flodden, where he and the flower of his army perished; he was an able but a headstrong, a pleasure-loving, and an extravagant man (1472-1513).

James V., king of Scotland from 1513 to 1542, was only an infant when he succeeded to his father's throne; his mother was regent till her marriage with young Angus, when the nobles called James IV.'s cousin, Albany, from France to assume the regency; French and English factions sprang up; Henry VIII. intrigued in the affairs of the country; anarchy and civil war ensued, and Albany retired to France in 1524; in that year the queen-mother, aided by Henry, took the young king from Sir David Lyndsay, to whom he had been entrusted, and assumed the government again in his name; the Douglas family usurped his person and the government in 1525; but James asserted himself three years later, and began to reign in person, displaying judgment and resolution, banishing the Douglases, keeping order in the Highlands and on the Borders, establishing the College of Justice, protecting the peasantry from the tyranny of the barons, and fostering trade by a commercial treaty with the Netherlands; he married (1) Princess Magdalene of France in 1537, and (2) Mary of Guise in 1538; Henry, aggrieved by James's failure to meet him in conference on Church matters, and otherwise annoyed, sent 30,000 men into Scotland in 1542; disaffection prevented the Scottish forces from acting energetically, and the rout of Solway Moss took place; the king, vexed and shamed, sank into a fever and died at Falkland; in this reign the Reformation began to make progress in Scotland, and would have advanced much farther but that James had to support the clergy to play off their power against the nobles (1512-1542)

James VI. of Scotland and I. of England, son of Mary, Queen of Scots, and Darnley, born in Edinburgh Castle; was proclaimed king of Scotland when only 13 months old, in 1567; entrusted to the Earl of Mar, and educated by George Buchanan; Moray, Lennox, Mar, and Morton were successively regents, till James assumed the government in 1581, executing Morton and choosing Arran and Lennox for his advisers; plots and counter-plots, the Raid of Ruthven (1582), the siege of Stirling by some of the nobles with 10,000 troops, mostly from England, the surrender of the king and the fall of Arran in 1585, the insurrection of the Catholic nobles 1491-94, and the Gowrie Conspiracy in 1600, betrayed the restlessness of the kingdom, and the weakness of the king; James married Anne of Denmark 1589; on the death of Elizabeth, in 1603, he succeeded to the throne of England as James I.; was at first popular, but soon forfeited all confidence by his favouritism; he governed through creatures like Carr, Earl of Somerset, and the infamous Buckingham, whose indiscretion brought about a war with Spain in 1624; James died immediately afterwards; he has been described by Sully as "the wisest fool in Christendom"; his conduct was certainly much less creditable than his conversation; he held absurdly high views of the royal prerogative; but he sold patents of nobility, and was careless of the misdeeds of his ministers; he did not live to see revolution, but he saw its precursor in the loosening of the bonds of sympathy between sovereign and people (1566-1625).

James II. of England and VII. of Scotland, the son of Charles I., reigned in succession to Charles II. from 1685 to 1688; during the Commonwealth he was a soldier in France and Spain; at the Restoration returned to England as Duke of York, and became Lord High Admiral; avowing himself a Catholic in 1671, the Test Act of 1673 enforced his resignation, and thenceforward repeated attempts were made to exclude him from the succession; on becoming king he promised to maintain the Church and to respect the liberties of the people, but his government all the same was arbitrary and tyrannical; he paraded his Catholicism, persecuted the Covenanters, subordinated English interests to French, permitted the "Bloody Assize," suspended the Test Act, violated the rights of the Universities, gave Church offices to Roman Catholics, and by these and many other acts of despotism made his deposition necessary; leading statesmen invited William of Orange to assume the throne, and James fled to France; an invasion of Ireland in 1689 ended in his defeat at Boyne Water; he retired again to France, and lived at St. Germains till his death (1633-1701).

James, Epistle of, a Catholic epistle of the New Testament, presumed to have been written by James, the brother of the Lord, addressed to Jewish Christians who, in accepting Christianity, had not renounced Judaism, and the sphere in which it moves is that of Christian morality, agreeably to the standard of ethics given in the Sermon on the Mount. The author looks upon Judaism as the basis of Christianity, and as on the moral side leading up to it, in correspondence with the attestation of Christ, that "salvation is of the Jews."

James, G. P. R., historical novelist, born in London; wrote as many as a hundred novels, beginning with "Richelieu" in 1829, which brought him popularity, profit, and honour; was burlesqued by Thackeray (1801-1860).

James, Sir Henry, military engineer; superintended the geological survey of Ireland, and became in 1854 director-general of the Ordnance Survey (1803-1877).

James, Henry, an American theological writer, a disciple of Swedenborg, and an exponent of his system (1811-1882).

James, Henry, American novelist, born in New York: studied law at Harvard, but was eventually drawn into literature, and after a spell of magazine work established his reputation as a novelist in 1875 with "Roderick Hudson"; most of his life has been spent in Italy and England, and the writing of fiction has been varied with several volumes of felicitous criticism, chiefly on French life and literature; his novels are characterised by a charming style, by a delicate discriminating analysis of rather uneventful lives, and by an almost complete absence of strong dramatic situation; b. 1843.

James, John Angell, most influential Congregationalist of his time, born in Dorsetshire; was pastor of Carr's Lane Chapel, Birmingham, from 1805 to 1859; won the esteem of all parties; published the "Anxious Inquirer," and many other works (1785-1859).

James, St., James, the son of Zebedee, the patron saint of Spain; his attribute the sword, by which he was decapitated.

James River, an important river of Virginia, U.S., formed by the junction of the Jackson and the Cowpasture, and flows in a south-easterly direction across Virginia, falling into the Atlantic at the S. end of Chesapeake Bay. It has a course of 450 m., and is navigable as far as City Point.

Jameson, Anna, née Murphy, English literary lady and art critic, born in Dublin; authoress of "Sacred and Legendary Art," "Legends of the Monastic Orders," "Legends of the Madonna," &c.; left unfinished at her death a work on Our Lord and John the Baptist as represented in art, which was completed afterwards by Lady Eastlake (1794-1860).

Jameson, George, a Scotch portrait-painter, born in Aberdeen; many of his portraits are to be met with in Scottish mansion-houses; his work has been unduly lauded, and himself extravagantly designated the "Scottish Vandyck" (1586-1644).

Jameson, Dr. Leander Starr, leader of the raid upon Johannesburg, born at Edinburgh; studied medicine in his native city and in London; established himself at Kimberley in 1878, and under the patronage of Mr. Rhodes became the popular administrator for the South Africa Company at Fort Salisbury in 1891; from Mafeking in December of 1896 he started, with a body of 500 troopers, upon his ill-fated incursion into the Transvaal to assist the Uitlanders of Johannesburg; at Krugersdorp the raiders, exhausted by a 24 hours' ride, were repelled by a superior force of Boers, and compelled to surrender; having been handed over to the British authorities, "Dr. Jim," as he was familiarly called, was tried in London, and condemned to 15 months' imprisonment, but was liberated on account of ill-health after about five months' incarceration; b. 1853.

Jameson, Robert, naturalist, born in Leith; appointed professor of Natural History in Edinburgh University in 1804; wrote several works on mineralogy and geology (1773-1853).

James's Palace, St., a palace, a brick building adjoining St. James's Park, London, where drawing-rooms were held, and gave name to the English Court in those days as St. Stephen's does of the Parliament.

Jamieson, Dr. John, a Scotch antiquary, born in Glasgow; bred for the Church; was Dissenting minister in Nicolson Street Church, Edinburgh; widely known as author of the "Etymological Dictionary of the Scottish Language"; wrote other works of less note (1759-1838).

Jamyn, Amadis, a French poet, a protégé of Ronsard's; was a good Greek scholar.

Jan Mayen Land, a volcanic island, 35 m. in length, situated in the Arctic Ocean between Iceland and Spitzbergen; is the head-quarters of considerable seal and whale fisheries; discovered in 1611 by a Dutch navigator.

Jane Eyre, a novel by Charlotte Brontë; published in 1847.

Janiculum, one of the hills of Rome, on the right bank of the Tiber.

Janin, Jules Gabriel, critic and novelist, born at St. Étienne, France; took to journalism early, and established a reputation by his lively dramatic criticisms in the Journal des Débats; his gift of ready composition betrayed him into a too prolific output of work, and it is doubtful if any of his many novels and articles will long survive his day and generation; they, however, brought him wealth and celebrity in his own lifetime; he succeeded in 1870 to Sainte-Beuve's chair in the French Academy (1804-1874).

Janizaries, a Turkish military force organised in 1330, and more perfectly in 1336; composed originally of Christian youths taken prisoners in war or kidnapped, and trained as Mohammedans; from being at first 10,000, and fostered by the privileges granted them, increased to 300,000 or 400,000 strong, till they became unruly and a danger to the State, when, after various unsuccessful attempts to crush them, they were in 1826 overborne by the Sultan Mahmoud II. and dissolved.

Jannæus, Alexander, the second of the Asmonæan kings of Judea; reigned in the beginning of the century before Christ; insulted the Jews by profaning the rites of their religion, and roused a hostility against him which was appeased only by his death, the news of which was received with expressions of triumphant exultation.

Jannes and Jambres, the two Egyptian magicians who thought to outrival Moses in the performance of his miracles; supposed to be referred to in 2 Tim. iii. 8 as "withstanding" him.

Jansen, Cornelius, a Dutch theologian and bishop of Ypres, born in Louvain; studied the works of Augustine, and wrote a book entitled "Augustinus" in exposition of that great Father's doctrine of grace, which was published after his death, and which gave occasion to a great controversy between his followers, in France especially, and the Jesuits (1585-1638).

Jansenists, a party in the Roman Catholic Church, supporters of Jansen's views, who, in opposition to the Jesuits, maintained the Augustinian principle of the sovereign and irresistible nature of divine grace. The most celebrated members of the party were the Port-Royalists (q. v.) of France, in particular Arnauld and Pascal, and they were opposed not only by the Jesuits, but by both Louis XIV. and the Pope. Driven from France on the death of Louis, they took refuge in Holland, and thither the Pope Clement XI. followed them, first in 1713, hurling a bull against them, and then in 1719 by ex-communicating them and driving them for good from within the pale of the Catholic Church.

Januarius, St., a Christian who suffered martyrdom under Diocletian, and whose head is preserved in Naples with a phial containing his blood which, on certain occasions, liquefies when brought into contact with the head. Recourse is had to it on the occasion of public calamities, not without desired effects, and it is an object of worship. Festival, September 19.

January, the first month of the year, so called as sacred to Janus (q. v.).

January, Edict of, edict of date January 17, 1562, on which Catherine de Médecis granted certain concessions to the Protestants.

Janus, a very ancient Italian deity who presided over the beginning of the several divisions of time, as well as the beginning of all enterprises, in connection with which he was worshipped; he had two heads, or faces, one of which looked behind into the past and the other before into the future, and this power of penetrating into both it is said Saturn endowed him with as a reward for receiving him on earth when he was driven out of heaven.

Japan (40,719), an island empire of the N. Pacific, lying along the E. coast of Asia, and separated from Corea and Primorsk by the Sea of Japan, consists of Honshiu (31,000), Shikoku (3,000), Kyushu (6,000), Yezo (314), and 4000 small islands; though not of volcanic origin, the islands are the most mountainous in the world, have many volcanoes and sulphur springs, and are subject to earthquakes; they are very picturesque, and have peaks from 8000 to 12,000 ft. high; the rivers are too swift for navigation; the coast, not much indented, has yet some good harbours; the valleys are well wooded, but the soil not very fertile; temperature and climate are various; nowhere is the heat intense, but in some parts the winter is very cold; there is much rain, but on the whole it is healthy; the chief industry is agriculture; farming is careful and intelligent; rice, cereals, pulse, tea, cotton, and tobacco are raised, and many fruits; gold, silver, all the useful metals, coal, granite, some decorative stones are found, but good building-stone is scarce; the manufacture of porcelain, lacquer-work, and silk is extensive, and in some artistic work the Japanese are unrivalled; the chief ports are Yokohama (143), on the E. of Honshiu, which has grown up since 1854, when the country was opened to trade; and Hyogo (143), on the S. coast of the same island, where are also shipbuilding yards; the chief exports are tea, silk, and rice; imports cotton, woollen, iron goods, and chemicals; the Japanese, sprung from an ancient union of Tartars with Ainos and with S. Malays, are a kindly, courteous, law-abiding folk, with highly developed artistic tastes; education is compulsory, and well provided for; religion is Shintoism and Buddhism, but Christianity is gaining rapid ground; the government is in the hands of the Mikado, who rules now with the aid of ministers and two houses of parliament; education, government, army, and navy—indeed the whole modern civilisation of the country—is on Western lines, though until 1853 foreigners were excluded; a civil war in 1867-68 effected the change from the old feudalism, and the amazing success of Japan in the war against China in 1894 has proved that the new civilisation is no mere veneer; the capital is Tokyo (1,162).

Japheth, one of the three sons of Noah and the ancestor of the Gentiles, as distinct from the descendants of Shem, or the Semites, and of Ham, or the Hamites. See Iapetos.

Jaques, or the "melancholy" a cynical moraliser in Shakespeare's "As You Like It."

Jarnac, a town on the Charente, celebrated as the scene of a victory which the Catholics, commanded by the Duc d'Anjou, afterwards Henry III. obtained in 1569 over the Huguenots commanded by Condé.

Jaroslav (79), on the Volga, 160 m. NE. of Moscow, is capital of the government of Jaroslav; is an important river-port, a seat of theological and legal culture, and has cotton manufactures.

Jarpnoonk, a mesmeric or hypnotic state produced by Hindu conjurers.

Jarrow (34), in Durham, on the Tyne, 7 m. below Newcastle; is a coal-shipping port, and has extensive shipbuilding and iron manufactures; in ancient times its monastery was made famous by the Venerable Bede.

Jarvie, Bailie Nicol, a Glasgow magistrate; an original character in Scott's "Rob Roy."

Jasher, Book Of, a Hebrew book twice quoted in the Old Testament, no longer extant; believed to have been a collection of national ballads.

Jasmin, Jacques, a Gascon barber and poet, who by his romances, burlesques, and odes, published between 1835 and 1849, raised the patois of the S. of France to the status of a literary language, and created a wholesome influence on French life and letters (1778-1864).

Jason, a mythological Greek hero, son of Æson, king of Iolcos; brought up by the centaur Chiron, was supplanted on the throne by his half-brother Pelias; undertook the leadership of the Argonautic expedition, assisted by Medea in this enterprise; he took her to wife, but cast her off for Creusa, whom Medea to avenge herself killed, with her father and her two sons by Jason, she herself escaping to Athens in a chariot drawn by winged dragons; Jason took refuge from her fury in the sanctuary of Poseidon near Corinth, where the timber of the ship Argo deposited there breaking up fell upon him and crushed him to death.

Jasper, an opaque quartz found in all colours, and spotted, striped, and clouded; is valued in ornamental lapidary work because of the polish it takes.

Jassy (90), ancient capital of Moldavia, situated 89 m. NE. of Bucharest; is the seat of an archbishop and a university, and has a large community of Jews; trades largely with Russia in corn, spirits, and wine.

Jâtaka, a Pâli collection of stories recounting 550 previous "births" of the Buddha, the earliest collection of popular tales, and the ultimate source of many of Æsop's fables and Western folk-lore legends.

Jats, are the principal race in the Punjab, where they number 4½ millions, and are engaged in agriculture. There is much debate as to their origin and their racial relationship.

Java (23,868), the finest island of the Indian Archipelago, lying between Sumatra and Bali, with the Indian Ocean on the S. and the Java Sea separating it from Borneo on the N., lies E. and W., traversed by a mountain chain with a rich alluvial plain on the N.; there are many volcanoes; the climate is hot, and on the coast unhealthy; the mountains are densely wooded, and the teak forests are valuable; the plain is fertile; coffee, tea, sugar, indigo, and tobacco are grown and exported; all kinds of manufactured goods, wine, spirits, and provisions are imported; the natives are Malays, more civilised than on neighbouring islands; there are 240,000 Chinese, many Europeans and Arabs; the island is nearly as large as England, and belongs to Holland; the chief towns are Batavia (105) and Samarang (70), both on the N.

Jay, John, American statesman, born in New York, and called to the bar in 1768; took a part in the struggle for independence second only to Washington's; represented his country subsequently in Madrid and London; was first Chief-Justice of the United States, and from 1795 to 1801 governor of New York (1745-1829).

Jay, William, eminent Congregationalist minister, born in Wiltshire; was first a stone-mason, but entered the ministry, and after a short term of service near Chippenham was pastor of Argyle Chapel, Bath, for 62 years. He was an impressive preacher and a popular writer (1769-1853).

Jayadeva, a Hindu poet, born near Burdwân, in Bengal, flourished in the 12th century, whose great work, the "Gita Govinda," the "Song of the Shepherd Krishna," has been translated by Sir Edwin Arnold as the "Indian Song of Songs," in celebration of the love of Krishna and his wife Radha; it has often been compared with the "Song of Songs," in the Hebrew Scriptures.

Jean d'Épee (Jean, i. e. the Frenchman with the sword), a name given to Napoleon by his partisans who conspired for his restoration in 1814.

Jean Jacques, Rousseau, from his Christian name.

Jean Paul, Richter (q. v.), from his Christian name.

Jeanne d'Albret. See D'Albret, Jeanne.

Jeanne d'Arc. See Joan of Arc.

Jebb, Professor, eminent Greek scholar, born in Dundee; elected in 1889 Regius Professor of Greek in Cambridge; has represented Cambridge in Parliament since 1891; edited "Sophocles," "The Attic Orators," "Introduction to Homer," &c.; b. 1841.

Jedburgh (3), county town of Roxburghshire, picturesquely situated on the Jed, 30 m. SW. of Berwick, and 10 m. SW. of Kelso; is an ancient town of many historic memories; made a royal burgh by David I.; contains the ruins of an abbey, and has some woollen manufactures.

Jeddah (46), a town on the Red Sea, 65 m. W. of Mecca, of which it is the port, where the pilgrims disembark for the holy city; is a place of trade, less considerable than it once was.

Jeejeebhoy, Sir Jamsetjee, Indian philanthropist, a Parsee by birth and creed, born in Bombay; realised a fortune as a merchant, and employed it in releasing debtors from jail by paying their debts, and in founding a hospital and schools; in 1857 was made a baronet (1783-1859).

Jefferies, John Richard, writer on rural subjects, born near Swindon, Wilts, son of a gamekeeper; was first a journalist and novelist, but attained success in "The Gamekeeper at Home," 1878; other books display a very accurate faculty of observation and description, a reverence for nature, for rural scenes and people; "The Story of my Heart," 1883, is an introspective and somewhat morbid autobiography; he died after six years' illness at Goring, Sussex; Prof. Saintsbury pronounces him "the greatest minute describer of English country life since White of Selborne" (1848-1887).

Jefferson, Joseph, comedian, born in Philadelphia, of theatrical lineage; was on the stage at the age of 3; made his first success in New York as Dr. Pangloss in 1857, and in London in 1865 began to play his most famous rôle, Rip van Winkle, a most exquisite exhibition of histrionic genius; b. 1829.

Jefferson, Thomas, American statesman, born at Shadwell, Virginia; took a prominent part in the Revolution, and claimed to have drawn up the Declaration of Independence; he secured the decimal coinage for the States in 1783; was plenipotentiary in France in 1784, and subsequently minister there; third President, 1801-1807, he saw the Louisiana purchase and the prohibition of the slave-trade; after his retirement he devoted himself to furthering education till his death at Monticello, Va.; he was a man of extremes, but honest and consistent in his policy (1743-1826).

Jeffrey, Francis, Lord, a celebrated critic and lawyer, born in Edinburgh; trained for and called to the bar in 1794; with a fine cultivated literary taste devoted himself principally to literary criticism, and being a Whig in politics was associated with the originators of the Edinburgh Review (q. v.), and became its first editor in 1802, which he continued to be till 1829, contributing to its pages all along articles of great brilliancy; he was distinguished also at the bar in several famous trials; became Lord Advocate of Scotland in 1830, M.P. for Edinburgh in 1832, and finally, in 1834, one of the judges in the Court of Session; lie was a dark-eyed, nimble little man, of alert intelligence and quick in all his movements; died at Craigcrook, near Edinburgh (1773-1850).

Jeffreys, Baron, of infamous memory, born in Wales; became Chief-Justice of England in 1863; was one of the advisers and promoters of the tyrannical proceedings of James II.'s reign, and notorious for his cruel and vindictive judgments as a judge, to the indignation of the people; tried to escape on the arrival of William; was discovered lurking in a public-house at Wapping, and apprehended and committed to the Tower, where he died (1648-1689).

Jehovah, the name of God in the Hebrew Scriptures as self-existent, and the Creator and Lord of all things, in the regard of the Jews too sacred to be pronounced, and which in the Authorised Version is often rendered by the word LORD in small capital letters.

Jehovist, the presumed author of the Jehoistic portions of the Pentateuch. See Elohist.

Jekyll, Dr., and Mr. Hyde, the good nature and the bad struggling for the ascendency in the same person, generally to the defeat of the former.

Jelf, Richard William, Principal of King's College, London; was educated at Oxford, became Fellow of Oriel, canon of Christ's Church, and Principal of King's College; is remembered chiefly for his rigid orthodoxy and for the part he played in depriving Maurice of his professorship at King's College (1798-1871).

Jemappes (11), a manufacturing Belgian town, 3 m. W. of Mons, where Dumouriez in the name of the French Republic defeated the Austrians in 1792.

Jemindar, a native officer in the Indian army of rank equal to that of lieutenant in the British.

Jena (13), in Saxe-Weimar, on the Saale, 14 m. SE. of Weimar, an old town with memories of Luther, Goethe, and Schiller; has a university founded to be a centre of Reformation influence, and since associated with Fichte, Schelling, Hegel, and the Schlegels, who were teachers there; on the same day in October 14, 1806, two victories were won near the town by French troops over the Prussians, the collective name for both being "the battle of Jena."

"Jenkins's Ear," refers to an incident which provoked a war with Spain in 1739, viz., the conduct of the officer of a Spanish guardship not far from Havana towards the captain of an English trading ship of the name of Jenkins; the Spaniards boarded his ship, could find nothing contraband on board, but treated him cruelly, cut off his left ear, which he brought home in wadding, to the inflaming of the English people against Spain, with the above-named issue.

Jenner, Edward, an English physician, born in Berkeley, and practised there; was the discoverer of inoculation with cowpox as a preventive of smallpox, or vaccination as it is called, a discovery which has immortalised his name (1749-1822).

Jenner, Sir William, an eminent physician, born at Chatham; held several professorships in University College; was physician to the Queen and the Prince of Wales; discovered the symptoms which differentiate typhus from typhoid fever (1815-1899).

Jephthah, one of the Judges of Israel, famed for his rash vow in the event of victory to offer in sacrifice the first object that came out of his house on his return, and which happened to be his daughter and only child, and whom it would seem he sacrificed, after allowing her two months to bewail her fate along with her maidens; it is not said her father sacrificed her, and it is thought she was only doomed to perpetual virginity.

Jeremiad, a lament over degeneracy in modern times.

Jeremiah, a Hebrew prophet, born at Anathoth, a priestly city 3 m. N. of Jerusalem, where, after his removal thither, he spent as a prophet the greater part of his life, viz., from 629 to 588 B.C.; his prophecy was a lifelong protest against the iniquity and folly of his countrymen, and was conceived in bitter foreboding of the hopeless ruin they were bringing down upon their heads; his faithfulness offended friend and foe alike, and more than one plot was laid against his life, which was one of ever-deepening sadness and one long wail over the ruin of the country he so loved; he lived to see the issue of his prediction in the captivity of the people, though he did not go into captivity with them, the conqueror having allowed him to remain as he wished; he appears to have died in Egypt; he was the author of "Lamentations," and it is thought of sundry of the Psalms. See Hebrew Prophecy.

Jericho, an ancient city of Palestine, in the SW. of a plain of the same name that extends W. of the Jordan and NW. of the Dead Sea; it was the first city taken by the Israelites when they entered the Holy Land, the walls falling down before them after being compassed for seven days by the priests blowing on rams' horns and followed by the people.

Jerome, Jerome Klapta, dramatist, journalist, &c., author of "Idle Thoughts of an Idle Fellow," "Three Men in a Boat," "Diary of a Pilgrimage," &c., as also of plays; editor of the Idler and of a weekly magazine journal, To-Day; b. 1861.

Jerome, St., a Father of the Church, born in N. Illyria, of rich parents, presumably Christian, although he first became Christian himself of his own election after he was grown up; and from the day of his baptism, "he left," as he says, "not only parents and kindred, but the accustomed luxuries of delicate life"; his fame rests on a translation of the Scriptures into Latin, known as the Vulgate, which he executed at Bethlehem at intervals from A.D. 385 to 404, with the design of showing to the Latin world what was and what was not contained in the original documents for the faith of the Church, and with the result, that in the long run the Old and the New Testaments were for the first time presented to and received by the Church as both of equal, or at least common authority, and as both sections of one book (331-420).

Jerome of Prague, born at Prague; studied there and at Oxford (where he came under Wycliffe's influence), Paris, Heidelberg, and Cologne; acquired great learning, and displayed great energy and oratorical power; attracted the notice of the Kings of Poland and Hungary; joined John Huss in his agitation against the abuses of the Church; became involved in the movement against Huss, and though he recanted, afterwards withdrew his recantation, and was burned at Constance (about 1365-1416.)

Jerrold, Douglas, dramatist and celebrated wit, born in London, son of a theatrical magistrate; began life as a printer; composed "Black-eyed Susan"; contributed to Punch "Mrs. Caudle's Lectures" among other pieces, and edited magazines; the keenness of his satire was the reflex of a feeling heart (1803-1857).

Jersey (55), the largest and richest of the Channel Islands, lies 15 m. off the French coast, 100 m. S. of Portland Bill, is oblong in shape, with great bays in the coast, and slopes from the N. to the SW.; the soil is devoted chiefly to pasture and potato culture; the exports are early potatoes for the London market and the famous Jersey cattle, the purity of whose breed is carefully preserved; the island is self-governing, has a somewhat primitive land tenure, is remarkably free from poverty and crime, has been under the English crown since 1066; the capital is St. Helier (29), where there is a college, a public library, a harbour, and a good market.

Jersey City (206), the most populous city in New Jersey, is separated from New York, of which it is practically a part, only by the Hudson River; has no pretension to beauty, but is a busy railway centre; has very varied manufactures, including sugar, flour, machinery, and chemicals, extensive shipping interests, and great trade in iron, coal, and agricultural produce.

Jerusalem (41), the capital of Palestine, holy city of the Jews, belonged originally to the Jebusites, but was captured by David and made his capital; a strong place, built on four hills 2000 ft. above the Mediterranean, enclosed within walls and protected nearly all round by deep valleys and rising grounds beyond; it has been so often besieged, overthrown, and rebuilt that the present city stands on rubbish heaps, the ruins of ancient structures.

Jerusalem, Kingdom of, kingdom founded by Godfrey of Bouillon in 1099 and overthrown by Saladin in 1187.

Jerusalem Delivered, an epic poem in 20 cantos by Tasso and published in 1575, the appearance of which constitutes one of the great epochs in the history of literature.

Jervis, Sir John, an English admiral, born in Staffordshire; entered the navy at 10, rose to be Rear-Admiral of the White in 1790; his great feat his defeat of the Spanish fleet of 27 ships with one of 15 ships off St. Vincent in 1797, in consequence of which he was raised to the peerage as Earl St. Vincent; was buried in St. Paul's, London (1734-1823).

Jessica, Shylock's daughter, in the "Merchant of Venice".

Jesuitism, popularly regarded as an attempt to achieve holy ends by unholy means, but really and radically the apotheosis of falsehood and unreality to the dethronement of faith in the true, the genuine and the real, a deliberate shutting of the eyes to the truth, a belief in a lie in the name of God, a belief in symbols and formulas as in themselves sacred, salutary, and divine, fiction superseding fact, and fancy faith in God or the divine reality of things, the embodiment of the genius of cant persuading itself to believe that that which is not is, while atheism, on the other hand, tries to persuade itself to believe that that which is is not.

Jesuit, or Society of Jesus, the religious order founded by Ignatius Loyola in 1534, and approved of by bull of Paul III. in 1540, for the conversion of heretics and the propagation of the Roman Catholic faith, and reputed, however self-denying at times, to be unscrupulous in the means they employ to achieve their ends, which is, broadly speaking, re-establishing over Christendom the tyranny of the Church; they established themselves in the several countries of Europe, but their policy was found dangerous to political liberty as well as religious, and they are now everywhere nearly stamped out; there are nevertheless still several communities of them in the south of Europe, and even colleges in England, Ireland, and the United States, as well as missions under them in heathen parts.

Jesus, the son of Sirach, the author of the book of Ecclesiasticus (q. v.).

Jesus Christ (i. e. the anointed Divine Saviour), the Son of God and the hope of Israel, Saviour of mankind, born in Bethlehem of the Virgin Mary four years before the commencement of the Christian era, and who suffered death on the cross for the salvation of His people in A.D. 33, after a life of sorrow over the sins of the world and an earnest pleading with men to turn from sin unto God as revealed in Himself, in the life He led, the words He spoke, and the death He died, and after leaving behind Him a Spirit which He promised would guide those who believed in Him unto all truth, a Spirit which was and would prove to be the spirit of His manifestation in the flesh from birth onwards to death, and through death to the very grave. See Christianity.

Jet, a hard, black, bituminous lignite, capable of an excellent polish and easily carved, hence useful for trinkets and ornaments, which have been made of it from very early times; is found in France, Spain, and Saxony, but the best supplies come from Whitby, Yorkshire.

Jetsam, part of the cargo of a ship thrown overboard to lighten her in a case of peril.

Jeu de Paume, an oath which the deputies of the Third Estate took on June 13, 1789, not to separate till they had given France a constitution.

Jeunesse Dorée (lit. gilded youth), name given to a body of young dandies who, after the fall of Robespierre, strove to bring about a counter-revolution.

Jevons, William Stanley, logician and political economist, born in Liverpool; in 1866 was professor of Logic of Owens College, Manchester, and 10 years later professor of Political Economy in University College, London; distinguished himself in the departments of both chairs both as a lecturer and a writer; was drowned while bathing at Bexhill, near Hastings (1835-1882).

Jew, The Wandering, a Jew bearing the name of Ahasuérus, whom, according to an old legend, Christ condemned to wander over the earth till He should return again to judgment, because He drove Him brutally away as, weary with the cross He carried, He sat down to rest on a stone before his door; in symbolic token, it is surmised, of the dispersion of the whole Jewish people over the earth as homeless wanderers by way of judgment for their rejection of Christ.

Jewell, John, early English Protestant divine, born near Ilfracombe; educated at Oxford; became Tutor of Corpus Christi; embraced the Reformed faith, and was secretary to Peter Martyr in 1547; he received the living of Sunningwell, Berks, in 1551, but on Mary's accession fled to Strasburg; Elizabeth made him Bishop of Salisbury in 1559, and three years later he published his "Apology for the English Church," in his defence of which he sought to base the faith of the Church on the direct teaching of Christ apart from that of the Fathers and tradition (1522-1571).

Jews, The, a people of Semitic origin, descended from Abraham in the line of Jacob; conspicuous for the profession of a religion that has issued from them, and affected to the core the rest of the civilised world. Their religion was determined by a moral standard; through them more than through any other race has the moral principle, or the law of conscience, been evolved in humanity as the sovereign law of life, and this at length resolved itself into a faith in one God, the sole ruler in heaven and on earth, the law of whose government is truth and righteousness, only they stopped short with the assertion of this divine unity, and in their hard monotheism stubbornly refused, as they do still, to accept the doctrine of trinity in unity which, spiritually understood is, as it has been well defined, the central principle of the Christian faith, the principle that to have a living morality one must have a faith in a Divine Father, a Divine Son, and a Divine Spirit, all three equally Divine. But, indeed, it is to be noted that the Jewish religion never was nor ever has been the religion of the Jewish people, but was from first to last solely the religion of the law-givers and prophets sent to teach them, to whom they never as a race paid any heed. There was never such antagonism of Yea to God and Nay to Him in the history of any nation as among them; never such openness to whisperings, and such callousness to the thunder of God's voice; on the one side, never such tenderness, and on the other, never such hardness, of heart. Nor except by their religion, which they did not believe at heart themselves, and of which they have but been the vehicles, have they as a race contributed anything to the true wealth of the world, "being mere dealers in money, gold, jewels, or else old clothes, material and spiritual." And it has been noted they have all along shown a want of humour, a want of gentle sympathy with the under side, "a fatal defect, as without it no man or people is good for anything." They were never good for much as a nation, and they are still more powerless for good since it was broken up, numerous as they have been, and are in their widely scattered state; for there are 4,500,000 in Russia, 1,600,000 in Austria-Hungary, 1,567,000 in Germany, 567,000 in Roumania, 300,000 in Turkey, 120,000 in Holland, 97,000 in France, 72,000 in England, 101,000 in Italy, 50,000 in Switzerland, 4652 in Servia, and 15,792 in Greece, in all, 7,701,261 in Europe; throughout the globe altogether 11,000,000, while the numbers in Palestine are increasing.

Jeypore (2,832), a native state in Rajputana; has been under British protection since 1818, and was loyal at the Mutiny; the soil is rocky and sandy, but there is much irrigation; copper, iron, and cobalt are found; enamelled gold ware and salt are manufactured; education is well provided for; at the capital, Jeypore (159), the handsomest town in India, there is a State college and a school of art; its business is chiefly banking and exchange.

Jezebel, the wicked wife of Ahab, king of Israel, whose fate is recorded in 2 Kings ix. 30-37; gives name to a bold, flaunting woman of loose morals.

Jina (lit. the "victorious" one as contrasted with Buddha the merely "awakened" one) is in the religion of the Jainas (q. v.) a sage who has achieved omniscience, and who came to re-establish the law in its purity where it has become corrupted among men; one of a class, of which it appears there have been 24 in number, who have appeared at intervals after long periods of time, in shapes less imposing or awe-inspiring than at first, and after less and less intervals as time goes on The Jainas claim that Buddha was a disciple of the Jina, their founder, who had finished the faith to which the latter had only been awakened.

Jingo, a name, of uncertain derivation, given to a political party favourable to an aggressive, menacing policy in foreign affairs, and first applied in 1877 to that political section in Great Britain which provoked the Turco-Russian war.

Jinn, in the Arabian mythology one of a class of genii born of fire, some of them good spirits and some of them evil, with the power of assuming visible forms, hideous or bewitching, corresponding to their character.

Joab, the nephew and a general of David's; put to death by order of Solomon 1014 B.C.

Joachim, Joseph, a distinguished violinist, born near Presburg, in Hungary; famous as a youthful prodigy; was encouraged by Mendelssohn; has visited London every year since 1844, and has been principal leader in the Monday and Saturday Popular Concerts from the first, and became head of the Academy of Music at Berlin in 1869; the fiftieth anniversary of his first appearance was celebrated on March 17, 1889, when his admirers presented him with a magnificent violin; b. 1831.

Joachim, St., the husband of St. Anne, and the father of the Virgin Mary.

Joan, Pope, a woman who, in the guise of a man with male accomplishments, is said for two years five months and four days to have been Pope of Rome between Leo IV. and Benedict III. about 853-855, and whose sex was discovered by the premature birth of a child during some public procession. She is said to have been of English parentage, and to have borne the name of Gilberte. However, it is but fair to say that the story is of doubtful authenticity.

Joan of Arc, or Maid of Orleans, a French heroine, born at Domrémy, of poor parents, but nursed in an atmosphere of religious enthusiasm, and subject, in consequence, to fits of religious ecstasy, in one of which she seemed to hear voices calling to her from heaven to devote herself to the deliverance of France, which was then being laid desolate by an English invasion, occupied at the time in besieging Orleans; inspired with the passion thus awakened she sought access to Charles VII., then Dauphin, and offered to raise the siege referred to, and thereafter conduct him to Reims to be crowned; whereupon, permission being granted, she marched from Blois at the head of 10,000 men, whom she had inspired with faith in her divine mission; drove the English from their entrenchments, sent them careering to a distance, and thereafter conducted Charles to Reims to be crowned, standing beside him till the coronation ceremony was ended; with this act she considered her mission ended, but she was tempted afterwards to assist in raising the siege of Compiègne, and on the occasion of a sally was taken prisoner by the besieging English, and after an imprisonment of four months tried for sorcery, and condemned to be burned alive; she met her fate in the market-place of Rouen with fortitude in the twenty-ninth year of her age (1412-1431).

Joannus Damascenus, theologian and hymn-writer, born at Damascus; was a zealous defender of image-worship; was said to have had his right hand chopped off by the machinations of his foes, which was afterwards restored to him by the Virgin; d. 754, at the age of 70.

Job, Book of pronounced by Carlyle "one of the grandest things ever written with pen; grand in its sincerity, in its simplicity, in its epic melody and repose of reconcilement"; one perceives in it "the seeing eye, the mildly understanding heart, true eyesight and vision for all things; sublime sorrow and sublime reconciliation; oldest choral melody as of the heart of mankind; so soft and great as the summer midnight, as the world with its seas and stars"; the whole giving evidence "of a literary merit unsurpassed by anything written in Bible or out of it; not a Jew's book merely, but all men's book." It is partly didactic and partly biographic; that is to say, the object of the author is to solve a problem in part speculatively, or in the intelligence, and in part spiritually, or in the life; the speculative solution being, that sufferings are to prove and purify the righteous; and the spiritual, consisting in accepting them not as of merely Divine appointment, but manifestations of God Himself, which is accomplished in the experience of Job when he exclaims at last, "Now mine eye seeth Thee." It is very idle to ask if the story is a real one, since its interest and value do not depend on its historic, but its universal and eternal truth; nor is the question of the authorship of any more consequence, even if there were any clue to it, which there is not, as the book offers no difficulty to the interpreter which any knowledge of the author would the least contribute to remove. In such a case the challenge of Goethe is apropos, "What have I to do with names when it is a work of the spirit I am considering?" The book of Job was for long believed to be one of the oldest books in the world, and to have had its origin among a patriarchal people, such as the Arabs, but is now pretty confidently referred to a period between that of David and the return from the captivity, the character of it bespeaking a knowledge and experience peculiarly Jewish.

Jocaste, the wife of Laius, king of Thebes, and mother of Oedipus; she afterwards married him not knowing that he was her son, and on discovery of the crime put an end to herself, though not till after she had become the mother of Etéocles, Polynices, Antigone, and Ismenë.

Jocelin de Brakelonda, an old 12th-century St. Edmundsbury monk, who left behind him a "Chronical" of the Abbey from 1173 to 1202, and which, published in 1840 by the Camden Society, gave occasion to the "Past and Present" of Thomas Carlyle; he had been chaplain to the Abbot Samson, the hero of his book, living beside him night and day for the space of six years, "an ingenious and ingenuous, a cheery-hearted, innocent, yet withal shrewd, noticing, quick-witted man"; d. 1211.

Jodhpur (2,522), largest Rajputana State, under British protection since 1818; is backward in government, education, agriculture, and manufactures; tin, lead, and iron are found; salt is made at Sambhar Lake. The state revolted at the Mutiny. Jodhpur (62), the capital, is 350 m. SW. of Delhi, and is connected by rail with Jeypore and Bombay.

Joe Miller, an English actor, the author of a book of jests (1684-1738).

Joel, a Hebrew prophet, author of a book of the Old Testament that bears his name, and which is of uncertain date, but is written on the great broad lines of all Hebrew prophecy, and reads us the same moral lesson, that from the judgments of God there is no outlet for the sinner except in repentance, and that in repentance lies the pledge of deliverance from all evil and of the enjoyment of all good.

Johannesburg (40), the largest town in the Transvaal, 30 m. S. of Pretoria, and 800 m. NE. of Cape Town; is the centre of Witwatersrand gold-mining fields. Until recently an ill-equipped town, it has made rapid progress. Since 1892 railways connect it with Delagoa Bay, Durban, Port Elizabeth, and Cape Town. Magnificent buildings and residential suburbs are springing up. The water-supply is bad, and dust-storms are frequent, otherwise the climate is very healthy. Johannesburg was the seat of the dissatisfaction among the Uitlanders in 1895, which led to Dr. Jameson's raid.

John, king of England from 1199 to 1216, was clever and vivacious, but the most vicious, profane, false, short-sighted, tyrannical, and unscrupulous of English monarchs; the son of Henry II., he married Hawisa of Gloucester, and succeeded his brother Richard I., being Richard's nominee, and the tacitly elect of the people; his nephew, Arthur, claimed the French dominions, and was supported by the French king, Philip; in 1200 he divorced Hawisa, and married Isabel of Angoulême, a child-heiress; this provoked the French barons; in the war that ensued Arthur was captured, and subsequently murdered either by John himself or by his orders; Philip invaded Normandy, and with the fall of the Château-Gaillard in 1204, most of the French possessions were lost to the English crown; then followed John's quarrel with Pope Innocent III. over the election of an archbishop of Canterbury; the Pope consecrated Stephen Langton; John refused to receive him; in 1208 the kingdom was placed under an interdict, and next year the king was excommunicated; John on his side confiscated Church property, exiled the bishops, exacted homage of William of Scotland, and put down risings in Ireland and Wales; but a bull, deposing him and absolving his vassals from allegiance, forced him to submit, and he resigned his crown to the Pope's envoy in 1213; this exaction on Innocent's part initiated the opposition to Rome which culminated in the English Reformation; the rest of the reign was a struggle between the king, relying on his suzerain the Pope, and the people, barons, and clergy, for the first time on one side; war broke out; the king was forced to sign Magna Charta at Runnymede in 1215, but the Pope annulled the Charter; the barons appealed for help to the Dauphin, and were prosecuting the war when John died at Newark (1167-1216).

John, the name of no fewer than 23 Popes. J. I., Pope from 523 to 526, was canonised; J. II., Pope from 532 to 535; J. III., Pope from 560 to 578; J. IV., Pope from 640 to 642; J. V., Pope from 686 to 687; J. VI., Pope from 701 to 705; J. VII., Pope from 705 to 707; J. VIII., Pope from 872 to 882; J. IX., Pope from 898 to 900; J. X., Pope from 914 to 928; J. XI., Pope from 931 to 936; J. XII., Pope from 956 to 964—was only 18 when elected, led a licentious life; J. XIII., Pope from 965 to 972; J. XIV., Pope from 984 to 985; J. XV., Pope in 985; J. XVI., Pope from 985 to 996; J. XVII., Pope in 1003; J. XVIII., Pope from 1003 to 1009; J. XIX., Pope from 1024 to 1033; J. XX., Anti-Pope from 1043 to 1046; J. XXI., Pope from 1276 to 1277; J. XXII., Pope from 1316 to 1334—a learned man, a steadfast, and a courageous; J. XXIII., Pope in 1410, deposed in 1415—was an able man, but an unscrupulous.

John, Epistles of, three Epistles, presumed to have been written by the author of the Gospel, from the correspondence between them both as regards thought and expression; the occasion of writing them was the appearance of Antichrist within the bounds of the Church, in the denial of Christ as God manifest in flesh, and the object of writing them was to emphasise the fact that eternal life had appeared in Him.

John, Knights of St., a religious order of knights, founded in 1048, and instituted properly in 1110, for the defence of pilgrims to Jerusalem; established a church and a cloister there, with a hospital for poor and sick pilgrims, and were hence called the Hospital Brothers of St. John of Jerusalem; the knights consisted of three classes, knights of noble birth to bear arms, priests to conduct worship, and serving brothers to tend the sick; on the fall of Jerusalem they retired to Cyprus, conquered Rhodes, and called themselves Knights of Rhodes; driven from which they settled in Malta and took the name of Knights of Malta, after which the knighthood had various fortunes.

John, Prester, a supposed king and priest of a mediæval kingdom in the interior of Asia; converted to Christianity by the Nestorian missionaries; was defeated and killed in 1202 by Genghis Khan, who had been tributary to him but had revolted; he was distinguished for piety and magnificence.

John, St., the Apostle, the son of Zebedee and Salome, the sister of the virgin Mary; originally a fisherman on the Galilæan Lake; after being a disciple of John the Baptist became one of the earliest disciples of Christ; much beloved and trusted by his Master; lived after His death for a time in Jerusalem, and then at Ephesus as bishop, where he died at a great age; he lived to see the rise of the Gnostic heresy, against which, as a denial that Christ had come in the flesh, he protested with his last breath as an utter denial of Christ; he is represented in Christian art as either writing his Gospel, or as bearing a chalice out of which a serpent issues, or as in a caldron of boiling oil.

John, The Gospel according to, the fourth Gospel, of which tradition alleges St. John was the author, and which is presumed to have been written by him at Ephesus about A.D. 78; its great design is to bear witness to the Son of God as having come in the flesh, as being not an ideal, therefore, but a real incarnation, and as in the reality of that being the light and life of man; whereas the scene of the other Gospels is chiefly laid in Galilee, that of John's is mostly in Judea, recording, as it does, no fewer than seven visits to the capital, and while it portrays the person of Christ as the light of life, it represents him as again and again misunderstood, even by those well disposed to Him, as if the text of his Gospel were "the light shineth in darkness, and the darkness comprehendeth it not"; the authenticity of this Gospel has been much debated, and its composition has by recent criticism been referred to somewhere between A.D. 160 and 170.

John Bull, a humorous impersonation of the English people, conceived of as well fed, good natured, honest hearted, justice loving, and plain spoken.

John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, third son of Edward III.; an ambitious man; vainly seized the crown of Castile; supported the Wycliffites against the clergy; married Blanche of Lancaster, and was made duke by Henry IV. (1340-1399).

John O' Groat's House, on the Caithness coast, 1¾ m. W. of Duncansby Head, marks the northern limit of the Scottish mainland; the house was said to be erected, eight-sided, with a door at each side and an octagonal table within, to compromise the question of precedence among eight branches of the descendants of a certain Dutchman, John o' Groot.

John of Leyden, originally a tailor; attained great power as an orator; joined the Anabaptists, and in 1534 established at Münster, in Westphalia, a society based on communistic and polygamic principles; but the bishop of Münster interfered, and next year John was put to death with great cruelty (1509-1536).

John of Salisbusy, bishop of Chartres, born at Salisbury, of Saxon lineage; was a pupil of Abelard; was secretary first to Theobald and then to Thomas á Becket, archbishop of Canterbury; was present at the assassination of the latter; afterwards he retired to France and was made bishop; wrote the Lives of St. Thomas and St. Anselm, and other works of importance in connection with the scholasticism of the time (1120-1180).

John the Baptist, the forerunner of Christ, who baptized with water unto, or on the confession of, repentance, in anticipation of, and in preparation for, the appearance in the immediate future of One who would baptize with the Spirit and with fire; his fate is well known, and the motive of it.

John the Good, king of France from 1350 to 1364, succeeded his father Philip VI.; at the battle of Poitiers he was captured and carried to England; four years later he was allowed to return on leaving his son as hostage; the hostage made his escape; John chivalrously came back to London, and died in captivity (1319-1364).

John's Eve, St., a festival celebrated with fires on Midsummer Eve; very universally observed and with similar rites throughout Europe, in the Middle Ages, and the celebration of it was associated with many superstitious practices.

Johnson, Andrew, American President, born at Raleigh, N. Carolina; was entirely self-educated, and became a tailor; settling in Tennessee he entered the State legislature in 1839; he sat in Congress from 1843 till 1853; was for four years Governor of Tennessee, and sat in the Senate from 1857 to 1863; though in favour of slavery, he discountenanced secession and supported Lincoln, whom he succeeded as President in 1865, and whose policy he continued; but he lost the confidence of Congress, which indeed he treated somewhat cavalierly; his removal of Secretary Stanton led to his impeachment for violation of the Tenure of Office Act; he was tried before the Senate, but acquitted, and completed his term (1808-1875).

Johnson, Samuel, the great English lexicographer, born in Lichfield, the son of a bookseller; received his early education in his native town and completed it at Pembroke College, Oxford, in 1728; in 1736 he married a widow named Porter, who brought him £800; started a boarding-school, which did not prosper, and in the end of a year he removed to London along with David Garrick, who had been a pupil under him; here he became connected with Cave, a printer, the proprietor of the Gentleman's Magazine, with whom he had previously corresponded, and contributed to the pages of the magazine, earning thereby a meagre livelihood, eking out his means by reporting Parliamentary debates in terms which expressed the drift of them, but in his own pompous language; in 1740 he published a poem entitled the "Vanity of Human Wishes," and about the same time commenced his world-famous Dictionary, which was Published in 1755, "a great, solid, square-built edifice, finished, symmetrically complete, the best of all dictionaries"; during the progress of the Dictionary Johnson edited the Rambler, writing most of the contents himself, carrying it on for two years; in 1758 he started the Idler; in 1762 the king granted him a pension of £300, and by this he was raised above the straitened circumstances which till then had all along weighed upon him, and able to live in comparative affluence for the last 22 years of his life; five years after he instituted the Literary Club, which consisted of the most celebrated men of the time, his biographer, Boswell, having by this time been introduced to him, as subsequently the family of Mr. Thrale; in 1770 he began his "Lives of the English Poets," and in 1773 he made a tour in the Highlands along with Boswell, of which journey he shortly afterwards published an account; Johnson's writings are now dead, as are many of his opinions, but the story of his life as written by Boswell (q. v.) will last as long as men revere those qualities of mind and heart that distinguish the English race, of which he is the typical representative (1709-1783).

Johnston, Alexander Keith, cartographer, born at Kirkhill, Midlothian; was an engraver by trade, and devoted himself with singular success to the preparation of atlases; the "National Atlas" was published in 1843, and the "Royal Atlas of Geography" (1861) was the finest till then produced; he also executed atlases physical, geological, and astronomical, and constructed the first physical globe; honours were showered upon him by home and foreign geographical societies; he died at Ben Rhydding (1804-1871).

Johnston, James Finlay Weir, agricultural chemist, born at Paisley, educated at Glasgow; acquired a fortune by his marriage in 1830, and devoted himself to studying chemistry; after some years in Sweden he was chosen lecturer in Durham University, but he resided in Edinburgh, and wrote his "Catechism of Agricultural Chemistry," since translated into most European languages, and his "Chemistry of Common Life"; he died at Durham (1796-1855).

Johnstone (10), a Renfrewshire manufacturing town, on the Black Cart, 3½ m. W. of Paisley; has flax, cotton, paper, and iron industries.

Johnstown (22), a city of Pennsylvania, engaged in iron and steel manufactures; was overwhelmed by the bursting of a reservoir, May 31, 1889.

Johore (200), a Mohammedan State in the S. of the Malayan Peninsula, 15 m. N. of Singapore; half the population are Chinese; exports gambier, pepper, and coffee.

Joinville, Jean, Sire de, French chronicler, seneschal of Champagne, born in Châlons-sur-Marne; author of the "Vie de St. Louis"; followed Louis IX. in the crusade of 1248, but refused to join in that of 1270; he lived through six reigns, and his biography of his sovereign is one of the most remarkable books of the Middle Ages; his "Vie de St. Louis" deals chiefly with the Crusade, and is, says Prof. Saintsbury, "one of the most circumstantial records we have of mediæval life and thought"; it is gossipy, and abounds in digressions (1224-1319).

Jokai Maurice or Moritz, Hungarian novelist and voluminous author, born at Komorn; published his first novel, "Working Days," in 1845; in 1848 took a prominent part in the Hungarian struggle, but afterwards devoted himself to literature; wrote over 300 books, novels, romances, dramas, essays, and poems, and edited several newspapers; his work resuscitated Hungarian literature; was in his old age an able debater in the House of Representatives; b. 1825.

Jonah, a Hebrew prophet, who, born in Gathhepher, belonged to the northern kingdom of Israel; prophesied in the reign of Jeroboam II., and whose special mission it was, at the bidding of the Lord, to preach repentance to the people of Nineveh; his book, which records his mission and the story of it, written apparently, as by God's dealings with the Ninevites he had himself been, to admonish the Jews that the heathen nations whom they regarded as God's enemies were as much the objects of His mercy as themselves.

Jonathan, Brother, an impersonation of the American people, given to them from the name of one Jonathan Trumbull, in whose judgment Washington had great confidence, and whom he said he would have to consult at a crisis of his affairs.

Jones, Ebenezer, poet, born in Islington; author of "Studies in Sensation and Event," fraught with genuine poetic feeling; published a pamphlet on "Land Monopoly," in which he advocated the nationalisation of land, apparently as a disciple of Carlyle (1820-1860).

Jones, Edward Burne. See Burne-Jones.

Jones, Ernest, Chartist leader and poet, born at Berlin, of English parentage, educated at Göttingen; came to England in 1838, and six years later was called to the bar; in 1845 he threw himself into the Chartist movement, and devoted the rest of his life to the amelioration and elevation of the working-classes, suffering two years' (1848-1850) solitary imprisonment for a speech made at Kensington; he wrote, besides pamphlets and papers in the Chartist cause, several poems; "The Revolt of Hindostan" was written in prison, with his own blood, he said, on the fly-leaves of a prayer-book; he never succeeded in getting into Parliament (1819-1869).

Jones, Henry Arthur, dramatist, born at Grandborough, Bucks; author of the "Silver King," "Judah," the "Dancing Girl," and many other plays; b. 1831.

Jones, Inigo, architect, born in London, son of a cloth-worker; studied in Italy, and, returning to England, obtained the patronage of James I., and became chief architect in the country; the Royal Chapel at Whitehall is reckoned his masterpiece; Heriot's Hospital, Edinburgh, is from his design; his style follows Palladio of Venice (1573-1652).

Jones, Paul, a naval adventurer, whose real name was John Paul, born in Kirkcudbright, Scotland, son of a gardener; took to the sea, engaged in the slave-trade, settled in Virginia, threw in his lot with the colonists and against the mother-country, and offered his services as a sea-captain in the war with a ship of 18 guns; he in 1778 infested the British coast, and made a descent on the shores of his native county; his sympathies were with the French in their struggles for liberty, and he fought in their service as well, making the "proud Forth quake at his bellying sails," and capturing two British war-vessels off Flamborough Head; he died in Paris, where he languished in poverty, but the National Assembly granted him a "ceremonial funeral," attended by a deputation; "as good," reflects Carlyle in his apostrophe to him—"as good had been the natural Presbyterian kirk-bell, and six feet of Scottish earth, among the dust of thy loved ones" (1747-1792).

Jones, Sir William, English Orientalist, born in London; passed through Oxford to the English bar in 1774, and was made a judge in Bengal in 1783; early devoted to Eastern languages and literature, he published numerous translations and other works, concluding with "Sakuntala" and "The Laws of Manu"; he founded the Asiatic Society at Calcutta, where he died (1746-1794).

Jongleurs, were mediæval minstrels of Provence and Northern France, who sang and often composed songs and tales, but whose jesting and buffoonery distinguished them from the knightly troubadours and trouvères.

Jonson, Ben, dramatist, born at Westminster, posthumous son of a clergyman of Scottish descent; was in his youth first a bricklayer, afterwards a soldier in the Netherlands, whence he returned about 1592; married a shrew, and became connected with the stage; he was one of the most learned men of his age, and for forty years the foremost, except Shakespeare, in the dramatic and literary world; killing his challenger in a duel nearly cost him his life in 1598; he was branded on the left thumb, imprisoned, and his goods confiscated; in prison he turned Catholic, but twelve years later reverted to Protestantism; the opening of the century brought an unpleasant difference with Dekker and Marston, and saw the famous Mermaid Club at its zenith; for nine years after Shakespeare's death he produced no dramas; in 1619 he received a degree, M.A., from Oxford, the laureateship, and a small pension from the king; now a widower, he founded with Herrick, Suckling, Carew, and others the Apollo Club at the Devil Tavern; in the new reign he turned again to dramatic work with sadly diminished power; he died in poverty, but was buried in Westminster Abbey, his tombstone bearing the words "O rare Ben Jonson"; he wrote at least sixteen plays, among them "Every Man is his Humour" (1598), in which Shakespeare acted, "The Poetaster" (1601), which vexed Dekker, the tragedy of "Sejanus" (1603), "The Silent Woman" (1609), a farcical comedy, Dryden's favourite play, and his most elaborate and masterly work, "The Alchemist" (1610); he wrote also thirty-five masques of singular richness and grace, in the production of which Inigo Jones provided the mechanism; but his best work was his lyrics, first of which stands "Drink to me only with thine eyes," whose exquisite delicacy and beauty everybody knows (1573-1637).

Joppa, an ancient town and seaport, now Jaffa, on the coast of Palestine, 35 m. NW. from Jerusalem; a place of note in sacred and mediæval history; here Jonah took ship to Tarshish.

Jordaens, Jakob, a Dutch painter and engraver, born at Antwerp; was a friend of Rubens, and ranks next him among the Flemings (1615-1678).

Jordan, a river of Palestine, which rises on the western side of Mount Hermon, and flows S. below Cæsarea-Philippi within banks, after which it expands into lagoons that collect at length into a mass in Lake Merom (Huleh), 2 m. below which it plunges into a gorge and rushes on for 9 m. in a torrent, till it collects again in the Sea of Galilee to lose itself finally in the Dead Sea after winding along a distance of 65 m. as the crow flies; at its rise it is 1080 ft. above and at the Dead Sea 1300 ft. below the sea-level.

Jordan, Mrs. Dorothea, the stage name of Miss Bland, daughter of an actress, born at Waterford; played first in Dublin, then in Yorkshire, and appeared at Drury Lane in "The Country Girl" in 1785; her popularity was immense, and she maintained it for thirty years in the roles of boys and romping girls, her wonderful laugh winning lasting fame; she attained considerable wealth, and was from 1790 to 1811 the mistress of the Duke of Clarence, who, when William IV., ennobled her eldest son; she died, however, in humble circumstances in St. Cloud, near Paris (1762-1816).

Jortin, John, English divine, born in London, of Huguenot descent; held various appointments, was a prebend of St. Paul's, wrote on ecclesiastical history (1698-1770).

Jorullo, a volcano in Mexico, 150 m. SW. of Mexico city, rose one night from a high-lying plateau on Sept. 8, 1759, the central crater at a height 4625 ft. above the sea-level.

Joseph, the name of four persons in Scripture. 1, Joseph, the son of Jacob and Rachel, and the story of whose life is given in Genesis. 2, Joseph, St. the carpenter, the husband of the Virgin Mary and the reputed father of Jesus. 3, Joseph Of Aramathea, a member of the Jewish Sanhedrin, who begged the body of Jesus to bury it in his own tomb. 4, Joseph, surnamed Barsabas, one of the disciples of Jesus, and deemed worthy to be nominated to fill the place vacated by Judas.

Joséphine, the Empress of the French, born in Martinique; came to France at the age of 15; was in 1779 married to Viscount Beauharnais, who was one of the victims of the Revolution, and to whom she bore a daughter, Hortense, the mother of Napoleon III.; married in 1796 to Napoleon Bonaparte, to whom she proved a devoted wife as well as a wise counsellor; she became empress in 1804, but failing to bear him any children, was divorced in 1809, though she still corresponded with Napoleon and retained the title of Empress to the last, living at Malmaison, where she died (1763-1814).

Josephus, Flavius, Jewish historian, born at Jerusalem, of royal and priestly lineage; was a man of eminent ability and scholarly accomplishments, distinguished no less for his judgment than his learning; gained favour at Rome; was present with Titus at the siege of Jerusalem, and by his intercession saved the lives of several of the citizens; he accompanied Titus back to Rome, and received the freedom of the city; devoting himself there to literary studies, wrote the "History of the Jewish War" and "Jewish Antiquities"; he was of the Pharisaic party, but his religious views were rationalistic; he discards the miraculous; takes no note of the rise of Christianity or of the person of its Founder (37-98).

Joshua, a Jewish military leader, born of the tribe of Ephraim, the minister and successor of Moses, under whose leadership the Jews obtained a footing in the Land of Canaan.

Joshua, The Book of, a book of the Bible, is closely connected with the Pentateuch, and now regarded as the continuation and completion of it, constituting along with it what is called the Hexateuch, or sixfold book; it covers a period of 25 years, and contains a history of Israel under the guidance of Joshua, commencing with his appointment as leader and concluding with his death.

Josiah, a king of Judah from 639 to 609 B.C.; was zealous for the restoration of the Jewish worship according to the ritual of Moses, as recently come to light in the discovery by Hilkiah the high-priest of the "Book of the Law"; he fell in battle before an invading Assyrian host.

Joss, a Chinese god or his idol.

Jötunheim, the abode of the Jötuns in the Norse mythology, as Asenheim is that of the Norse deities.

Jötuns, a race of giants in the Norse mythology, "huge, shaggy beings of a demonic character, representing the dark hostile Powers of Nature, such as Frost, Fire, Sea-tempest, who dwelt in Jötunheim, a distant, dark chaotic land ... in perpetual internecine feud with the gods, or friendly powers, such as Summer-heat and the Sun, and who dwelt far apart."

Joubert, Barthélemi, French general; distinguished himself in the Rhine and Italian campaigns, and fell mortally wounded at the battle of Novi; one of the most promising generals France ever had (1769-1799).

Joubert, Joseph, author of "Pensées," born in Montignac, Périgord; educated in Toulouse, succeeded to a small competency, came to Paris, got access to the best literary circles, and was the most brilliant figure in the salon of Madame de Beaumont; his works were exclusively pensées and maxims, and bear at once on ethics, politics, theology, and literature; "There is probably," Professor Saintsbury says, "no writer in any language who has said an equal number of remarkable things on an equal variety of subjects in an equally small space and with an equally high and unbroken excellence of style and expression;... all alike have the characteristic of intense compression; he describes his literary aim in the phrase 'tormented by the ambition of putting a book into a page, a page into a phrase, and a phrase into a word'" (1754-1824).

Jouffroy d'Abbans, Claude, Marquis de, is claimed by the French as the first inventor of the steamboat; he made a paddle-steamer ply on the Rhône in 1783, but misfortunes due to the Revolution hindered his progress, till he was forestalled by Fulton on the Seine in 1803 (1751-1832).

Jougs, an iron collar hung by a chain in some public place, was fastened round a culprit's neck, who was thus exposed in a sort of pillory; in use in Scotland from the 16th to the 18th centuries.

Joule, James Prescott, a celebrated physicist, born at Salford; was a pupil of Dalton's, and devoted his time to physical and chemical research; made discoveries in connection with the production of heat by voltaic electricity, demonstrated the equivalence of heat and energy, and established on experimental grounds the doctrine of the conservation of energy (1818-1889).

Jourdan, Jean Baptiste, Comte von, marshal of France, born at Limoges; gained for the Republic the victory of Fleurus in 1794, but was in 1795 defeated at Höchst, and subsequently by the Archduke Charles of Austria; served under Napoleon, and became Governor of the Hôtel des Invalides under Louis Philippe (1762-1833).

Jowett, Benjamin, Master of Balliol College, Oxford, born at Camberwell; was a fellow and tutor of his college till his election to the mastership in 1870; his name will always be associated with Balliol College, where his influence was felt, and made the deepest impression; he wrote an article "On the Interpretation of Scripture" in the "Essays and Reviews," and a commentary on certain epistles of St. Paul, but he achieved his greatest literary successes by his translations of Plato's "Dialogues," the "History" of Thucydides, and the "Politics" of Aristotle (1817-1893).

Juan, Don, a poem of Byron's, a work which, as Stopford Brooke remarks, "was written in bold revolt against all the conventionality of social morality, religion, and politics, and in which—escaped from his morbid self, he ran into the opposite extreme—he claimed for himself and others absolute freedom of individual act and thought in opposition to the force of society which tends to make all men after one pattern."

Juan Fernandez, a mountainous island 3000 ft. high, off the Chilian coast, 420 m. W. of Valparaiso; was the lonely residence of Alexander Selkirk (1704-1709) (q. v.); was used as a penal settlement from 1819 to 1835, and is inhabited by a few seal and sea-lion hunters.

Juarez, Benito, president of Mexico, born in Oaxaca, of Indian extraction; was elected to the Presidency twice over, in 1861 and 1867 (1806-1872).

Juba, a great river rising in the Abyssinian mountains and flowing S. into the Indian Ocean, with a town of the same name at its mouth; marks the northern limit of British East Africa.

Jubilee, a festival among the Jews every fiftieth year in celebration of their emancipation from Egypt.

Jubilee, Year of, a year during which it was required that all land which had passed out of the original owner's hands during the 50 years preceding should be restored, all who during that time had been forced to sell their liberty should be released, and all debts contracted in that period should be remitted, a requirement, however, which does not appear to have been very rigorously or regularly observed.

Judæa, a southern district of Palestine extending in one direction between Samaria and the desert of Arabia, and in the other between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.

Judah, Kingdom Of, the kingdom in the S. of Palestine of the two tribes of Judah and Benjamin that remained true to the house of David after the revolt of the other ten under Jeroboam, who formed what was called the kingdom of Israel, a larger, but a weaker.

Judaizers, a party, called also Ebionites, in the primitive Church who sought to overlay the simple ordinances of Christianity with Judaic observances and rites, "a yoke which neither they nor their fathers were able to bear."

Judas, surnamed Iscariot, one of the twelve Apostles of Christ, who from some infatuation that unaccountably possessed him, and to his everlasting infamy, betrayed his Master to His enemies for 30 pieces of silver; was designated by Christ as the Son of Perdition.

Judas Maccabæus, a son of Mattathias (q. v.), who succeeded his father in the leadership of the Jews against the Syrians in the war of the Maccabees, and who gave name to the movement, a man of chivalric temper, great energy, firm determination, dauntless courage, and powerful physique; who, with the elect of his countrymen of kindred spirit encountered and overthrew the Syrians in successive engagements, till before a great muster of the foe his little army was overwhelmed and himself slain in 160 B.C. See Maccabees.

Jude, Epistle of, an epistle in the New Testament, of which Judas, the brother of James, was the author; written to some unknown community in the primitive Church, in which a spirit of antinomian libertinism had arisen, and the members of which are denounced as denying the sovereign authority of the Church's Head by the practical disobedience and scorn of the laws of His kingdom. For the drift and modern uses of this epistle see Ruskin's "Fors Clavigera," chaps. lxvi. and lxvii., where it is shown that the enemies of the faith in Jude's day are its real enemies in ours.

Judges, Book of, a book of the Old Testament; gives an account of a series of deliverances achieved on behalf of Israel by ministers of God of the nation so called, when, after their occupation of the land, now this tribe and now that was threatened with extinction by the Canaanites; these deliverers bore the character of heroes rather than judges, but they were rather tribal heroes than national, there being as yet no king in Israel to unite them into one; of these the names of twelve are given, of which only six attained special distinction, and their rule covered a period of 300 years, which extended between the death of Joshua and the birth of Samuel; the story throughout is one: apostasy and consequent judgment, but the return of the Divine favour on repentance insured.

Judgment, Private, assumption of judgment by individual reason on matters which are not amenable to a lower tribunal than the universal reason of the race.

Judith, a wealthy, beautiful, and pious Jewish widow who, as recorded in one of the books of the Apocrypha called after her, entered, with only a single maid as attendant, the camp of the Assyrian army under Holofernes, that lay investing Bethulia, her native place; won the confidence of the chief, persuaded him to drink while alone with him in his tent till he was brutally intoxicated, cut off his head, and making good her escape, suspended it from the walls of the place, with the issue of the utter rout of his army by a sally of the townsfolk.

Judson, Adoniram, Burmese missionary and scholar, born at Maiden, Mass.; sailed for Burma 1812, and for 40 years laboured devotedly, translating the Bible into Burmese, and compiling a Burmese-English dictionary; he died at sea on his way home (1788-1850).

Juggernaut (22) or Puri, a town on the S. coast of Orissa, in Bengal; one of the holy places of India, with a temple dedicated to Vishnu, and containing an idol of him called Jagannâtha (or the Lord of the World), which, in festival times, attracts thousands of pilgrims to worship at its shrine, on one of which occasions the idol is dragged forth in a ponderous car by the pilgrims and back again, under the wheels of which, till prohibited, multitudes would throw themselves to be crushed to death in the hope of thereby attaining a state of eternal beatitude.

Jugurtha, king of Numidia; succeeded by violent measures to the throne, and maintained his ground in defiance of the Romans, who took up arms against him and at last led him captive to Rome to die of hunger in a dungeon.

Jukes, Joseph Beet, geologist, born near Birmingham; graduated at Cambridge; took part in several expeditions, and finally became lecturer in the Royal College of Science, Dublin, where he died; he published among other works a "Student's Manual of Geology" (1811-1869).

Julia, daughter and only child of Augustus Cæsar; celebrated for her beauty and the dissoluteness of her morals, and became the wife in succession of Marcellus, Agrippa, and Tiberius.

Julian the Apostate, Roman emperor for 18 months, from 361 to 363; was born at Constantinople, his father being a half-brother of Constantine the Great, on whose death most of Julian's family were murdered; embittered by this event, Julian threw himself into philosophic studies, and secretly renounced Christianity; as joint emperor with his cousin from 355 he showed himself a capable soldier, a vigorous and wise administrator; on becoming sole emperor he proclaimed his apostasy, and sought to restore paganism, but without persecuting the Church; though painted in blackest colours by the Christian Fathers, he was a lover of truth, chaste, abstinent, just, and affectionate, if somewhat vain and superstitious; he was killed in an expedition against Persia; several writings of his are extant, but a work he wrote against the Christians is lost (331-363).

Jülich, a duchy on the W. bank of the Rhine, its capital a place of the same name, 20 m. W. of Köln.

Julien, Stanislas Aignan, an eminent Sinalogue, born in Orleans, originally eminent in Greek; turned his attention to Chinese, and in 12 months time translated a part of one of the classical works in that language; originally professor of Greek, he became in 1827 professor of Chinese in the College of France in succession to Rémusat; he was not less distinguished as a Sanskrit and Pâli scholar (1797-1873).

Julius, the name of three Popes: St. J. I., Pope from 337 to 332; J. II., Pope from 1502 to 1513; J. III., Pope from 1550 to 1555, of which only J. II. deserves notice. J. II., an Italian by birth, was more of a soldier than a priest, and, during his pontificate, was almost wholly occupied with wars against the Venetians for the recovery of Romagna, and against the French to drive them out of Italy, in which attempt he called to his aid the spiritual artillery at his command, by ex-communicating Louis XII. and putting his kingdom under an interdict in 1542; he sanctioned the marriage of Henry VIII. with Catharine of Aragon, commenced to rebuild St. Peter's at Rome, and was the patron of Michael Angelo and Raphael.

Jullien, Louis Antoine, a distinguished musical conductor, born in the Basses-Alpes; did much to popularise music by large bands, but he was unfortunate in his speculations, and died insane and in debt (1812-1860).

July, the seventh month of the year, so called in honour of Julius Cæsar, who reformed the calendar, and was born in this month; it was famous as the month of the outbreak of the second Revolution of France in Paris in 1830.

Jumna, the chief affluent of the Ganges, which it joins at Allahabad, rises in the Punjab, and flows through the North-West Provinces, having Delhi and Agra on its banks; its course is 860 m., and it falls over 10,000 ft.; its waters are used for irrigation by means of canals, being of little use for navigation.

Jumpers, name of a certain religious sect in America, from the dancing associated with its services.

June, the sixth month of the year, so named from the Roman gens or clan Junius, or perhaps from Juno.

Jung Stilling, a German mystic, born in Nassau; first a tailor, then a schoolmaster; went to Strasburg, became intimate with Goethe, studied medicine there, and afterwards practised in Elberfeld; became professor of Political Economy at Marburg and in Heidelberg; is best known by his autobiography: Kant and Lavater were friends of his (1740-1817).

Jungfrau (Maiden), a peak of the Bernese Alps, 13,671 ft. in height; was first ascended by the brothers Meyer in 1811.

Junius, Letters of, seventy letters on public affairs which appeared under that signature in the Public Advertiser 1769 to 1772, and were with others reprinted in book form; were, though severe in tone, the prototype of the modern leading article. Their authorship has never been discovered; but some hold that evidence points to Sir Philip Francis as responsible for them.

Junk, a Chinese boat with a flat bottom, a square prow, a high stern, and a pole for mast.

Junker, a name given in Germany to the younger members of the aristocracy, or of the landed gentry, as representing a reactionary party in modern politics.

Juno, a Roman goddess, the wife of Jupiter, and the queen of heaven, corresponding to the Hera (q. v.) of the Greeks; the impersonation of womanhood, and the special protectress of the rights of women, especially married women, and bore the names of Virginalis and Matrona. She was the patroness of household and even state economy. See Zeus.

Junot, Andoche, Duc d'Abrantes, French general; was Napoleon's aide-de-camp in his first Campaign in Italy; took part in the expedition to Egypt; distinguished himself in the invasion of Portugal, but soon experienced reverse after reverse; in a fit of madness he threw himself one day out of a window, and died from the effect (1771-1813).

Junto, the name given to a Whig faction in the reign of William III., that for 20 years exercised a great influence in the affairs of the nation, of which Russell, Lord-Keeper Somers, and Charles Montague were the leading members.

Jupiter. See Zeus.

Jupiter, one of the exterior planets of the solar system, and the largest; revolves in an orbit outside that of the asteroids, at a mean distance from the sun of 480 millions of miles, completing its revolution round the sun in 4338 days, and taking 10 hours to revolve on its own axis; it is surrounded by belts considered to be openings in the cloudy atmosphere which invests it, and is accompanied by four moons, all nearly of the same size but at different distances, and with different periods of revolution round it; it is in volume 1300 times larger than that of the earth, while its weight is only 300 times that of the earth, is therefore less than one-fourth of the density of the earth.

Jupiter Carlyle, a sobriquet given to the Rev. Alexander Carlyle (q. v.), from his resemblance to the artist's conception of Jupiter, particularly in the head.

Jupiter Scapin, a nickname given by the Abbé de Pradt to Napoleon, after a valet of the name of Scapin in a comedy of Molière's, noted for his knaveries.

Jura, an Argyllshire island NE. of Islay, mountainous (2500 ft.); the eastern slopes yield some crops, but most of the island is deer forest and cattle-grazing land.

Jury, a body of citizens set to try a question of fact, or to assess damages; in England and Ireland a jury numbers 12, and its verdict must be unanimous; in Scotland the verdict is by majority, and the jury numbers 12 in civil and 15 in criminal cases.

Jussieu, Antoine Laurent de, celebrated French botanist, born at Lyons; his book, entitled "Genera Plantarum," published in 1789, lays down the principle on which the modern classification of plants is based; he was one of a family of botanists (1748-1836).

Justice, 1, High Court Of, one of the two great sections of the English Supreme Courts; 2, Lord Chief, the chief judge of the Queen's Bench division of it; 3, Lord Justice-General, supreme judge in Scotland, the Lord President of the Court of Session; 4, of the Peace, the title of a petty county or borough magistrate of multifarious duties and jurisdiction; 5, Lords Justices, judges of the English Court of Appeal.

Justice, Bed of, a formal session of Parliament of Paris under the presidency of the king, for the compulsory registration of royal edicts.

Justiciary Court, the highest court for the trial of criminal cases in Scotland.

Justin, surnamed the Martyr, an early Christian apologist, born in Sichem, Samaria; a heathen by birth, who studied philosophy in the Stoic and Platonic schools, and was converted to Christianity from observing the strength of the convictions with which it was embraced; was the author of two "Apologies for the Christians," rather than for Christianity or its dogmas, and a "Dialogue with Trypho the Jew," and suffered martyrdom in 168. Festival, June 12.

Justinian I., Roman emperor and jurist, born in Illyria; became co-emperor with Justin I. in 527; married the infamous Theodora, and for 38 years enjoyed a reign, the most brilliant of the late Empire, but not without dangers from foes outside and factions within; his fame rests on the codification and reform of the laws which he carried out; he improved the status of slaves, revised the laws of divorce and of intestate succession; and in his "Digest," "Institutes," and other sections of the "Corpus Juris Civilis," first gave definiteness to Roman law and laid the basis of the civil law of most modern nations (482-565).

Justinian Pandects, a code of Roman laws compiled under the direction of the Emperor Justinian, with a digest of the commentaries of the jurists thereupon.

Jutland, at the mouth of the Baltic Sea, is the only European peninsula that stretches northward; it comprises the continental portion of the kingdom of Denmark.

Juvenal, a celebrated Latin poet and satirist, born at Aquinum; a friend of Martial and contemporary of Statius and Quintilian; his satires, 16 in number, are written in indignant scorn of the vices of the Romans under the Empire, and in the descriptions of which the historian finds a portrait of the manners and morals of the time (42-120).

Juxon, William, archbishop of Canterbury, born in Chichester; became in succession bishop of Worcester and bishop of London, and attended Charles I. in prison and on the scaffold; lived in privacy till the Restoration, four months after which he was made archbishop, and died about two years after his elevation (1582-1663).

Suggestions for Further Reading


(1) The figures in brackets following Geographical names indicate the number of thousands of population.

(2) The figures in brackets given in Biographical references indicate the dates of birth and death where both are given.

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