Saale, the name of several German
rivers, the most important of which rises in the Fichtelgebirge,
near Zell, in Upper Bavaria; flows northward, a course of 226
m., till it joins the Elbe at Barby; has numerous towns on its
banks, including Jena, Halle, and Naumburg, to which last it
Saarbrück (10), a manufacturing
town in Rhenish Prussia, on the French frontier, where the French
under Napoleon III. repulsed the Germans, August 2, 1870.
Sabadell (18), a prosperous
Spanish town, 14 m. NW. of Barcelona; manufactures cotton and
Sabæans, a trading people
who before the days of Solomon and for long after inhabited
South Arabia, on the shores of the Bed Sea, and who worshipped
the sun and moon with other kindred deities; also a religious
sect on the Lower Euphrates, with Jewish, Moslem, and Christian
rites as well as pagan, called Christians of St. John; the term
Sabæanism designates the worship of the former.
Sabaoth, name given in the Bible,
and particularly in the Epistle of James, to the Divine Being
as the Lord of all hosts or kinds of creatures.
Sabathai, Levi, a Jewish
impostor, who gave himself out to be the Messiah and persuaded
a number of Jews to forsake all and follow him; the sultan of
Turkey forced him to confess the imposture, and he turned Mussulman
to save his life (1625-1676).
Sabbath, the seventh day of
the week, observed by the Jews as a day of "rest"
from all work and "holy to the Lord," as His day,
specially in commemoration of His rest from the work of creation,
the observance of which by the Christian Church has been transferred
to the first of the week in commemoration of Christ's resurrection.
Sabellianism, the doctrine
of one Sabellius, who, in the third century, denied that there
were three persons in the Godhead, and maintained that there
was only one person in three functions, aspects, or manifestations,
at least this was the form his doctrine assumed in course of
time, which is now called by his name, and is accepted by many
in the present day.
Sabine, a river of Texas which,
rising in the extreme N. of the State, flows SE. and S., forming
for 250 m. the boundary between Louisiana and Texas, passes
through Sabine Lake into the Gulf of Mexico after a navigable
course of 500 in.
Sabine, Sir Edward,
a noted physicist, born in Dublin; served in artillery in 1803,
maintained his connection with it till his retirement in 1874
as general, but owes his celebrity to his important investigations
into the nature of terrestrial magnetism; accompanied as a scientist
Boss and Parry in their search for the North-West Passage (1819-20);
was President both of the Royal Society from 1861 to 1879 and
of the British Association in 1853 (1788-1883).
Sabines, an ancient Italian
people of the Aryan stock, near neighbours of ancient Borne,
a colony of whom is said to have settled on the Quirinal, and
contributed to form the moral part of the Roman people. Numa,
the second king of the city, was a Sabine. See
Sable Island, a low, sandy,
barren island in the Atlantic, 110 m. off the E. coast of Nova
Scotia; is extremely dangerous to navigation, and is marked
by three lighthouses; is gradually being washed away.
Sabots, a species of wooden shoes
extensively worn by the peasants of France, Belgium, &c.;
each shoe is hollowed out of a single block of wood (fir, willow,
beech, and ash); well adapted for marshy districts.
Sacerdotalism, a tendency
to attach undue importance to the order and the ministry of
priests, to the limitation of the operation of Divine grace.
Sacheverel, Henry, an
English Church clergyman, born at Maryborough, who became notorious
in the reign of Queen Anne for his embittered attack (contained
in two sermons in 1700) on the Revolution Settlement and the
Act of Toleration; public feeling was turning in favour of the
Tories, and the impolitic impeachment of Sacheverel by the Whig
Government fanned popular feeling to a great height in his favour;
was suspended from preaching for three years, at the expiry
of which time the Tories, then in power, received him with ostentatious
marks of favour; was soon forgotten; was an Oxford graduate,
and a friend of Addison; a man of no real ability (1672-1724).
Sachs, Hans, a noted early
German poet, born at Nürnberg; the son of a tailor, by
trade a shoemaker; learned "the mystery of song" from
a weaver; was a contemporary of Luther,
who acknowledged his services in the cause of the Reformation;
in his seventy-fourth year (1568), on examining his stock for
publication, found that he had written 6048 poetical pieces,
among them 208 tragedies and comedies, and this besides having
all along kept house, like an honest Nürnberg burgher,
by assiduous and sufficient shoemaking; a man standing on his
own basis; wrote "Narrenschneiden," a piece in which
the doctor cures a bloated and lethargic patient by "cutting
out half-a-dozen fools from his interior"; he sunk into
oblivion during the 17th century, but his memory was revived
by Goethe in the 18th (1494-1576).
Sachs, Julius, a German
botanist and professor, born at Breslau; has written several
works on botany, and experimented on the physiology of plants;
Earl of Dorset, poet and statesman, born at Buckhurst;
bred for the bar; entered Parliament in 1558; wrote with Thomas
Norton a tragedy called "Gorboduc," contributed to
a collection of British legends called the "Mirror of Magistrates"
two pieces in noble verse (1536-1608).
Sacrament, a ceremonial observance
in the Christian Church divinely instituted as either really
or symbolically a means, and in any case a pledge, of grace.
Sacramentarian, a High
Churchman who attaches a special sacred virtue to the sacraments
of the Church.
Sacramento, largest river
of California, rises in the NE. in the Sierra Nevada; follows
a south-westerly course, draining the central valley of California;
falls into Suisund Bay, on the Pacific coast, after a course
of 500 miles, of which 250 are navigable.
Sacramento (29), capital
of California, situated at the confluence of the Sacramento
and American Rivers, 90 m. NE. of San Francisco; industries
embrace flour and planing mills, foundries, potteries, &c.;
has an art gallery, court-house, &c.; the tropical climate
is tempered at night by cool sea breezes.
Sacred Wars. See
Sacrifice, anything of value
given away to secure the possession of something of still higher
value, and which is the greater and more meritorious the costlier
Sacring-bell, or Sanctus-bell,
the bell which rings when the Host is elevated at the celebration
of High Mass.
Isaac, Baron Silvestre de, the greatest of modern Orientalists,
born at Paris; by twenty-three was a master of classic, Oriental,
and modern European languages; was appointed in 1795 professor
of Arabic in the School of Oriental Languages, and in 1806 of
Persian in the College de France, besides which he held various
other appointments; founded the Asiatic Society in 1822; was
created a baron by Napoleon Bonaparte, and entered the Chamber
of Peers in 1832; published "Biographies of Persian Poets,"
a standard Arabic grammar, &c.; his writings gave a stimulus
to Oriental research throughout Europe (1758-1838).
Sadda, the name given to a Persian
epitome of the Zend-Avesta.
Sadducees, a sect of the Jews
of high priestly origin that first came into prominence by their
opposition to the Pharisees, being the party in power when Pharisaism
arose in protestation against their policy as tending to the
secularisation of the Jewish faith, or the prostitution of it
to mere secular ends. They represented the Tory or Conservative
party among the Jews, as the Pharisees did the High Church party
among us. The antagonism which thus arose on political grounds
gradually extended to religious matters. In regard to religion
they were the old orthodox party, and acknowledged the obligation
of only the written law, and refused to accept tradition at
the hands of the Scribes. They denied the immortality of the
soul, the separate existence of spirits, and this they did on
strictly Old Testament grounds, but this not from any real respect
for the authority of Scripture, only as in accord with the main
article of their creed, which attached importance only to what
bears upon this present life, and which in modern times goes
under the name of secularism. They were at bottom a purely political
party, and they went out of sight and disappeared from Jewish
history with the fall of the Jewish State, only the Pharisaic
party surviving in witness of what Judaism is.
Donatien Alphonse François, Marquis de, French
novelist, who, after fighting in the Seven Years' War, was sentenced
to death for odious crimes, effected his escape, but was caught
and imprisoned in the Bastille, where he wrote a number of licentious
romances; died a lunatic (1740-1814).
Sádi, a celebrated Persian
poet, born at Shiraz, of noble lineage, but born poor; bred
up in the Moslem faith; made pilgrimages to Mecca no fewer than
15 times; spent years in travel; fell into the hands of the
Crusaders; was ransomed by a merchant of Aleppo, who thought
him worth ransoming at a cost; retired to a hermitage near Shiraz,
where he died and was buried; his works, both in prose and verse,
are numerous, but the most celebrated is the "Gulistan"
(the rose-gardens), a collection of moral tales interlarded
with philosophical reflections and maxims of wisdom, which have
made his name famous all over both the East and the West (1184-1291).
Sadler, Sir Ralph, a
politician and diplomatist; was employed by Henry VIII. in carrying
out the dissolution of the monasteries, and conducted diplomatic
negotiations with Scotland; distinguished himself at the battle
of Pinkie; enjoyed the favour of Elizabeth; was Queen Mary's
keeper in the Castle of Tutbury; was the bearer of the news
of Queen Mary's execution to King James (1507-1587).
Sadoleto, Jacopo, cardinal,
born in Modena; acted as secretary under Leo X., Clement VII.,
and Paul III., the latter of whom created him a cardinal in
1536; was a faithful Churchman and an accomplished scholar,
and eminent in both capacities (1477-1547).
Safed (17), a town of Palestine,
12 m. N. of Tiberias, occupied principally by Jews attracted
thither in part by the expectation that the Messiah, when He
appears, will establish His kingdom there; it spreads in horse-shoe
fashion round the foot of a hill 2700 ft. high; is a seat of
Safety Lamp, name of a variety
of lamps for safety in coal-mines against "fire-damp,"
a highly explosive mixture of natural gas apt to accumulate
in them; the best known being the "Davey Lamp," invented
by Sir Humphrey Davy; the "Geordie," invented by George
Stephenson, both of which, however, have been superseded by
the Gray, Muesler, Marsant, and other lamps; all are constructed
on the principle discovered by Davy and Stephenson, that a flame
enveloped in wire gauze of a certain fineness does not ignite "fire-damp."
Saffi, or Asfi (9), a decayed
seaport of Morocco, on the Mediterranean coast, 120 m. NW. of
the city of Morocco; has ruins of a castle of the Sultans and
of the old Portuguese fortifications; has still a fair export
trade in beans, wool, olive-oil, &c.
Sagar, a low island at the mouth
of the Hûgli, a sacred spot and a place of pilgrimage
to the Hindus; mostly jungle; sparsely peopled.
Sagas, a collection of epics in
prose embodying the myths and legends of the ancient Scandinavians,
originally transmitted from mouth to mouth, and that began to
assume a literary form about the 12th century.
Sagasta, Praxedes Mateo,
Spanish statesmen of liberal sympathies; took part in the insurrections
of 1856 and 1866, and was for some time a fugitive in France;
entered Prim's Cabinet, supported the elected King Amadeus,
and since his abdication has led the Liberal party; has twice
been Prime Minister; b. 1827.
Saghalien (12), a long narrow
island belonging to Russia, situated close to the E. coast of
Siberia, from which it is separated by the so-called Gulf of
Tartary; stretches N. from the island of Yezo, a distance of
670 m.; is mountainous and forest-clad in the interior; has
excellent coast fisheries, but a cold, damp climate prevents
successful agriculture; rich coal-mines exist, and are wrought
by 4000 or 5000 convicts. Ceded by Japan to Russia in 1875.
Saguenay, a large and picturesque
river of Canada; carries off the surplus waters of Lake St.
John, replenished by a number of large streams, and issuing
a full-bodied stream, flows SE. through magnificent forest and
mountain scenery till it falls into the St. Lawrence, 115 m.
below Quebec, after a course of 100 m.; is remarkable for its
depth, and is navigable by the largest ships.
Saguntum, a town of ancient
Spain, was situated where now stands the town of Murviedro,
18 m. NE. of Valencia; famous in history for its memorable siege
by Hannibal in 219 B.C., which led to the Second Punic War.
Sahara, the largest desert region
in the world, stretches E. and W. across Northern Africa, from
the Atlantic to the valley of the Nile, a distance of 3000 m.,
and on the N. is limited by the slopes of the Atlas Mountains,
and on the S. by the valleys of the Senegal and Niger Rivers.
The surface is diversified by long sweeps of undulating sand-dunes,
elevated plateaux, hill and mountain ranges (8000 ft. highest)
furrowed by dried-up water-courses, and dotted with fertile
oases which yield date-palms, oranges, lemons, figs, &c.
The most sterile tract is in the W., stretching in a semicircle
between Cape Blanco and Fezzan. Rain falls over the greater
part at intervals of from two to five years. Temperature will
vary from over 100°F. to below freezing-point in 24 hours.
There are a number of definite caravan routes connecting Timbuctoo
and the Central Soudan with the Niger and coast-lands. Dates
and salt are the chief products; the giraffe, wild ass, lion,
ostrich, python, &c., are found; it is chiefly inhabited
by nomadic and often warlike Moors, Arabs, Berbers, and various
negro races. The greater part is within the sphere of French
influence. "When the winds waken, and lift and winnow the
immensity of sand, the air itself is a dim sand-air, and dim
looming through it, the wonderfullest uncertain colonnades of
sand-pillars whirl from this side and from that, like so many
spinning dervishes, of a hundred feet of stature, and dance
their huge Desert waltz there."
Saharanpur (59), a town in
the North-West Provinces of India, 125 m. N. of Delhi, in a
district formerly malarious, but now drained and healthy; the
population principally Mohammedans, who have recently built
in it a handsome mosque.
Sahib (i. e. master), used
in India when addressing a European gentleman; Mem Sahib to
Saigon (16), capital of French
Cochin-China, on the river Saigon, one of the delta streams
of the Mekhong, 60 m. from the China Sea; is handsomely laid
out with boulevards, &c.; has a fine palace, arsenal, botanical
and zoological gardens, &c.; Cholon (40), 4 m. SW., forms
a busy trading suburb, exporting rice, cotton, salt, hides, &c.
Saint, a name applied to a holy
or sacred person, especially one canonised; in the plural it
is the name assumed by the Mormons.
St. Albans (13), an old historic
city of Hertfordshire, on an eminence by the Ver, a small stream,
which separates it from the site of the ancient Verulamium;
has a splendid ancient abbey church, rebuilt in 1077; industries
include brewing, straw-plaiting, silk-throwing, &c.; scene
of two famous battles (1455 and 1461) during the Wars of the
St. Aloysius, Italian marquis,
who renounced his title, became a Jesuit, devoted himself to
the care of the plague-stricken in Rome; died of it, and was
St. Andrews (7), a famous
city of Fife, occupies a bold site on St. Andrews Bay, 42 m.
NE. of Edinburgh; for long the ecclesiastical metropolis of
Scotland, and associated with many stirring events in Scottish
history; its many interesting ruins include a 12th-century priory,
a cathedral, "robbed" in 1559, a castle or bishop's
palace built in the 13th century; has a university (St. Salvator's
1521 and St. Leonard's 1537) the first founded in Scotland,
and is still an important educational centre, having several
excellent schools (Madras College the chief); since the Reformation
its trade has gradually dwindled away; fishing is carried on,
but it depends a good deal on its large influx of summer visitors,
attracted by the splendid golf links and excellent sea-bathing.
Saint Arnaud, Jacques
Leroy de, a noted French marshal, born at Bordeaux;
was already a distinguished soldier when he entered actively
into the plans of Louis Napoleon to overthrow the Republic;
assisted at the coup d'état, and was created a
marshal in reward; commanded the French forces at the outbreak
of the Crimean War, and took part in the battle of the Alma,
but died a few days later (1796-1854).
St. Asaph (2), a pretty little
city in Flintshire, 6 m. SE. of Rhyl; its cathedral, the smallest
in the kingdom, was rebuilt after 1284, mainly in the Decorated
St. Bees (1), a village on the
Cumberland coast, 4 m. S. of Whitehaven; has a Church of England
Theological College, founded in 1816 by Dr. Law, bishop of Chester;
designed for students of limited means; a ruined priory church
of Henry I.'s time was renovated for the accommodation of the
St. Bernard, the name of two
mountain passes in the Alps: 1, Great St. Bernard, in
the Pennine Alps, leading from Martigny to Aosta, is 8120 ft.
high, near the top of which stands a famous hospice, founded
in 962, and kept by Augustinian monks, who, with the aid of
dogs called of St. Bernard, do noble service in rescuing perishing
travellers from the snow; 2, Little St. Bernard, in the
Graian Alps, crosses the mountains which separate the valleys
of Aosta and Tarantaise in Savoy. Hannibal
is supposed to have crossed the Alps by this pass.
St. Brieuc (16), capital of
the dep. of Côtes du Nord, Brittany, on the Gouet, and
2 m. from its mouth; has a 13th-century cathedral, ruins of
an interesting tower, lyceum, &c.; at the mouth of the river
is the port Le Ligné.
St. Christopher or
St. Kitts (30), one of the Leeward Islands, in the West
Indies archipelago, 45 m. NW. of Guadeloupe; a narrow mountainous
island, 23 m. long; produces sugar, molasses, rum, &c.;
capital is Basse-terre (7).
St. Clair, a river of North
America, flowing in a broad navigable stream from Lake Huron
into Lake St. Clair, which in turn pours its surplus waters
by means of the Detroit River into Lake Erie.
St. Cloud (5), a town in the
dep. of Seine-et-Oise, France; occupies an elevated site near
the Seine, 10 m. W. of Paris; the fine château, built
by Louis XIV.'s brother, the Duke of Orleans, was for long the
favourite residence of the Emperor Napoleon, since destroyed;
a part of the park is occupied by the Sèvres porcelain
St. Cyr (3), a French village,
2 m. W. of Versailles, where Louis XIV., at the request of Madame
de Maintenon, founded an institution for the education of girls
of noble birth but poor, which was suppressed at the time of
the Revolution, and afterwards converted into a military school
Laurent Gouvion, Marquis de, marshal of France, born
at Toul; joined the army in 1792, and in six years had risen
to the command of the French forces at Rome; fought with distinction
in the German and Italian campaigns, and in the Peninsular War;
won his marshal's baton during the Russian campaign of 1812;
was captured at the capitulation of Dresden in 1813, much to
the regret of Napoleon; created a peer after the Restoration,
and was for some time Minister of War; wrote some historical
St. Davids (2), an interesting
old cathedral town in Pembrokeshire, on the streamlet Alan,
and not 2 m. from St. Brides Bay; its cathedral, rebuilt after
1180 in the Transition Norman style, was at one time a famous
resort of pilgrims. On the other side of the Alan stand the
ruins of Bishop Gower's palace.
St. Denis (48), a town of France,
on a canal of the same name, 4 m. N. of Paris, noted for its
old abbey church, which from the 7th century became the burying-place
of the French monarchs. During the Revolution in 1793 the tombs
were ruthlessly desecrated; there is also a school for the daughters
of officers of the Legion of Honour, founded by Napoleon; manufactures
chemicals, printed calicoes, &c.
St. Elias, Mount, an
isolated, inaccessible volcanic mountain in the extreme NW.
of Canada, close to the frontier of Alaska, 18,010 ft. high;
has never been scaled.
St. Elmo's Fire. See
Elmo's Fire, St.
St. Étienne (133),
a busy industrial town of France, capital of department of Loire,
on the Furens, 36 m. SW. of Lyons; has been called the "Birmingham
of France"; is in the centre of a rich coal district, and
produces every kind of hardware; the manufacture of ribbons
is also an important industry; there is a school of mines.
Saint-Évremond, Charles Marguetel de Saint-Denis, Seigneur
de, a celebrated French wit and author; won distinction
as a soldier, and rose to be a field-marshal; his turn for satiric
writing got him into trouble, and in 1661 he fled to England,
where the rest of his life was spent; wrote charming letters
to his friend Ninon de l'Enclos; enjoyed the favour of Charles
II., and published satires, essays, comedies, &c., which
are distinguished by their polished style and genial irony;
was buried in Westminster (1613-1703).
St. Gall (230), a NE. canton
of Switzerland, on the Austrian frontier; its splendid lake
and mountain scenery and mineral springs render many of its
towns popular holiday resorts; the embroidery of cottons and
other textiles is an important industry. St. Gall (28),
the capital, is situated on the Steinach, 53 m. E. of Zurich;
is a town of great antiquity, and celebrated in past ages for
its monastic schools; its magnificent mediæval cathedral
has been restored; the old Benedictine monastery is used now
for government purposes, but still contains its famous collection
of MSS.; embroidering textiles is the chief industry.
St. Gothard, a noted mountain
in the Lepontine Alps, 9850 ft. high, crossed by a pass leading
from Lake Lucerne to Lake Maggiore; since 1882 traversed by
a railway with a tunnel through from Göschenen to Airolo,
a distance of 9¼ m.
St. Helena (4), a precipitous
cliff-bound island lying well out in the Atlantic, 1200 m. off
the W. coast of Africa; belongs to Britain; celebrated as Napoleon
Bonaparte's place of imprisonment from 1815 till his death in
1821. Jamestown (2), the capital, is a second-class coaling
station for the navy, and is fortified.
St. Helens (71), a thriving
manufacturing town of Lancashire, on Sankey Brook, a feeder
of the Mersey, 21 m. W. by S. of Manchester; is the chief centre
of the manufacture of crown, plate, and sheet glass.
St. Helier (29), capital of
Jersey Island, on St. Aubin Bay, on the S. side; is well fortified
by Fort Regent and Elizabeth Castle, on a rocky islet near the
shore; has a college, public library, &c.; fishing and shipbuilding
are important industries.
St. Ives, 1, a town in Cornwall,
8 m. N. of Penzance, the inhabitants of which are chiefly engaged
in the pilchard fisheries. 2, A town in Huntingdonshire, on
the Ouse, 5 m. E. of Huntingdon, where Cromwell lived and Theodore
Watts the artist was born.
St. James's Palace, an
old, brick-built palace in Pall Mall, London, originally a hospital,
converted into a manor by Henry VIII., and became eventually
a royal residence. It gives name to the British court.
St. John, a river of North America,
rises in the highlands of North Maine and crosses the continent
in an easterly direction and falls into the Bay of Fundy after
a course of 450 m., of which 225 m. are in New Brunswick; is
navigable for steamers as far as Fredericton.
St. John (39), embracing the
adjacent town of Portland, chief commercial city of New Brunswick,
on the estuary of St. John River, 277 m. NW. of Halifax; has
an excellent harbour; shipbuilding, fishing, and timber exporting
are the chief industries; has a great variety of prosperous
manufactures, such as machine and iron works, cotton and woollen
factories, &c.; does a good trade with the West Indies.
St. Johns (26), capital of Newfoundland,
situated on a splendid harbour on the peninsula or Avalon, in
the E. of the island: is the nearest port of America to the
continent of Europe; has oil and tan works, &c.
St. Joseph (103), a city of
Missouri, on the Missouri River (here spanned by a fine bridge),
110 m. above Kansas City, is an important railway centre; as
capital of Buchanan County it possesses a number
of State buildings and Roman Catholic colleges; does a large
trade in pork-packing, iron goods, &c.
Florelle de, a prominent French Revolutionist, born
at Decize, near Nevers; as a youth got into disgrace with his
family and fled to Paris, where, being bitten already by the
ideas of Rousseau, he flung himself heart and soul into the
revolutionary movement, became the faithful henchman of Robespierre,
and finally followed his master to the guillotine, having in
his zeal previously declared "for Revolutionists there
is no rest but in the tomb"; "he was a youth of slight
stature, with mild mellow voice, enthusiast olive-complexioned,
and long black hair" (1767-1794).
St. Kilda. See
St. Lawrence, one of the
great rivers of North America; issues in a noble stream from
Lake Ontario, and flowing due NE. discharges into the Gulf of
St. Lawrence, forming a broad estuary; is 750 m. long and from
1 to 4 m. broad; the scenery in parts is very grand, notably
in the expansion—the Lake of the Thousand Isles; is navigable
for large steamers as far as Montreal: the Ottawa is its chief
tributary; in winter navigation is suspended on account of the
St. Ló (10), a town in Normandy,
on a rocky eminence 60 m. SE. of Cherbourg; has textile manufactures;
was the birthplace of Leverrier.
St. Louis, 1, One of the great
commercial cities (575) of the United States, capital of Missouri
State; situated on the Mississippi (here spanned by two fine
bridges), 21 m. below its confluence with the Missouri; is a
handsomely built city, and equipped with every modern convenience,
entirely lit by electric light, &c.; has spacious parks,
two universities, public libraries, &c.; is a centre for
18 railroads, which with the great river-way enables it to carry
on a vast trade in grain, cotton, wool, furs, live stock, &c.;
its tobacco manufacture is the greatest in the world. 2, Also
capital (17) of the French colony of Senegal, in West Africa.
St. Lucia (42), a rocky, forest-clad
island in the West Indies, the largest of the Windward group;
exports sugar, cocoa, logwood, &c.; capital is Castries
St. Malo (12), a strongly fortified
seaport of France, on the Brittany coast (department of Ille-et-Vilaine),
at the mouth of the Ranee; the old town is built over the Rocher
d'Auron, an islet connected with the mainland by a causeway
215 yards long; there is a good harbour, and a considerable
amount of shipping is done; potatoes, dairy-produce, and some
cereals are exported. It was the birthplace of several distinguished
French authors and sailors.
St. Michael's (126), the
largest and most fertile of the Azores, 40 m. long by from 5
m. to 10 m. in breadth; is of volcanic origin; yields cereals,
St. Michael's Mount,
an islet, forming a precipitous granite mass, in Mount's Bay,
Cornwall, connected with the mainland by a low causeway passable
only at low tides; a fine old castle crowns its rocky height,
and a small fishing village lies sheltered on the northern side.
St. Michel, Mont, a remarkable
islet in St. Michel Bay, SW. corner of Normandy, 18 m. W. of
Avranches; is formed of a single cone of granite, 242 ft. high,
crowned by a historic Benedictine monastery; on the lower slopes
is built a little fortified town; a causeway 1 m. long joins
it to the mainland.
St. Nazaire (26), a flourishing
seaport of France, on the Loire, 40 m. W. of Nantes, where large
sums have been expended in improving its spacious docks to accommodate
an increasing shipping-trade; its exports, brandy, coal, wheat, &c.,
are mainly from Nantes and the interior.
St. Neots (4), an old market-town
of Huntingdonshire, on the Ouse, 8 m. SW. of Huntingdon; has
an interesting old parish church, a corn exchange, and iron
and paper works.
St. Nicholas, the patron
saint of boys, who was fabled to bring presents to good children
on Christmas eve; was bishop of Myra in the 4th century, and
had taken a special interest in the young.
St. Omer (20), a fortified town
of France, on the Aa, 26 m. SE. of Calais; has a fine old Gothic
cathedral, a ruined Benedictine abbey church, a Catholic college,
arsenal, &c.; manufactures embrace light textiles, tobacco
St. Paul (168), capital of Minnesota
State, finely situated on the Mississippi, a little below the
mouth of the Minnesota River; in 1849 a village of 500 inhabitants;
is now a beautiful and spacious city, equipped with colleges,
libraries, government buildings, electric street-railways, &c.;
is a centre for 10 railways, and carries on a large trade in
distributing groceries and dry goods throughout the State.
St. Paul's School, at
West Kensington, London, a famous charity school founded by
John Colet (q. v.), dean
of St. Paul's, for children of "every nation, country,
and class"; originally stood in St. Paul's Churchyard,
but was burned out by the Great Fire of 1666; the present building
was opened in 1884. The endowment amounts to £10,000 a
year, and 1000 boys and 400 girls are provided with education
and board. There are a number of Oxford and Cambridge exhibitions.
St. Petersburg (1,036),
capital of Russia, an imposing city, occupying a dreary, isolated
site at the head of the Gulf of Finland, on the banks and delta
islands (100) of the Neva, founded in 1702 by Peter the Great;
a large number of bridges span the main stream and its numerous
divisions; massive stone quays hold back the waters, but a rise
of 12 ft. floods the city (a yearly occurrence in the poorer
parts); the river is ice-bound nearly half the year, and is
given over to sleighing, &c.; the short summer is hot; covers
nearly 48 sq. m.; its palaces and government buildings for number
and grandeur are unsurpassed; Neva View is the finest street
in Europe; is the centre of Russian political, literary, scientific,
and artistic life; has a university, numerous academies, cathedral,
technical and training colleges, and libraries (the Imperial
Public Library contains 1,200,000 vols.); connected with the
Volga basin by a canal, and the centre of four railways, it
is the commercial metropolis and chief port of Russia, and carries
on half the foreign trade; exports one-fifth of the corn of
Russia, besides flax, linseed, leather, petroleum, &c.;
imports coal, machinery, &c.; principal manufactures are
cotton goods and other textiles, leather, sugar, porcelain goods, &c.
St. Pierre, Henri
Bernardin de, French novelist, born at Havre; an engineer
by profession, was a disciple of Rousseau both sentimentally
and speculatively; his chief work, "Paul
and Virginia" (q. v.), shows here as in his
other writings, says Professor Saintsbury, "a remarkable
faculty of word-painting, and also of influencing the feelings"
St. Quentin (48), a manufacturing
town of France, on the Somme, 95 m. NE. of Paris; manufactures
all kinds of cotton and woollen goods, machinery, paper, &c.;
has a fine old Gothic church and town-hall;
here the French were routed by the Spaniards in 1557, and by
the Germans in 1871.
St. Réal, Abbé
de, historian, born at Chambéry, where he settled
in 1679, and where he died; was historiographer to the Duke
of Savoy, and wrote the "History of the Conspiracy of Spain
against Venice," a masterpiece of its kind, and modelled
on Sallust (1639-1692).
Saint Saëns, Charles
Camille, a French musician, born in Paris; for 19 years
organist of the Madeleine; composer of a number of operas (e.
g. "Henri VIII.") indifferently successful, and
of much orchestral and chamber music of a masterly kind; is
held to be one of the greatest of living pianists and organists;
also noted for his musical critiques; b. 1835.
St. Simon, Claude Henri, Comte de,
founder of French Socialism, and of a sect called after him
St. Simonians, born in Paris, of an old noble family; grand-nephew
of the succeeding, but renounced his title and devoted his life
and all his means of living to the promotion of his Socialist
scheme, reducing himself in the end to utter penury; he made
few disciples, though some of them were men of distinction;
he is credited by Carlyle with having discovered, "not
without amazement, that man is still man, of which forgotten
truth," he bids us remark, "he had made a false application";
that is, we presume, by reorganisation from without instead
of regeneration from within; his scheme was a reconstruction
of society by the abolition of the hereditary principle, and
the vesting of the instruments of production in the State and
the administration of these for the welfare of all its members
Louis de Rouvroy, Duc de, French courtier and diplomatist
in the reign of Louis XIV.; left "Memoirs" in record
of the times he lived in, depicting with remarkable sagacity
the manners of the Court and the characters of the courtiers
St. Simonians. See
St. Simon, Comte de.
St. Tammany, an American-Indian
chief, popularly canonised as a saint, and adopted as the tutelary
genius by a section of the democratic party in the States; his
motto was "Unite in peace for happiness; in war for defence."
St. Thomas, 1, an unhealthy
volcanic island (20) in the Gulf of Guinea, belonging to Portugal;
produces coffee, cocoa, and some spices; chief town, St. Thomas
(3), a port on the NE. 2, One of the Virgin Islands (14), 37
m. E. of Porto Rico; belongs to Denmark; since the abolition
of slavery its prosperous sugar trade has entirely departed;
capital, St. Thomas (12), is now a coaling-station for steamers.
St. Thomas's, a handsome hospital
on the S. side of the Thames, opposite Westminster, founded
in 1553, and with an annual revenue of £40,000.
Saint-Victor, Paul de,
an ornate French writer, born in Paris; from 1851 was engaged
in dramatic and other criticism, and established his reputation
as a stylist of unusual brilliance. "When I read Saint-Victor
I put on blue spectacles," said Lamartine; author of several
works on historical and æsthetic subjects (e. g. "Anciens
et Modernes," "Hommes et Dieux") was for a number
of years General Inspector of Fine Arts (1827-1881).
St. Vincent (41), one of the
Windward Islands, in the West Indies, 105 m. W. of Barbadoes,
belongs to Britain; a coaling and cable station; mountainous
and volcanic; warm, but healthy climate; exports sugar, rum,
spices, &c.; chief town is Kingston (6), a port on the SW.
St. Vincent, Cape, a
lofty and rugged headland in the extreme SW. of Portugal, off
which have been fought several naval battles, the most memorable
being the great victory on February 14, 1797, when Jervis and
Nelson annihilated the Franco-Spanish fleet.
St. Vincent, John
Jervis, Earl, a noted English admiral, born at Meaford
Hill, Staffordshire; ran away to sea when a boy, and by gallantry
at Quebec in 1759 and otherwise rose rapidly in the service;
commanded the naval attack upon the French West Indies (1793),
and four years later, as admiral of the Mediterranean fleet,
shared with Nelson the honours of a brilliant victory over the
combined fleets of France and Spain off Cape St. Vincent; was
created an earl in reward; during 1801-1804 was a successful
First Lord of the Admiralty (1734-1823).
Charles Augustin, the greatest of French literary critics,
born at Boulogne-sur-Mer; adopted medicine as a profession in
deference to the wishes of his widowed mother, and for some
years studied at Paris, but even as a student had begun his
career as a literary critic by contributions to the Globe
newspaper; in 1827 became acquainted with Victor Hugo, whose
commanding influence drew him into the Romantic movement, and
determined for him a literary career; a critical work on French
poetry in the 16th century (1828), two volumes of mediocre poetry
(1829-1830), and a psychological novel, "Volupté"
(1834), the fruit of spiritual and mental unrest, preceded his
lectures at Lausanne on Port-Royal (1837), which, afterwards
elaborated and published, contain some of his finest writings;
an appointment in the Mazarin Library, Paris (1840), brought
him a modest competence, and allowed him during the next 8 years
to contribute without strain or stress to the Revue des Deux
Mondes; was elected in 1845 to the Academy; three years
later lectured for a session at Liège University; during
1849-1869 he contributed a weekly literary article to the
Constitutionnel; these form his famous "Causeries du
Lundi" and "Nouveaux Lundis," which, for variety
of human interest, critical insight, and breadth of sympathy,
remain unsurpassed; was appointed professor of Latin in the
Collège de France (1854), but his unpopularity with the
students, owing to his support of Napoleon III., led to his
resignation; as a senator in 1865 his popularity revived by
his eloquent advocacy of freedom of thought, and on his decease
some 10,000 people attended his funeral (1804-1869).
Deville, Henri Étienne, a noted French chemist,
born in St. Thomas, West Indies; occupied for many years the
chair of Chemistry in the Sorbonne, Paris; his important contributions
to chemical knowledge include a process for simplifying the
extraction of aluminium and platinum (1818-1881).
Saintes (15), an interesting
old town in West France, dep. Charente-Inférieure, on
the Charente, 28 m. SE. of Rochefort; known in ancient times
as Mediolanum; has some splendid Roman remains, a cathedral, &c.;
manufactures copper and iron goods, leather, &c.
literary critic, born at Southampton; graduated at Merton College,
Oxford; was engaged in scholastic work for a number of years
at Manchester, Guernsey, and Elgin; in 1876 settled in London,
and made a reputation for vigorous and scholarly criticism,
devoting much of his time to French literature; elected to the
Chair of English Literature in Edinburgh University, 1895; is
the author of a "Short History of
French Literature," a "Short History of English Literature,"
besides several volumes of essays, &c.; b. 1845.
Saïs, a city of ancient Egypt,
on the delta, on the right bank of the W. branch of the Nile;
gave name to two Egyptian dynasties founded by natives of it,
was a religious centre, and eventually for a time capital, the
temple of which was said to contain a veiled statue which became
a subject of legend.
Saivas, in the Hindu religion
the worshippers of Siva, one of the two great sections of the
Hindus, the worshippers of Vishnu being the other.
Saki, a beer of alcoholic quality
made in Japan from rice by fermentation. It is drunk hot at
meals, and is in a small way intoxicating.
Sakuntala, in Hindu mythology
a benignant female character, made the subject of a famous drama
of Kálidása (q.
v.), translated in 1789 by Sir William Jones.
Sakyamuni (i. e. the
solitary of the Sakyas), the name given to Buddha, one of the
tribe of the Sakyas in Northern India.
Sala, George Augustus,
a well-known journalist, born in London, of Italian and English
parentage; had some training in art before he began writing
for Dickens's Household Words, &c.; lived a busy,
rambling life; founded and edited Temple Bar; acted as
war-correspondent for the Daily Telegraph; author of
several popular novels, "Captain Dangerous" and "Quite
Alone" among them, and books of travel, "A Trip to
Barbary" and "America Revisited" (1828-1895).
Salaam, an Oriental term of salutation
meaning "Peace," especially among the Mohammedans.
Saladin, sultan of Egypt and
Syria, the hero of the third crusade on the Saracen side; a
man of noble and chivalrous character; served first as a soldier
under Nureddin; rose to be vizier of Egypt, and ultimately sovereign
in 1174; distinguished himself by the capture of Damascus, Aleppo, &c.,
and entering the Holy Land defeated the Christians at Tiberias,
thereafter taking Jerusalem and laying siege to Tyre; found
in Richard Coeur de Lion a foeman worthy of his steel, concluded
a truce in 1192, and died the year after (1137-1193).
Salamanca (22), an interesting
old city of Spain, capital of a province of the same name, occupies
a hilly site on the Tormes, here spanned by a Roman bridge,
110 m. NW. of Madrid, long famous for its university, which
in its heyday (16th century) numbered 8000 students, now fallen
to 400; holds within its surrounding walls many fine old cathedrals,
colleges, and other buildings; its industries are greatly fallen
off, and consist mainly of cloth, linen, leather, and pottery
manufacturing; in this neighbourhood Wellington won a great
victory over the French on July 22, 1812.
Salamander, an elemental
spirit conceived in the Middle Ages as an animal that lived
in the fire as its proper element.
Salamis, a mountainous island
of Greece, on the NW. coast of Attica, the strait between which
and the mainland was the scene of a naval victory over the armament
of Xerxes by the combined fleets of Athens, Sparta, and Corinth
in 480 B.C.
Oliveira e Daun João Carlos, Duke of, Portuguese
statesman and soldier, played an honourable and patriotic part
in many wars and crises of his country, notably in Brazil in
the struggle between Dom Pedro and Dom Miguel, and during his
occupancy of the Premiership on three several occasions between
1846-70; proved a mild constitutionalist, and enjoyed the confidence
and support of England; was created a duke in 1846 (1790-1876).
Sale, George, Orientalist,
born in Kent, and bred for the bar, contributed to the "Universal
History" and the "General Dictionary," but is
best known as the translator of the "Korân,"
with a preliminary dissertation and notes; he left a body of
MSS. behind him (1690-1736).
Sale, Sir Robert Henry,
British general; saw a great deal of fighting; was distinguished
in the Burmese War of 1824-25, and in the war against Afghanistan
in 1834, in both of which he was wounded, and afterwards in
the latter country during 1841-42; he was killed at the battle
of Mudki fighting against the Sikhs (1782-1865).
Salem, 1, a city (36) and seaport
of the United States, founded in 1626 on a peninsula in Massachusetts
Bay, 15 m. NE. of Boston; its foreign trade has fallen away,
but a good coasting trade is done in ice and coal; manufactures
include cottons, jutes, shoes, &c. 2, Capital (5) of Oregon,
on the Willamette River, 720 m. N. of San Francisco.
Salerno (22), a city of South
Italy, on a gulf of the name, 33 m. SE. of Naples; has some
fine Gothic buildings, notably the cathedral of St. Matthew;
had a European fame in the Middle Ages for its medical school
and university, closed in 1817; cotton-spinning is the chief
industry; in the neighbourhood are the ruins of Pæstum
and an old Norman castle.
Salette, La, a French village
amid Alpine scenery, 28 m. SE. of Grenoble; has become a place
of pilgrimage, since the alleged appearance of the Virgin to
two peasant children on 19th September 1846.
Salford (198), a suburb of Manchester,
with cotton factories and iron-works, and with Manchester forms
the second largest city in England.
Salic Law, a law which obtained
among the Salian Franks, as also in certain German States, which
excluded females from succession to the throne.
Salicylic Acid, produced
in commercial quantities from carbolic acid; is a white crystalline
powder, soluble in water, odourless, of a sweetish acid taste;
largely used as an external antiseptic, and internally in the
form of salicylate of sodium as a febrifuge and cure for acute
Salisbury (17), a cathedral
city, and capital of Wiltshire, 84 m. WSW. of London; the cathedral,
founded in 1225, and frequently added to and restored, is one
of the finest specimens of Early English architecture; has a
number of other interesting old buildings—churches, almshouses,
inns, an endowed school, &c.; agriculture is the staple
industry; also called New Sarum, and a mile to the N. is the
half-obliterated site of Old Sarum, with many interesting historical
associations; while round the neighbourhood sweeps the wide,
undulating, pastoral Salisbury Plain, with its Druidical circle
of Stonehenge (q. v.).
Salisbury, Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoigne Cecil, Marquis of,
statesman, educated at Eton and Christ Church, Oxford; as Lord
Cecil, represented Stamford in Parliament in 1853; was, as Lord
Cranborne, Secretary for India in 1866 under Lord Derby; entered
the House of Lords as Lord Salisbury in 1867, and distinguished
himself as foremost in debate; became Secretary for India under
Disraeli in 1874, and Secretary for Foreign Affairs in 1881,
in which latter year he, on the death of Beaconsfield, became
leader of the Conservative party; after this he was three times
raised to the Premiership, the last time on Lord Roseberys retirement
in 1890, by coalition with the
Liberal Unionists (q.
v.); was at one time a contributor to the Saturday Review,
and is interested in scientific pursuits, chemistry in particular;
Sallust, Roman historian, born
at Amiternum, in the territory of the Sabines, and attained
the quæstorship and the tribunate, though a plebeian;
for a misdemeanour was expelled the Senate; joined Cæsar's
party in the Civil War, and became governor of Numidia; enriched
himself by extortions, and returned to Rome a rich man, and
gave himself to literature; wrote the "Catiline Conspiracy,"
and the "War with Jugurtha," among other works, in
a terse and forcible style, and was the precursor of Livy and
Tacitus; as a writer he affects the moralist, though he lived
in vice (86-35 B.C.).
Salmasius, eminent French
scholar, learned in Greek, Latin, Hebrew, Arabic, and other
languages; succeeded Scaliger at Leyden, and associated with
Casaubon, Grotius, and other scholars; embraced Protestantism;
wrote a number of learned works, but his "Defence of Charles
I." proved a failure, and provoked from Milton a crushing
reply; died a disappointed man, though he refused to sell his
literary talent for money, when Richelieu tried hard to bribe
Salmon, George, mathematician
and divine, born in Dublin, and there in 1839 graduated with
mathematical honours at Trinity College; became a Fellow, entered
the Church, and in 1866 was elected regius professor of Divinity,
becoming provost of the college in 1888; has carried on with
eminent success his dual studies, mathematics and theology,
and has published some notable works in both sciences, e.
g. in theology, "Non-Miraculous Christianity," "Gnosticism
and Agnosticism," a scholarly and popular "Introduction
to the New Testament," and in mathematics "Analytic
Geometry," "The Higher Plane Curves," &c.
Salomon, Johann Peter,
a violinist and composer, born at Bonn; was in his youth attached,
to the court of Prince Henry of Prussia, at which time he wrote
some operas; came to London, and is remembered for the great
stimulus he gave to musical culture, and especially the study
of Haydn in England by his Philharmonic Concerts (1790) and
production of that great master's symphonies; composed songs,
glees, violin pieces, &c.; buried in Westminster Abbey (1745-1815).
Salonica or Saloniki
(122), the Thessalonica of the Scriptures, the second port and
city of Turkey in Europe; occupies a bold and rocky site at
the head of the Gulf of Salonica, 370 m. SW. of Constantinople;
is surrounded by walls, is well laid out, drained, &c.;
contains many fine old mosques; has an increasing commerce,
exporting corn, cotton, opium, wool, &c.; founded in 315
B.C., and has ever since been a place of considerable importance.
Salsette (108), an island N.
of Bombay, and connected with it by a causeway, with richly
cultivated fields and rock temples among other ruins.
Salt, Sir Titus, English
manufacturer, born near Leeds; introduced the manufacture of
alpaca, planted his factory at Saltaire, near Leeds, which he
made a model village for his workers as a philanthropic employer
of labour (1803-1876).
Salt Lake City (53), the
capital of Utah, a high-lying city and stronghold of Mormonism,
11 m. from Great Salt Lake; contains the Mormon temple, which
it took 40 years to build, and it has besides many fine churches,
and the university of Deseret.
Salt Range, a tract of lofty
tableland buttressed on either side by mountain ranges 3000
to 5000 ft. high, and stretching across the Punjab E. and W.,
between Jhelum and Indus Rivers; derives its name from the remarkably
rich deposits of rock-salt, which are extensively worked.
Salts, in chemistry an important
class of compound substances formed by the union of an acid
with a metal or a base, that is, a substance having, like a
metal, the power of replacing in part or in whole the hydrogen
of the acid employed.
Saltus, Edgar, an interesting
American writer, born in New York; a busy writer in fiction,
biography (Balzac), and philosophy, e. g. "The Philosophy
of Disenchantment" and "The Anatomy of Negation,"
studies in a somewhat cheerful pessimism; b. 1858.
Salvador (780), the smallest
but the most densely populated of the republics of Central America,
about one-sixth the size of England and Wales; has a western
foreshore between Guatemala (N.) and Nicaragua (S.), fronting
the Pacific for 140 m.; slopes up from rich alluvial coast-lands
to high plateaus, which stretch, seamed and broken by rivers
and volcanoes, to the Cordillera frontier of Honduras on the
E.; soil is extremely fertile and naturally irrigated by numerous
streams, and produces in abundance coffee and indigo (chief
exports), balsam, tobacco, sugar, cereals, &c.; has a warm,
healthy climate. The natives are chiefly Indians of Aztec descent,
but speaking Spanish. The government is vested in a president
and chamber of deputies. Education is free and compulsory. Broke
away from Spanish control in 1821; was a member of the Central
American Confederacy, but since 1853 has enjoyed complete independence.
Capital, San Salvador (q.
Salvation Army, a modern
religious organisation and propaganda, remarkable alike for
its novel methods and phenomenal expansion; assumed its present
quasi-military form in 1878, but is in reality the outgrowth
of a mission founded in London in 1865 by the Rev.
William Booth (q. v.),
and nobly furthered by his wife. It is in essence a protest
against the older conventional methods of propagating the Christian
religion, and would seem by its remarkable success to have ministered
to some latent and wide-spread need among the poorer classes.
In 1895 it numbered 500,000 enrolled soldiers, 25,126 local
officers, and 11,740 officers; these are spread over 35 countries.
The members assume semi-military attire, march through the streets
to the sound of musical instruments, displaying banners; but
while these and other sensational devices bring its purposes
home to the hearts of the people, its vitality rests upon the
real spiritual devotion and self-sacrifice of its members. Various
agencies of a more directly philanthropic kind (homes of rest,
rescues, workshops, farms, etc.) have become attached to it,
and are generously supported by the public. Funds are raised
by means of the War Cry and other periodicals.
Salvini, Tommaso, a celebrated
Italian tragedian, born, the son of an actor, at Milan; was
trained to the stage, and joined Ristori's company; served with
distinction in the revolutionary war of 1849, and returning
to the stage won for himself a European fame, appearing in France,
Spain, United States, England, &c.; achieved his greatest
success in "Othello"; retired after 1884, and published "Leaves
from My Autobiography"; b. 1830.
Salween, a river of Asia whose
source is still uncertain; forms in its lower part the boundary
between Siam and British Burma, and falls into the Gulf of Martaban;
its upper course traverses the northern Shan district; only
80 m. of it are navigable.
Salzburg (174), a western province
and duchy of Austria, borders on Bavaria
between the Tyrol and Upper Austria; is woody and mountainous,
especially in the S., where fine scenery is formed by the Alps;
excellent meadowland favours a prosperous industry in the rearing
of cattle and horses. The inhabitants, being Protestants, were
severely persecuted by the Church, and 30,000 of them emigrated
in 1730, and on the invitation of Frederick William of Prussia
settled in Lithuania, that had been desolated by plague. Salzburg
(28), the capital, occupies a fine site on the hill-girt banks
of the Salzach (crossed by 3 bridges), 80 m. E. by S. of Münich;
is a handsome and interesting city, with many fine old buildings,
including a cathedral, archbishop's palace, imperial palace,
monasteries, &c.; has a theological college, libraries, &c.;
birthplace of Mozart; manufactures musical instruments, &c.
Salzkammergut (18), a
beautiful mountain district of Austria, between Salzburg (W.)
and Styria (E.); salt mines and springs give a rich yield of
Sam Slick. See
Sam Weller. See
Samarcand (33), a city of
West Turkestan, situated at the western base of the Tian-Shan
Mountains, 130 m. SE. of Bokhara. Suffered at the hands of Genghis
Khan in the 13th century; was Timur's capital in the 14th century,
and has since been held sacred by the Moslems. Captured by the
Russians in 1868, who have improved it, and built a handsome
suburb on the west. Manufactures silk, cotton, paper, &c.
Samaria, a city of a district
of the name between Judea and Galilee in the Holy Land, and
which became the capital of the North Kingdom of Israel after
the revolt from the Southern; was desolated by the hosts of
Assyria in 720 B.C., and repeopled afterwards by Assyrian settlers,
who were converted to the Jewish faith, and ministered to by
a Jewish priest; when the Jews rebuilt the Temple of Jerusalem,
the Samaritans' offer to aid was rejected, and the refusal led
to a bitter hostility between the Jews and Samaritans ever after.
a version of the Pentateuch in use among the Samaritans, and
alone accepted by them as canonical. It is of value from its
independence of other versions.
Samaveda, the section of the
Veda that contains the chants, intended for singers.
Samian Sage, name given to
Pythagoras as a native of Samos.
Samnites, a warlike people
of ancient Italy in territory SE. of Rome; gave the Romans much
trouble till, after two successive wars in 343 and 327 B.C.,
they were subdued in 290 B.C. A revolt in 90 B.C. led to their
extermination as an nation.
Samoa, or Navigators' Islands
(36), a group of 14 volcanic islands in the W. Pacific, of which
three alone are of any size—Savaii, Upolu, and Tutuila;
all are mountainous and richly wooded; climate is moist and
warm; copra is the chief export, and cotton, coffee, tobacco, &c.,
are grown; the natives, a vigorous Polynesian race, have been
Christianised; the islands are under the joint suzerainty of
Britain, Germany, and the United States; the chief town of the
group is Apia (2), at the head of a pretty bay in Upolu; near
here R. Louis Stevenson spent the last five years of his life.
Samos, a fertile island in the Ægean
Sea, about 30 m. long and 8 wide, separated from the coast of
Ionia, three-quarters of a mile wide; had an extensive trade
with Egypt and Crete; came through various fortunes under the
chief Powers of ancient and mediæval Europe till it became
subject to Turkey; had a capital of the same name, which in
the fifth century B.C. was one of the finest cities in the world.
Samothrace, a mountainous,
bleak island in the Ægean Sea, NW. of the mouth of the
Dardanelles; has only one village of 2000 inhabitants; was in
ancient times place of Cabiri worship
Samoyedes, a people of the
Mongolian race, occupying the N. shores of Russia and Siberia
from the White Sea to the Yenisei; live by hunting and fishing,
and are idol-worshippers; they are fast disappearing.
Sampson, Dominie, a character
in Scott's "Guy Mannering."
Samson, ranked as judge of Israel,
but the story of his life is as of a Jewish hero, distinguished
for his feats of strength; employed in the service of his country
against the Philistines.
Samson Agonistes, the
strong man of a nation or race caught in the net of his and
their enemies, and, encompassed by them, wrestling in his soul's
agony to free himself from them; the imagery here being suggested
by the story of Samson in the hands of the Philistines.
Samuel, a Jewish prophet, born,
of the tribe of Levi, about 1155 B.C.; consecrated by his mother
from earliest years to the service of the Lord; who became a
judge when he was 40, anointed first Saul and then David to
be king over the till then disunited tribes of Israel, and thus
became the founder of the Jewish monarchy.
Samuel, Books of, two
books of the Old Testament, originally one, and divided in the
Septuagint into two, entitled respectively the First and Second
Books of Kings; the narrative embraces a period of 125 years,
and extends from the time of the Judges to the close of the
reign of David, including the intermediate judgeship of Samuel
and the reign of Saul, with the view of exalting the prophetic
office on the one hand and the kingly office on the other.
San Antonio (53), the second
city of Texas, of Spanish origin, on a river of the name, 80
m. W. of Austin; has a Catholic college, cathedral, arsenal, &c.;
does a good trade in the produce of a fertile neighbourhood,
and manufactures flour, leather, beer, &c.
San Diego (16), a thriving
port in S. California, situated on a handsome bay of the same
name, 124 m. SE. of Los Angeles; wool is the chief export.
San Domingo (25), capital
of the Dominican Republic, a fortified port on the S. coast
of Hayti; has a 16th-century Gothic cathedral, college, hospital, &c.;
founded by Columbus.
San Francisco (342), capital
of California, and commercial metropolis of the W. coast of
America; occupies the NE. corner of a tongue of land stretching
between the Pacific and San Francisco Bay, which, with San Pablo
Bay and Suisun Bay—extensions to the N.—forms a
handsome land-locked sheet of water 65 m. long, communicating
with the ocean by Golden Gate Strait; has practically sprung
into existence since the discovery of gold in 1847, and is now
a spacious and evenly laid-out city, with every modern convenience—electric
light, cable tramways, &c.; many of the dwelling-houses
are of wood, but marble and granite give dignity to Government
buildings, hotels, theatres, &c.; there is a remarkable
number of religious sects; has a fine park, many free schools,
a number of colleges, and a university; as the western terminus
of the great continental railroads and outlet for the produce
of a rich wheat district it has a large shipping trade; important
industries are shipbuilding, whale-fishing, sugar-refining,
San José (18), a city
of California, and capital of Santa Clara county, on the Guadalupe
River, 50 m. SE. of San Francisco; has a couple of Catholic
colleges, a Methodist university, pretty orchards, &c.;
fruit-canning and the manufacture of flour and woollen goods
are the chief industries. The name also of small towns in Guatemala,
Lower California, and Uruguay.
San José (19), capital
of Costa Rica, situated on a fertile and elevated plain between
the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific; grain, the vine, and many
fruits are grown in the neighbourhood; flour-milling and distilling
(Government works) are the principal town industries; there
is a university.
San Juan (125), a mountainous
province of the Argentine Republic, on the Chilian border; is
rich in metals, but, save coal, not worked; agriculture is the
chief industry. San Juan (12), on a river of the same name,
is the capital, lies 98 m. N. of Mendoza; has public baths,
a bull-ring, library, &c.; exports cattle and fodder, chiefly
to Chile. The name of numerous other towns in different parts
of Spanish South America.
San Marino (8), a little republic
of Europe which has maintained its independence since the 4th
century; comprises a town (same name) and several villages occupying
rocky and elevated sites on the eastern slopes of the Apennines;
some agriculture and cattle-rearing are done; is under the friendly
protection of Italy.
San Remo (12), a town in Northern
Italy, on a bay in the Gulf of Genoa, in the Riviera, 26 m.
NE. of Nice; is sheltered by a semicircle of hills, and from
its mild climate is a favourite winter resort; trades in olive-oil,
palms, and lemons.
San Salvador (20), capital
of Salvador (q. v.), situated
on a fertile and elevated plain at the base of an extinct volcano;
has suffered frequently and severely from earthquakes, and after
the disaster of 1854 a new town, Nueva San Salvador, was built
12 m. to the SW., only to suffer a similar fate.
San Sebastian (30), a fortified
seaport of North Spain, on a small peninsula jutting into the
Bay of Biscay, 10 m. from the French frontier; is guarded by
a strong citadel, and since its bombardment by Wellington in
1813 has been spaciously rebuilt; has a beautiful foreshore,
and is a favourite watering-place; has a fair export trade.
San Stefano, a Turkish village,
a few miles W. of Constantinople, where a preliminary treaty
was signed between Turkey and Russia after the war of 1877-78.
Sanchez, Thomas, a Spanish
casuist, born at Cordova; author of a treatise on the "Sacrament
of Marriage," rendered notorious from the sarcastic treatment
it received at the hands of Pascal and Voltaire (1550-1610).
Sancho Panza, the immortal
squire of Don Quixote. See Panza,
Sanchoniathon, a Phoenician
historian of uncertain date; author of a history of Phoenicia,
of which only a few fragments remain, and that of a translation
into Greek; he is supposed to have lived in the time of Semiramus.
Sancroft, William, an
English prelate, born in Suffolk; rose through a succession
of preferments to be Archbishop of Canterbury; was with six
other bishops committed to the Tower for petitioning against
James II.'s second Declaration of Indulgence; refused to take
the oath of allegiance to William and Mary, and was driven from
his post, after which he retired to his native place (1616-1693).
Sand, George, the assumed
name of Aurore Dupin, notable French novelist, born in Paris;
married Baron Dudevant, a man of means, but with no literary
sympathies; became the mother of two children, and after nine
years effected a separation from him (1831) and went to Paris
to push her way in literature, and involved herself in some
unhappy liaisons, notably with
Alfred de Musset (q.
v.) and Chopin; after 1848 she experienced a sharp revulsion
from this Bohemian life, and her last twenty-five years were
spent in the quiet "Châtelaine of Nohant" (inherited)
in never-ceasing literary activity, and in entertaining the
many eminent littérateurs of all countries who
visited her; her voluminous works reflect the strange shifts
of her life; "Indiana," "Lélia,"
and other novels reveal the tumult and revolt that mark her
early years in Paris; "Consuelo," "Spiridion," &c.,
show her engaged with political, philosophical, and religious
speculation; "Elle et Lui" and "Lucrezia Floriani"
are the outcome of her relations with Musset and Chopin; the
calm of her later years is reflected in "La Petite Fadette," "François
le Champi," and other charming studies of rustic life;
her "Histoire de ma Vie" and posthumous letters also
deserve notice; her work is characterised by a richly flowing
style, an exuberant imagination, and is throughout full of true
colour and vivid emotion (1804-1876).
Jules, French novelist, born at Aubusson; gave up law
for literature; was George Sands first "friend" in
Paris, and wrote with her "Rose et Blanche"; contributed
to the Revue des Deux Mondes; wrote many novels and plays,
and was elected to the Academy (1858), and during his later
life held the librarianship at St. Cloud (1811-1883).
Sanderson, Burdon, English
physiologist; professor of Physiology first at University College,
London, and since 1882 at Oxford; is one of the greatest authorities
on the subject; b. 1828.
Sanderson, Robert, English
prelate, great casuist; became chaplain to Charles I. in 1631,
and bishop of Lincoln in 1660 (1587-1663).
Sandhurst or Bendigo
(27), a mining city of Victoria, Australia, on Bendigo Creek,
101 m. NW. of Melbourne; came into existence with the "gold
rush" of 1851; mines are still of value; a good trade in
grain, brewing, iron-founding, &c., is also done.
Sandringham, an estate in
Norfolk of over 7000 acres, 7½ m. NE. of Lynn, the property
of the Prince of Wales since 1862.
Sandwich (3), one of the old
Cinque Ports (q. v.)
in Kent, on the Stour, and once on the sea, but now, by the
receding of the sea, 2 m. distant; 12 m. E. of Canterbury; an
interesting place of many historical associations; has a splendid
golf course, which attracts summer visitors.
Sandwich Islands. See
Sangha, the Buddhist Church,
and the third term of the Triratna or Buddhist trinity, the
two other being Buddha and Dharma, his law.
Sanhedrim, a council of the
Jews which held its sittings in Jerusalem, and claimed authority
and jurisdiction over the whole Jewish people; it was an aristocratic
body, and was presided over by the high-priest; its authority
was limited from time to time, and it ceased to exist with the
fall of Jerusalem; there is no note of its existence prior to
the Grecian period of Jewish history.
Sankara, a Hindu teacher of
the philosophy or the Vedas, who lived some time between 800
and 200 B.C., and was the author of a number of commentaries
on the sacred writings of the Hindus, the teachings of which
he contributed to develop.
Sankhya, one of three systems
of Hindu philosophy, Yoga and Vedânta being the other
two, and the system which is most in affinity with the doctrine
Sannazaro, Jacopo, an
Italian poet, enjoyed the favour of King Frederick III. of Naples,
and wrote amongst other things a pastoral medley in verse and
prose called "Arcadia," which ranks as an Italian
Sans Souci (i. e. No
Bother), "an elegant, commodious little 'country box,'
one storey high, on a pleasant hill-top near Potsdam";
the retreat of Frederick the Great after his wars were over,
and in part sketched by himself, and where he spent the last
40 years of his life, specially as years advanced; it is 20
m. from Berlin, and the name is Frederick's own invention.
Sansculottes (i. e.
fellows without breeches), a name of contempt applied by the
aristocratic party in France to the Revolutionists, and at length
accepted by the latter as a term of honour, as men who asserted
their claim to regard on their naked manhood.
in the rights of man, stript of all the conventional vestures
and badges by which alone, and without any other ground of right,
one man maintains an ascendency over another.
Sanskrit, the name given to
the ancient literary language of the Hindus, still preserved
in their literature, belongs to the Aryan family of languages,
in their purest form and most perfect development.
Santa-Anna, Antonio de,
a noted soldier and President of Mexico, entered the army as
a boy, and from the proclamation of the Republic in 1822 till
his final exile in 1867 was embroiled in all the wars, intrigues,
and revolutions of his country; was four times President, and
on the last occasion (1853) was appointed for life, but his
habitual harshness alienated the people in two years; fled the
country as on many former crises in his life; intrigued against
the newly-established empire, but was captured and sentenced
to death (1867); allowed to expatriate himself, and died in
exile; he was one of the most forceful characters in Mexican
Santa Claus, contraction
of St. Nicholas (q. v.).
Santa Cruz or Nitendi
(5), the largest of the Queen Charlotte or Santa Cruz Islands,
in the South Pacific, 100 m. N. of the New Hebrides; on one
of the smaller islands Bishop Patteson was brutally murdered
by the natives in 1871.
Santa Cruz or St. Croix
(20), one of the Virgin Islands; produces sugar, rum, and cotton;
ceded by France to Denmark in 1733; a serious nigger revolt
took place in 1878; capital is Christianstadt (6).
Santa Cruz or Teneriffe
(13), capital and chief seaport of the Canary Islands, situated
on the NE. side of Teneriffe; has an excellent and strongly-fortified
harbour; is an important coaling port for ocean steamers; cochineal,
wine, and garden-produce are the chief exports.
Santa Fé, 1, on the Rio
Solado, capital (15) of a rich agricultural province (240) of
the Argentine Republic, lying N. of Buenos Ayres. 2, Capital
(7) of New Mexico, U.S.; holds an elevated site amid the Rockies;
is the centre of a good mining district; has the oldest Spanish
cathedral in the United States.
Santals, one of the aboriginal
tribes of India, inhabiting a district in the province of Bengal,
which stretches southward from the Ganges; they are chiefly
hunters, but also agriculturists; dwell by the forest edges,
are fond of music, and are sun-worshippers; number considerably
over a million.
Santander (42), a flourishing
port of North Spain, stands on a fine bay facing the Bay of
Biscay, 316 m. N. of Madrid; actively engaged in cigar-making,
brewing, cotton-spinning, flour-milling, &c.; exports flour,
wine, and cereals; a popular seaside resort.
Santerre, Antoine Joseph,
a popular wealthy brewer, born in Paris; assisted at the fall
of the Bastille; played a conspicuous part during the Revolution;
became commander of the National Guard in 1792; proposed as
a relief in famine that every citizen should live two days a
week on potatoes, and that every man should hang his dog; conducted
King Louis into the judgment, holding him by the arm; with a
stamp of his foot ordered him to mount the guillotine; failed
in quelling the insurrection in La Vendée, and was recalled;
was made brigadier-general by Napoleon as a reward for keeping
the peace which he would fain have disturbed on the 18th Brumaire
in 1797 (1752-1809).
Santiago (393), capital of
Chile, beautifully situated on a wide fertile and elevated plain
overhung on the N. and E. by the snow-clad peaks of the Andes,
90 m. SE. of Valparaiso; the Mapocho, a mountain stream, passes
through the N. part of the city, is handsomely laid out with
spacious plazas, a noble alameda, and well-paved streets; has
many fine public buildings, hotels, a cathedral, a university,
art, agricultural, and military schools, botanical and zoological
gardens, &c.; in the pretty neighbourhood there is a popular
racecourse; is an important commercial centre, with a stock
exchange, law-courts, and manufactures of cloth, flour, ships'
biscuits, beer, ice, &c.
Santiago de Compostella
(23), a city of Spain, in Galicia, of which it was formerly
the capital, 26 m. NE. of Carril, on the coast; has an interesting
old Romanesque cathedral, a noted place of pilgrimage in the
Middle Ages, a university, and several ruined monasteries; manufactures
linen, leather, &c.
Santiago de Cuba (71),
formerly capital of Cuba, on a beautiful land-locked bay on
the S. coast; the harbour is strongly fortified; is the see
of an archbishop, and has an old Spanish cathedral, also flourishing
sugar-factories, foundries, &c.
Santley, Charles, a well-known
baritone singer, born in Liverpool; studied at Milan; made his
début in 1857, and ever since has been an accepted
favourite with the public both as an oratorio and operatic singer;
has published a volume of reminiscences; b. 1834.
Santorin or Thera (17),
a volcanic island in the Ægean, one of the Cyclades; is
the southmost of the group, and lies 70 m. N. of Crete; the
vine grows luxuriantly, and there is a good wine trade; has
many interesting prehistoric remains; chief town, Thera or Phera,
on the W. coast.
São Francisco, one
of the great rivers of Brazil, for the most part navigable;
rises in the SW., near the source of the Paraná, and
flows N., NE., and SE. till it reaches the S. Atlantic after
a course of 1800 m., forming in its lower part the boundary
between the maritime provinces Sergipe and Alagoas; higher it
divides Bahia and Pernambuco.
São Paulo (35), a manufacturing
town of Brazil (minerals, coffee); capital of a productive and
healthy State (1,387) of the same name, situated on a plain
310 m. W. by S. from Rio de Janeiro; has pretty suburbs, electric
light, &c.; is the chief centre of the Brazilian coffee
trade, and has manufactories of cotton,
tobacco, spirits, &c.; is the seat of a law-school.
Saône, a tributary of the
Rhône; rises among the Faucelles Mountains, in Vosges,
and flows SW. and S. to the Rhône at Lyons; length 282
m., of which one-half is navigable.
Saône, Haute- (281),
a department in the E. of France, near the Alsace border, between
Vosges (N.) and Doubs (S.); forests abound; about one-half is
under cultivation, and there are fine cherry orchards; watered
by the Saône and its affluents.
(620), an east-midland department of France, bounded SE. and
W. by the Saône and Loire; has a fine fertile surface,
and is noted for its cattle and abundant output of wine; iron
and coal are wrought, and its towns are busy with the manufacture
of cotton goods, pottery, machinery, &c.
Sapphire, a precious stone
of the corundum class, and differing from the
ruby (q. v.) only in colour,
which is a blue of various shades; the finest specimens are
found in Ceylon; its value depends chiefly on quality, and not
so much (like the ruby) on size.
Sappho, a lyric poetess of Greece
of the 7th century B.C., and a contemporary of Alcæus;
was a woman of strong passions and of questionable morality,
but of undoubted genius, her lyrics being among the masterpieces
of antiquity, though only two of her odes and some short fragments
of others remain; of her history little is known, and what is
known is far from reliable.
Saracens, the name given in
mediæval times to the Arabs or Mohammedans, and extended
to all the non-Christian races with whom the Crusaders or Christian
races came to grips.
Saragossa (95), an interesting
city of Spain, and capital of Aragon, on the Ebro, which flows
through it, 212 m. NE. of Madrid; its history goes back to far
Roman times, and includes fierce struggles between Goths, Moors,
and Spaniards, and a memorable siege by the French in 1808;
being one of the earliest Christian cities of Spain it contains
many interesting relics, cathedrals, &c.; there is a university,
citadel, archiepiscopal palace, &c.; manufactures embrace
cloth, silks, leather, &c.
Sarasate, Martin Meliton,
a Spanish violinist, and one of the most finished of the day,
a Basque by birth, but educated at Paris; has travelled over
the world, winning fame and a fortune; made his first appearance
in London in 1874; is composer of some light pieces; b.
Sarasvati, a Hindu goddess,
and ultimately the wife of Brahma and goddess of music and eloquence.
Saratoff (122), a handsome
city of Russia, on the Volga, 500 m. SE. of Moscow; has thriving
industries in distilling, flour, oil, and tobacco, and trades
in corn, salt, textiles, &c.; the government of Saratoff
(2,433) is a prosperous agricultural district.
Saratoga Springs (12),
one of the best-known watering-places of the United States,
in New York State, 38 m. N. of Albany; plentifully supplied
with mineral springs; once a village, now growing into a town
of hotels, &c.; 12 m. to the E. is the scene of Burgoyne's
surrender to Gates, October 17, 1777.
Sara`wak (320), a principality
of North-West Borneo, fronting the Chinese Sea on the NW. and
contiguous to Dutch Borneo; was granted as an independent Rajahship
to Sir James Brooke by the sultan of Borneo in 1841, and governed
by him and afterwards by his son, by whom it was put under British
protection in 1888; is very fertile, and grows sugar, coco-nuts,
rice, sago, rubber, tea, &c.; is rich in minerals, and mining
is carried on of antimony, quicksilver, gold, and coal; capital
Kuching (25), on the Sarawak River.
last king of Assyria; led a luxurious, effeminate life, but
surprised when at his ease by a large army of invaders he suddenly
developed into a hero, till hard pressed at length and shut
up in Nineveh, and after two years' defence finding resistance
hopeless, he reared a funeral pile, and setting fire to it,
threw himself upon it and perished in the flames.
Sardinia (682), an island of
the Mediterranean, 170 m. long and 75 m. broad, the second largest,
Sicily being larger, and to the S. of Corsica; is since 1859
part of the kingdom of Italy; it has a fruitful soil, and presents
a diversified surface of hill and valley; the chief export is
salt, and there are extensive fisheries; the capital is Cagliari,
in the S.; it is rich in mineral resources, but the exploitation
of these is in a backward state.
Sardis, capital of ancient Lydia,
in Asia Minor, at the foot of Mount Tmolus, celebrated for its
wealth, its trade, and luxury, through the market-place of which
the river Pactolus flowed with its sands of gold.
Sardou, Victorien, a
popular French playwright, born at Paris; gave up medicine for
literature, and his first successes were "Monsieur Garat"
and "Les Prés Saint-Gervais," both in 1800;
from that date his popularity and wealth began to flow in upon
him; his work has been taken up by Sarah Bernhardt, for whom
he wrote "Fédora," "Théodora,"
and "La Tosca" (1887); a number of his plays have
been translated into English, such as "A Scrap of Paper," "Diplomacy," &c.;
was elected to the Academy in 1877; his plays are characterised
by clever dialogue and stage effects, and an emotionalism rather
French than English; b. 1831.
Sarmatians or Sarmats,
an ancient race, embracing several warlike nomadic tribes, who
spoke the Scythian language, and inhabited the shores of the
Black Sea and Eastern Europe as far as the Caucasus; fought
with Mithridates against the Romans; were overwhelmed by the
Goths in the 4th century A.D., and afterwards gradually absorbed
by the Slavs.
Sarpedon, the "Nestor"
and king of the Lycians, was son of Zeus and Europa.
Sarpi, Paul, an Italian historian
of the monastic order, born at Venice; was a man of wide attainments
and liberal views; was the champion of the Republic against
the Pope; was summoned to Rome, and on his refusal to obey,
excommunicated; his life being in peril he retired into his
monastery, and wrote the "History of the Council of Trent,"
with which his name has ever since been associated; he was held
in high honour by the Venetians, and was honoured at his death
by a public funeral (1565-1623).
Sarto, Andreo del (i. e.
Andrew, the tailors son), a Florentine artist; painted in oil
and fresco numerous works; died of the plague at Florence, his
work displays accuracy of drawing and delicacy of feeling (1486-1531).
Sartor Resartus (i.
e. the tailor patched), a book written by Carlyle at
Craigenputtock (q. v.)
in 1831, published piecemeal in Frazer's Magazine in
1833-34, and that first appeared in a book form in America,
under Emerson's auspices, in 1836, but not in England till 1838.
It professes to be on the philosophy
of "clothes" (q. v.), and is divided into
three sections, the first in exposition of the philosophy, the
second on the life of the philosopher, and the third on the
practical bearings of his idea. It is
a book in many respects unparalleled in literature, and for
spiritual significance and worth the most remarkable that has
been written in the century. It was written in the time
and for the time by one who understood the time as not
another of his contemporaries succeeded in doing, and who interprets
it in a light in which every man must read it who would solve
its problems to any purpose. Its style is an offence to many,
but not to any one who loves wisdom and has faith in God. For
it is a brave book, and a reassuring, as well as a wise, the
author of it regarding the universe not as a dead thing but
a living, and athwart the fire deluges that from time to time
sweep it, and seem to threaten with ruin everything in it we
hold sacred, descrying nothing more appalling than the phoenix-bird
immolating herself in flames that she may the sooner rise renewed
out of her ashes and soar aloft with healing in her wings. See
Carlyle, Thomas, Exodus from Houndsditch,
Natural Supernaturalism, &c.
Saskatchewan, one of the
great and navigable rivers of Canada, rises among the Rockies
in two great branches, called respectively the North and South
Saskatchewan, 770 and 810 m., which flowing generally E., unite,
and after a course of 282 m. pass into Lake Winnipeg, whence
it issues as the Nelson, and flows 400 m. NE. to Hudson's Bay.
The upper branches traverse and give their name to one of the
western territories of Canada.
Sassari (32), the second city
of Sardinia, in the NW., prettily situated amid olive and orange
groves, 12 m. from the Gulf of Asinara; has an old cathedral,
castle, and university, and does a good trade in olive-oil,
Satan, an archangel who, according
to the Talmud, revolted against the Most High, particularly
when required to do homage to Adam, and who for his disobedience
was with all his following cast into the abyss of hell. See
Satanic School, name applied
by Southey to a class of writers headed by Byron and Shelley,
because, according to him, their productions were "characterised
by a Satanic spirit of pride and audacious impiety," and
who, according to Carlyle, wasted their breath in a fierce wrangle
with the devil, and had not the courage to fairly face and honestly
Satellites (lit. attendants),
name given to the secondary bodies which revolve round the planets
of the solar system, of which the Earth has one, Mars two, Jupiter
four, Saturn eight, Uranus four, and Neptune is known to have
at least one, as Venus is surmised to have.
Satire, a species of poetry or
prose writing in which the vice or folly of the times is held
up to ridicule, a species in which Horace and Juvenal excelled
among the Romans, and Dryden, Pope, and Swift among us.
Satrap, a governor of a province
under the ancient Persian monarchy, with large military and
civil powers; when the central authority began to wane, some
of them set up as independent rulers.
Saturn, in the Roman mythology
a primitive god of agriculture in Italy, often confounded with
the Greek Kronos, the father of Zeus, and sovereign of the Golden
Age; was represented as an old man bearing a sickle.
Saturn, the planet of the solar
system whose orbit is outside that of Jupiter, is 880 millions
of miles from the sun, round which it takes 10,759 days or nearly
30 years to revolve, revolving on its own axis in about 10½
hours; its diameter is nine times greater than that of the earth;
it is surrounded by bright rings that appear as three, and is
accompanied by eight moons; the rings are solid, and are supposed
to consist of a continuous belt of moons.
Saturnalia, a festival in
ancient Rome in honour of Saturn, in which all classes, free
and bond, and young and old, enjoyed and indulged in all kinds
of merriment without restraint.
Satyrs, in the Greek mythology
semi-animal woodland deities who roamed the hills generally
in the train of Dionysus (q.
v.), dancing to rustic music; represented with long pointed
ears, flat noses, short horns, and a hair-clad man's body, with
the legs and hoofs of a goat; they are of lustful nature, and
fond of sensual pleasure generally.
Sauerkraut, a favourite article
of food in Germany and elsewhere in North Europe; formed of
thinly sliced young cabbage laid in layers, with salt and spice-seeds,
pressed in casks and allowed to ferment.
Sauerteig (i. e. leaven),
an imaginary authority alive to the "celestial infernal"
fermentation that goes on in the world, who has an eye specially
to the evil elements at work, and to whose opinion Carlyle frequently
appeals in his condemnatory verdict on sublunary things.
Saul, a Benjamite, the son of Kish,
who fell in with Samuel as he was on the way in search of his
father's asses that had gone astray, and from his stature and
stately bearing was anointed by him to be first king of Israel;
he distinguished himself in the field against the enemies of
his people, but fell at the hands of the Philistines after a
reign of 40 years, and after several insane attempts on the
life of David, who had been elected to succeed him.
Saumarez, James, Baron
de, English admiral, born at Guernsey; entered the navy
at 13, distinguished himself in the American War, captured a
French frigate in 1793, which brought him knighthood; was second
in command at the battle of the Nile, and gained a great victory
off Cadiz in 1801; was raised to the peerage in 1831 (1757-1836).
Saumur (14), a town of France,
in the department of Maine-et-Loire, situated on the Loire and
partly on an island in the river, 32 m. SE. of Angers; once
famous for its Protestant theological seminary, and till the
Edict of Nantes a stronghold of the Huguenots; has interesting
churches, a castle (still used as an arsenal), and a noted cavalry
school; has trade in grain, dried fruits, rosaries, &c.
Saussure, Horace Benedict
de, geologist and physicist, born in Geneva; was the
first to ascend Mont Blanc in the interest of science, and was
distinguished for his researches in the same interest all over
the Alps and on other mountain ranges; he invented or improved
several scientific instruments (1740-1799).
Savage, Richard, English
poet, with a worthless character, who gained the regard of Johnson;
his chief poem, "The Wanderer," of no poetic merit
Savannah, a name used chiefly
in Florida and neighbouring States to designate the wide treeless
plains of these parts; is practically an equivalent for "pampa," "prairie," &c.;
comes from a Spanish word meaning "a sheet."
Savannah (54), a city and
port of the United States, capital of Chatham County, Georgia,
on the Savannah River, 18 m. from its mouth; well equipped with
parks, electric light, handsome churches, government buildings, &c.,
an important naval stores station and second cotton port of
the U.S., and has foundries, rice, flour, cotton, and paper-mills, &c.
Save, a tributary of the Danube,
rises in the Julian Alps and flows SE.
across Southern Austria till it joins the Danube at Belgrade
after a course of 556 m., of which 366 are navigable.
Savigny, Karl von, a
German jurist, born in Frankfort-on-the-Main, of French parentage;
wrote a treatise on the Right of Property, became professor
of Roman Law at Berlin; his chief works were the "History
of Roman Law in the Middle Ages" and the "History
of Roman Law in Modern Times" (1779-1861).
Saville, Sir Henry,
a learned scholar, born in Yorkshire; was tutor to Queen Elizabeth
and provost of Eton, and founder of the Savilian professorships
of Geometry and Astronomy at Oxford (1549-1642).
Savona (24), a seaport of Italy,
on the Gulf of Genoa, in the Riviera, 26 m. SW. of Genoa, in
the midst of orange groves, &c.; handsomely laid out; has
a 16th-century cathedral, castle, palace, picture gallery, &c.;
exports pottery and has prosperous iron-works, glass-works,
Italian reformer, born at Ferrara of a noble family; was in
his youth of a studious ascetic turn, became at 24 a Dominican
monk, was fired with a holy zeal for the purity of the Church,
and issued forth from his privacy to denounce the vices that
everywhere prevailed under her sanction, with threats of divine
judgment on her head, so that the impressions his denunciations
made were deep and wide-spread; the effect was especially marked
in Florence, where for three years the reformer's influence
became supreme, till a combination of enemies headed by the
Pope succeeded in subverting it to his ejection from the Church,
his imprisonment, and final execution, preceded by that of his
confederates Fra Domenico and Fra Silvestro; it was as a reformer
of the morals of the Church and nowise of its dogmas that Savonarolo
presented himself, while the effect of his efforts was limited
pretty much to his own day and generation (1452-1498).
Savoy, Duchy of (532),
in the SE. of France, on the Italian frontier, comprises the
two departments of Haute-Savoie and Savoie; previous to 1860
constituted a province of the kingdom of Sardinia; Lake of Geneva
bounds it on the N. and the lofty Graian Alps flank it on the
E., forming part of the Alpine highlands; it is charmingly picturesque,
with mountain, forest, and river (numerous tributaries of the
Rhône); has excellent grazing lands; grows the vine abundantly,
besides the usual cereals; the people are industrious and thrifty,
but for the most part poor. Aix-les-Bains, Evian, and Challes
are popular watering-places. Chambéry was the old capital.
Savoy, House of, an ancient
royal house of Europe (represented now by the king of Italy),
whose territorial possessions were constituted a county of the
empire in the 12th century under the name Savoy; was created
a duchy in the 15th century. By the treaty of Utrecht (1713)
the island of Sicily was ceded to Savoy and the title of king
bestowed upon the duke; in 1720 Victor Amadeus II. was forced
to cede Sicily to Austria in exchange for Sardinia, which with
Savoy and Piedmont, &c., constituted the kingdom of Sardinia
till its dissolution in 1860, when Savoy was ceded to France
and the remaining portion merged in the new Italian kingdom
under Victor Emmanuel.
Savoy, The, a district of the
Strand, London, in which a palace was built in 1245 called of
the Savoy, in which John of France was confined after his capture
at Poitiers; was burnt at the time of the Wat Tyler insurrection,
but rebuilt in 1505 as a hospital; it included a chapel, which
was damaged by fire in 1864, but restored by the Queen.
Saxe, Maurice, marshal of
France, natural son of Augustus II., king of
Poland (q. v.) distinguished
himself under various war captains, Marlborough and Prince Eugene
in particular, and eventually entered the service of France;
commanding in the War of the Austrian Succession he took Prague
and Egra, and was made a marshal, and appointed to the command
of the army of Flanders, in which he gained victories and captured
fortresses, and was thereafter loaded with honours by Louis
XV.; was one of the strongest and most dissolute men of his
age; died of dropsy, the result of his debaucheries (1698-1750).
Saxe-Coburg, Duke of,
second son of the Queen, Duke of Edinburgh; married a daughter
of Alexander II., czar of Russia; succeeded to the dukedom in
1893; retains his annuity as an English prince of £10,000;
Amalia, Duchess of, was of the Guelph family, and married
to the duke, and in two years was left a widow and in government
of the duchy, attracting to her court all the literary notabilities
of the day, Goethe the chief, till in 1775 she resigned her
authority to her son, who followed in her footsteps (1739-1807).
Saxo Grammaticus, a
Danish chronicler who flourished in the 12th century; wrote "Gesta
Danorum," which brings the history of Denmark down to the
year 1158, and is in the later sections of great value.
name given to a mountainous region in Saxony, SE. of Dresden.
Saxons, a people of the Teutonic
stock who settled early on the estuary of the Elbe and the adjoining
islands, who in their piratical excursions infested and finally
settled in Britain and part of Gaul, and who, under the name
of Anglo-Saxons, now hold sovereign sway over large sections
of the globe.
Saxony (3,502), a kingdom of
Germany, lies within the basin of the Elbe, facing on the E.,
between Bavaria (S.) and Prussia (N.), the mountainous frontier
of Bohemia; a little less in size than Yorkshire, but very densely
inhabited; spurs of the Erzgebirge, Fichtelgebirge, and Riesengebirge
diversify the surface; is a flourishing mining and manufacturing
country; Dresden is the capital, and other important towns are
Leipzig, Chemnitz, and Freiburg; the government is vested in
the king and two legislative chambers; is represented in the
Reichstag and Reichsrath of the empire; by the time of the Thirty
Years' War the electorate of Saxony, which in its heyday had
stretched to the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Elbe,
had sadly dwindled away; it suffered much at the hands of Frederick
the Great during the Seven Years' War, and in 1815, having sided
with Napoleon, a portion of its territory was, by the Congress
of Vienna, ceded to Prussia; was defeated along with Austria
in 1866, and thus joined the North German Confederation, to
be incorporated afterwards in the new German Empire.
Saxony, Prussian (2,580),
a province of Prussia, chiefly comprises that part of
Saxony (q. v.) added to
Prussia in 1815; situated in the centre of Prussia, N. of the
kingdom of Saxony; is watered by the Elbe and its numerous affluents,
and diversified by the Harz Mountains and Thuringian Forest;
contains some of the finest growing land in Prussia; salt and
lignite are valuable products, and copper is also mined; the
capital is Magdeburg, and other notable towns are Halle (with
its university), Erfurt, &c.
Sayce, Alexander Henry,
philologist, born near Bristol; has written
works on the monuments of the East, bearing chiefly on Old Testament
history; b. 1846.
Scævola, Caius Mucius,
a patriotic Roman who, when sentenced to be burnt alive by Lars
Porsena the Etrurian, then invading Rome, for attempting to
murder him, unflinchingly held his right hand in a burning brazier
till it was consumed, as a mark of his contempt for the sentence.
Porsena, moved by his courage, both pardoned him, and on hearing
that 300 as defiant had sworn his death, made peace with Rome
and departed. The name Scævola (i. e. left-handed)
was given him from the loss of his right hand on the occasion.
Scafell, a Cumberland mountain
on the borders of Westmorland, with two peaks, one 3210 ft.,
and the other 3161 ft. high, the highest in England.
Scale, Delfa, a prince of
Verona, and a general of the Ghibellines in Lombardy, who offered
Dante an asylum when expelled from Florence (1291-1329).
Scaliger, Joseph Justus,
eminent scholar, son of the following, born at Agen; educated
by his father; followed in his father's footsteps, and far surpassed
him in scholarship; travelled over Europe, and became a zealous
Protestant; accepted the chair of belles lettres in the
University of Leyden on condition that he should not be called
upon to lecture, and gave himself up to a life of study, especially
on matters philological and literary; was a man of universal
knowledge, and the creator of modern chronology (1540-1609).
Scaliger, Julius Cæsar,
surnamed the Elder, classical scholar, became page to the Emperor
Maximilian, and served him in war and peace for 17 years; at
40 quitted the army, and took to study the learned languages
among other subjects; wrote a treatise on poetics and a commentary
on the physics and metaphysics of Aristotle, and became an authority
on the Aristotelian philosophy (1484-1558).
Scanderbeg (i. e.
Prince or Bey Alexander), the patriot chief of Albania, and
the great hero of Albanian independence, who in the 15th century
renounced Islamism for Christianity, and by his military prowess
and skill freed Albania from the Turkish yoke; throughout his
lifetime maintained its independence, crushing again and again
the Turkish armies; was known among the Christians as George
Scanderoon or Alexandretta
(2), the port of Aleppo, in Turkey in Asia, situated in the
Gulf of Scanderoon, in the NE. of the Levant, 77 m. NW. of Aleppo;
is itself an insignificant place, but has a large transit trade.
Scandinavia, the ancient
name (still used) of the great northern peninsula of Europe,
which embraces Norway (q. v.)
and Sweden (q. v.); also
used in a broader sense to include Denmark and Iceland.
Scarborough (34), a popular
seaside town and watering-place on the Yorkshire coast; built
on rising ground on the shores of a fine bay; is a place of
great antiquity, with interesting ruins; has churches, harbour,
piers, and a fine promenade; noted for the manufacture of jet.
Scarpa, Antonio, Italian
anatomist, professor at Pavia (1747-1832).
Scarron, Paul, a French
humourist, writer of the burlesque, born, of good parentage,
in Paris; entered the Church, and was for some years somewhat
lax-living abbé of Mans, but stricken with incurable
disease settled in Paris, and supported himself by writing;
is chiefly remembered for his "Virgile Travesti" and "Le
Roman Comique," which "gave the impulse out of which
sprang the masterpieces of Le Sage, Defoe, Fielding, and Smollett";
married in 1652 Françoise d'Aubigné, a girl of
fifteen, afterwards the famous
Madame de Maintenon
(q. v.); was a man who both suffered much and laughed
Scattery Island, in the
Shannon estuary, 3 m. SW. of Kilrush; an early Christian place
of pilgrimage, with ruins and a "round tower"; is
fortified and marked by a lighthouse.
Scepticism, primarily doubt
respecting, and ultimately disbelief in, the reality of the
super-sensible, or the transcendental, or the validity of the
evidence on which the belief in it is founded, such as reason
or revelation, and in religious matters is tantamount to infidelity
more or less sweeping.
Sceptre, the symbol of royal
power, power to command and compel, originally a club, the crown
being the symbol of dominion.
Schadow, Johannes Gottfried,
sculptor, born in Berlin; was trained in Rome under the best
masters, returned to Berlin, and became Director of the Academy
of Arts; laboured here for 62 years, and produced works which
placed him among the first rank of artists; he had two sons,
one of whom distinguished himself as a sculptor, and the other
as a painter (1764-1850).
Schaff, Philip, a theologian,
born in Switzerland; studied in Germany; came recommended by
high names to the United States, and became professor first
in Pennsylvania, and finally in New York (1819-1893).
Schaffhausen (38), a canton
in the extreme N. of Switzerland, surrounded NE. and W. by Baden;
the Rhine flanks it on the S.; is hilly, with fertile valleys
sloping to the Rhine, and is chiefly given up to agriculture.
The capital, Schaffhausen (19), occupies a picturesque site
on the Rhine, 31 m. NW. of Constance; has a 12th-century cathedral,
an interesting old castle, &c. The famous falls, the finest
on the Rhine, are 3 m. below the town.
Schäffle, Dr. Albert,
eminent German economist, born in Würtemberg; has written,
besides other works, "The Quintessence of Socialism,"
an able exposé; b. 1831.
Schall, Johann Adam von,
Jesuit missionary to China, born at Cologne; was received with
honours at the Imperial Court; obtained permission to preach,
and founded churches to the spread of Christianity, a privilege
which was revoked by the next emperor; he was subjected to imprisonment,
which shortened his life (1591-1669).
Scharnhorst, Gerhard von,
a Prussian general, distinguished as the organiser of the Prussian
army, to the establishment of a national force instead of a
mercenary; died of a wound in battle (1756-1813).
Scheele, Carl Wilhelm,
Swedish chemist, born in Pomerania, was an apothecary at Upsala
and Köping; during his residence at the latter made numerous
important discoveries, and published many chemical papers, his
chief work "Experiments on Air and Fire" (1742-1786).
Scheffel, Joseph Victor
von, German poet, bred to law, but abandoned it for
literature; his first and best work "Der Trompeter von
Sakkingen," a charming tale in verse of the Thirty Years'
War, succeeded by "Gaudeamus," a collection of songs
and ballads familiar to the German students all over the Fatherland
Scheffer, Ary, painter,
born at Dordrecht, of German and Dutch parentage; settled in
Paris; began as a genre-painter;
illustrated Dante, Goethe, and Byron, and in the end painted
religious subjects; he did excellent portraits also; was of
the Romantic school (1795-1858).
of the grand vizier, who, in the "Arabian Nights,"
marries the Sultan and saves her life by entertaining him night
after night with her tales.
Scheldt, an important river
of Belgium and Holland, rises in the French dep. of Aisne, and
flows northwards past Cambrai (its highest navigable point)
and Valenciennes, entering Belgium a little S. of Tournay and
continuing northward, with Oudenarde, Ghent, and Antwerp on
its banks; enters Holland, and at the island of S. Beveland
splits into the Wester Scheldt and the Ooster Scheldt, which
enter the North Sea, the former at Flushing, the latter at Bergen-op-Zoom;
length 267 m., much the greater part being in Belgium.
Wilhelm Joseph, German philosopher, born in Würtemberg;
studied at Tübingen, where he became acquainted with Hegel;
wrote first on theological subjects and then on philosophical;
went to Jena and became a disciple and follower of Fichte; gradually
abandoned Fichte's position and began to develop ideas of his
own, and in conjunction with Hegel edited the Critical Journal
of Philosophy; held afterwards a professorship at Münich
and a lectureship at Berlin; his philosophy is no finished or
completed system, but is essentially a history of the progressive
stages through which he himself passed; during the reign of
Hegel he kept silence, and only broke it when Hegel was dead;
thought to outstrip him by another philosophy, but the attempt
has proved fruitless of any important results (1775-1854).
Schemnitz (15), a town of
Hungary, noted as a mining centre since Roman times, situated
in the midst of a mountainous region, 65 m. N. by W. of Pesth;
gold, silver, copper, and lead are largely wrought, chiefly
in the interests of the State.
Schenkel, David, German
theologian, born in Switzerland, became, after a pastorate at
Schaffhausen, professor first at Basel and then at Heidelberg;
was a man of liberal principles, and was zealous for the union
of the Protestants, Lutheran and Reformed, in one body on a
broad basis; is noted as author of a work entitled "Das
Characterbild Jesu," being an attempt to construe the character
of Christ on rationalistic lines (1813-1885).
Scherer, Edmond, French
critic, born in Paris, spent his early years in England, his
mother being English; was for some time devoted to theology
and the Church, but changed his views; settled in Paris, and
took to journalism and politics, distinguishing himself more
especially in literary criticism (1815-1889).
German poet and dramatist, born at Marbach on the Neckar, son
of an army-surgeon; bred first to law and then to medicine,
but took chief interest in philosophy and literature, to the
cultivation of which he by-and-by devoted his life; his first
work, a play, "The Robbers," which on its publication
in 1782 produced quite a ferment, and was followed in 1783 by
two tragedies, "Fresco" and "Kabale und Liebe";
but it was with "Don Carlos" in 1787 his mature authorship
began, and this was followed by the "History of the Netherlands"
and "History of the Thirty Years' War," to be succeeded
by "Wallenstein" (1799), "Maria Stuart"
(1800), "The Maid of Orleans" (1801), "The Bride
of Messina" (1803), and "Wilhelm Tell" (1804);
he Wrote besides a number of ballads and lyrics; in 1794 his
friendship with Goethe began, and it was a friendship which
was grounded on their common love for art, and lasted with life;
he was an earnest man and a serious writer, and much beloved
by the great Goethe (1759-1805). See
Carlyle's "Life of Schiller,"
and his essay on him in his "Miscellanies."
Schlegel, August Wilhelm
von, German man of letters, born at Hanover; studied
theology at first, but turned to literature and began with poetry;
settled in Jena, and in 1798 became professor of Fine Arts there;
was associated in literary work with Madame de Staël for
14 years; delivered "Lectures on Dramatic Art and Literature"
at Vienna in 1708, and finished with a professorship of Literature
at Bonn, having previously distinguished himself by translations
into German of Shakespeare, Dante, &c.; he devoted himself
to the study of Sanskrit when at Bonn, where he had Heine for
Schlegel, Friedrich von,
German critic and author, born at Hanover, brother of preceding,
joined his brother at Jena, and collaborated with him; became
a zealous promoter of all the Romantic movements, and sought
relief for his yearnings in the bosom of the Catholic Church;
wrote lectures, severally published, on the "Philosophy
of History," of "Literature," of "Life,"
and on "Modern History," and book on Sanskrit and
the philosophy of India (1772-1829).
German philologist, did eminent service by his studies in the
Indo-Germanic languages, and particularly in the Slavonic languages
Friedrich Ernest Daniel, great German theologian, born
at Breslau; brought up among the Moravians, his mind revolted
against the narrow orthodoxy of their creed, which was confirmed
by his study of Plato and the philosophy of the school of Kant,
as it for him culminated in Schelling, though the religious
feeling he inherited never left him; under these influences
he addressed himself to the task of elaborating a theology in
which justice should be done to the claims of the intellect
and the emotions of the heart, and he began by translating Plato;
soon he formed a school, which included among its members men
such as Neander and others, distinguished at once for their
learning and their piety, and to which all the schools of theology
in Germany since have been more or less affiliated; his great
merit lay in the importance he attached to the religious consciousness
as derived from that of Christ, and the development therefrom
in the life and history of the Church of Christ; it was to the
religious interest he dedicated his life and consecrated all
his learning, which was immense (1768-1834).
Schlemihl, Peter, the
name of a man who in Chamisso's tale sold his shadow to the
devil, a synonym of one who makes a desperate or silly bargain.
a German explorer, born in Mecklenburg-Schwerin; excavated at
his own cost the ruins, among others in Greece, of Hissarlik,
in the Troad, believing them to be those of Troy; spent 12 years
in this enterprise, collecting the spoils and depositing them
in safe keeping in Berlin; died at Naples before his excavations
were complete (1822-1890).
Christoph, German historian, born in Oldenburg; was
studios of the moral factor in history, and gave especial prominence
to it (1776-1861).
a league of the Protestant States of Germany concluded in 1531
at Schmalkalden, Prussia, in defence
of their religious and civil liberties against the Emperor Charles
V. and the Catholic States.
Schnitzer, Eduard, physician,
born in Breslau; went to Turkey, entered the Turkish medical
service, adopted the name Emin Pasha, and was appointed by Gordon
medical officer of the Equatorial Province of Egypt, and raised
to the rank of Pasha; soon after the outbreak of the Mahdist
insurrection he was cut off from civilisation, but was discovered
by Stanley in 1889 and brought to Zanzibar, after which he was
murdered by Arabs (1840-1893).
Scholasticism, the name
given to the philosophy that prevailed in Europe during the
Middle Ages, particularly in the second half of them, and has
been generally characterised as an attempt at conciliation between
dogma and thought, between faith and reason, an attempt to form
a scientific system on that basis, founded on the pre-supposition
that the creed of the Church was absolutely true, and capable
Scholiasts, name given to
a class of grammarians who appended annotations to the margins
of the MSS. of the classics.
Scholium, a marginal note explanatory
of the text of a classic author.
Scholten, Hendrik, a
Dutch theologian of the rationalistic school (1811-1885).
Schomberg, Duke of,
French marshal, of German origin and the Protestant persuasion;
took service under the Prince of Orange, and fell at the battle
of the Boyne (1618-1690).
palace near Vienna, built by Maria Theresa in 1744.
Schoolcraft, Henry Rowe,
a noted American ethnologist, born in New York State; at 24
was geologist to an exploring expedition undertaken by General
Cass to Lake Superior and the Upper Mississippi; married the
educated daughter of an Ojibway chief; founded the Historical
Society of Michigan and the Algic Society at Detroit; discovered
the sources of the Mississippi in 1832; was an active and friendly
agent for the Indians, and in 1847 began, under Government authorisation,
his great work of gathering together all possible information
regarding the Indian tribes of the United States, an invaluable
work embodied in six great volumes; author also of many other
works treating of Indian life, exploration, etc. (1793-1864).
Schoolmen, teachers of the
scholastic philosophy (q.
a bold metaphysical thinker, born in Danzig, of Dutch descent;
was early dissatisfied with life, and conceived pessimistic
views of it; in 1814 jotted down in a note-book, "Inward
discord is the very bane of human nature so long as a man lives,"
and on this fact he brooded for years; at length the problem
solved itself, and the solution appears in his great work, "Die
Welt als Wille und Vorstellung" ("The World as Will
and Idea"), which he published in 1718; in it, as in others
of his writings, to use the words of the late Professor Wallace
of Oxford, Schopenhauer "draws close to the great heart
of life, and tries to see clearly what man's existence and hopes
and destiny really are, which recognises the peaceful creations
of art as the most adequate representation the sense-world can
give of the true inward being of all things, and which holds
the best life to be that of one who has pierced, through the
illusions dividing one conscious individuality from another,
into that great heart of eternal rest where we are each members
one of another essentially united in the great ocean of Being,
in which, and by which, we alone live." Goethe gives a
similar solution in his "Wilhelm Meister"; is usually
characterised as a pessimist, and so discarded, but such were
all the wise men who have contributed anything to the emancipation
of the world, which they never would have attempted but for
a like sense of the evil at the root of the world's misery;
and as for his philosophy, it is a protest against treating
it as a science instead of an art which has to do not merely
with the reasoning powers, but with the whole inmost nature
of man (1788-1860).
Schouvaloff, Count Peter,
a Russian ambassador, born at St. Petersburg; became in 1806
head of the secret police; came to England in 1873 on a secret
mission to arrange the marriage of the Emperor Alexander II.'s
daughter with the Duke of Edinburgh; was one of Russia's representatives
at the Congress of Berlin (1827-1889). His brother, Count Paul,
fought in the Crimean War, helped to liberate the Russian serfs,
fought in the Russo-Turkish War, and was governor of Warsaw
during 1895-1897; b. 1830.
Schreiner, Olive, authoress,
daughter of a Lutheran clergyman at Cape Town; achieved a great
success by "The Story of an African Farm" in 1883,
which was followed in 1890 by "Dreams," also later "Dream
Life and Real Life"; she is opposed to the South African
policy of Mr. Rhodes.
Schreiner, Right Hon. W.
P., Premier of the Cape Parliament, brother of preceding;
bred to the bar, favours arbitration in the South African difficulty,
and is a supporter of the Africander Bond in politics.
Schubert, Franz Peter,
composer, born, the son of a Moravian schoolmaster, at Vienna;
at 11 was one of the leading choristers in the court-chapel,
later on became leading violinist in the school band; his talent
for composition in all modes soon revealed itself, and by the
time he became an assistant in his father's school (1813) his
supreme gift of lyric melody showed itself in the song "Erl
King," the "Mass in F," etc.; his too brief life,
spent chiefly in the drudgery of teaching, was harassed by pecuniary
embarrassment, embittered by the slow recognition his work won,
though he was cheered by the friendly encouragement of Beethoven;
his output of work was remarkable for its variety and quantity,
embracing some 500 songs, 10 symphonies, 6 masses, operas, sonatas,
etc.; his abiding fame rests on his songs, which are infused,
as none other are, by an intensity of poetic feeling—"divine
fire" Beethoven called it (1797-1828).
Hermann, founder of the system of "people's savings-banks,"
born at Delitzsch, and trained to the law; he settled in his
native town and give himself to social reform, sat in the National
Assembly in Berlin on the Progressionist side, but opposed Lasalle's
socialistic programme; his project of "people's savings-banks"
was started in 1850, and immediately took root, spreading over
the country and into Austria, Italy, Belgium, etc. (1808-1883).
Schumann, Robert, an
eminent German composer and musical critic, born at Zwickau,
in Saxony; law, philosophy, and travel occupied his early youth,
but in 1831 he was allowed to follow his bent for music, and
settled to study it at Leipzig; two years later started a musical
paper, which for more than 10 years was the vehicle of essays
in musical criticism; during these years appeared also his greatest
pianoforte works, songs, symphonies, and varied chamber music; "Paradise
and the Part" and scenes from "Faust" appeared
in 1843; symptoms of cerebral disease
which in the end proved fatal, began to manifest themselves,
and he withdrew to a quieter life at Dresden, where much of
his operatic and other music was written; during 1850-54 he
acted as musical director at Düsseldorf, but insanity at
length supervened, and after attempting suicide in the Rhine
he was placed in an asylum, where he died two years later; his
work is full of the fresh colour and variety of Romanticism,
his songs being especially beautiful (1810-1856).
Schürer, Emil, biblical
scholar, born at Augsburg, professor of Theology at Kiel, author
of "History of the Jewish People"; b. 1844.
Schuyler, Philip John,
leader in the American War of Independence, born at Albany,
of Dutch descent; served in arms under Washington, and health
failing for action, became one of Washington's most sagacious
Schuylkill, a river of Pennsylvania,
rises on the N. side of the Blue Mountains and flows SE. 130
m. to its junction with the Delaware River at Philadelphia;
is an important waterway for the coal-mining industry of Pennsylvania.
Schwann, Theodor, German
physiologist, born at Neuss; made several discoveries in physiology,
and established the cell theory (1810-1882).
German sculptor, born at Münich, of an old family of sculptors;
studied at Rome; has adorned his native city with his works
both in bas-reliefs and statues, at once in single figures and
in groups; did frescoes and cartoons also (1802-1848).
going off in swarms, as bees under their queen), name given
to a more or less insane enthusiasm with which a mass of men
Schwarz, Berthold, an
alchemist of the 13th century, born at Fribourg, a monk of the
order of Cordeliers; is credited with the discovery of gunpowder
when making experiments with nitre.
Friedrich, German missionary in India, born in Brandenburg;
laboured 16 years at Trichinopoly, gained the friendship of
the Rajah of Tanjore, and settled there in 1778; succeeded also
in winning the favour of Hyder Ali of Mysore, and proved himself
to be in all senses a minister of the gospel of peace (1726-1798).
Schwarzburg, House of,
one of the oldest noble families of Germany; first comes into
authentic history in the 12th century with Count Sizzo IV. (the
first to take the title of Schwarzburg), and in the 16th century
divides into the two existing branches, the Schwarzburg-Sondershausen
and Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt—which give their names to two
sovereign principalities of Central Germany wedged in between
Prussia and the lesser Saxon States, the latter embracing part
of the Thuringian Forest; both are prosperous agricultural and
Karl Philip, Prince von, Austrian general, born at Vienna,
of a noble family there; entered the army and distinguished
himself in the wars against the Turks, the French Republic,
and Napoleon; fought at Austerlitz and Wagram, negotiated the
marriage of Napoleon with Maria Louisa, commanded the Austrian
contingent sent to aid France in 1812, but joined the allies
against Napoleon at Dresden and Leipzig, and captured Paris
in 1814 at the head of the army of the Rhine (1771-1820).
Schwarzwald, the Black Forest
Schwegler, Albert, theologian,
born at Würtemberg; treated first on theological subjects,
then on philosophical; is best known among us by his "History
of Philosophy," translated into English by Dr. Hutcheson
Stirling, "written, so to speak, at a single stroke of
the pen, as, in the first instance, an article for an encyclopædia,"
... the author being "a remarkably ripe, full man"
August, German traveller in Africa, born at Riga; wrote "The
Heart of Africa," which gives an account of his travels
among the mid-African tribes; b. 1836.
Schwenckfeld, Caspar von,
a Protestant sectary, born in Lower Silesia, of a noble family;
as a student of the Scriptures embraced the Reformation, but
differed from Luther on the matter of the dependence of the
divine life on external ordinances, insisting, as George Fox
afterwards did, on its derivation from within; like Fox he travelled
from place to place proclaiming this, and winning not a few
disciples, and exposed himself to much persecution at the hands
of men of whom better things were to be expected, but he bore
it all with a Christ-like meekness; died at Ulm; his writings
were treated with the same indignity as himself, and his followers
were after his death driven from one place of refuge to another,
till the last remnant of them found shelter under the friendly
wing of Count Zinzendorf
(q. v.) (1490-1561).
Schwerin (34), capital of the
grand-duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin; has a pretty site on Lake
of Schwerin (14 m. by 3), 47 m. SE. of Lübeck; has a 14th-century
cathedral, Renaissance castle, arsenal, &c., and manufactures
of lacquered ware, machinery, &c.
Schwyz (50), one of the three
original cantons of Switzerland, German speaking and Catholic;
Lake Zurich forms part of the N. border, and Lake Lucerne part
of the S.; Zug with its lake is on the W.; is mountainous, but
good pasturage favours cattle-breeding, sheep and goat rearing, &c.;
important industries in cotton and silk are carried on; Einsiedeln,
with its famous monastery, attracts thousands of pilgrims, and
the Rigi is a favourite resort of summer visitors. The capital
(7), same name, is prettily situated 26 m. E. of Lucerne.
Science, as it has been said, "has
for its province the world of phenomena, and deals exclusively
with their relations, consequences, or sequences. It can never
tell us what a thing really and intrinsically is, but only why
it has become so; it can only, in other words, refer us to one
inscrutable as the ground and explanation of another inscrutable." "A
science," says Schopenhauer, "anybody can learn, one
perhaps with more, another with less trouble; but from art each
receives only so much as he brings, yet latent within him....
Art has not, like science, to do merely with the reasoning powers,
but with the inmost nature of man, where each must count only
for what he really is."
Scilly Islands, a rugged
group of islands belonging to Cornwall, 27 m. SW. of Land's
End; consists of six larger islands—St. Mary's (1528 acres,
pop. 1200), the largest—and some 30 smaller, besides numerous
rock clusters, the name Scilly being strictly applicable to
a rocky islet in the NW. of the group; climate is damp and mild;
the cultivation and export of large quantities of lilies is
the principal industry, but generally industries have decayed,
lighthouses have reduced greatly the hereditary occupation of
pilotage, and emigration goes on; the only town is Hugh Town
(with two hotels, banks, pier, &c.), on St. Mary's; there
are some interesting ecclesiastical ruins, &c.; since 1834
much has been done to improve the condition of the islanders
by the then proprietor Mr. A. J. Smith, and his nephew, T. A.
Darien Smith, who succeeded in 1872.
Scioppius, Caspar, a
Protestant renegade, born in the Palatinate;
turned Catholic on a visit to Rome, and devoted his life to
vilify his former co-religionists, and to invoke the Catholic
powers to combine to their extermination; he was a man of learning,
but of most infirm temper (1576-1649).
Scipio, P. Cornelius,
the Elder, surnamed Africanus Major, a celebrated Roman
general; was present at the engagement near the Tacinus and
at Cannæ; was appointed proconsul of Spain at the age
of 24, and made himself master of nearly the whole of it against
the Carthaginians; on his return to Rome was made consul; transferred
the seat of war against Carthage to Africa, and landed at Utica;
met Hannibal on the field of Zama, and totally defeated him,
and ended the Second Punic War in 202 B.C. (234-183 B.C.).
Scipio, P. Cornelius,
the Younger, surnamed Africanus Minor, adopted by the
preceding, the proper name being L. Paullus Æmelius; after
distinguishing himself in Spain proceeded to Africa to take
part in the Third Punic War; laid siege to Carthage, took it
by storm, and levelled it with the ground in 146 B.C.; he was
afterwards sent to Spain, where he captured Numantia after a
stubborn resistance, to the extension of the sway of Rome; he
was an upright and magnanimous man, but his character was not
proof against assault; he died by the hand of an assassin.
Scone (pronounced Scoon), a, village
in Perthshire, on the left bank of the Tay, 2 m. N. of Perth;
once the capital of the Pictish kingdom, and the place of the
coronation of the Scottish kings; near it is the seat of the
Earl of Mansfield.
Scopas, Greek sculptor, born
at Paros, who flourished in 4th century B.C.
Scoresby, William, scientist,
born at Whitby; began life as a sailor; visited the Arctic regions
twice over, and wrote an account of his explorations; took to
the Church, and held several clerical charges, but retired in
1849, and gave himself to scientific researches, both at home
and abroad (1787-1857).
Scory, John, a Cambridge Dominican
friar in 1530, who became bishop of Rochester in 1551, and later
of Chichester; was deprived of his living on Queen Mary's accession;
recanted, but fled abroad, whence he issued his "Epistle
to the Faytheful in Pryson in England"; returned in Elizabeth's
reign, and became bishop of Hereford; d. 1585.
Scot, Reginald, author
of a famous work, "The Discoverie of Witchcraft" (1584),
remarkable as one of the earliest exposures of the absurdities
of witchcraft and kindred superstitions, which provoked King
James's foolish defence "Dæmonology"; son of
a Kentish baronet; educated at Oxford, and spent a peaceful
life gardening and studying; wrote also "The Hoppe Garden"
Scotland (4,026), the northern
portion of the island of Great Britain, separated from England
by the Solway, Cheviots, and Tweed, and bounded N. and W. by
the Atlantic and E. by the German Ocean; inclusive of 788 islands
(600 uninhabited), its area, divided into 33 counties, is slightly
more than one-half of England's, but has a coast-line longer
by 700 m.; greatest length from Dunnet Head (most northerly
point) to Mull of Galloway (most southerly) is 288 m., while
the breadth varies from 32 to 175, Buchan Ness being the eastmost
point and Ardnamurchan Point the westmost; from rich pastoral
uplands in the S.—Cheviots, Moffat Hills, Lowthers, Moorfoots,
and Lammermoors—the country slopes down to the wide, fertile
lowland plain—growing fine crops of oats barley, wheat, &c.—which
stretches, with a varying breadth of from 30 to 60 m., up to
the Grampians (highest peak Ben Nevis, 4406 ft.), whence the
country sweeps northwards, a wild and beautiful tract of mountain,
valley, and moorland, diversified by some of the finest loch
and river scenery in the world; the east and west coasts present
remarkable contrasts, the latter rugged, irregular, and often
precipitous, penetrated by long sea-lochs and fringed with numerous
islands, and mild and humid in climate; the former low and regular,
with few islands or inlets, and cold, dry, and bracing; of rivers
the Tweed, Forth, Tay, Dee, and Clyde are the principal, and
the Orkneys, Shetlands, and Hebrides the chief island groups;
coal and iron abound in the lowlands, more especially in the
plain of the Forth and Clyde, and granite in the Grampians;
staple industries are the manufacture of cottons, woollens,
linen, jute, machinery, hardware, paper, and shipbuilding, of
which Glasgow is the centre and commercial metropolis, while
Edinburgh (capital) is the chief seat of law, education, &c.;
of cultivated land the percentage varies from 74.8 in Fife to
2.4 in Sutherland, and over all is only 24.2; good roads, canals,
extensive railway and telegraph systems knit all parts of the
country together; Presbyterianism is the established form of
religion, and in 1872 the old parish schools were supplanted
by a national system under school-boards similar to England;
the lowlanders and highlanders still retain distinctive characteristics
of their Teutonic and Celtic progenitors, the latter speaking
in many parts of the Highlands their native Gaelic; originally
the home of the Picts (q. v.),
and by them called Alban or Albyn, the country, already occupied
as far as the Forth and Clyde by the Romans, was in the 5th
century successfully invaded by the Scots, a Celtic tribe from
Ireland; in 843 their king Kenneth was crowned king of Picts
and Scots, and by the 10th century the country (known to the
Romans as Caledonia) began to be called Scotia or Scotland;
government and power gradually centred in the richer lowlands,
which, through contact with England, and from the number of
English immigrants, became distinctively Anglo-Saxon; since
the Union with England (q.
v.) the prosperity of Scotland has been of steady and rapid
growth, manufactures, commerce, and literature (in all branches)
having flourished wonderfully.
Scots, The, a tribe of Celts
from Ireland who settled in the W. of North Britain, and who,
having gained the ascendency of the Picts in the E., gave to
the whole country the name of Scotland.
Scott, David, Scotch painter,
born in Edinburgh; he was an artist of great imaginative power,
and excelled in the weird; his best picture, exhibited in 1828,
was "The Hopes of Early Genius Dispelled by Death,"
though his first achievements in art were his illustrations
of the "Ancient Mariner"; but his masterpiece is "Vasco
da Gama encountering the Spirit of the Cape"; he was a
sensitive man, and disappointment hastened his death (1806-1849).
Scott, Sir George Gilbert,
English architect, born in Buckinghamshire, son of Scott the
commentator; was the builder or restorer of buildings both in
England and on the Continent after the Gothic, and wrote several
works on architecture.
Scott, Michael, a sage
with the reputation of a wizard, who lived about the end of
the 12th and beginning of the 13th centuries, of whose art as
a magician many legends are related.
Scott, Thomas, commentator,
born in Lincolnshire; became rector of Aston Sandford, Bucks;
was a Calvinist in theology, author of
the "Force of Truth" and "Essays on Religion,"
the work by which he is best known being his "Commentary
on the Bible," a scholarly exposition (1747-1821).
Scott, Sir Walter, the
great romancer, born in Edinburgh, through both father and mother
of Scottish Border blood; his father, a lawyer, a man "who
passed from the cradle to the grave without making an enemy
or losing a friend," his mother a little kindly woman,
full of most vivid memories, awakening an interest in him to
which he owed much; was a healthy child, but from teething and
other causes lost the use of his right limb when 18 months old,
which determined, to a marked extent, the course of his life;
spent many of the months of his childhood in the country, where
he acquired that affection for all natural objects which never
left him, and a kindliness of soul which all the lower animals
that approached him were quick to recognise; he was from the
first home-bred, and to realise the like around his own person
was his fondest dream, and if he failed, as it chanced he did,
his vexation was due not to the material loss it involved, but
to the blight it shed on his home life and the disaster on his
domestic relationships; his school training yielded results
of the smallest account to his general education, and a writer
of books himself, he owed less to book-knowledge than his own
shrewd observation; he proceeded from the school (the High School,
it was) at 15 to his father's office and classes at the University,
and at both he continued to develop his own bent more than the
study of law or learning; at his sixteenth year the bursting
of a blood-vessel prostrated him in bed and enforced a period
of perfect stillness, but during this time he was able to prosecute
sundry quiet studies, and laid up in his memory great stores
of knowledge, for his mind was of that healthy quality which
assimilated all that was congenial to it and let all that did
not concern it slip idly through, achieving thereby his greatest
victory, that of becoming an altogether whole man. Professionally
he was a lawyer, and a good lawyer, but the duties of his profession
were not his chief interest, and though he received at length
a sheriffship worth £300 a year, and a clerkship to the
court worth £1500, he early turned his mind to seek promotion
elsewhere, and chose a literary career. His first literary efforts
were translations in verse from the German, but his first great
literary success was the publication, in 1802, of "The
Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border," and in this he first
gave evidence both of the native force and bent of his genius;
it gave the keynote of all that subsequently proceeded from
his pen. This was followed the same year by "Cadzow Castle,"
a poem instinct with military ardour, and this by "The
Lay of the Last Minstrel" in 1805; the first poem which
gained him popular favour, by "Marmion" in 1808, and
by "The Lord of the Isles" in 1814. Much as the rise
of Scott's fame was owing to his poetical works, it is on the
ground of his prose writings, as the freest and fullest exhibition
of his genius, that it is now mainly founded. The period of
his productivity in this line extended over 18 years in all,
commencing with the year 1814. This was the year of the publication
of "Waverley," which was followed by that of "Guy
Mannering," "The Antiquary," "Rob Roy," "Old
Mortality," and "The Heart of Midlothian" in
the year 1819, when he was smitten down by an illness, the effects
of which was seen in his after-work. "The Bride of Lammermoor," "Ivanhoe," "The
Monastery," "The Abbot," "Kenilworth,"
and "The Pirate" belong to the years that succeeded
that illness, and all more or less witness to its sorrowful
effects, of which last "The Abbot" and "The Monastery"
are reckoned the best, as still illustrating the "essential
powers" of Scott, to which may be added "Redgauntlet"
and "The Fortunes of Nigel," characterised by Ruskin
as "quite noble ones," together with "Quentin
Durward" and "Woodstock," as "both of high
value." Sir Walter's own life was, in its inner essence,
an even-flowing one, for there were in it no crises such as
to require a reversal of the poles of it, and a spiritual new
birth, with crucifixion of the old nature, and hence it is easily
divisible, as it has been divided throughout, into the three
natural periods of growth, activity, and death. His active life,
which ranges from 1796 to 1826, lay in picturing things and
traditions of things as in youth, a 25 years' period of continuous
crescent expansiveness, he had learned to view them, and his
slow death was the result, not of mere weariness in working,
but of the adverse circumstances that thwarted and finally wrecked
the one unworthy ambition that had fatally taken possession
of his heart. Of Scott Ruskin says, "What good Scott had
in him to do, I find no words full enough to express... Scott
is beyond comparison the greatest intellectual force manifested
in Europe since Shakespeare... All Scott's great writings were
the recreations of a mind confirmed in dutiful labour, and rich
with organic gathering of boundless resource" (1771-1832).
Scott, William Bell,
painter and poet, brother of David Scott, born in Edinburgh;
did criticism and wrote on artists; is best known by his autobiography
Scranton (102), capital of
Lackawanna County, Pennsylvania, on the Lackawanna River, 144
m. NW. of New York; does a large trade in coal, and is the centre
of a busy steel, iron, and machinery industry.
Scribe, Eugene, French
dramatist, a prolific and a successful, who produced plays for
half a century, well adapted for the stage, if otherwise worthless
Scribes, The (i. e. writers),
a non-priestly class among the Jews devoted to the study and
exposition of the Law, and who rose to a position of importance
and influence in the Jewish community, were known in the days
of Christ also by the name of Lawyers, and were addressed as
Rabbis; their disciples were taught to regard them, and did
regard them with a reverence superior to that paid to father
or mother, the spiritual parent being reckoned as much above
the natural, as the spirit and its interests are above the flesh
and its interests.
the subject of a fictitious memoir published in Pope's works
and ascribed to Arbuthnot (q.
v.), intended to ridicule the pedantry which affects to
know everything, but knows nothing to any purpose.
Henry Ambrose, New Testament critic, born at Bermondsey,
Surrey, educated at Cambridge; head-master of Falmouth School
from 1846 to 1856, and after 15 years' rectorship of Gerrans,
became vicar of Hendon and prebendary of Exeter; his "Plain
Introduction to the Criticism of the New Testament" ranks
as a standard work; was editor of the Cambridge Paragraph Bible,
and one of the New Testament revisers (1813-1891).
Scroggs, Sir William,
an infamous Judge of Charles II.'s reign, who became Chief-Justice
of the King's Bench in 1678, and whose name is associated with
all manner of injustice and legal corruption;
was impeached in 1680, and pensioned off by the king; d.
de, French novelist, born at Havre, came to Paris in
her youth, and there lived to an extreme old age; was a prominent
figure in the social and literary life of the city; collaborated
at first with her brother Georges, but subsequently was responsible
herself for a set of love romances of an inordinate length,
but of great popularity in their day, e. g. "Le
Grand Cyrus" and "Clélie," &c., in
which a real gift for sparkling dialogue is swallowed up in
a mass of improbable adventures and prudish sentimentalism (1607-1701).
a name specially applied to certain varieties of commemorative
monuments (usually rough-hewn slabs or boulders, and in a few
cases well-shaped crosses) of early Christian date found in
various parts of the British Isles, bearing lettered and symbolic
inscriptions of a rude sort and ornamental designs resembling
those found on Celtic MSS. of the Gospels; lettered inscriptions
are in Latin, Ogam (q. v.),
and Scandinavian and Anglican runes, while some are uninscribed;
usually found near ancient ecclesiastical sites, and their date
is approximately fixed according to the character of the ornamentation;
some of these stones date as late as the 11th century; the Scottish
stones are remarkable for their elaborate decoration and for
certain symbolic characters to which as yet no interpretation
has been found.
Scutari (50), a town of Turkey
in Asia, on the Bosporus, opposite Constantinople; has several
fine mosques, bazaars, &c.; large barracks on the outskirts
were used as hospitals by Florence Nightingale during the Crimean
War; has large and impressive cemeteries; chief manufactures
are of silks, cottons, &c. Also name of a small town (5)
in European Turkey, situated at the S. end of Lake Scutari,
18 by 16 m., in North Albania.
Scylla and Charybdis,
two rocks opposite each other at a narrow pass of the strait
between Italy and Sicily, in the cave of one of which dwelt
the former, a fierce monster that barked like a dog, and under
the cliff of the other of which dwelt the latter, a monster
that sucked up everything that came near it, so that any ship
passing between in avoiding the one become a prey to the other.
Scythians, the name of a people
of various tribes that occupied the steppes of SE. of Europe
and W. of Asia adjoining eastward, were of nomadic habit; kept
herds of cattle and horses, and were mostly in a semi-savage
state beyond the pale of civilisation; the region they occupied
is called Scythia.
Seabury, Samuel, American
prelate, born at Groton, Connecticut, graduated at Yale and
studied medicine in Edinburgh; entered the Church of England
in 1753, and devoted himself at first to missionary work; subsequently
held "livings" in Long Island and New York State in
1782; was appointed bishop by the clergy of Connecticut; sought
consecration at the hands of the English archbishops who were
afraid to grant it, and had to resort to the bishops of the
Scotch Episcopal Church for the purpose; did notable work in
establishing and consolidating Episcopacy in America (1729-1796).
Sealed Orders, the orders
given the commanding officer of a ship or squadron that are
sealed up, which he is not allowed to open till he has proceeded
a certain length into the high seas; an arrangement in order
to ensure secrecy in a time of war.
Sea-Serpent, a marine monster
of serpent-like shape whose existence is still a matter of question,
although several seemingly authentic accounts have been circulated
in attestation. The subject has given rise to much disputation
and conjecture on the part of naturalists, but opinion mostly
favours the supposition that these gigantic serpent-like appearances
are caused by enormous cuttlefish swimming on the surface of
the water, with their 20 ft. long tentacles elongated fore and
aft. Other fishes which might also be mistaken for the sea-serpent
are the barking-shark, tape-fish, marine snake, &c.
Sebastian. St., a Roman
soldier at Narbonne, and martyred under Diocletian when it was
discovered he was a Christian; is depicted in art bound naked
to a tree and pierced with arrows, and sometimes with arrows
in his hand offering them to Heaven on his knees, he having
been shot first with arrows and then beaten to death.
Sebastiano del Piombo,
Italian painter, born at Venice; was an excellent colourist,
and collaborated with Michael Angelo (1485-1547).
Sebastopol (34), a fortified
seaport of Russia, situated on a splendid natural harbour (4½
m. by ½), on the SW. of the Crimea; during the Crimean
War was destroyed and captured by the French and English after
a siege lasting from October 9, 1854, to September 18, 1855;
has, since 1885, been restored, and is now an important naval
station; exports large quantities of grain.
Sebillot, Paul, celebrated
French folk-lorist; b. 1843.
Secker, Thomas, archbishop
of Canterbury, born at Sibthorpe, Nottinghamshire; first studied
medicine and graduated at Leyden in 1721, but was induced to
take orders, and after a year at Oxford was ordained a priest
in 1723; held various livings till his appointment to the Primacy
in 1758; noted as a wise and kindly ecclesiastic (1693-1768).
Second-Sight, name given
to the power of seeing things future or distant; a power superstitiously
ascribed to certain people in the Highlands of Scotland.
Secularist, name given to
one who, discarding as irrelevant all theories and observances
bearing upon the other world and its interests, holds that we
ought to confine our attention solely to the immediate problems
and duties of this, independently of all presumed dependence
on revelation and communications from a higher sphere.
Sedan (20), a town of France,
in department of Ardennes, on the Maas, 164 m. NE. of Paris;
once a strong fortress, but dismantled in 1875, where in 1870
Napoleon III. and 86,000 men under Marshal Macmahon surrendered
to the Germans; noted for its cloth manufactories. Previous
to the Edict of Nantes was a celebrated centre of Huguenot industry
and theological learning.
Sedgemoor, district in central
Somersetshire, 5 m. SE. of Bridgwater, scene of a famous battle
between the troops of James II. and those of the Duke of Monmouth
on July 6, 1685, in which the latter were completely routed.
Sedgwick, Adam, geologist,
born at Dent, Yorkshire; graduated at Cambridge in 1808, became
a Fellow in the same year, and in 1818 was elected to the Woodward
chair of Geology; co-operated with Murchison in the study of
the geological formation of the Alps and the Devonian system
of England; strongly conservative in his scientific theories,
he stoutly opposed the Darwinian theory of the origin of species;
his best work was contributed in papers to the Geological Society
of London, of which he was President
1829-1831; published "British Palæozoic Rocks and
Seeley, Sir John Robert,
author of "Ecce Homo," born in London; studied at
Cambridge, became professor of History there in 1869 on Kingsley's
retirement; his "Ecce Homo" was published in 1865,
a piece of perfect literary workmanship, but which in its denial
of the self-originated spirit of Christ offended orthodox belief
and excited much adverse criticism; wrote in 1882 a work entitled "Natural
Religion," in which he showed the same want of sympathy
with supernatural ideas, as also several historical works (1834-1895).
Segovia (14), a quaint old Spanish
city, capital of a province (154) of the same name; crowns a
rocky height looking down on the river Eresma, 32 m. NW. of
Madrid; its importance dates from Roman times; has a great aqueduct,
built in Trajan's reign, and a fine Moorish castle and Gothic
cathedral; cloth-weaving the only important industry.
Segu (36), a town of West Africa,
on the Joliba, 400 m. SW. of Timbuctoo; chiefly occupied by
trading Arabs; once the capital of a now decayed native State.
Seine, an important river of France,
rises in the tableland of Langres, takes a winding course to
the NW., passing many important towns, Troyes, Fontainebleau,
Paris, St. Denis, Rouen, &c., and discharges into the English
Channel by a broad estuary after a course of 482 m., of which
350 are navigable.
Seine (3,142), the smallest
but most populous department of France, entirely surrounded
by the department of Seine-et-Oise; Paris and its adjacent villages
cover a considerable portion of the area; presents a richly
wooded, undulating surface, traversed by the Seine in a NW.
a north-midland department of France lying E. of Seine; the
Marne crosses the N. and the Seine the S.; has a fertile soil,
which grows in abundance cereals, vegetables, and fruits; many
fine woods, including Fontainebleau Forest, diversify its undulating
surface. Melun (capital) and Fontainebleau are among its important
Seine-et-Oise (628), a
department of NW. France, encloses the department of Seine;
grain is grown in well-cultivated plains and the vine on pleasant
hill slopes; is intersected by several tributaries of the Seine,
and the N. is prettily wooded. Versailles is the capital; Sèvres
and St. Cloud are other interesting places.
(839), a maritime department of North-West France, in Normandy,
facing the English Channel; is for the most part a fertile plain,
watered by the Seine and smaller streams, and diversified by
fine woods and the hills of Caux; is a fruit and cider producing
district; has flourishing manufactures. Rouen is the capital,
and Havre and Dieppe are important trading centres.
Palmer, Earl of, Lord Chancellor, born in Oxfordshire;
called to the bar in 1837, and after a brilliant career at Oxford
entered Parliament in 1847, and in 1861 became Solicitor-General
in Palmerston's ministry, receiving at the same time a knighthood;
two years later was advanced to the Attorney-Generalship; in
1872 was elected Lord Chancellor, a position he retained till
1874, and again held from 1880 to 1885; refused to adopt Mr.
Gladstone's Home Rule policy for Ireland and joined the Liberal-Unionists,
but declined to take office under Lord Salisbury; was raised
to an earldom in 1882, received various honorary degrees; greatly
interested himself in hymnology, and edited "The Book of
Praise"; wrote also several works on Church questions (1812-1895).
Selby (6), a market-town of Yorkshire,
on the Ouse, 15 m. S. of York; has a noted cruciform abbey church,
founded in the 12th century, and exhibiting various styles of
architecture; has some boat-building; manufactures flax, ropes,
leather, bricks, &c.
Selden, John, born at Salvington,
Sussex; adopted law as a profession, and was trained at Clifford's
Inn and the Inner Temple, London; successful as a lawyer, he
yet found time for scholarly pursuits, and acquired a great
reputation by the publication of various erudite works bearing
on old English jurisprudence and antiquities generally; a "History
of Tithes" (1618), in which he combats the idea that "tithes"
are divinely instituted, got him into trouble with the Church;
was imprisoned in 1621 for encouraging Parliament to repudiate
James's absolutist claims; from his entrance into Parliament
in 1623 continued to play an important part throughout the troublous
reign of Charles; sincerely attached to the Parliamentary side,
he was one of the framers of the Petition of Right, and suffered
imprisonment with Holies and the others; sat in the Long Parliament,
but, all through out of sympathy with the extremists, disapproved
of the execution of Charles; held various offices, e. g.
Keeper of the Rolls and Records in the Tower; continued to write
learned and voluminous works on biblical and historical subjects,
but is best remembered for his charming 'Table-talk, a book
of which Coleridge remarked, "There is more weighty bullion
sense in this book than I can find in the same number of pages
of any uninspired writer" (1584-1654).
Selene, in the Greek mythology
the moon-goddess, the sister of Helios, and designated Phoebe
as he was Phoebus; she became by Endymion the mother of 50 daughters.
a resolution of the Long Parliament passed in 1644, whereby
the members bound themselves not to accept certain executive
offices, particularly commands in the army.
Selim I., a warlike sultan of
Turkey, who, having dethroned and put to death his father, Bajazet
II., entered upon a victorious career of military aggrandisement,
overcoming the Persians in 1515, conquering and annexing Egypt,
Syria, and the Hejaz in 1517, finally winning for himself the
position of Imâm or head of the Mohammedan world; greatly
strengthened his country, and strove according to his lights
to deal justly with and ameliorate the condition of the peoples
whom he conquered (1467-1520).
Seljuks, a Turkish people who
in the 10th century, headed by a chief named Seljuk (whence
their name), broke away from their allegiance to the khan of
Kirghiz, adopted the Mohammedan faith, and subsequently conquered
Bokhara, but were driven across the Oxus and settled HI Khorassan;
under Toghril Beg, grandson of Seljuk, they in the 11th century
won for themselves a wide empire in Asia, including the provinces
of Syria and Asia Minor, whose rulers, by their cruel persecution
of Christian pilgrims, led to the Crusade movement in Europe.
The Seljuks were in part gradually absorbed by the advancing
Mongol tribes, while numbers fled westward, where they were
at length incorporated in the Ottoman Empire in the 14th century.
Selkirk (6), county town of
Selkirkshire, on the Ettrick, 40 m. SE. of Edinburgh; famed
at one time for its "Souters";
is a centre of the manufacture of tweeds.
Selkirkshire (27), a south
inland county of Scotland; extends S. from the corner of Midlothian
to Dumfriesshire, between Peebles (W.) and Roxburgh (E.); the
grassy slopes of its hills afford splendid pasturage, and sheep-farming
is a flourishing industry; manufactures are mainly confined
to Galashiels and Selkirk; is traversed by the Ettrick and the
Yarrow, whose romantic valleys are associated with much of the
finest ballad literature of Scotland.
Selwyn, George, a noted
wit in the social and literary life of London in Horace Walpole's
time, born, of good parentage, in Gloucestershire; was expelled
from Oxford in 1743 for blasphemy; four years later entered
Parliament, and supported the Court party, and received various
government favours; his vivacious wit won him ready entrance
into the best London and Parisian society; is the chief figure
in Jesse's entertaining "George Selwyn and his Contemporaries"
Selwyn, George Augustus,
the first bishop of New Zealand, in which capacity he wrought
so zealously, that his diocese, by his extension of Episcopacy,
was subdivided into seven; on his return to England he was made
bishop of Lichfield (1809-1878).
Semaphore, a name applied
to the mechanism employed for telegraphing purposes prior to
the discovery of the electric telegraph; invented in 1767 by
Richard Edgeworth, but first extensively used by the French
in 1794, and afterwards adopted by the Admiralty in England;
consisted at first of six shutters set in two rotating circular
frames, which, by opening and shutting in various ways, were
capable of conveying sixty-three distinct signals; these were
raised on the tops of wooden towers erected on hills; later
a different form was adopted consisting of a mast and two arms
worked by winches. The speed at which messages could be transmitted
was very great; thus a message could be sent from London to
Portsmouth and an answer be received all within 45 seconds.
The railway signal now in use is a form of semaphore.
Semele, in the Greek mythology
the daughter of Cadmus and the mother of Dionysus by Zeus, was
tempted by Hera to pray Zeus to show himself to her in his glory,
who, as pledged to give her all she asked, appeared before her
as the god of thunder, and consumed her by the lightning. See
Seminoles, a nomadic tribe
of American Indians who from 1832 to 1839 offered a desperate
resistance to the Americans before yielding up their territory
SE. of the Mississippi (Florida, etc.); finally settled in the
Indian Territory, where they now number some 3000, and receive
an annuity from the American Government; missionary enterprise
among them has been successful in establishing schools and churches.
Semipalatinsk (586), a
mountainous province of Asiatic Russia, stretching between Lake
Balkash (S.) and Tomsk; encloses stretches of steppe-land on
which cattle and horses are reared; some mining of silver, lead,
and copper is also done. Semipalatinsk, the capital (18), stands
on the Irtish; has two annual fairs, and is an important trading
Semiramis, legendary queen
of Assyria, to whom tradition ascribes the founding of Babylon
with its hanging gardens, and is said to have surpassed in valour
and glory her husband Ninus, the founder of Nineveh; she seems
to have in reality been the Venus or Astarte of the Assyrian
mythology. The story goes that when a child she was deserted
by her mother and fed by doves.
Semiramis of the North,
a name given to Margaret, Queen of Denmark; also to Catharine
II. of Russia.
Semiretchinsk (758), a
mountainous province of Asiatic Russia, stretches S. of Lake
Balkash to East Turkestan and Ferghana on the S.; is traversed
E. and W. by the lofty ranges of the Alatau and Tian-Shan Mountains;
the vast bulk of the inhabitants are Kirghiz, and engaged in
raising horses, camels, and sheep.
Semitic Races, races reputed
descendants of Shem, including the Jews, the Assyrians, the
Chaldeans, the Syrians, the Phoenicians, and the Arabs, and
are "all marked," as the editor has observed elsewhere, "by
common features; such appear in their language, their literature,
their modes of thinking, social organisation, and religious
belief. Their language is poor in inflection, has few or no
compound verbs or substantives, has next to no power of expressing
abstract ideas, and is of simple primitive structure or syntax.
Their literature has neither the breadth nor the flow of that
of Greece or Rome, but it is instinct with a passion which often
holds of the very depths of being, and appeals to the ends of
the earth. In their modes of thinking they are taken up with
concrete realities instead of abstractions, and hence they have
contributed nothing to science or philosophy, much as they have
to faith. Their social order is patriarchal, with a leaning
to a despotism, which in certain of them, such as the Jews and
Arabs, goes higher and higher till it reaches God; called, therefore,
by Jude 'the Only Despot.'"
Semmering, a mountain of Styria,
Austria, 60 m. SW. of Vienna, 4577 ft. above sea-level; is crossed
by the Vienna and Trieste railway, which passes through 15 tunnels
and over 16 viaducts.
Sempach (1), a small Swiss town,
9 m. NW. of Lucerne, on the Lake of Sempach; here on the 9th
of July 1386 a body of 1500 Swiss soldiers completely routed
the Austrians, 4000 strong, under Leopold, Duke of Austria.
Sen, Chunder. See
Pivert de, French writer, born at Paris; delicate in
his youth; was driven by an unsympathetic father to quit his
home at 19, and for some time lived at Geneva and Fribourg,
where a brief period of happy married life was closed by the
death of his young wife; returned to Paris in 1798; supported
himself by writing, and latterly by a small Government pension
granted by Louis Philippe; is best known as the author of "Obermann,"
a work of which Matthew Arnold wrote, "The stir of all
the main forces by which modern life is and has been impelled,
lives in the letters of Obermann.... To me, indeed, it will
always seem that the impressiveness of this production can hardly
be rated too high" (1770-1846).
Senate (i. e. "an
assembly of elders"), a name first bestowed by the Romans
on their supreme legislative and administrative assembly; its
formation is traditionally ascribed to Romulus; its powers,
at their greatest during the Republic, gradually diminished
under the Emperors; in modern times is used to designate the "Upper
House" in the legislature of various countries, e. g.
France and the United States of America; is also the title of
the governing body in many universities.
rhetorician, born at Cordova; taught
rhetoric at Rome, whither he went at the time of Augustus, and
where he died A.D. 32.
Seneca, L. Annæus,
philosopher, son of the preceding, born at Cordova, and brought
to Rome when a child; practised as a pleader at the bar, studied
philosophy, and became the tutor of Nero; acquired great riches;
was charged with conspiracy by Nero as a pretext, it is believed,
to procure his wealth, and ordered to kill himself, which he
did by opening his veins till he bled to death, a slow process
and an agonising, owing to his age; he was of the Stoic school
in philosophy, and wrote a number of treatises bearing chiefly
on morals; d. A.D. 65.
Senegal, an important river
of West Africa, formed by the junction, at Bafulabé,
of two head-streams rising in the highlands of Western Soudan;
flows NW., W., and SW., a course of 706 m., and discharges into
the Atlantic 10 m. below St. Louis; navigation is somewhat impeded
by a sand-bar at its mouth, and by cataracts and rapids in the
Senegal (136), a French colony
of West Africa, lying along the banks of the Senegal River.
Senegambia, a tract of territory
lying chiefly within the basins of the rivers Senegal and Gambia,
West Africa, stretching from the Atlantic, between Cape Blanco
and the mouth of the Gambia, inland to the Niger; embraces the
French colony of Senegal, and various ill-defined native States
under the suzerainty of France; the interior part is also called
the French Soudan; the vast expanse of the contiguous Sahara
in the N., and stretches of territory on the S., extending to
the Gulf of Guinea, are also within the French sphere of influence,
altogether forming an immense territory (1,000), of which
St. Louis (q. v.) in Senegambia
proper, is considered the capital; ground-nuts, gums, india-rubber, &c.,
are the chief exports.
Seneschal, an important functionary
at the courts of Frankish princes, whose duty it was to superintend
household feasts and ceremonies, functions equivalent to those
of the English High Steward.
Sennaar (8), capital of a district
of the Eastern Soudan, which lies between the Blue and the White
Nile, situated on the Blue Nile, 160 m. SE. of Khartoum.
Sennacherib, a king of Assyria,
whose reign extended from 702 to 681 B.C., and was distinguished
by the projection and execution of extensive public works; he
endeavoured to extend his conquests westward, but was baffled
in Judea by the miraculous destruction of his army. See 2 Kings
Sens (14), an old cathedral town
of France, on the Yonne, 70 m. SE. of Paris; the cathedral is
a fine Gothic structure of the 12th century; has also an archbishop's
palace, and is still surrounded by massive stone walls; does
a good trade in corn, wine, and wool.
Senussi, a Mohammedan brotherhood
in the Soudan, founded by Mohammed-es-Senussi from Mostaganem,
in Algeria, who flourished between 1830 and 1860. The brotherhood,
remarkable for its austere and fanatical zeal, has ramified
into many parts of N Africa, and exercises considerable influence,
fostering resistance to the encroachments of the invading European
Sepoy, the name given to a native
of India employed as a soldier in the British service in India.
September, the ninth month
of the year, so called as having been the seventh in the Roman
An indiscriminate slaughter in Paris which commenced on Sunday
afternoon, September 2, 1792, "a black day in the annals
of men," when 30 priests on their way to prison were torn
from the carriages that conveyed them, and massacred one after
the other, all save Abbé Secard, in the streets by an
infuriated mob; and continued thereafter through horror after
horror for a hundred hours long, all done in the name of justice
and in mock form of law—a true Reign of Terror.
Septuagint, a version, and
the oldest of any known to us, of the Hebrew Scriptures in Greek,
executed at Alexandria, in Egypt, by different translators at
different periods, commencing with 280 B.C.; it is known as
the Alexandria version, while the name Septuagint, or LXX.,
was given to it on the ground of the tradition that it was the
work of 70, or rather 72, Jews, who had, it is alleged, been
Drought from Palestine for the purpose, and were fabled, according
to one tradition, to have executed the whole in as many days,
and, according to another, to have each done the whole apart
from the rest, with the result that the version of each was
found to correspond word for word with that of all the others;
it began with the translation of the Pentateuch and was continued
from that time till 130 B.C. by the translation of the rest,
the whole being in reality the achievement of several independent
workmen, who executed their parts, some with greater some with
less ability and success; it is often literal to a painful degree,
and it swarms with such pronounced Hebraisms, that a pure Greek
would often fail to understand it. It was the version current
everywhere at the time of the planting of the Christian Church,
and the numerous quotations in the New Testament from the Old
are, with few exceptions, quotations from it.
Sepulveda, Juan Gines,
Spanish historian, born at Pozo-Blanco, near Cordova; in 1536
became historiographer to Charles V. and tutor to the future
Philip II.; was subsequently canon of Salamanca; author of several
historical works, of which a "History of Charles V."
is the most important, a work characterised by broad humanistic
proclivities unusual in his day and country; d. 1574.
Seraglio, in its restricted
sense applied in the East to a harem or women's quarters in
a royal household; the former residence of the sultan of Turkey,
occupies a beautiful site on the E. side of Constantinople,
on a projecting piece of land between the Golden Horn and the
Sea of Marmora, enclosing within its 3 m. of wall government
buildings, mosques, gardens, &c., chief of which is the
harem, which occupies an inner enclosure.
Seraing (34), a manufacturing
town of Belgium, on the Meuse, 4 m. SW. of Liège; noted
for its extensive machine-shops (locomotives, &c.); established
in 1817 by John Cockerill, and now, with forges, coal-mines, &c.,
giving employment to some 12,000 men.
Serampur (36), a town of modern
aspect in India, on the Hooghly, 13 m. N. of Calcutta; originally
Danish, was purchased by the British in 1845; manufactures paper
and mats, and is associated with the successful missionary enterprise
of the Baptists Carey, Marshman, and Ward.
Seraphic Doctor, appellation
applied to St. Bonaventura
(q. v.); also by Carlyle to the doctors of the modern
school of Enlightenment, or march-of-intellect school. See
Seraphim, angels of the highest
order and of etheriel temper, represented as guarding with veiled
faces the Divine glory, and considered to have originally denoted
the lightning darting out from the black thunder-cloud.
Serapis, an Egyptian divinity
of partly Greek derivation and partly Egyptian, and identified
Seraskier, a Turkish general,
in especial the commander-in-chief or minister of war.
Serbonian Bog, a quagmire
in Egypt in which armies were fabled to be swallowed up and
lost; applied to any situation in which one is entangled from
which extrication is difficult.
Serfs, under the feudal system
a class of labourers whose position differed only from that
of slaves in being attached to the soil and so protected from
being sold from hand to hand like a chattel, although they could
be transferred along with the land; liberty could be won by
purchase, military service, or by residing a year and a day
in a borough; these and economic changes brought about their
gradual emancipation in the 15th and 16th centuries; mining
serfs, however, existed in Scotland as recently as the 18th
century, and in Russia their emancipation only took place in
Seringapatam (10), a decayed
city of S. India, formerly capital of Mysore State, situated
on an island in the Kaveri, 10 m. NE. of Mysore city; in the
later 18th century was the stronghold of Tippoo Sahib, who was
successfully besieged and slain by the British in 1799; has
officer attendant on the Speaker of the House of Commons, whose
duty it is to preserve order and arrest any offender against
the rules of the House.
Serpent, The, is used symbolically
to represent veneration from the shedding of its skin, and sometimes
eternity, and not unfrequently a guardian spirit; also prudence
and cunning, especially as embodied in Satan; is an attribute
of several saints as expressive of their power over the evil
Serpukoff (21), an ancient
and still prosperous town of Russia, on the Nara, 57 m. S. of
Moscow; has a cathedral, and manufactures of cottons, woollens, &c.
Serrano y Dominguez,
Duke de la Torre, Spanish statesman and marshal; won distinction
in the wars against the Carlists, and turning politician, became
in 1845 a senator and favourite of Queen Isabella; was prominent
during the political unrest and changes of her reign; joined
Prim in the revolution of 1868, defeated the queen's troops;
became president of the Ministry; commander-in-chief of the
army, and in 1869 Regent of Spain, a position he held till Amadeus's
succession in 1871; won victories against the Carlists in 1872
and 1874; was again at the head of the executive during the
last months of the republic, but retired on the accession of
Alfonso XII.; continued in active politics till his death (1810-1885).
Sertorius, Roman statesman
and general; joined the democratic party under
Marius (q. v.) against Sulla;
retired to Spain on the return of Sulla to Rome, where he sought
to introduce Roman civilisation; was assassinated 73 B.C.
Servetus, Michael, physician,
born at Tudela, in Navarre; had a leaning to theology, and passing
into Germany associated with the Reformers; adopted Socinianism,
and came under ban of the orthodox, and was burnt alive at Geneva,
after a trial of two months, under sanction, it is said, of
Servia (2,227), a kingdom of
Europe occupying a central position in the Balkan Peninsula
between Austria (N.) and Turkey (S. and W.), with Roumania and
Bulgaria on the E.; one-third the size of England and Wales;
its surface is mountainous and in many parts thickly forested,
but wide fertile valleys produce in great abundance wheat, maize,
and other cereals, grapes and plums (an important export when
dried), while immense herds of swine are reared on the outskirts
of the oak-forests; is well watered by the Morava flowing through
the centre and by the Save and Danube on the N.; climate varies
considerably according to elevation; not much manufacturing
is done, but minerals abound and are partially wrought; the
Servians are of Slavonic stock, high-spirited and patriotic,
clinging tenaciously to old-fashioned methods and ideas; have
produced a notable national literature, rich in lyric poetry;
a good system of national education exists; belong to the Greek
Church; the monarchy is limited and hereditary; government is
vested in the King, Senate, and National Assembly; originally
emigrants in the 7th century from districts round the Carpathians,
the Servians had by the 14th century established a kingdom considerably
larger than their present domain; were conquered by the Turks
in 1389, and held in subjection till 1815, when a national rising
won them Home Rule, but remained tributary to Turkey until 1877,
when they proclaimed their independence, which was confirmed
by the Treaty of Berlin in 1878.
Servius Tullius, the
sixth king of Rome from 578 to 534 B.C., divided the Roman territory
into 30 tribes, and the people into 5 classes, which were further
divided into centuries.
Sesostris, a legendary monarch
of Egypt, alleged to have achieved universal empire at a very
remote antiquity, and to have executed a variety of public works
by means of the captives he brought home from his conquests.
Sestertius, a Roman coin
either bronze or silver one-fourth of a denarius, originally
worth 2½ asses but afterwards 4 asses, up to the time
of Augustus was worth fully 2d., and subsequently one-eighth
less; Sestertium, a Roman "money of account," never
a coin, equalled 1000 sestertii, and was valued at £8,
Settle, Elkanah, a playwright
who lives in the pages of Dryden's satire "Absalom and
Achitophel"; was an Oxford man and littérateur in
London; enjoyed a brief season of popularity as author of "Cambyses,"
and "The Empress of Morocco"; degenerated into a "city
poet and a puppet-show keeper," and died in the Charterhouse;
was the object of Dryden's and Pope's scathing sarcasms (1648-1723).
Setubal (English, St. Ubes)
(15), a fortified seaport of Portugal, at the mouth of the Sado,
on a bay of the same name, 17 m. SE. of Lisbon; has a good trade
in wine, salt, and oranges; in the neighbourhood is a remarkable
of Christendom, St. George, of England; St. Denis, of
France; St. James, of Spain; St. Anthony, of Italy; St. Andrew,
of Scotland; St. Patrick, of Ireland; and St. David, of Wales—often
alluded to by old writers.
Seven Deadly Sins, Pride,
Wrath, Envy, Lust, Gluttony, Avarice, and Sloth.
Seven Dolours of the Virgin,
the prediction of Simeon (Luke ii. 35); the flight into Egypt;
the loss of the child in Jerusalem; the sight of her Son bearing
the cross; the sight of Him upon the cross; the descent from
the cross; and the entombment—the festival in connection
with which is celebrated on the Friday before Palm Sunday.
Seven Sages of Greece,
Solon of Athens, his motto "Know thyself"; Chilo of
Sparta, his motto "Consider the end"; Thales of Miletus,
his motto "Whoso hateth suretyship is sure"; Bias
of Priene, his motto "Most men are
bad"; Cleobulus of Lindos, his motto "Avoid extremes";
Pittacus of Mitylene, his motto "Seize Time by the forelock";
Periander of Corinth, his motto "Nothing is impossible
Seven Sleepers, seven
noble youths of Ephesus who, to escape the persecution of Decius,
fled into a cave, where they fell asleep and woke up at the
end of two centuries.
Seven Wise Masters,
the title of a famous cycle of mediæval tales which centre
round the story of a young prince who, after baffling all efforts
of former tutors, is at last, at the age of 20, instructed in
all knowledge by Sindibad, one of the king's wise men, but having
cast his horoscope Sindibad perceives the prince will die unless,
after presentation at the court, he keeps silence for seven
days; one of the king's wives, having in vain attempted to seduce
the young man, in baffled rage accuses him to the king with
tempting her virtue, and procures his death-sentence; the seven
sages delay the execution by beguiling the king with stories
till the seven days are passed, when the prince speaks and reveals
the plot; an extraordinary number of variants exist in Eastern
and Western languages, the earliest written version being an
Arabian text of the 10th century: a great mass of literature
has grown round the subject, which is one of the most perplexing
as well as interesting problems of storiology.
Seven Wonders of the
World, the pyramids of Egypt, the hanging gardens of
Babylon, the tomb of Mausolus, the temple of Diana at Ephesus,
the Colossus of Rhodes, the statue of Jupiter by Phidias at
Olympia, and the Pharos at Alexandria.
Seven Years' War, the
name given to the third and most terrible struggle between Frederick
the Great of Prussia and Maria Theresa, empress of Austria,
for, the possession of Silesia, which embroiled almost all Europe
in war, and which had far-reaching effects on the destinies
of England and France as well as Prussia; began in 1756 by Frederick's
successful advance on Dresden, anticipating Maria Theresa's
intention of attempting the recovery of Silesia, lost to her
in the previous two wars. With Austria were allied France, Sweden,
Poland, and Russia, while Prussia was supported till 1761 by
England. In 1762 Peter III. of Russia changed sides, and Frederick,
sometimes victorious, often defeated, finally emerged successful
in 1763, when the war was brought to a close by the Peace of
Hubertsburg. Besides demonstrating the strength and genius of
Frederick and raising immensely the prestige of Prussia, it
enabled England to make complete her predominance in North America
and to establish herself securely in India, while at the same
time it gave the death-blow to French hopes of a colonial empire.
Severn, the second river of England,
rises on the E. side of Plinlimmon, in Montgomeryshire, and
flows in a circuitous southerly direction through Montgomeryshire,
Shropshire, Worcestershire, and Gloucestershire, falling into
the Bristol Channel after a course of 210 m.; is navigable to
Welshpool (180 m.); chief tributaries are the Terne, Wye, and
the Stratford Avon; there is a "bore" perceptible
180 m. from the mouth.
Severus, L. Septimius,
Roman emperor, born in Leptis Magna, in Africa; was in command
at Pannonia, and elected emperor on the murder of Pertinax,
and after conquering his rivals achieved victories in the East,
especially against the Parthians, and thereafter subdued a rebellion
in Britain, and secured South Britain against invasions from
the north by a wall; died at York (146-211).
de, maiden name Marie de Rabutin-Chantal, the most charming
of letter-writers, born at Paris; married at 18 the dissolute
Marquis de Sévigné, who left her a widow at 25;
her beauty and rare charms attracted many suitors, to one and
all of whom, however, she turned a deaf ear, devoting herself
with touching fidelity to her son and daughter, and finding
all her happiness in their affection and in the social intercourse
of a wide circle of friends; her fame rests on her letters,
written chiefly to her daughter in Provence, which reflect the
brightest and purest side of Parisian life, and contain the
tender outpourings of her mother's heart in language of unstudied
Seville (144), a celebrated
Spanish city and river port on the Guadalquivir, 62 m. NE. of
Cadiz; an iron bridge connects it with Triana, a large suburb
on the other side of the river; many of the old picturesque
Moorish buildings have given place to modern and more commodious
structures and broader streets; the great Gothic cathedral (15th
century), containing paintings by Murillo, &c., is among
the finest in Europe; the Moorish royal palace, the great Roman
aqueduct (in use until 1883), the museum, with masterpieces
of Murillo, Velasquez, &c., the university, archbishop's
palace, Giralda Campanile, and the vast bull-ring, are noteworthy;
chief manufactures embrace cigars, machinery, pottery, textiles, &c.;
while lead, quicksilver, wines, olive-oil, and fruits are exported;
is capital of a province (545).
Sèvres (7), a French town
on the Seine, 10½ m. SW. of Paris, celebrated for its
fine porcelain ware (especially vases), the manufacture of which
was established in 1755; has a school of mosaic work and museums
for pottery ware of all ages and countries.
Sèvres, Deux- (354),
a department of West France; is watered by two rivers, and in
the N. thickly wooded; a varied agriculture, cattle and mule
breeding, and cloth manufacture are the principal industries.
Niort is the capital.
Seward, Anna, poetess, born
at Eyam, Derbyshire, but from the age of seven spent her life
at Lichfield, where her father was residentiary canon; was a
friend and indefatigable correspondent of Mrs. Piozzi, Dr. Darwin,
Southey, Scott, and others; author of "Louisa," a
novel in poetry, "Sonnets" and other poems, which
had in their day considerable popularity; her correspondence
is collected in 6 vols. (1747-1809).
Seward, William Henry,
American statesman, born at Florida, New York State; was called
to the bar at Utica in 1822, and soon took rank as one of the
finest forensic orators of his country; engaged actively in
the politics of his State, of which he was governor in 1838
and 1840; entered the U.S. senate in 1849 as an abolitionist,
becoming soon the recognised leader of the Anti-Slavery party;
was put forward by the Republican party as a candidate for presidential
nomination, but failing in this he zealously supported Lincoln,
under whom he served as Secretary of State, conducting with
notable success the foreign affairs of the country during the
Civil War and up to the accession of President Grant in 1869;
spent his closing years in travel and retirement (1801-1872).
Sextant, an instrument used
in navigation (sometimes also in land-surveying) for measuring
the altitudes of celestial bodies and their angular distances;
consists of a graduated brass sector, the sixth part of a circle,
and an arrangement of two small mirrors and telescope; invented
in 1730 by John Hadley.
Seychelles (16), a group
of some 30 islands, largest Mahé
(59 sq. m.), situated in the Indian Ocean, 600 m. NE. of Madagascar;
taken from the French by Britain in 1798, and now under the
governor of Mauritius; are mountainous and mostly surrounded
by coral reefs; export fibres, nuts, palm-oil, &c.; Victoria,
in Mahé, is the chief town, and an imperial coaling station.
Sforza (i. e. stormer),
Italian family celebrated during the 15th and 16th centuries,
founded by a military adventurer, a peasant of the name of Muzia
Allendolo, and who received the name; they became dukes of Milan,
and began by hiring their services in war, in which they were
always victorious, to the highest bidder, the first of the number
to attain that rank being Francesco Sforza, the son of the founder,
in 1450 (1401-1466), the last of the series being François-Marie
Sgraffito, a decorative wall
painting, produced by layers of plaster applied to a moistened
surface and afterwards operated on so as to produce a picture.
Shadwell, Thomas, dramatist,
who lives as the "MacFlecknoe" of Dryden's "Absalom
and Achitophel," born, of a good family, in Norfolk; studied
law and adopted literature, in which he made a successful start
with the comedy "The Sullen Lovers" (1668); his numerous
plays, chiefly comedies, are of little poetic value, but serve
as useful commentaries on the Restoration period; quarrelled
with and satirised Dryden in the "Medal of John Bayes,"
which drew forth the crushing retort in Dryden's famous satire;
succeeded Dryden as poet-laureate in 1688 (1640-1692).
Shafites, a sect of the Sunnites
or orthodox Mohammedans, so called from Shafei, a descendant
Shaftesbury, Anthony Ashley Cooper,
Earl of, a notable politician, prominent in the times
of Cromwell and Charles II., born, of good parentage, in Dorsetshire;
passed through Oxford and entered Lincoln's Inn; sat in the
Short Parliament of 1640; changed from the Royalist to the Parliamentary
side during the Civil War, and was a member of Cromwell's Council
of State, but latterly attacked the Protector's Government,
and was one of the chief promoters of the Restoration; Chancellor
of the Exchequer in 1661, and later a member of the "Cabal";
he in 1672 was created an earl and Lord Chancellor, but, hoodwinked
by Charles in the secret Treaty of Dover, went over to the Opposition,
lost his chancellorship, supported an Anti-Catholic policy,
leagued himself with the Country Party, and intrigued with the
Prince of Orange; came into power again, after the "Popish
Plot," as the champion of toleration and Protestantism,
became President of the Council, and passed the Habeas Corpus
Act; his virulent attacks on James and espousal of Monmouth's
cause brought about his arrest on a charge of high treason (1681),
and although acquitted he deemed it expedient to flee to Holland,
where he died; one of the ablest men of his age, but of somewhat
inscrutable character, whose shifting policy seems to have been
chiefly dominated by a regard for self; is the "Achitophel"
of Dryden's great satire (1621-1683).
Anthony Ashley Cooper, Earl of, grandson of the preceding,
philosopher, born in London; was an ardent student in his youth,
made the grand tour, and entered Parliament in 1694, moving
to the Upper House on the death of his father in 1699, where,
as a staunch Whig, he gave steady support to William III.; withdrew
from politics, never a congenial sphere to him, on the accession
of Anne, and followed his bent for literature and philosophy;
in 1711 his collected writings appeared under the title "Characteristics,"
in which he expounds, in the polite style of the 18th century,
with much ingenuity and at times force, a somewhat uncritical
optimism, enunciating, among other things, the doubtful maxim
that ridicule is the test of truth (1671-1713).
Shaftesbury, Anthony Ashley Cooper, seventh Earl of,
statesman and philanthropist, born in London; was a distinguished
graduate of Oxford, and entered Parliament as a Conservative
in 1826, took office under Wellington in 1828, and was a lord
of the Admiralty in Peel's ministry of 1834; succeeded to the
earldom in 1851; but his name lives by virtue of his noble and
lifelong philanthropy, which took shape in numerous Acts of
Parliament, such as the Mines and Collieries Act (1842), excluding
women and boys under 13 working in mines; the Better Treatment
of Lunatics Act (1845), called the Magna Charta of the insane;
the Factory Acts (1867); and the Workshop Regulation Act (1878);
while outside Parliament he wrought with rare devotion in behalf
of countless benevolent and religious schemes of all sorts,
notably the Ragged School movement and the better housing of
the London poor; received the freedom of Edinburgh and London;
was the friend and adviser of the Prince Consort and the Queen
Shah (Pers. "King"),
an abbreviation of Shah-in-Shah ("King of Kings"),
the title by which the monarchs of Persia are known; may also
be used in Afghanistan and other Asiatic countries, but more
generally the less assuming title of Khan is taken.
Shah-Jehan ("King of
the World"), fifth of the Mogul emperors of Delhi; succeeded
his father in 1627; a man of great administrative ability and
a skilled warrior; conquered the Deccan and the kingdom of Golconda,
and generally raised the Mogul Empire to its zenith; his court
was truly Eastern in its sumptuous magnificence; the "Peacock
Throne" alone cost £7,000,000; died in prison, a
victim to the perfidy of his usurping son Aurungzebe; d.
Shakers, a fanatical sect founded
by one Ann Lee, so called from their extravagant gestures in
worship; they are agamists and communists.
great world-poet and dramatist, born in Stratford-on-Avon, in
Warwickshire; his father, John Shakespeare, a respected burgess;
his mother, Mary Arden, the daughter of a well-to-do farmer,
through whom the family acquired some property; was at school
at Stratford, married Anne Hathaway, a yeoman's daughter, at
18, she eight years older, and had by her three daughters; left
for London somewhere between 1585 and 1587, in consequence,
it is said, of some deer-stealing frolic; took charge of horses
at the theatre door, and by-and-by became an actor. His first
work, "Venus and Adonis," appeared in 1593, and "Lucrece"
the year after; became connected with different theatres, and
a shareholder in certain of them, in some of which he took part
as actor, with the result, in a pecuniary point of view, that
he bought a house in his native place, extended it afterwards,
where he chiefly resided for the ten years preceding his death.
Not much more than this is known of the poet's external history,
and what there is contributes nothing towards accounting for
either him or the genius revealed in his dramas. Of the man,
says Carlyle, "the best judgment not of this country, but
of Europe at large, is slowly pointing to the conclusion that
he is the chief of all poets hitherto—the greatest intellect,
in our recorded world, that has left record of himself in the
way of literature. On the whole, I know
not such a power of vision, such a faculty of thought, if we
take all the characters of it, in any other man—such a
calmness of depth, placid, joyous strength, all things in that
great soul of his so true and clear, as in a tranquil, unfathomable
sea.... It is not a transitory glance of insight that will suffice;
it is a deliberate illumination of the whole matter; it is a
calmly seeing eye—a great intellect, in short....
It is in delineating of men and things, especially of men, that
Shakespeare is great.... The thing he looks at reveals not this
or that face, but its inmost heart, its generic secret; it dissolves
itself as in light before him, so that he discerns the perfect
structure of it.... It is a perfectly level mirror we
have here; no twisted, poor convex-concave mirror reflecting
all objects with its own convexities and concavities, that is
to say, withal a man justly related to all things and men, a
good man.... And his intellect is an unconscious intellect;
there is more virtue in it than he himself is aware of.... His
art is not artifice; the noblest worth of it is not there by
plan or pre-contrivance. It grows up from the deeps of Nature,
through this noble sincere soul, who is a voice of Nature....
It is Nature's highest reward to a true, simple, great soul
that he got thus to be part of herself." Of his
works nothing can or need be said here; enough to add, as Carlyle
further says, "His works are so many windows through which
we see a glimpse of the world that was in him.... Alas! Shakespeare
had to write for the Globe Playhouse; his great soul had to
crush itself, as it could, into that and no other mould. It
was with him, then, as it is with us all. No man works save
under conditions. The sculptor cannot set his own free thought
before us, but his thought as he could translate into the stone
that was given, with the tools that were given. Disjecta
membra are all that we find of any poet, or of any man."
Shakespeare's plays, with the order of their publication, are
as follows: "Love's Labour's Lost," 1590; "Comedy
of Errors," 1591; 1, 2, 3 "Henry VI.," 1590-1592; "Two
Gentlemen of Verona," 1592-1593; "Midsummer-Night's
Dream," 1593-1594; "Richard III.," 1593; "Romeo
and Juliet," 1591-1596 (?); "Richard II.," 1594; "King
John," 1595; "Merchant of Venice," 1596; 1 and
2 "Henry IV.," 1597-1598; "Henry V.," 1599; "Taming
of the Shrew," 1597 (?); "Merry Wives of Windsor,"
1598; "Much Ado about Nothing," 1598; "As You
Like It," 1599; "Twelfth Night," 1600-1601; "Julius
Cæsar," 1601; "All's Well," 1601-1602 (?); "Hamlet,"
1602, "Measure for Measure," 1603; "Troilus and
Cressida," 1603-1607 (?); "Othello," 1604; "Lear,"
1605; "Macbeth," 1606; "Antony and Cleopatra,"
1607; "Coriolanus," 1608; "Timon," 1608; "Pericles,"
1608; "Cymbeline," 1609; "Tempest," 1610; "Winter's
Tale," 1610-1611; "Henry VIII.," 1612-1613 (1564-1616).
Shakespeare of Divines,
an epithet sometimes applied to
Jeremy Taylor (q. v.)
on account of his poetic style.
Shalott, Lady of, subject
of a poem of Tennyson's in love with Lancelot; wove a web which
she must not rise from, otherwise a curse would fall on her;
saw Lancelot pass one day, entered a boat and glided down to
Camelot, but died on the way.
Shamanism, the religion of
the native savage races of North Siberia, being a belief in
spirits, both good and evil, who can be persuaded to bless or
curse by the incantations of a Priest called a Shaman.
Shammai, an eminent Jewish rabbi
of the time of Herod, who held the position of supreme judge
in the Sanhedrim under the presidency of
Hillel (q. v.), and whose
narrow, rigid orthodoxy and repressive policy became the leading
principles of his school, "the House of Shammai,"
which, however, carried the system to a pitch of fanatical zeal
not contemplated by its originator.
Shamrock, a small trefoil plant,
the national emblem of Ireland; it is matter of dispute whether
it is the wood-sorrel, a species of clover, or some other allied
trefoil; the lesser yellow trefoil is perhaps the most commonly
Shamyl, a great Caucasian chief,
head of the Lesghians, who combined the functions of priest
and warrior; consolidated the Caucasian tribes in their resistance
to the Russians, and carried on a successful struggle in his
mountain fastnesses for thirty years, till his forces were worn
out and himself made captive in 1859; d. 1871.
Shanghai (380), the chief commercial
city and port of China, on the Wusung, an affluent of the Yangtse-kiang,
12 m. from the coast, and 160 m. SE. of Nanking; large, densely-peopled
suburbs have grown round the closely-packed and walled city,
which, with its narrow, unclean streets, presents a slovenly
appearance; the French and English occupy the broad-streeted
and well-built suburbs in the N.; the low-lying site exposes
the city to great heat in the summer, and to frequent epidemics
of cholera and fever; an extensive system of canals draws down
a great part of the interior produce, and swells the export
trade in tea, silk, cotton, rice, sugar, &c.
Shannon, the first river of
Ireland, and largest in the British Islands, rises in the Cuilcagh
Mountains, Co. Cavan; flows in a south-westerly direction through
Loughs Allen, Ree, and Derg, besides forming several lough expansions,
to Limerick, whence it turns due W., and opens out on the Atlantic
in a wide estuary between Kerry (S.) and Clare (N.); has an
entire course of 254 m., and is navigable to Lough Allen, a
distance of 213 m.
Shans or Laos, the name
of a people, descendants of aborigines of China, forming several
large tribes scattered round the frontiers of Burma, Siam, and
South China, whose territory, roughly speaking, extends N. as
far as the Yunnan Plateau of South China; some are independent,
but the bulk of the tribes are subject to Siam, China, and the
British in Burma; practise slavery, are Buddhists, somewhat
superstitious, indolent, pleasure-loving, and for the most part
peaceable and content; chased gold and silver work, rice, cotton,
tobacco, &c., are their chief exports.
Sharon, a fertile region in Palestine
of the maritime plain between Carmel and Philistia.
Sharp, Abraham, a schoolmaster
of Liverpool, and subsequent bookkeeper in London, whose wide
knowledge of mathematics, astronomy, &c., attracted
Flamsteed (q. v.), by
whom he was invited in 1688 to enter the Greenwich Royal Observatory,
where he did notable work, improving instruments, and showing
great skill as a calculator; published "Geometry Improved,"
logarithmic tables, &c. (1651-1742).
Sharp, Becky, an intriguing
character in Thackeray's "Vanity Fair," very clever,
but without heart.
Sharp, Granville, a noted
abolitionist, born in London; trained for the bar, but accepted
a post in the London Ordnance Office, which he held until the
outbreak of the American War; was a voluminous writer on philology,
law, theology, &c., but mainly devoted himself to the cause
of negro emancipation, co-operating with
Clarkson in founding the Association for the Abolition of Negro
Slavery, and taking an active interest in the new colony for
freedom in Sierra Leone; won a famous decision in the law-courts
to the effect that whenever a slave set foot on English soil
he becomes free; he was also one of the founders of the Bible
Sharp, James, archbishop
of St. Andrews, born in Banff Castle; educated at Aberdeen University,
visited England, where he formed important friendships, and
in 1643 was appointed "regent" or professor of Philosophy
at St. Andrews, a post he resigned five years later to become
minister of Crail; during the Protectorate he sided with the "Resolutioners"
or Moderates, and appeared before Cromwell in London to plead
their cause; in 1660 received a commission to go to London to
safeguard the interests of the Scottish Church, a trust he shamefully
betrayed by intriguing with Charles at Breda, and with Clarendon
and the magnates of the English Church to restore Prelacy in
Scotland, he himself (by way of reward) being appointed Archbishop
of St. Andrews; henceforward he was but a pliant tool in the
hands of his English employers, and an object of intense hatred
to the Covenanters; in 1668 his life was attempted in Edinburgh
by Robert Mitchell, a covenanting preacher, and ultimately on
Magus Muir, May 1679, he was mercilessly hacked to pieces by
a band of Covenanters headed by Hackston and John Balfour (1618-1679).
Shaster, a book containing the
institutes of the Hindu religion or its legal requirements.
Shawnees, a tribe of American
Indians located originally in the eastern slopes of the Alleghanies,
but now removed to Missouri, Kansas, and the Indian Territory.
Sheba, believed to be a region
in South Arabia, along the shore of the Red Sea.
Shechinah, a glory as of the
Divine presence over the mercy-seat in the Jewish Tabernacle,
and reflected from the winged cherubim which overshadowed it,
the reality of which it is the symbol being the Divine presence
Sheepshanks, John, art
collector, born at Leeds, son of a manufacturer; presented in
1856 a collection of works by British artists to the nation,
now housed in South Kensington (1787-1863).
Sheerness (14), a fortified
seaport and important garrison town with important naval dockyards
in Kent, occupying the NW. corner of Sheppey Isle, where the
Medway joins the Thames, 52 m. E. of London; is divided into
Blue-town (within the garrison, and enclosing the 60 acres of
docks), Mile-town, Banks-town, and Marina-town (noted for sea-bathing).
Sheffield (324), a city of
Yorkshire, and chief centre of the English cutlery trade, built
on hilly ground on the Don near its confluence with the Sheaf,
whence its name, 41 m. E. of Manchester; is a fine, clean, well-built
town, with notable churches, public halls, theatres, &c.,
and well equipped with libraries, hospitals, parks, colleges
(e. g. Firth College), and various societies; does a
vast trade in all forms of steel, iron, and brass goods, as
well as plated and britannia-metal articles; has of late years
greatly developed its manufactures of armour-plate, rails, and
other heavier goods; its importance as a centre of cutlery dates
from very early times, and the Cutlers' Company was founded
in 1624; has been from Saxon times the capital of the manor
district of Hallamshire; it is divided into five parliamentary
districts, each of which sends a member to Parliament.
Sheffield, John, Duke
of Buckinghamshire, son of the Earl of Mulgrave, whose title
he succeeded to in 1658; served in the navy during the Dutch
wars of Charles II.; held office under James II., and was by
William III. created Marquis of Normanby; a staunch Tory in
Anne's reign, he was rewarded with a dukedom, lost office through
opposing Marlborough, but was reinstated after 1710, and in
George I.'s reign worked in the Stuart interest; wrote an "Essay
on Poetry," &c. (1649-1721).
Sheikh, the chief of an Arab
tribe; used often as a title of respect, Sheikh-ul-Islam being
the ecclesiastical head of Mohammedans in Turkey.
Sheil, Richard Lalor,
Irish patriot, born in Tipperary; bred to the bar; gave himself
for some time to literature, living by it; joined the Catholic
Association; was distinguished for his oratory and his devotion,
alongside of O'Connell, to Catholic emancipation; supported
the Whig Government, and held office under Melbourne and Lord
John Russell (1791-1851).
Shekel, among the ancient Hebrews
originally a weight, and eventually the name of a coin of gold
or silver, or money of a certain weight, the silver = 5s. per
oz., and the gold = £4.
Petty, Earl of, statesman, born in Dublin; succeeded
to his father's title in 1761, a few weeks after his election
to the House of Commons; held office in the ministries of Grenville
(1763), of Chatham (1766), and of Rockingham (1782); his acceptance
of the Premiership in 1782, after Rockingham's death, led to
the resignation of Fox and the entry of William Pitt, at the
age of 23, into the Cabinet; his short ministry (July 1782 to
Feb. 1783) saw the close of the Continental and American wars,
and the concession of independence to the colonies, collapsing
shortly afterwards before the powerful coalition of Fox and
North; in 1784, on his retirement from politics, was created
Marquis of Lansdowne; was a Free-Trader, supporter of Catholic
emancipation, and otherwise liberal in his views, but rather
tactless in steering his way amid the troublous politics of
his time (1737-1805).
Sheldonian Theatre, "Senate
House" of Oxford; so called from Gilbert Sheldon, archbishop
of Canterbury, who built it.
Shelley, Mary Wollstonecraft,
author of "Frankenstein," daughter of William Godwin
and Mary Wollstonecraft; became the wife of the poet Shelley
in 1816 after a two years' illicit relationship; besides "Frankenstein"
(1828), wrote several romances, "The Last Man," "Lodore," &c.,
also "Rambles in Germany and Italy"; edited with valuable
notes her husband's works (1797-1851).
Shelley, Percy Bysshe,
born at Field Place, near Horsham, Sussex, eldest son of Sir
Timothy Shelley, a wealthy landed proprietor; was educated at
Eton, and in 1810 went to Oxford, where his impatience of control
and violent heterodoxy of opinion, characteristic of him throughout,
burst forth in a pamphlet "The Necessity of Atheism,"
which led to his expulsion in 1811, along with Jefferson Hogg,
his subsequent biographer; henceforth led a restless, wandering
life; married at 19 Harriet Westbrook, a pretty girl of 16,
a school companion of his sister, from whom he was separated
within three years; under the influence of
William Godwin (q. v.)
his revolutionary ideas of politics and society developed apace;
engaged in quixotic political enterprises in Dublin, Lynmouth,
and elsewhere, and above all put to practical test Godwin's
heterodox view on marriage by eloping (1814) to the Continent
with his daughter Mary, whom he married
two years later after the unhappy suicide of Harriet; in 1816,
embittered by lord Eldon's decision that he was unfit to be
trusted with the care of Harriet's children, and with consumption
threatening, he left England never to return; spent the few
remaining years of his life in Italy, chiefly at Lucca, Florence,
and Pisa, in friendly relations with Byron, Leigh Hunt, Trelawney, &c.;
during this time were written his greatest works, "Prometheus
Unbound," "The Cenci," his noble lament on Keats, "Adonais,"
besides other longer works, and most of his finest lyrics, "Ode
to the South Wind," "The Skylark," &c.; was
drowned while returning in an open sailing-boat from Leghorn
to his home on Spezia Bay; "An enthusiast for humanity
generally," says Professor Saintsbury, "and towards
individuals a man of infinite generosity and kindliness, he
yet did some of the cruellest and some of not the least disgraceful
things from mere childish want of realising the pacta conventa
of the world;" Shelley is pre-eminently the poet of lyric
emotion, the subtle and most musical interpreter of vague spiritual
longing and intellectual desire; his poems form together "the
most sensitive," says Stopford Brooke, "the most imaginative,
and the most musical, but the least tangible lyrical poetry
we possess" (1792-1821).
Shenandoah, a river of Virginia,
formed by two head-streams rising in Augusta Co., which unite
85 m. W. of Washington, and flowing NE. through the beautiful "Valley
of Virginia," falls into the Potomac at Harper's Ferry,
after a course of 170 m.; also the name of a town (16) in Pennsylvania,
138 m. NW. of Philadelphia; centre of an important coal district.
poet, born, the son of a landed proprietor, at Hales-Owen, Shropshire;
was educated at Pembroke College, Oxford, and during the years
1737-42 produced three vols. of poetry, the most noted being "The
Schoolmistress"; succeeded to his father's estate in 1745,
and entered with much enthusiasm and reckless expenditure into
landscape-gardening, which won him in his day a wider reputation
than his poetry; his "Essays" have considerable critical
merit and originality, while his poetry—ballads odes,
songs, &c.—has a music and grace despite its conventional
Sheol, the dark underworld or
Hades of the Hebrews, inhabited by the shades of the dead.
Shepherd Kings or Hyksos,
a tribe of shepherds, alleged to have invaded Lower Egypt 2000
years before Christ, overthrown the reigning dynasty, and maintained
their supremacy for 200 years.
Shepherd of Salisbury
Plain, name of the hero, a shepherd of the name of Saunders,
in a tract written by Hannah More, characterised by homely wisdom
and simple piety.
Sheppard, Jack, a notorious
criminal, whose audacious robberies and daring escapes from
Newgate Prison made him for a time the terror and talk of London;
drew some 200,000 people to witness his execution at Tyburn;
figures as the hero of a well-known novel by Harrison Ainsworth
Sheppey, Isle of, an islet
in the estuary of the Thames, at the mouth of the Medway, belonging
to Kent, from which it is separated by the Swale (spanned by
a swing-bridge); great clay cliffs rise on the N., and like
the rest of the island, are rich in interesting fossil remains;
corn is grown, and large flocks of sheep raised; chief town
is Sheerness (q. v.),
where the bulk of the people are gathered; is gradually diminishing
before the encroaching sea.
Sherborne (4), an interesting
old town of Dorsetshire, pleasantly situated on rising ground
overlooking the Yeo, 118 m. SW. of London; has one of the finest
Perpendicular minsters in South England, ruins of an Elizabethan
castle, and King Edward's School, founded in 1550, and ranking
among the best of English public schools.
Low, Viscount, statesman, born, the son of a rector,
at Bingham, Notts; graduated at Oxford; obtained a Fellowship,
and in 1836 was called to the bar; six years later emigrated
to Australia; made his mark at the Sydney bar, taking at the
same time an active part in the politics of the country; returned
to England in 1850, and entered Parliament, holding office under
Lord Aberdeen (1853) and Lord Palmerston (1855); education became
his chief interest for some time, and in 1866 he fiercely opposed
the Whig Reform Bill, but subsequently made amends to his party
by his powerful support of Gladstone's Irish Church Disestablishment
Bill, and was included in the Liberal ministry of 1868 as Chancellor
of the Exchequer, a post he held till 1873, when he became Home
Secretary; a man of great intellectual force and independency
of judgment; created a viscount in 1880; was D.C.L. of Oxford
and LL.D. of Edinburgh (1811-1892).
Shere Ali, Ameer of Afghanistan,
son and successor of Dost Mohammed, at first favoured by Britain,
but at last distrusted and was driven from the throne (1823-1879).
Sheridan, Philip Henry,
a distinguished American general, born, of Irish parentage,
in Albany, New York; obtained a cadetship at West Point Military
Academy, and entered the army as a second-lieutenant in 1853;
served in Texas and during the Civil War; won rapid promotion
by his great dash and skill as commander of a cavalry regiment;
gained wide repute by his daring raids into the S.; cleared
the Confederates out of the Shenandoah Valley in 1864, and by
his famous ride (October 19, 1864) from Winchester to Cedar
Creek snatched victory out of defeat, routing the conjoined
forces of Early and Lee; received the thanks of Congress, and
was created major-general; took an active part under Grant in
compelling the surrender of Lee, and in bringing the war to
a close; subsequently during Grant's presidency was promoted
to lieutenant-general; visited Europe in 1870 to witness the
Franco-German War, and in 1883 succeeded Sherman as general-in-chief
of the American army (1831-1888).
Brinsley Butler, dramatist and politician, born in Dublin;
educated at Harrow; was already committed to literature when,
in 1773, he settled down in London with his gifted young wife,
Elizabeth Linley, and scored his first success with the "Rivals"
in 1775, following it up with the overrated "Duenna";
aided by his father-in-law became owner of Drury Lane Theatre,
which somewhat lagged till the production of his most brilliant
satirical comedy, "The School for Scandal" (1777)
and the "Critic" set flowing the tide of prosperity;
turning his attention next to politics he entered Parliament
under Fox's patronage in 1780, and two years later became Under-Secretary
for Foreign Affairs in Rockingham's ministry; his great speech
(1787) impeaching Hastings for his treatment of the Begums placed
him in the front rank of orators, but although he sat for 32
years in Parliament, only once again reached the same height
of eloquence in a speech (1794) supporting the French Revolution,
and generally failed to establish himself as a reliable statesman;
meanwhile his theatrical venture had ended disastrously, and
other financial troubles thickening around
him, he died in poverty, but was accorded a burial in Westminster
Sherif or Shereef, a title
of dignity among Mohammedans of either sex bestowed upon descendants
of the Prophet through his daughters Fatima and Ali; as a distinguishing
badge women wear a green veil, and men a green turban.
Sheriff, in England the chief
officer of the Crown in every county, appointed annually, and
intrusted with the execution of the laws and the maintenance
of peace and order, with power to summon the posse commitatus.
The office originated in Anglo-Saxon times, when it exercised
wide judicial functions which have been gradually curtailed,
and such duties as remain—the execution of writs, enforcement
of legal decisions, &c., are mostly delegated to an under-sheriff
(usually a lawyer) and bound-bailiffs, while the sheriff himself,
generally a person of wealth (the office being unsalaried and
compulsory, but not necessarily for more than one year) discharges
merely honorary duties. In Scotland the sheriff, or sheriff-depute
as he is called, is the chief judge of the county, and has under
him one or more sheriffs-substitute, upon whom devolves the
larger portion of the important and multifarious duties of his
office. In America the sheriff is the chief administrative officer
of the county, but exercises no judicial functions at all.
Sheriffmuir, a barren spot
stretching N. of the Ochils, in Perthshire, 5 m. NE. of Stirling;
was the scene of an indecisive conflict between 9000 Jacobites
under the Earl of Mar and 3500 Royalists under the Duke of Argyll,
November 13, 1715.
Sherlock, Thomas, English
prelate, born in London; became bishop in succession of Bangor,
Salisbury, and London, declining the Primacy; wrote several
theological works, and took up arms against the rationalists
of the day, such as Collins and Woolston (1678-1761).
Sherlock Holmes, an amateur
detective, a creation of Dr. Conan Doyle.
Sherman, William Tecumseh,
a distinguished American general, born, the son of a judge,
in Lancaster, Ohio; first saw service as a lieutenant of artillery
in the Indian frontier wars in Florida and California; resigned
from the army in 1853, and set up as a banker in San Francisco,
but at the outbreak of the Civil War accepted a colonelcy in
the Federalist ranks; distinguished himself at the battles of
Bull Run (1861) and Shiloh (1862); received promotion, and as
second in command to Grant rendered valuable service in reducing
Vicksburg and Memphis; was present at the victory of Chattanooga,
and during 1864 entered into command of the SW.; captured the
stronghold of Atlanta, and after a famous march seaward with
65,000 men took Savannah, which he followed up with a series
of victories in the Carolinas, receiving, on 26th April 1865,
the surrender of General Johnston, which brought the war to
a close; was created general and commander-in-chief of the army
in 1869, a position he held till 1869; published memoirs of
his military life (1820-1891).
Sherwood Forest, once
an extensive forest, the scene of Robin Hood's exploits, in
Nottinghamshire, stretching some 25 m. between Worksop and Nottingham,
but now a hilly, disafforested tract occupied by country houses
and private parks, several villages, and the town of Mansfield.
Shetland or Zetland
(29), a group of over 100 islands, islets, and skerries, of
which 29 are inhabited, forming the northernmost county of Scotland,
lying out in the Atlantic, NNE. of the Orkneys; Mainland (378
sq. m.), Fell, and Unst are the largest; the coast-line is boldly
precipitous and indented, while the scenery all over the island
is very grand; the soil is peaty, ill adapted to cultivation,
but there is considerable rearing of stock, and the little shaggy
pony is well known; fishing is the chief industry, herring,
cod, ling, &c. Lerwick (q.
v.) is the capital.
Shibboleth, a word by which
the Gileadites distinguished an Ephraimite from his inability
to sound the sh in the word, and so discovered whether
he was friend or foe; hence it has come to denote a party cry
Shields, North, a flourishing
seaport of Northumberland, on the Tyne, near the mouth, 8 m.
NE. of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, and lying within the municipal borough
of Tynemouth (47); is of quite modern growth, and of a plain,
uninteresting appearance; has a theatre, free library, Mariners'
Home, fine park, &c.; the docks cover 79 acres, and a large
export trade in coal is carried on.
Shields, South (78), a
busy seaport and popular watering-place in Durham, with a frontage
of 2 m. on the south bank of the Tyne, 9 m. NE. of Newcastle-upon-Tyne,
a place of residence from ancient times, with Roman remains, &c.;
has a theatre, public library, marine school, two fine parks
with central parade, 50 acres of docks, &c.; exports immense
quantities of coal and coke.
Shiites, a sect of the Mohammedans,
who reject the "Sunna"
(q. v.) and championed the claims of Ali Mahommed's cousin
and son-in-law to succeed to the Caliphate, and maintain the
divine right of his descendants to represent the prophet in
the Mohammedan Church. The Persians belong to this sect.
Shikarpur (42), capital of
a district (853) in N. Sind, India, situated on rich alluvial
ground, 18 m. W. of the Indus, and 330 m. N. of Karachi; since
the opening of the Indus Valley Railway it has lost much of
its importance as a commercial entrepôt between India
and Khorassan; vicinity produces excellent grain crops, and
carpets, cottons, &c., are manufactured in the town.
Shiloh, a village 20 m. N. of
Jerusalem, sacred as the site of the resting-place of the Tabernacle
on the settlement of the Jews in the land of promise. Is a name
also of the Messiah.
Shinar, the vast alluvial plain
extending along the Tagus and Euphrates, forming the country
of Chaldea and Babylonia.
Shintoism, the native religion
of Japan; a system of ancestor worship chiefly, combined with
which is a religious homage paid to the Mikado.
Ship-Money, a tax levied
by Charles I. at the suggestion of Noy, the Attorney-General,
who based its imposition on an old war-tax leviable on port-towns
to furnish a navy in times of danger, and which Charles imposed
in a time of peace without consent of Parliament, and upon inland
as well as port-towns, provoking thereby wide-spread dissatisfaction,
and Hampden's refusal to pay, which with the trial and decision
in favour of Charles contributed to bring about the Civil War,
which cost Charles his life; was declared illegal by the Long
Parliament in 1640.
Shipton, Mother, a prophetess
of English legend, whose preternatural knowledge revealed in
her prophecies, published after her death, was ascribed to an
alliance with the devil, by whom it was said she became the
mother of an ugly impish child.
Shiraz (30), a celebrated city
of Persia, occupying a charming site on an elevated plain, 165
m. NE. of Bushire; founded in the 8th century;
was for long a centre of Persian culture,
and a favourite resort of the royal princes; its beauties are
celebrated in the poems of Häfiz and Sádi, natives
of the place; has been thrice wrecked by earthquakes, and presents
now a somewhat dilapidated appearance.
Shiré, a river of East
Africa, flows out of Lake Nyassa, and passes in a southerly
course through the Shiré Highlands, a distance of 370
m., till it joins the Zambesi; discovered by Livingstone.
Shirley, James, dramatist,
born in London, educated at Oxford and Cambridge; entered the
Church, but turning Catholic resigned, and after trying teaching
established himself in London as a play-writer; wrote with great
facility, producing upwards of thirty plays before the suppression
of theatres in 1642; fell back on teaching as a means of livelihood,
and with a temporary revival of his plays after the Restoration
eked out a scanty income till fear and exposure during the Great
Fire brought himself and his wife on the same day to a common
grave; of his plays mention may be made of "The Witty Fair
One," "The Wedding," "The Lady of Pleasure," "The
Traitor," etc. (1596-1666).
Shishak, the name of several
monarchs of Egypt of the twenty-second dynasty, the first of
whom united nearly all Egypt under one government, invaded Judea
and plundered the Temple of Jerusalem about 962 B.C.
Shittim Wood, a hard, close-grained
acacia wood of an orange-brown colour found in the Arabian Desert,
and employed in constructing the Jewish Tabernacle.
Shoa (1,500), the southmost division
of Abyssinia (q. v.);
was an independent country till its conquest by Theodore of
Abyssinia in 1855; is traversed by the Blue Nile, and has a
mixed population of Gallas and Abyssinians.
Shoddy, a stuff woven of old
woollen fabrics teased into fibre and of new wool intermixed.
Shoeburyness, a town in
Essex, near Southend, a stretch of moorland utilised by the
Government for gunnery practice.
Sholapur (61), chief town in
the Presidency of Bombay, in a district (750) of the name, 283
m. E. of Bombay; has cotton and silk manufactures.
Shore, Jane, the celebrated
mistress of Edward IV.; was the young wife of a respected London
goldsmith till she was taken up by the king, through whom, till
the close of the reign, she exercised great power, "never
abusing it to any man's hurt, but to many a man's comfort and
relief"; was ill-treated and persecuted by Richard III.
for political purposes; subsequently lived under the patronage
of Lord Hastings, and afterwards of the Marquis of Dorset, surviving
till 1527; the story of her life has been made the subject of
many ballads, plays, etc.
Shoreditch (120), parliamentary
borough of East London; returns two members to Parliament; manufactures
furniture, boot and shoes, beer, etc.
Shoreham, New, a seaport
6 m. W. of Brighton; has oyster and other fisheries, and shipbuilding
Shorthouse, Joseph Henry,
author of "John Inglesant," born in Birmingham; wrote
also "Sir Percival" and "Little Schoolmaster
Mark," etc.; is remarkable for his refined style of writing,
latterly too much so; his first work, "John Inglesant,"
published in 1881, is his best; b. 1834.
Shovel, Sir Cloudesley,
a celebrated English admiral, born at Clay, in Norfolk; was
apprenticed to a cobbler, but ran away to sea, and rose from
grade to grade till in 1674 we find him a lieutenant in the
Mediterranean fleet; was knighted in 1689 for his gallantry
as commander of a ship in the battle of Bantry Bay, and in the
following year as rear-admiral was prominent at the engagement
off Beachy Head; in 1692 gave heroic assistance to Admiral Russell
at La Hogue, and in 1702 to Rooke at Malaga; elevated to the
commandership of the English fleets he in 1705 captured Barcelona,
but on his way home from an unsuccessful attack upon Toulon
was wrecked on the Scilly Isles and drowned (1650-1707).
Shrewsbury (27), county town
of Shropshire, situated on a small peninsula formed by a horse-shoe
bend of the Severn, 42 m. W. by N. of Birmingham; three fine
bridges span the river here, connecting it with several extensive
suburbs; a picturesque old place with winding streets and quaint
timber dwelling-houses, a Norman castle, abbey church, ruined
walls, etc. The public school, founded by Edward VI., ranks
amongst the best in England; figures often in history as a place
where Parliament met in 1397-98, and in 1403 gave its name to
the battle which resulted in the defeat of Hotspur and the Earl
of Douglas by Henry IV.; it was taken by the Parliamentarians
in 1644; chief industries are glass-painting, malting, and iron-founding.
Shropshire or Salop
(236), an agricultural and mining county of England, on the
Welsh border, facing Montgomery chiefly, between Cheshire (N.)
and Hereford (S.); is divided into two fairly equal portions
by the Severn, E. and N. of which is low, level, and fertile,
excepting the Wrekin (1320 ft.), while on the SW. it is hilly
(Clee Hills, 1805 ft.); Ellesmere is the largest of several
lakes; Coalbrookdale is the centre of a rich coal district,
and iron and lead are also found. Shrewsbury is the capital;
it consists of four Parliamentary divisions.
especially the days immediately before Lent, when, in Catholic
times, the people confessed their sins to the parish priest
and afterwards gave themselves up to sports, and dined on pancakes,
Shrove Tuesday being Tuesday before Ash Wednesday, or the first
day of Lent.
Shumla or Shumna (24),
a fortified city of Bulgaria, 80 m. SE. of Rustchuk; has an
arsenal, barracks, etc., is an important strategical centre
between the Lower Danube and the East Balkans.
Shylock, the Jew in Shakespeare's "Merchant
Siam (9,000 of Siamese, Chinese,
Shans, and Malays), occupies the central portion of the Indo-Chinese
peninsula, wedged in between Annam and Cambodia (E.) and Burma
(W.), and extending down into the Malay Peninsula; the wide
Gulf of Siam forms the southern boundary; the rich alluvial
valleys of the Menam and the Mekhong produce great quantities
of rice (chief export), teak-wood, hemp, tobacco, cotton, etc.,
but of the land surface only about one-twentieth is cultivated,
a large portion of the rest lying under forest and jungle; the
Siamese are indolent, ignorant, ceremonious, and the trade is
mainly in the hands of the Chinese; the mining of gold, tin,
and especially rubies and sapphires, is also carried on. Buddhism
is the national religion, and elementary education is well advanced;
government is vested in a king (at present an enlightened and
English-educated monarch) and council of ministers; since Sir
J. Bowring's treaty in 1856, opening up the country to European
trade and influences, progress has been considerable in roads
and railway, electric, telephonic, and postal communication.
Bangkok (q. v.) is the
capital. In 1893 a large tract of territory NE. of the Mekhong
was ceded to France.
Siamese Twins, twins born
in Siam, of Chinese parents, whose bodies were united by a fleshy
band extended between corresponding breast-bones; were purchased
from their mother and exhibited in Europe and America, realised
a competency by their exhibitions, married and settled in the
States; having lost by the Civil War, they came over to London
and exhibited, where they died, one 2½ hours after the
Sibbald, Sir Robert,
physician and naturalist, born in Edinburgh, of Balgonie, Fife;
established a botanic garden in Edinburgh, and was one of the
founders of the Royal College of Physicians (16411712).
Siberia (5,000), a vast Russian
territory in North Asia (one and a third times the size of Europe),
stretching from the Ural Mountains (W.) to the seas of Behring,
Okhotsk, and Japan (E.), bounded on the N. by the Arctic Ocean
and on the S. by China and the Central Asiatic provinces of
Russia; forms in the main an immense plain, sloping from the
Altai and other mountain ranges on the S. to the dreary, ice-bound
littoral on the N., drained by the northward-flowing Obi, Irtish,
Yenesei, Lena, &c., embracing every kind of soil, from the
fertile grain-growing plains of the S. and rich grazing steppe-land
of the W. to the forest tracts and bogland of the N. and experiencing
a variety of climates, but for the most part severely cold;
hunting, fishing, and mining are the chief industries, with
agriculture and stock-raising in the S. and W. The great Trans-Siberian
Railway, in construction since 1891, is opening up the country,
which is divided into eight "governments," the chief
towns being Tomsk, Irkutsk, Omsk, and Tobolsk; three-fifths
of the population are Russians, chiefly exiles and descendants
of exiles. Russian advance in Asia against the Tartars was begun
in 1850, and was carried on by warlike Cossack marauders, followed
by hunters, droves of escaping serfs, and persecuted religious
Sibyl, name given to a woman,
or rather to a number of women, much fabled of in antiquity,
regarded by Ruskin as representing the voice of God in nature,
and, as such, endowed with visionary prophetic power, or what
in the Highlands of Scotland is called "second-sight";
the most famous of the class being the Sibyl of Cumæ,
who offered King Tarquin of Rome nine books for sale, which
he refused on account of the exorbitant sum asked for them,
and again refused after she had burnt three of them, and in
the end paid what was originally asked for the three remaining,
which he found to contain oracular utterances bearing on the
worship of the gods and the policy of Rome. These, after being
entrusted to keepers, were afterwards burned, and the contents
replaced by a commission appointed to collect them in the countries
around, to share the same fate as the original collection. The
name is applied in mediæval times to figures representative
of the prophets who foretold the coming of Christ; the prophets
so represented were reckoned sometimes 10, sometimes 12 in number;
they are, says Fairholt, "of tall stature, full of vigour
and moral energy; the costume rich but conventional, ornamented
with pearls and precious stones."
Sicilian Vespers, name
given to a massacre of the French in Sicily at the hour of vespers
on the eve of Easter Monday in 1282, the signal for the commencement
being the first stroke of the vesper bell; the massacre included
men and women and children to the number of 8000 souls, and
was followed by others throughout the island.
Sicily (3,285), the largest island
in the Mediterranean, lying off the SW. extremity of Italy,
to which it belongs, and from which it is separated by the narrow
strait of Messina, 2 m. broad; the three extremities of its
triangular configuration form Capes Faro (NE.), Passaro (S.),
and Boco (W.); its mountainous interior culminates in the volcanic
Etna, and numerous streams rush swiftly down the thickly-wooded
valleys; the coast-lands are exceptionally fertile, growing
(although agricultural methods are extremely primitive) excellent
crops of wheat and barley, as well as an abundance of fruit;
sulphur-mining is an important industry, and large quantities
of the mineral are exported; enjoys a fine equable climate,
but malaria is in parts endemic; the inhabitants are a mixed—Greek,
Italian, Arabic, &c.—race, and differ considerably
in language and appearance from Italians proper; are ill-governed,
and as a consequence discontented and backward, even brigandage
not yet being entirely suppressed. Palermo, the largest city,
is situated on the precipitous N. coast. As part of the "Kingdom
of the Two Sicilies," comprising Sicily and Naples, it
was overrun by Garibaldi in 1860, and in the same year was incorporated
with the kingdom of Italy.
Sickingen, Franz von,
a German free-lance, a man of a knightly spirit and great prowess;
had often a large following, Götz von Berlichingen of the
number, and joined the cause of the Reformation; lost his life
by a musket-shot when besieged in the castle of Landstuhl; he
was a warm friend of Ulrich von Hutten (1481-1523).
Sicyon, a celebrated city of
ancient Greece, was situated near the Corinthian Gulf, 7 m.
NW. of Corinth; was an important centre of Grecian art, especially
of bronze sculptures and painting; in the time of Aratus (251
B.C.) figured as one of the chief cities of the Achæan
League; only a few remains now mark its site.
Siddons, Sarah, the greatest
tragic actress of England, born at Brecon, the daughter and
eldest child of Roger Kemble, manager of an itinerant theatrical
company; became early a member of her father's company, and
at 19 married an actor named Siddons who belonged to it; her
first appearance in Drury Lane as Portia in 1755 was a failure;
by 1782 her fame was established, after which she joined her
brother, John Kemble, at Covent Garden, and continued to act
there till her retirement in 1812; she was distinguished in
many parts, and above all Lady Macbeth, in which character she
took farewell of the stage; she appeared once again in London
after this in 1815, for the benefit of her brother Charles,
and again a few nights in Edinburgh in aid of a widowed daughter-in-law
Sidereal Year, the period
during which the earth makes a revolution in its orbit with
respect to the stars.
Sidgwick, Henry, writer
on ethics, born at Shipton, Yorkshire; professor of Moral Philosophy
at Cambridge; "Methods of Ethics," being a compromise
between the intuitionalists and utilitarians, "the Principles
of Political Economy," and the "Elements of Politics";
he holds a high place in all these three studies; b.
Sidlaw Hills, a range of
hills extending from Kinnoul Hill, near Perth, NE. to Brechin,
in Forfarshire; most interesting point Dunsinane (1114 ft.).
Sidmouth (4), a pretty little
watering-place on the S. Devonshire coast, 14 m. ESE. of Exeter;
lies snugly between high cliffs at the mouth of a small stream,
the Sid; is an ancient place, and has revived in popularity
since the opening of the railway; has a fine promenade 1½
Addington, Viscount, statesman, born in London, the
son of a physician; studied at Oxford, and was called to the
bar, but gave up law for politics, entered Parliament in 1783,
and was Speaker from 1789 till 1801, in which year, after the
fall of Pitt over Catholic emancipation, he formed a ministry,
assuming himself the offices of First Lord of the Treasury and
Chancellor of the Exchequer. This ministry of the "King's
Friends" went out of office in 1804, after negotiating
the Peace of Amiens (1802), and in subsequent governments of
Pitt Sidmouth held various offices, being an unpopular Home
Secretary from 1812 to 1821; created viscount in 1805 (1757-1844).
Sidney or Sydney, Algernon,
a noted politician and soldier of extreme republican views,
second son of Robert, second Earl of Leicester; first came into
public notice in 1641-1642 by his gallant conduct as leader
of a troop of horse in the Irish Rebellion; came over to England
in 1643, joined the Parliamentarians, rose to a colonelcy and
command of a regiment in 1645; was subsequently governor of
Dublin and of Dover (1647), entered Parliament (1646), and although
appointed one of the commissioners to try Charles I., absented
himself from the proceedings, but afterwards approved of the
execution; withdrew from politics during Cromwell's Protectorate,
but on the reinstating of the Long Parliament (1659) became
a member of the Council of State; was on a diplomatic mission
to Denmark when the Restoration took place, and till his pardon
in 1677 led a wandering life on the Continent; intrigued with
Louis XIV. against Charles II., assisted William Penn in drawing
up the republican constitution of Pennsylvania, was on trumped-up
evidence tried for complicity in the Rye House Plot and summarily
sentenced to death by Judge Jeffreys, the injustice of his execution
being evidenced by the reversal of his attainder in 1689 (1622-1683).
Sidney, Sir Philip,
poet, and one of the most attractive figures at Elizabeth's
court, born at Penshurst, Kent, the son of Sir Henry Sidney,
lord-deputy of Ireland; quitted Oxford in 1572, and in the manner
of the time finished his education by a period of Continental
travel, from which he returned imbued with the love of Italian
literature; took his place at once in the court of Elizabeth,
his uncle, the Earl of Leicester, being then high in favour,
and received rapid promotion, being sent as ambassador in 1576
to the court of Vienna; nor was his favour with the queen impaired
by his bold "Remonstrance" against her marriage with
the Duke of Anjou, and in 1583 received a knighthood; two years
later, "lest she should lose the jewel of her dominions"
the queen forbade him to accompany Drake to the West Indies,
and appointed him governor of Flushing, but in the following
year he received his death-wound at the battle of Zutphen gallantly
leading a troop of Netherlander against the Spaniards; his fame
as an author rests securely on his euphuistic prose romance "Arcadia,"
his critical treatise "The Defence of Poesy," and
above all on his exquisite sonnet-series "Astrophel and
Stella," in which he sings the story of his hapless love
for Penelope Devereux, who married Lord Rich; was the friend
of Edmund Spenser, and the centre of an influential literary
Sidon, an ancient Phoenician city
on the E. of the Mediterranean, 20 m. N. of Tyre, with an extensive
commerce; was famed for its glass and purple dye; also suffered
many a reverse of fortune.
Siebengebirge, a range
of hills on the right bank of the Rhine, 20 m. above Köln,
distinguished by its seven high peaks.
Siegfried, a hero of various
Scandinavian and Teutonic legends, and especially of the
(q. v.), was rendered invulnerable by bathing in the
blood of a dragon which he had slain, except at a spot on his
body which had been covered by a falling leaf; he wore a cloak
which rendered him invisible, and wielded a miraculous sword
named Balmung (q. v.).
Siemens, Werner von,
a celebrated German electrician and inventor, born at Lenthe,
Hanover; served in the Prussian artillery, and rendered valuable
services in developing the telegraphic system of Prussia; patented
a process for electro-plating in gold and silver, and was the
first to employ electricity in exploding submarine mines; retired
from the army in 1849, and along with Halske established a business
in Berlin for telegraphic and electrical apparatus, which has
become notable throughout the world, having branches in several
cities; made many contributions to electrical science; was ennobled
in 1888 (1816-1892).
Siemens, Sir William
(Karl William), younger brother of the preceding, born at Lenthe,
Hanover; like his brother took to science, and in 1844 settled
in England, naturalising in 1859; was manager of the English
branch of the Siemens Brothers firm, and did much to develop
electric lighting and traction (Portrush Electric Tramway);
his inventive genius was productive of a heat-economising furnace,
a water-meter, pyrometer, bathometer, &c.; took an active
part in various scientific societies; was President of the British
Association (1882), and received a knighthood in 1883 (1823-1883).
Sienna or Siena (28),
an interesting old Italian city of much importance during the
Middle Ages, in Central Italy, 60 m. S. of Florence, is still
surrounded by its ancient wall, and contains several fine Gothic
structures, notably its cathedral (13th century) and municipal
palace; has a university and institute of fine arts; silk and
cloth weaving, and a wine and oil trade are the chief industries.
Sierra, the name given to a range
of mountains with a saw-like ridge.
Sierra Leone (75), a British
maritime colony since 1787, on the W. coast of Africa, having
a foreshore of 180 m. between Rivières du Sud (N.) and
Liberia (S.); includes the peninsula of Sierra Leone proper
with its densely-wooded Sugar-Loaf Mountain, and a number of
coast islands, and stretches back to a highland eastern frontier
ill defined; the climate is hot, humid, and unhealthy; has been
called "The White Man's Grave"; is fertile, but not
well exploited by the indolent negro population, half of whom
are descendants from freed slaves; ground-nuts, kola-nuts, ginger,
hides, palm-oil, &c., are the principal exports.
Freetown (q. v.)
is the capital. The executive power is exercised by a governor
and council of five.
Sierra Madre, the main cordillera
system of Mexico, extending in a northerly direction to Arizona,
and forming the western buttress of a fertile plateau stretching
eastwards; to the W. the States of Sinaloa and Sonora slope
downwards to the sea.
Sierra Morena, a mountain
chain in South Spain, forming the watershed between the valleys
of the Gaudiana (N.) and Guadalquivir (S.); has valuable deposits
of lead, silver, quicksilver, and other metals.
Sierra Nevada, 1, a mountain
range in South Spain, 60 m. in length;
lies for the most part in Granada, crossing the province E.
and W. in bold, rugged lines, and clad on its higher parts with
perpetual snow, whence the name; Mulhacen (11,660 ft.) is the
highest peak. 2, A mountain system in California, stretching
NW. and SE. 450 m., and forming the eastern buttress of the
Great Central Valley; highest peak Mount Whitney (14,886 ft.).
3, A lofty mountain group in Colombia, South America, stretching
NE. almost to the borders of Venezuela.
a conspicuous figure all through the French Revolution, the
Consulate, and the Empire, who thought in his simplicity that
the salvation of France and the world at large depended on sound
political institutions, in the drafting of which he spent his
life; was born in Frèjus, of the bourgeois class; represented
Paris in the States General; sat in the Centre in the Legislative
Assembly; renounced the Christian religion in favour of the
Goddess of Reason; projected a constitution which was rejected;
supported Napoleon; fled to Belgium on the return of the Bourbons,
and returned to France in 1830, by which time he was politically
Sigismund, emperor of Germany,
son of the Emperor Charles IV., was markgrave of Brandenburg,
king of Hungary, and palatine of the Rhine; struggled hard to
suppress the Hussites; held the Council of Constance, and gave
Huss (q. v.) a safe-conduct
to his doom; he is the "Super Grammaticam" of Carlyle's "Frederick"
Sigismund is the name of
three kings of Poland, the last of whom died in 1632.
Signorelli, Luca, the
precursor of Michael Angelo in Italian art, born at Cortona;
studied at Arezzo under Piero della Francesca, and became distinguished
for the accurate anatomy of his figures and for the grandeur
and originality of design exhibited in his admirable frescoes
of religious subjects at Loretto, Orviëto, and elsewhere
Sigourney, Mrs., American
authoress, was a prolific writer; wrote tales, poems, essays,
chiefly on moral and religious subjects; was called the American
Sikhs (lit. disciples),
a native religious and military community, scattered, to the
number of nearly two millions, over the Punjab, and forming
some fifteen States dependent on the Punjab government; founded
(1469) by Baber Nanak as a religious monotheistic sect purified
from the grosser native superstitions and practices; was organised
on a military footing in the 17th century, and in the 18th century
acquired a territorial status, ultimately being consolidated
in to a powerful military confederacy by Ranjit Singh, who,
at the beginning of the 19th century, extended his power over
a wider territory. In 1845-46 they crossed their E. boundary,
the Sutlej, and invaded English possessions, but were defeated
by Gough and Hardinge, and had to cede a considerable portion
of their territory; a second war in 1848-49 ended in the annexation
of the entire Punjab, since when the Sikhs have been the faithful
allies of the English, notably in the Indian Mutiny.
Sikkim (7), a small native State
in North-East India, lying on the southern slopes of the Himalayas,
between Nepal (W.) and Bhotan (E.); under British protection;
the ruling family being Buddhist, and of Tibetan descent.
Silage, the name given to green
fodder, vegetables, &c., stored in stacks or pits (or silos)
under heavy pressure, the process being known as ensilage. The
practice of thus preserving green crops for fodder dates from
earliest times, but its general adoption in Britain only began
in 1882 since when its spread has been rapid. Originally the
process in vogue involved slight fermentation, resulting in "sour
silage," but in 1884 it was found that by delaying the
application of pressure for a day or two a rise of temperature
took place sufficiently great to destroy the bacteria producing
fermentation, the result being "sweet silage." Both
kinds are readily eaten by cattle.
Silence, Worship of,
Carlyle's name for the sacred respect for restraint in speech
till "thought has silently matured itself, ... to hold
one's tongue till some meaning lie behind to set it wagging,"
a doctrine which many misunderstand, almost wilfully, it would
seem; silence being to him the very womb out of which all great
things are born.
Silenus, a satyr who attended
Dionysus, being his foster-father and teacher; assisted in the
war of the giants, and slew Enceladus; had the gift of vaticination;
is represented as mounted on an ass and supported by other satyrs.
Silesia (4,224), a province
of South-East Prussia, stretching S. between Russian Poland
(E.) and Austria (W. and S.); the Oder flows NW. through the
heart of the country, dividing the thickly forested and in parts
marshy lands of the N. and E. from the mountainous and extremely
fertile W.; rich coal-fields lie to the S., and zinc is also
a valuable product; agriculture and the breeding of cattle,
horses, and sheep flourish, as also the manufacture of cottons,
linens, &c.; Breslau is the capital; for long under the
successive dominions of Poland and Bohemia, the Silesian duchies
became, in the 18th century, a casus belli between Austria
and Prussia, resulting in the
Seven Years' War (q.
v.) and the ultimate triumph of Frederick the Great of Prussia.
Silesia, Austrian (602),
that portion of the original Silesian country preserved to Austria
after the unsuccessful struggle with Prussia; forms a duchy
and crownland of Austria, and extends SW. from the border of
Prussian Silesia; agriculture and mining are the chief industries.
Silhouette, name given to
the profile of a portrait filled in with black; a design familiar
to the ancients, and in vogue in France during the reign of
Silistria (12), a town of
Bulgaria, on the Danube, 70 m. below Rustchuk; occupies a fine
strategical position, and is strongly fortified; withstood successfully
a 39 days' siege by the Russians during the Crimean War; cloth
and leather are the chief manufactures.
Silius Italicus, a Roman
poet; was consul in the year of Nero's death, and his chief
work an epic "Punica," relating the events of the
Second Punic War, a dull performance.
American chemist and geologist, born in North Stratford (now
Trumbull), Connecticut; graduated at Yale, and was called to
the bar in 1802, but in the same year threw up law for science;
became professor of Chemistry at Yale, a position he held for
50 years (till 1853); did much to stimulate the study of chemistry
and geology by lectures throughout the States; founded (1818)
the American Journal of Science, and was for 28 years
its editor; during 1853-55 was lecturer on Geology at Yale;
his writings include "Journals of Travels in England, Holland,
and Scotland" (1779-1864). Benjamin Silliman, son
of preceding, also an active scientist along his father's lines;
founded the Yale School of Science, and
filled the chairs of Chemistry at Louisville (1849-1854)
and at Yale (till 1869); was co-editor of the Journal of
Science (1845-85), and wrote various popular text-books
of chemistry and physics (1816-1885).
Silloth (3), a watering-place
of Cumberland, on the Solway Firth, 20 m. W. of Carlisle; has
good docks and an increasing commerce.
Silures, one of the ancient
British tribes occupying the SE. of Wales; conjectured to be
of Non-Aryan stock, and akin to the Iberians; offered a fierce
resistance to the invading Romans.
Silvanus, an Italian divinity,
the guardian of trees, fields, and husbandmen; represented as
a hale, happy, old man.
Silver Age, the age in the
Greek mythology in succession to the Golden; gold being viewed
as the reality, and silver the idle reflection. See
Simeon, St., the aged seer
who received the infant Christ in his arms as He was presented
to the Lord by His mother in the Temple; usually so represented
in Christian art.
Simeon Stylites, famous
as one of the Pillar Saints
Simferopol (36), a town in
the Crimea, 49 m. NE. of Sebastopol; surrounded by gardens,
orchards, and vineyards; exports a great quantity of fruit.
Simla (15, but largely increased
in summer), the chief town of a district in the Punjab, and
since 1864 the summer hill-quarters of the British Government
in India; beautifully situated on the wooded southern slopes
of the Himalayas, 7156 ft. above sea-level, and 170 m. N. of
Delhi; has a cool and equable climate, and possesses two vice-regal
palaces, government buildings, beautiful villas, &c.
Simms, William Gilmore,
a prolific American writer, born at Charleston, South Carolina;
turned from law to literature; engaged in journalism for some
years, and found favour with the public as a writer of poems,
novels, biographies, &c., in which he displays a gift for
rapid, vivid narrative, and vigour of style; "Southern
Passages and Pictures" contains characteristic examples
of his poetry, and of his novels "The Yemassee," "The
Partisan," and "Beauchampe" may be mentioned
Simon, Jules, French statesman
and distinguished writer on social, political, and philosophic
subjects, born at Lorient; succeeded Cousin in the chair of
Philosophy at the Sorbonne; entered the Chamber of Deputies
in 1848; lost his post at the Sorbonne in 1852 for refusing
to take the oath of allegiance to Napoleon III.; subsequently
became Minister of Education under Thiers (1871-73), a life-senator
in 1875, and in 1876 Republican Prime Minister; later more conservative
in his attitude, he edited the Echo Universel, and was
influential as a member of the Supreme Educational Council,
and as permanent secretary of the Academy of Moral and Political
Sciences; his voluminous works include treatises on "Liberty," "Natural
Religion," "Education," "Labour," &c.,
and various philosophic and political essays (1814-1896).
Simon, Richard, a celebrated
French biblical scholar, born at Dieppe; entered the Congregation
of the Oratory in 1659, and became professor of Philosophy at
the College of Juilly; was summoned to Paris, and under orders
of his superiors spent some time in cataloguing the Oriental
MSS. in the library of the Oratory; his free criticisms and
love of controversy got him into trouble with the
Port-Royalists and the Benedictines,
and the heterodoxy of his "Histoire Critique du Vieux Testament"
(1678) brought about his withdrawal to Belleville, where he
remained as curé till 1682, when he retired to Dieppe
to continue his work on Old and New Testament criticism; he
ranks as among the first to deal with the scriptural writings
as literature, and he anticipated not a few of the later German
Simon Magus, a sorcerer,
one who by his profession of magic aggrandised himself at the
expense of the people of Samaria, and who, when he saw the miracles
wrought by the Apostles, and St. Peter in particular, offered
them money to confer the like power on himself; Peter's well-known
answer was not without effect on him, but it was only temporary,
for he afterwards appeared in Rome and continued to impose upon
the people so as to persuade them to believe him as an incarnation
of the Most High. Hence Simony, the sin of making gain by the
buying or selling of spiritual privileges for one's material
Simonides of Amorgos,
a Greek poet who flourished in the 7th century B.C.; dealt in
gnome and satire, among the latter on the different classes
Simonides of Ceos, one
of the most celebrated lyric poets of Greece; spent most of
his life in Athens, employed his poetic powers in celebrating
the events and heroes of the Persian wars; gained over Æschylus
the prize for an elegy on those who fell at Marathon; composed
epigrams over the tombs of the Spartans who fell at Thermopylæ,
and in his eightieth year was crowned victor at Athens; shortly
after this was invited by Hiero to Syracuse, at whose court
he died; his poetry was distinguished at once for sweetness
and finish; he was a philosopher as well as a poet (556-467
Simoom or Simoon, a hot,
dry wind-storm common to the arid regions of Africa, Arabia,
and parts of India; the storm moves in cyclone (circular) form,
carrying clouds of dust and sand, and produces on men and animals
a suffocating effect.
Simplon, a mountain in the Swiss
Alps, in the canton of Valais, traversed by the famous Simplon
Pass (6594 ft. high), which stretches 41 m. from Brieg in Valais
to Domo d'Ossola in Piedmont, passing over 611 bridges and through
many great tunnels, built by Napoleon 1800-6.
Simpson, Sir James Young,
physician, born, the son of a baker, at Bathgate, Linlithgowshire;
graduated M.D. at Edinburgh in 1832; was assistant to the professor
of Pathology and one of the Presidents of the Royal Medical
Society before his election to the chair of Midwifery in 1840;
as an obstetrician his improvements and writings won him wide
repute, which became European on his discovery of chloroform
in 1847; was one of the Queen's physicians, and was created
a baronet in 1866; published "Obstetric Memoirs," "Archæological
Essays," &c. (1811-1870).
Simrock, Karl Joseph,
German scholar and poet, born at Bonn; studied at Bonn and Berlin,
where he became imbued with a love for old German literature,
in connection with which he did his best-known work; modernised
the "Nibelungen Lied" (1827), and after his withdrawal
from the Prussian service gave himself to his favourite study,
becoming professor of Old German in 1850, and popularising and
stimulating inquiry into the old national writings by volumes
of translations, collections of folk-songs, stories, &c.;
was also author of several volumes of original poetry (1802-1876).
Sims, George Robert,
playwright and novelist, born in London; was for a number of
years on the staff of Fun and a contributor to the
Referee and Weekly Dispatch, making his mark by his
humorous and pathetic Dagonet ballads
and stories; has been a busy writer of popular plays (e.
g. "The Lights o' London," "The Romany Rye")
and novels (e. g. "Rogues and Vagabonds," "Dramas
of Life"); contributed noteworthy letters to the Daily
News on the condition of the London poor; b. 1847.
Simson, Robert, mathematician,
born in Ayrshire; abandoned his intention of entering the Church
and devoted himself to the congenial study of mathematics, of
which he became professor in the old university at Glasgow (1711),
a position he held for 50 years; was the author of the well-known "Elements
of Euclid," but is most celebrated as the first restorer
of Euclid's lost treatise on "Porisms" (1687-1768).
Sinai, Mount, one of a range
of three mountains on the peninsula between the Gulf of Suez
and the Gulf of Akaba, at the head of the Red Sea, and from
the summit or slopes of which Moses is said to have received
the Ten Commandments at the hands of Jehovah.
Sincerity, in Carlyle's ethics
the one test of all worth in a human being, that he really with
his whole soul means what he is saying and doing, and is courageously
ready to front time and eternity on the stake.
Sinclair, name of a Scottish
family of Norman origin whose founder obtained from David I.
the grant of Roslin, near Edinburgh.
Sinclair, Sir John,
philanthropist and statistician, born at Thurso Castle, bred
to the bar; succeeding to the family estate devoted himself
to his duties as a landed proprietor; sat for different constituencies
in Parliament; published in 1784 "History of the Revenue
of the British Empire," and in 1791-99, in 21 vols., "Statistical
Account of Scotland" (1754-1835).
Sind, Sindh, or Scinde
(2,903), a province of North-West India, in the Presidency of
Bombay; extends from Beluchistan and Punjab (N.) to the Indian
Ocean and Runn of Cutch (S.); traversed by the Indus, whose
delta it includes, and whose broad alluvial valley-tracts yield
abundant crops of wheat, barley, hemp, rice, cotton, etc., which
are exported, and give employment to the majority of the people;
N. and E. are wide stretches of desert-land, and in the S. are
the Hala Mountains; was annexed to the British possessions after
the victories of Sir Charles Napier in 1843; chief city and
port is Kurrachee.
Sindia, the hereditary title
of the Mahratta dynasty in Gwalior, Central India, founded in
1738 by Ranojee Sindia, who rose from being slipper-bearer to
the position of hereditary prime minister of the Mahrattas;
these princes, both singly and in combination with other Mahratta
powers, offered determined resistance to the British, but in
1803 the confederated Mahratta power was broken by Sir Arthur
Wellesley, and a large portion of their territory passed into
British hands. Gwalior having been restored (1805), and retaken
in 1844, the Sindia dynasty was reinstated under a more stringent
treaty, and Boji Rao Sindia proved faithful during the Mutiny,
receiving various marks of good-will from the British; was succeeded
by his adopted son, a child of six, in 1886.
Singapore, 1, (185, chiefly
Chinese), the most important of the
Settlements (q. v.); consists of the island of Singapore
and upwards of 50 islets, off the southern extremity of the
Malay Peninsula, from which it is separated by a narrow strait
(2 to ½ m. broad); is hot, humid, and low-lying, yet
healthy, and possessing a fertile soil which grows all kinds
of spices, fruits, sugar-cane, coffee, etc.; purchased by the
British in 1824. 2, Capital (160) and port, on the Strait of
Singapore, close to the equator; the chief emporium of trade
with the East Indies and South-Eastern Asia generally; is a
picturesque and handsome town, strongly fortified, and an important
naval coaling station and depôt, with spacious harbour,
Sinology, the science treating
of the language, literature, laws, and history of the Chinese.
Sinon, a wily Greek who beguiled
the Trojans and persuaded them to admit the Wooden Horse into
the city, to its ruin.
Sinope (8), a seaport of Turkey
in Asia, situated on a narrow isthmus connecting with the mainland
the rocky headland of Cape Sinope which projects into the Black
Sea, 350 m. NE. of Constantinople; possesses two fine harbours,
naval arsenal, Byzantine ruins, etc.; an ancient Greek town,
the birthplace of Diogenes, and capital of Mithridates; it was
captured by the Turks in 1461, who themselves in 1853 suffered
a disastrous naval defeat in the Bay of Sinope at the hands
of the Russians.
Sion, capital of the Swiss canton
of Valais, on the Rhine, 42 m. E. of Lausanne; is a mediæval
town, with an old Gothic cathedral, and in the neighbourhood
Siout or Asioot (32), capital
of Upper Egypt; commands a fine view near the Nile, 200 m. S.
of Cairo; has a few imposing mosques and a government palace;
is a caravan station, and noted for its red and black pottery;
occupies the site of the ancient city of Lycopolis.
Sioux or Dakota Indians,
a North American Indian tribe, once spread over the territory
lying between Lake Winnipeg (N.) and the Arkansas River (S.),
but now confined chiefly to South Dakota and Nebraska. Failure
on the part of the United States Government to observe certain
treaty conditions led to a great uprising of the Sioux in 1862,
which was only put down at a great cost of blood and treasure;
conflicts also took place in 1876 and 1890, the Indians finding
in their chief, Sitting Bull, a determined and skilful leader.
Sirdar, a name given to a native
chief in India.
Siren, an instrument for measuring
the number of aërial vibrations per second, and thereby
the pitch of a given note.
Sirens, in the Greek mythology
a class of nymphs who were fabled to lure the passing sailor
to his ruin by the fascination of their music; Ulysses, when
he passed the beach where they were sitting, had his ears stuffed
with wax and himself lashed to the mast till he was at a safe
distance from the influence of their charm. Orpheus, however,
as he passed them in the Argonautic expedition so surpassed
their music by his melodious notes, that in very shame they
flung themselves into the sea and were changed into boulders.
Sirius or The Dog-Star,
the brightest star in the heavens, one of the stars of the Southern
constellation of Canis Major; is calculated to have a
bulk three times that of the sun, and to give 70 times as much
light. See Dog-Days.
Sirkar, a name used in India
to designate the government.
Jean Charles Léonard Simonde de, celebrated Swiss
historian, born at Geneva; son of a Protestant clergyman of
Italian descent; the family fortune was lost in the troublous
days of the French Revolution, and exile in England and Italy
followed, but in 1800 Sismondi returned
to Geneva, and having received a municipal appointment gave
himself to literary pursuits; the works which have established
his reputation are his great histories of "The Italian
Republics in the Middle Ages," "European Literature,"
and "A. History of the French"; wrote also on political
Sistine Chapel, celebrated
chapel of the Vatican at Rome, constructed by order of Pope
Sixtus IV., and decorated with frescoes by Michael Angelo, representing
a succession of biblical subjects, including among others the "Creation
of the World," the "Creation of Man," the "Creation
of Woman," the "Temptation of Eve," the "Deluge," "Judith
and Holophernes," "David and Goliath," "The
Last Judgment," &c.
Sistova (12), a town of Bulgaria,
on the Danube, 33 m. above Rustchuk; carries on trade in wine,
leather, and cereals; was captured by the Russians in 1877.
Sisyphus, a mythical king of
Corinth, who for some offence he gave the gods was carried off
to the nether world, and there doomed to roll a huge block up
a hill, which no sooner reached the top than it bounded back
again, making his toil endless.
Sitka or New Archangel
(1), capital of Alaska, on the W. coast of Baranof Island, overhung
by snowy mountains; has a good harbour; salmon fishing and curing
the chief employment of most of the inhabitants, mostly Indians.
Siva or Çiva, the
Destroyer in the Hindu trinity, in which Brahma is the Creator
and Vishnu the Preserver; Vishnu representing, as it were, death
issuing in life, and Siva life issuing in death, the transition
point, and Brahma, who, by means of them, "kills that he
may make alive." He is worshipped as "Mahâdêva"
or the great god, and his worshippers are called Saivas or Çaivas,
as distinct from those of Vishnu, which are called Vaishnavas.
The linga (q. v.) is his
symbol, in emblem of the creation which follows destruction.
See Psalm xc. 3.
Sivaji, the founder of the Mahratta
power in India, a bold warrior but an unlettered, of Rajput
descent, brought up at Poona; began his career at 19; on his
succession assumed the title of rajah in 1664, and was enthroned
at Raigpur in 1674, and died sovereign of the whole Deccan (1627-1680).
Six Articles. See
Sixtus, the name of five Popes.
S. I., St., Pope from 116 to 125; S. II., St.,
Pope from 257 to 259; S. III., Pope from 432 to 440;
S. IV., Pope from 1471 to 1484; S. V., Pope from
1585 to 1590; of whom only two are of any note.
Sixtus IV., born near Savona,
the son of a fisherman; became general of the Franciscans; succeeded
Paul II. as Pope; was notorious for his nepotism; abetted Pazzi
in his conspiracy against the Medici at Florence, but was a
good administrator, and a man of liberal views; b. 1414.
Sixtus V., born near Monalto,
of poor parents, was of the Franciscan order, and famed as a
preacher; was elected successor to Gregory XIII., during whose
pontificate he affected infirmity, to reveal himself a vigorous
pontiff as soon as he was installed; set himself at once to
stamp out disorder, reform the administration, and replenish
the exhausted treasury of the Church; he allowed freedom of
worship to the Jews, and yet was zealous to put down all heresy
in the Christian States of Europe; his services to Rome were
not repaid with gratitude, for the citizens destroyed his statue
on his death; b. 1521.
Sizar, a poor student at the universities
of Cambridge and Oxford, so called from the size or allowance
of food they were recipients of out of the college buttery.
Skager-Rack, an arm of the
North Sea stretching NE. between Norway and Denmark, and connecting
the Cattegat with the North Sea, 140 m. long and 70 broad, the
deep water being on the Norwegian coast.
Skald, an old Scandinavian poet,
a reciter or singer of poems in praise of the Norse warriors
and their deeds.
Skean-dhu, a small dirk which
a Highlander wears in his stocking.
Skeat, Walter William,
English philologist, born in London; professor of Anglo-Saxon
at Cambridge; author of "Etymological Dictionary of the
English Language," and a great authority on Early English
literature; the first Director of the Dialect Society, established
in 1873; b. 1835.
Skeggs, Miss, a character
in the "Vicar of Wakefield," boastful for her aristocratic
connections and delicacy of taste, but vulgar at bottom.
Skelton, John, early English
satirist, his chief poetic works being "Why come ye not
to Courte," a satire against Wolsey; the "Book of
Colin Clout," against the corruption of the Church; and
the "Book of Phyllyp Sparrow," the grief of a nun
for the death of her sparrow; Erasmus calls him "the glory
and light of English letters" (1460?-1528).
Skene, William Forbes,
Scottish historian, born in Kincardineshire, bred to law; devoted
40 years of his life to the study of the early, in particular
the Celtic, periods of Scottish history, and was from 1881 historiographer
for Scotland (1809-1892).
Skerryvore, a rock with a
lighthouse, one of an extensive reef 10 m. W. of Tiree, on the
west coast of Scotland; the light is a revolving one; is seen
at the distance of over 18 nautical miles.
Skiddaw, a mountain in Cumberland,
3054 ft. in height; is some 6 m. from Keswick, whence it is
of easy ascent.
Skimpole, Harold, a plausible
character in "Bleak House," who was in the habit of
sponging his friends.
Skinner, John, author of "Tullochgorum,"
born in Bervie, Aberdeenshire; originally a schoolmaster; became
an Episcopal clergyman (1721-1807).
Skipton (10), a market-town
in Yorkshire, 26 m. NW. of Leeds; population largely engaged
in agriculture; has manufactures of cotton and woollen goods.
a Russian general, distinguished himself by his bravery in the
Russian service, particularly in the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78;
was a leader in the Panslavist movement; died suddenly (1841-1882).
Skye (16), next to Lewis the largest
of the Hebrides Islands, belongs to the Inner group, and is
included in Inverness-shire, from the mainland of which it is
separated by the narrow channel Kyle Rhea; has a deeply indented
coast-line, and a picturesquely diversified surface of mountain,
moor, and loch; the most notable features being the lofty Coolin
Hills (highest point 3234 ft.), Loch Coruisk, Glen Sligachan,
and the wild columnar height of basalt, the Quiraing; sheep
and Highland cattle are raised, and valuable ling, cod, and
herring fisheries are carried on in the coastal waters. Portree
is the chief town and port, but is little better than a small
Slade, Felix, antiquary and
art-collector; left his art-collection to the British Museum,
and money to found Slade professorships of art at
Oxford, Cambridge, and London Universities (1789-1868).
Slave Coast, name given to
the Bight of Benin, in West Africa, from Lagos to the Volta
Slavonia, a kingdom that at
one time included Croatia and that lies between the Drave and
the Military Frontier.
Slavs, an important branch of
the Aryan race-stock, comprising a number of European peoples
chiefly in East Europe, including the Russians, Bulgarians,
Servians, Bohemians, Poles, Croatians, Moravians, Silesians,
Pomeranians, &c. At the dawn of history we find them already
settled in Europe, chiefly in the neighbourhood of the Carpathians,
whence they spread N., S., and W., assuming their present position
by the 7th century. They are estimated to number now 100,000,000,
and the various languages spoken by them are notable, compared
with the Teutonic and Celtic tongues, for their rich inflections.
Slawkenbergius, an author
quoted and referred to in "Tristram Shandy," distinguished
by the length of his nose, and a great authority on the subject
Sleeping Beauty, a princess
who was by enchantment shut up to sleep 100 years in a castle
surrounded by a dense forest, and was delivered from her trance
at the end of that term by a prince, to admit whom the forest
opened of itself.
Sleipnir, in the Scandinavian
mythology the horse of Odin, which had eight legs, as representing
the wind with its eight principal "airts."
(1,217), a province of North Prussia, stretching up to Denmark,
between the North Sea and the Baltic; various canals cross the
country, bearing to the coast the export produce—corn
and cattle; the land is highly cultivated, and fishing is an
important industry on the Baltic coast; Flensburg, the chief
seaport, and Sleswick (15), the capital, are both situated on
inlets of the Baltic; the latter lies 28 m. NW. of Kiel, consists
of a single street 3½ m. long, and possesses a fine Gothic
cathedral with a fine altar-piece, &c., the sections representing
the history of the Passion of Christ.
Slick, Sam, a clockmaker and pedlar,
a character illustrating Yankee peculiarities, and remarkable
for his wit, his knowledge of human nature, and his use of "soft
sawder," a creation of
Judge Haliburton's (q.
Sligo, 1, a maritime county of
North-West Ireland (98), in the province of Connaught; fronts
the Atlantic on the N. between Mayo (W.) and Leitrim (E.), Roscommon
forming the S. boundary; the land, sloping N. to the coast from
the Ox Mountains, is chiefly under grass for cattle pasture,
and divided into small holdings; Sligo Bay is a fine sheet of
water, and in the S. and E. are the picturesque Loughs Arrow
and Gill; the manufacture of coarse woollens and linens and
fishing are the principal industries; the Moy, Owenmore, and
Garvogue are navigable rivers. 2, At the mouth of the Garvogue
stands Sligo (10), the county town, 137 m. NW. of Dublin; has
ruins of a 13th-century Dominican abbey, a Roman Catholic cathedral,
and exports cattle, corn, butter, &c.
Sloane, Sir Hans, physician
and naturalist, born in co. Down, Ireland, of Scotch descent;
settled as a physician in London; attained the highest distinction
as a professional man; his museum, which was a large one, of
natural objects, books, and MSS. became by purchase the property
of the nation, and formed the nucleus of the British Museum
Slöjd (sleight), a system
of manual training adopted to develop technical skill originally
in the schools of Sweden and Finland; is education of the eye
as well as the hand.
Slop, Doctor, a choleric
physician in "Tristram Shandy."
Slough of Despond, a
deep bog in the "Pilgrim's Progress," into which Christian
sinks under the weight of his sins and his sense of their guilt.
Slovaks, a Slavonic peasant
people numbering some 2,000,000, subject to the crown of Hungary
since the 11th century, and occupying the highlands of North-West
Hungary; speak a dialect of Czech.
Slovenians, a Slavonic people
akin to the Servians and Croatians in Austro-Hungary, dwelling
chiefly in Styria, Carinthia, and Carniola.
Sly, Christopher, a drunken
sot of a tinker in the "Induction" to "Taming
of the Shrew."
English poet, born in Kent; was a Fellow of Cambridge and a
friend of Johnson's; author of the "Song to David,"
now famous, much overrated, think some; he was subject to insanity,
and it was written during lucid intervals; he was the author
of a prose translation of Horace (1722-1771).
Smeaton, John, civil engineer,
born near Leeds; began life as a mathematical instrument-maker;
made improvements in mill-work, and gained the Copley Medal
in 1758; visited the principal engineering works in Holland
and Belgium; was entrusted with the rebuilding of
(q. v.) after it was in 1755 burnt down, which he finished
in 1759; did other engineering work in the construction of canals,
harbours, and mills, rising to the summit of his profession
Smectymnuus, a pamphlet
written in 1641, the title of which is made up of the initial
letters of the names of the authors.
Smelfungus, a name given
by Sterne to Smollett as author of volume of "Travels through
France and Italy," for the snarling abuse he heaps on the
institutions and customs of the countries he visited; a name
Carlyle assumes when he has any seriously severe criticisms
to offer on things particularly that have gone or are going
to the bad.
Smiles, Samuel, author
of "Self-Help," born in Haddington; was bred to medicine,
and professed it for a time, but abandoned it for literary and
other work; wrote the "Life of George Stephenson"
in 1857, followed by "Self-Help" two years after;
Smith, Adam, political economist,
born in Kirkcaldy, Fife; studied at Glasgow and Oxford, went
to Edinburgh and became acquainted with David Hume and his confrères;
was appointed to the chair of Logic in Glasgow in 1751, and
the year after of Moral Philosophy; produced in 1759 his "Theory
of Moral Sentiments," visited Paris with the young Duke
of Buccleuch, got acquainted with Quesnay, D'Alembert, and Necker,
and returning in 1766, settled in his native place under a pension
from the Duke of Buccleuch, where in 1776 he produced his "Inquiry
into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations," a
work to which he devoted 10 years of his life, and which has
had a world-wide influence, and that has rendered his name world-famous;
in 1778 he settled in Edinburgh as Commissioner of Customs for
Scotland, and in 1787 was elected Lord Rector of Glasgow University
Smith, Alexander, poet,
born in Kilmarnock; began life as a pattern-designer, contributed
to the Glasgow Citizen, wrote a volume of poems, "A
Life Drama," and produced other works in a style characterised
as "spasmodic," and which, according to Tennyson, "showed
fancy, but not imagination" (1880-1807).
Smith, George, Assyriologist,
born at London; trained as a bank-note engraver, but attracted
the attention of Sir Henry Rawlinson by his interest in cuneiform
inscriptions, and in 1867 received an appointment in the British
Museum; acquired great skill as an interpreter of Assyrian inscriptions,
published "Annals of Assurbanipal," and in 1872 discovered
a tablet with the "Chaldean Account of the Deluge";
carried through important expeditions (1871-3-6) in search of
antiquities in Nineveh and other parts of Assyria, accounts
of which he published; wrote also histories of Babylonia, Assyria,
Sennacherib, &c. (1840-1876).
Smith, Goldwin, English
man of letters, born in Berks; was at one time intimately associated
with Oxford University, went to America and became professor
of English History in Cornell University, and since 1871 has
settled in Canada, and believes that Canada will be annexed
to the United States; has written a number of books and pamphlets,
one on the "Relations between England and America"
and another on "The Political Destiny of Canada";
he is an ultra-Liberal; b. 1823.
Smith, James and Horace,
authors of the famous parodies "The Rejected Addresses,"
born at London: James, in business as a solicitor, and Horace,
a wealthy stockbroker; both were occasional contributors to
the periodical press before the public offer of a prize for
the best poetical address to be spoken at the re-opening of
Drury Lane Theatre prompted them to issue a series of "Rejected
Addresses," parodying the popular writers of the day—Wordsworth,
Southey, Coleridge, Scott, Byron, &c.; intensely clever,
these parodies have never been surpassed in their kind; Horace
was also a busy writer of novels now forgotten, and also published
two vols. of poetry; James subsequently wrote a number of Charles
Mathews' "Entertainments" (James, 1775-1839; Horace,
Smith, John, Cambridge Platonist,
born in Northamptonshire; left "Select Discourses,"
giving signs both of spiritual insight and vigour of thinking
Smith, John, sailor, born
in Lincolnshire; had a life of adventure and peril, and became
leader of the English colonists of Virginia; established friendly
relations with the Indians, returned to this country twice over,
and introduced Pocahontas (q.
v.) to the Queen; died at Gravesend (1580-1631).
Smith, Sydney, political
writer and wit, born at Woodford, Essex, of partly English and
partly Huguenot blood; educated at Westminster and Oxford, bred
for the Church; after a brief curacy in Wiltshire settled in
Edinburgh from 1798 to 1803, where, while officiating as a clergyman,
he became one of the famous editors of the Edinburgh Review,
and a contributor; settled for a time afterwards in London,
where he delivered a series of admirable lectures on ethics,
till he was appointed to a small living in Yorkshire, and afterwards
to a richer living in Somerset, and finally a canonry in St.
Paul's; his writings deal with abuses of the period, and are,
except his lectures perhaps, all out of date now (1771-1845).
Smith, Sir William,
classical and biblical scholar, born in London; distinguished
himself at the university there and took a course of law at
Gray's Inn, but followed his bent for scholarship, and in 1840-42
issued his great "Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities,"
following it up with the "Dictionary of Greek and Roman
Biography and Mythology" and the "Dictionary of Greek
and Roman Geography"; did eminent service to the cause
of education by a series of popular editions of Greek and Latin
texts, school grammars, dictionaries, &c.; not less valuable
are his "Dictionary of the Bible," &c.; was editor
of the Quarterly Review from 1867, and in 1892 received
a knighthood (1813-1893).
Smith, William Robertson,
biblical scholar and critic, born at Keig, Aberdeenshire; educated
for the Scottish Free Church, became professor of Hebrew in
the connection at Aberdeen; was prosecuted for heresy in the
matter of the origin of the books of the Old Testament, and
finally removed from the chair; became joint-editor of the "Encyclopædia
Britannica," and finally professor of Arabic at Cambridge;
he was a man of versatile ability, extensive scholarship, keen
critical acumen, and he contributed not a little to vindicate
the claims of the scholar in regard to the Bible (1846-1894).
Smith, Sir William Sidney,
British admiral, born at Westminster; entered the navy at 12,
became a captain after many gallant services at 18, was naval
adviser to the king of Sweden and knighted, joined Lord Hood
off Toulon and helped to burn the French fleet; was taken prisoner
by the French in 1796, and after two years made his escape;
forced Napoleon to raise the siege of Acre, and was wounded
at Aboukir; was rewarded with a pension of £1000, and
raised in the end to the rank of admiral (1764-1840).
Smithfield or Smoothfield,
an open space of ground in London, N. of Newgate, long famous
for its live-stock markets; in olden times lay outside the city
walls, and was used as a place of recreation and of executions;
the scene of William Wallace's execution and the death of Wat
Tyler; gradually surrounded by the encroaching city, the cattle-market
became a nuisance, and was abolished in 1855; is partly laid
out as a garden.
a celebrated American institution "for the increase and
diffusion of knowledge among men," in Washington; founded
and endowed by James Macie Smithson, a natural son of the Duke
of Northumberland, a zealous chemist and mineralogist, after
having had a paper rejected by the Royal Society, of which he
was a Fellow. The building is one of the finest in the capital;
is under government control, and the President of the United
States is ex officio the head of the institution; encourages
scientific research, administers various funds, and directs
expeditions for scientific purposes.
Smoky City, Pittsburg, in
Pennsylvania, from the effect produced by the bituminous coal
used in the manufactories.
Smolensk (34), an ancient town
of Russia, and capital of a government (1,412) of the same name,
on the Dnieper, 244 m. SW. of Moscow; is surrounded by walls;
has a fine cathedral, and is strongly fortified; carries on
a good grain trade; here in 1812 Napoleon defeated the Russians
under Barclay de Tolly and Bagration on his march to Moscow
in August 1812.
Smollett, Tobias George,
novelist, born at Dalquhurn, Dumbartonshire, of good family;
bred to medicine, but drifted to literature, in prosecution
of which he set out to London at the age of 18; his first effort
was a failure; he took an appointment as a surgeon's mate on
board a war-ship in 1746, which landed him for a time in the
West Indies; on his return to England in 1748 achieved his first
success in "Roderick Random," which was followed by "Peregrine
Pickle" in 1751, "Count Fathom" in 1755, and "Humphrey
Clinker" in 1771, added to which he wrote a "History
of England," and a political lampoon, "The Adventures
of an Atom"; his novels have no plot, but "in inventive
tale-telling and in cynical characterisation he is not easily
Smriti, in the Hindu religion
the name given to traditional usage, as opposed to Sruti, or
revelation, and from which proceeded, at a later date, the body
of laws, such as that of Manu, in which the morality prescribed
is, "sound, solid, and practical."
Smyrna (210), a town of great
antiquity, since ancient times the chief port of Asia Minor;
is situated amid surrounding hills at the head of the Gulf of
Smyrna, an arm of the Ægean Sea; has no imposing structures,
and is, especially in the Turkish quarter, ill-drained and crowded;
is the seat of the Turkish Governor-General of the province,
of archbishops, Roman Catholic, Greek, and Armenian; manufactures
embrace carpets, pottery, cottons and woollens; a splendid harbour
favours a large import and export trade; for long a possession
of Greece and then of Rome, it finally fell into the hands of
the Turks in 1424.
Smyrna, Gulf of, an inlet
of the Ægean Sea, 40 m. in length by 20 m. in breadth,
with an excellent anchorage.
Snake River, chief tributary
of the Columbia; rises in Wyoming amid the Rockies; flows S.
and NW. through Idaho, forming the Shoshone Falls, rivalling
Niagara, which they exceed in height; through Southern Washington
it flows W. under the name of the Lewis River or Fork, and discharges
into the Columbia after a course of 1050 m.
Snake-stones, stones popularly
believed to cure the bites of snakes, probably due to a porosity
in their substance drawing off the poison.
Snider, Jacob, American
mechanical genius; invented a method of converting muzzle-loading
rifles into breech-loading; died unrewarded in 1866.
a member of the Pickwick Club in the "Pickwick Papers."
Snorri Sturlason, Icelandic
historian and poet; published the collection of sagas entitled "Heimskringla,"
among which were many songs of his own composition; was a man
of position and influence in Iceland, but having provoked the
ill-will of Haco was at his instigation assassinated in 1241.
Snowdon, a mountain range in
Carnarvon, North Wales, extending from the coast to near Conway;
it has five distinct summits, of which Moel-y-Wyddfa (the conspicuous
peak) is the highest, being 3560 ft.; the easiest ascent is
from Llanberis on the N., and is the route usually taken by
tourists, for whose behoof there is a house on the summit.
Soane, Sir John, English
architect, who left his house in Lincoln's Inn Fields with art
collection to the nation at his death in 1837.
Sobieski, surname of the great
patriot king of Poland, John III., in the 17th century; born
at Olesko, in Galicia; was elected king of Poland in 1674, having,
by repeated victories over the Turks and Russians, shown himself
the greatest soldier of his country; proved a wise and brave
ruler, a true leader of his people, and with unbroken success
defied the utmost efforts of the infidel Turks (1624-1696).
Sobraon (4), a town in the Punjab,
India, on the Sutlej, in the vicinity of which Sir Henry Gough
won the decisive victory over the Sikhs, 10th February 1846.
Socage, name given to a feudal
tenure by a certain and determinate service other than knight
Social War, name given to
an Insurrection of the allied States in Italy against the domination
of Rome, and which lasted from 90 to 88 B.C., in consequence
of their exclusion from the rights of citizenship and the privileges
attached; they formed a league to assert their rights, which
ended in defeat.
Socialism, a social system
which, in opposition to the competitive system that prevails
at present, seeks to reorganise society on the basis, in the
main, of a certain secularism in religion, of community of interest,
and co-operation in labour for the common good, agreeably to
the democratic spirit of the time and the changes required by
the rise of individualism and the decay of feudalism.
for Promoting Christian Knowledge, a society founded
in 1698 which during the last 200 years has originated and supported
a number of agencies, both in this country and abroad, for propagating
Christian knowledge; distributed into a number of separate departments.
Society Islands (24),
an archipelago in the South Pacific, consisting of 13 principal
islands and numerous islets, the chief being Tahiti; they are
mountainous, and engirdled by belts of flat land as well as
coral reefs; have a fertile soil and luxuriant vegetation, while
the climate is healthy though enervating; the inhabitants are
intelligent but indolent, and the land is worked by immigrant
Society of Jesus, the
Jesuit order founded by Ignatius
Loyola (q. v.).
Socinians, a sect of the Unitarian
body who, in the 16th century, take their name from
Faustus Socinus (q.
v.), who, besides denying the doctrine of the Trinity, deny
the divinity of Christ and the divine inspiration of Scripture;
they arose into importance originally in Poland, and in the
17th century spread by degrees in Prussia, the Netherlands,
Socinus, Faustus, a theologian,
born in Italy; had for his views to exile himself for years,
and was much persecuted for his opinions; in Cracow, where he
dwelt for a time, he was by a mob dragged from a sick-bed half-naked
along the street, had his house robbed and his papers burned
Sociology, the science which
treats of the nature and the developments of society and of
social institutions; a science to which Herbert Spencer, in
succession to Comte, has contributed more than any other scientist,
deducing, as he does, a series of generalisations by comparison
of individual organisms with social.
Socotra (10), an island off
the E. coast of Africa, 148 m. NE. of Cape Guardafui, over 70
m. long and 20 m. broad; it is mountainous, surrounded by a
margin of plain land from 2 to 4 m. broad; is comparatively
barren; is inhabited by Mohammedans, who rear sheep, goats,
and cattle; exports aloes, hides, and pearls; the sultan is
a feudatory of Britain.
Socrates, Athenian philosopher,
pronounced by the Delphic oracle the wisest of men; was the
son of Sophroniscus, a statuary, and Phænarete, a midwife;
was brought up to his father's profession, in which it would
seem he gave promise of success; he lived all his days in Athens,
and gathered about him as his pupils all the ingenuous youth
of the city; he wrote no book, propounded no system, and founded
no school, but was ever abroad in the thoroughfares in all weather
talking to whoso would listen, and instilling into all and sundry
a love of justice and truth; of quacks and pretenders he was
the sworn foe, and he cared not what
enmity he provoked if he could persuade one and another to think
and do what was right; "he was so pious," says Xenophon
in his "Memorabilia," "that he did nothing without
the sanction of the gods; so just, that he never wronged any
one, even in the least degree; so much master of himself, that
he never preferred the agreeable to the good; so wise, that
in deciding on the better and the worse he never faltered; in
short, he was the best and happiest man that could possibly
exist;" he failed not to incur enmity, and his enemies
persecuted him to death; he was charged with not believing in
the State religion, with introducing new gods, and corrupting
the youth, convicted by a majority of his judges and condemned
to die; thirty days elapsed between the passing of the sentence
and its execution, during which period he held converse with
his friends and talked of the immortality of the soul; to an
offer of escape he turned a deaf ear, drank the hemlock potion
prepared for him with perfect composure, and died; "the
difference between Socrates and Jesus Christ," notes Carlyle
in his "Journal," "the great Conscious, the immeasurably
great Unconscious; the one cunningly manufactured, the other
created, living and life-giving; the epitome this of a grand
and fundamental diversity among men; but did any truly
great man ever," he asks, "go through the world without
offence, all rounded in, so that the current moral systems
could find no fault in him? most likely never" (469-399
Socrates, Apology of,
a work of Plato's, being a speech put into the mouth of Socrates
before the Areopagus (q.
v.) in his defence in answer to the charge brought against
him, and which Plato wrote after his death.
Socrates, Church historian
of the 4th century, born at Byzantium; bred to the bar; his "Ecclesiastical
History" embraces a period from 306 to 439, a work of no
Sodom and Gomorrah,
two ancient cities which, for their wickedness were, as the
Bible relates, consumed with fire from heaven; they are supposed
to have stood near the S. border of the Dead Sea, though they
were not, as was at one time supposed, submerged in the waters
Sofala, a Portuguese maritime
district of South-East Africa, stretching from the Zambesi S.
to Delagoa Bay, and forming the S. portion of the colony of
Mozambique. Sofala (1), chief port on a bay of the same name,
is a place of little importance.
Sofia (50), capital since 1878
of Bulgaria; is a fortified town, situated in the broad valley
of the Isker, a tributary of the Danube, 75 m. NW. of Philippopolis;
has recently largely undergone reconstruction, and with hotels,
banks, a government palace, &c., presents a fine modern
appearance; has a national university; is an important trade
emporium, and is on the Constantinople and Belgrade railway;
manufactures cloth, silks, leather, &c., and has long been
famed for its hot mineral springs.
Sofronia, a Christian maiden
of Jerusalem, who, to avert a general massacre of the Christians
by the Mohammedan king, accused herself of the crime for which
they were all to suffer, and whose story with the issue is touchingly
related in Tasso's "Jerusalem Delivered."
Soissons (11), a fortified
town of North France, dep. Aisne, on the Aisne, 65 m. NE. of
Paris; has a 12th-century cathedral and ruins of a famous abbey;
chief industries are brewing and the manufacture of various
textiles; was a place of much importance in early times, and
figures in the wars of Clovis and Pepin, frequently in the Hundred
Years' War, and in 1870 was captured by the Germans; is considered
the key to Paris from the Netherlands side.
Sokoto (11,000), a native kingdom
of West Central Africa, within territories administered now
by the British Government; lies between the Soudan (N.) and
the river Benuë (S.), the main affluent of the Niger; the
dominant people are the Fulahs, exercising sway over various
native tribes; is a country capable of much agricultural development,
and has large deposits of iron. Wurno (15), the capital, is
on the Gandi, 18 m. E. of the town of Sokoto.
Solano, name given to a hot oppressive
wind in the Mediterranean.
Solar Cycle, a period of
28 years, within which the first day of the year passes successively
through the same sequence of week-days.
Solar Myth, a myth, the subject
of which is a deified personification of the sun or phenomena
connected with it.
Solar Year, the period of
365 days 5 hours 48 minutes and 52 seconds which the earth takes
to complete a revolution of the sun.
Soldan, a corruption of Sultan,
and denoting in mediæval romance the Saracen king.
Solecism, the name given to
a violation of the syntax or idiom of a language, as well as
to an incarnate absurdity of any kind, whether in mind or morals.
Solemn League and Covenant.
Solent, the western portion,
Spithead (q. v.) being
the eastern, of the strait which separates the Isle of Wight
from the mainland of Hants, 17 m. long, with an average breadth
of 3 m., but at its W. entrance, opposite Hurst Castle, contracts
to ¾ m.
Soleure (86), a canton of North-West
Switzerland, between Bern (W. and S.) and Aargau (E); is hilly,
but fertile and well cultivated, especially in the valley of
the Aar; inhabitants are mainly Catholics and German-speaking.
Soleure, the capital (8), situated on the Aar, 18 m. NE. of
Berne, has a fine cathedral, and manufactures of cottons, clocks,
Solfata`ra, a fissure or crevice
in the earth which emits sulphurous and other vapours, and in
regions where volcanoes have ceased to be active; they are met
with in South Italy, the Antilles, Mexico, and Java.
Solferino, a village in North
Italy, 20 m. NW. of Mantua, where the Austrians were defeated
by the French and Piedmontese in 1859.
Solidarity, community of
interest or responsibility; also that community of being which
binds humanity into one whole, so that each affects and is affected
Solidus, a Roman gold coin adopted
by the Franks, and first coined by them in gold, but subsequently
in silver, when it was equivalent to one-twentieth of the libra,
or pound; as the "sol" or "sou" it depreciated
greatly in value; was minted in copper, and on the introduction
of the decimal system its place was taken by a five-centime
piece; the "soldo" in Italy, and the Solidus L.S.D.
owe their origin to this coin.
Solingen (37), a manufacturing
town of Prussia, situated near the Wupper, 13 m. E. of Düsseldorf;
has long been famed for its steel and iron works and cutlery
Solomon, king of Israel from
1015 to 977 B.C., second son of David and Bathsheba, and David's
successor; in high repute far and wide for his love of wisdom
and the glory of his reign; he had a
truly Oriental passion for magnificence, and the buildings he
erected in Jerusalem, including the Temple and a palace on Mount
Zion, he raised regardless of an expense which the nation resented
after he was gone; the burden of which it would seem had fallen
upon them, for when his successor, following in his courses,
ascended the throne, ten of the tribes revolted, to the final
rupture of the community, and the fall of first the one section
and then the other under alien sway.
Solomon of England,
an appellation conferred on Henry VII., and also satirically
on James I., characterised by Sully as "the wisest fool
Solomon of France, a
title bestowed on Louis IX.
Solomon Islands (167),
a large group of islands in the West Pacific, 500 m. E. of New
Guinea, the N. islands of which belong to Germany, and the S.
to Britain; are volcanic in origin, mountainous, wooded, and
thickly populated by Melanesian savages, who are totem worshippers,
and still practise cannibalism.
Solomon's Ring, a ring
worn by Solomon, in which was a stone from which, according
to the Rabbins, he learned whatever he wished to know.
Solon, the great Athenian law-giver,
and one of the seven sages of Greece
(q. v.), born in Athens, was of royal degree, and kinsman
of Pisistratus; began life as a trader, and in that capacity
acquired a large experience of the world, and he soon turned
his attention to political affairs, and showed such wisdom in
the direction of them that he was elected archon in 594 B.C.,
and in that office was invested with full power to ordain whatever
he might deem of advantage for the benefit of the State; he
accordingly set about the framing of a constitution in which
property, not birth, was made the basis of the organisation,
and the title to honour and office in the community; he divided
the citizens into four classes, gave additional power to the
assemblies of the people, and made the archons and official
dignitaries responsible to them in the administration of affairs;
when he had finished his work, he ordered the laws he had framed
to be engraved on tablets and set up in a public place, then
took oath of the people to observe them for ten years, after
which he left the country and set out on travel; at the end
of the ten years he returned, to find things lapsing into the
old disorder, and Pisistratus ready to seize the sovereignty
of the State, whereupon he withdrew into private life, and died
the subject of a tyrant at the age of eighty (640-559 B.C.).
Solstice, summer and winter,
the two recurring periods of the year at which the sun is farthest
distant N. or S. from the equator, which mark midsummer and
midwinter, the times being the 21st of June and 22nd of December;
also applied to the two points in the
ecliptic (q. v.), which
the sun appears to reach on these two dates.
Solway Firth, an arm of
the Irish Sea, and in its upper part forming the estuary of
the river Esk, separating Cumberland from the S. of Scotland
(Kirkcudbright and Dumfries); stretches inland from Balcarry
Point 36 m., and from 2 to 20 m. broad; receives the Annan,
Dee, Nith, Eden, and Derwent, and has valuable salmon-fishings;
the spring tides ebb and flow with remarkable rapidity, the "bore"
often reaching a speed of from 8 to 10 m. an hour; is spanned
near Annan by a railway viaduct 1960 yards long.
Solway Moss, a moss, now
drained and cultivated, in Cumberland, on the Scottish border,
that was the scene of the defeat of the Scotch army in 1542,
a disaster which broke the heart of James V.
Solyman II., surnamed The
Magnificent, the tenth and greatest of the Ottoman sultans,
the son and successor of Selim I.; succeeded his father at 24;
set himself at once to reform abuses and place the internal
administration on a strict basis, and after making peace with
Persia and allaying tumult in Syria, turned his arms westwards,
captured Belgrade, and wrested the island of Rhodes from the
Knights of St. John; he twice over led his army into Hungary;
in connection with the latter invasion laid siege to Vienna,
from which he was obliged to retire after the loss of 40,000
men, after which he turned his arms to the east, adding to his
territory, and finally to the North of Africa, to the conquest
of the greater part of it; he died at Szigeth while opening
a new campaign against Hungary; d. 1566.
Soma, the intoxicating juice of
a plant offered in libation to a Hindu god, especially to
Indra (q. v.), to strengthen
him in his war with the demons, and identified with the invigorating
and inspiring principle in nature which manifests itself at
once in the valour of the soldier and the inspiration of the
poet; as a god Soma is the counterpart of
Agni (q. v.).
Somai, Brahmo. See
Somaliland, a broad plateau
of East Africa, bounded by the Gulf of Aden on the N. and the
Indian Ocean on the SE.; inhabited by the Somalis, a pastoral
people, who rear camels, sheep, and oxen, and are of the Mohammedan
faith; are under chiefs, and jealous of strangers.
Somerset House, a handsome
Government building in London, with a double frontage on the
Strand and the Victoria Embankment, built on the site of the
palace of the Protector Somerset, and opened in 1786; accommodates
various civil departments of the Government—the Inland
Revenue, Audit and Exchequer, Wills and Probate, Registry-General.
The east wing is occupied by King's College and School.
Somersetshire (484), a
maritime county of England, fronting the Bristol Channel, between
Devon (N.) and Gloucester (SW.), with Wilts and Dorset on the
E. and S.; diversified by the Mendips (NE.), Quantock Hills,
Exmoor (SW.), and other smaller elevations; is yet in the main
occupied by wide level plains largely given over to pastoral
and dairy farming; watered by the Bristol Avon, the Parret,
and other lesser streams; its orchards rank next to those of
Devon; is prolific in Roman, Saxon, and ancient British remains;
Taunton is the county town, but Bath the largest.
Somerville, Mrs. Mary,
a lady skilled in mathematics and physics, born at Jedburgh;
was brought up at Burntisland and Edinburgh; contributed to
the Transactions of the Royal Society; wrote a book entitled
the "Mechanism of the Heavens" on the suggestion of
Lord Brougham, as a popularisation of Laplace's "Mechanique
Céleste," which was followed by her "Connection
of the Physical Sciences," "Physical Geography,"
and "Molecular and Microscopic Science," the last
published in her ninetieth year; died at Naples (1770-1872).
Somme, 1, a river of North France;
rises in the department of Aisne, near St. Quentin, and flows
150 m. SW. and NW. to the English Channel; navigable as far
as Abbeville. 2, A department (546) of North France, fronting
the English Channel, between Seine-Inférieure (S.) and
Pas-de-Calais (N.); one of the most prosperous agricultural
and manufacturing districts of France;
Amiens (q. v.) is the chief
Somnath (7), an ancient maritime
town of Oujarat, India, in the SW. of the peninsula of
Kathiawar; has interesting memorials of Krishna, who, it is
alleged, is hurled in the vicinity; close by is a famous ruined
Hindu temple, despoiled in the 11th century of its treasures,
sacred idol, and gates; in 1842 Lord Ellenborough brought hack
from Afghanistan gates which he thought to be the famous "Gates
of Somnath," but doubt being cast on their authenticity,
they were eventually placed in the arsenal of Agra.
Somnath, Idol of, "a
mere mass of coarse crockery," says Jepherson Brick, an
imaginary friend of Carlyle's, "not worth five shillings,
sat like a great staring god, with two diamonds for eyes, which
one day a commander of the Faithful took the liberty to smite
once as he rode up with grim battle-axe and heart full of Moslem
fire, and which thereupon shivered into a heap of ugly potsherds,
yielding from its belly half a waggon-load of gold coins; the
gold coins, diamond eyes, and other valuables were carefully
picked up by the Faithful; confused jingle of potsherds was
left lying; and the idol of Somnath, once showing what it
was, had suddenly come to a conclusion."
Somnus, the god of Sleep, a brother
of Death, and a son of Night, represented, he and Death, as
two youths sleeping or holding inverted torches in their hands;
near the dwelling of Somnus flowed the river of Lethe, which
crept along over pebbles, and invited to sleep; he was attended
by Morpheus, who inspired pleasing dreams.
Sonata, a musical composition
chiefly designed for solo instruments, especially the pianoforte,
and consisting generally of three or four contrasted movements—the
allegro, adagio, rondo, minuetto or scherzo; reaches its noblest
expression in the sonatas of Beethoven.
Sonderbund, the name given
to the union of the Catholic cantons (Lucerne, Zug, Freiburg,
and Valais) of Switzerland, which led to the civil disturbances
of 1845-1846, and the war of 1847.
Sonnet, a form of poetical composition
invented in the 13th century, consisting of 14 decasyllabic
or hendecasyllabic iambic lines, rhymed according to two well-established
schemes which bear the names of their two most famous exponents,
Shakespeare and Petrarch. The Shakespearian sonnet consists
of three four-lined stanzas of alternate rhymes clinched by
a concluding couplet; the Petrarchan of two parts, an octave,
the first eight lines rhymed abbaabba, and a sestet, the concluding
six lines arranged variously on a three-rhyme scheme.
Sons of the Prophets.
Sontag, Henrietta, a
German singer, born at Coblenz; made her début
at 15; had a brilliant career twice over (1806-1854).
Soochoo (500), a large city
in China, 50 m. NW. of Shanghai; is intersected by canals, walled
all round, and manufactures fine silk.
Sopherim, The, the name
by which the Scribes (q. v.)
are designated in Jewish literature.
Sophia, Electress of
Hanover, youngest daughter of
Elizabeth, queen of
Bohemia (q. v.), and mother of George I. (1630-1714).
Sophia, St., the personification
of the Divine wisdom, to whom, as to a saint, many churches
have been dedicated, especially the Church of Constantinople.
Sophie Charlotte, wife
of Friedrich I. of Prussia, born in Hanover, daughter of Electress
Sophia; famous in her day both as a lady and a queen; was, with
her mother, of a philosophic turn; "persuaded," says
Carlyle, "that there was some nobleness for man beyond
what the tailor imparts to him, and even very eager to discover
it had she known how"; she had the philosopher Leibnitz
often with her, "eagerly desirous to draw water from that
deep well—a wet rope with cobwebs sticking to it often
all she got—endless rope, and the bucket never coming
to view" (1668-1705).
Sophists, a sect of thinkers
that arose in Greece, and whose radical principle it was that
we have only a subjective knowledge of things, and that we have
no knowledge at all of objective reality, that things are as
they seem to us, and that we have no knowledge of what they
are in themselves; "on this field," says
Schwegler, "they disported,
enjoying with boyish exuberance the exercise of the power of
subjectivity, and destroying, by means of a subjective dialectic,
all that had been ever objectively established," such as "the
laws of the State, inherited custom, religious tradition, and
popular belief.... They form, in short, the German
Aufklärung (q. v.),
the Greek Illumination (q.
v.). They acknowledged only private judgment and
ignored the existence of a judgment that is not private, and
has absolute rights irrespective of the sentiments of the individual."
Sophocles, Athenian tragic
poet, born at Colonos, a suburb of Athens; when but 16, such
was his musical talent, he was selected to lead the choir that
sang the song of triumph over the victory of Salamis; his first
appearance as a dramatist was in 488 B.C., when he had Æschylus
as his rival and won the prize, though he was seven years afterwards
defeated by Euripides, but retrieved the defeat the year following
by the production of his "Antigone." That same year
one of the 10 strategi (or generals) and he accompanied
Pericles in his war against the aristocrats of Samos. He wrote
a number of dramas, over 100 it is alleged, but only 7 survive,
and these in probable order are "Ajax," "Antigone," "Electra," "Oedipus
Tyrannus," "Trachineæ," "Oedipus Coloneus,"
and "Philoctetes." Thus are all his subjects drawn
from Greek legend, and they are all alike remarkable for the
intense humanity and sublime passion that inspires them and
the humane and the high and holy resolves they stir up.
Sorata, a volcanic peak in the
Bolivian Andes, 21,470 ft. in height.
Sorbonne, a celebrated college
of Paris, taking its name from its founder, Robert of Sorbon,
chaplain to Saint Louis in the 13th century; was exclusively
devoted to theology, and through the rigour of its discipline
and learning of its professors soon exercised a predominant
influence on the theological thought of Europe, which it maintained
until the new learning of the Renaissance (16th century), together
with its own dogmatic conservatism, left it hopelessly stuck
in the "Sorbonnian bog" of derelict scholastic theology;
became an object of satiric attacks by Boileau, Voltaire, and
others, and was suppressed in 1789 at the outburst of the Revolution;
was revived by Napoleon in 1808; is at present the seat of the
Académie Universitaire de Paris, with faculties of theology,
science, and literature.
Sordello, a Provençal
poet whom Dante and Virgil met in Purgatory sitting solitary
and with a noble haughty mien, but who sprang up at sight of
Virgil and embraced him and accompanied him a part of his way;
Browning used his name, as the title of a poem showing the conflict
a minister experiences in perfecting his craft.
Sorel, Agnes, the mistress
of Charles VII. of France, who had a great influence over him;
had been maid of honour to the queen (1409-1450).
Sorrow, Sanctuary of,
Goethe's name for the fold of Christ, wherein, according to
His promise (Matt. v. 4) the "mourners" who might
gather together there would find relief
and be comforted, the path of sorrow leading up to the "porch"
of the sanctuary.
Sorrow, Worship of,
Goethe's name for the Christian religion, "our highest
religion, for the Son of Man," Carlyle adds, interpreting
this, "there is no noble crown, well worn or even ill worn,
but is a crown of thorns."
Sorrows of the Virgin.
See Seven Dolours.
Sorrows of Werther,
a work by Goethe and one of his earliest, the production of
which constituted a new era in the life of the poet, and marks
a new era in the literature of Europe, "as giving expression
to a class of feelings deeply important to modern minds, but
for which our older poetry offered no exponent, and perhaps
could offer none, because they are feelings that arise from
Passion incapable of being converted into Action, and belong
to an ignorant, uncultivated, and unbelieving age such as ours,"
feelings that Byronically, "in dark wayward" mood
reflect a mere sense of the miseries of human life.
consulting the pages of Virgil to ascertain one's fortune, by
opening the book at random, putting the finger on a passage
and taking that for the oracle of fate one is in quest of.
Sostratus, architect of the
Pharos of Alexandria, lived in the 3rd century B.C., and was
patronised by Ptolemy Philadelphus.
Sothern, Edward Askew,
comedian, born in Liverpool; at 23 went on the stage, and for
some time was a member of the stock company of the Theatre Royal,
Birmingham; afterwards acted in America, and made his mark in
Tom Taylor's "Our American Cousin" (1858) in the small
part of Lord Dundreary, which he gradually developed into an
elaborate and phenomenally successful caricature of an English
peer, and in which he appeared thousands of times in America
and England; scored a great success also as David Garrick in
Robertson's well-known comedy (1826-1881).
Soubise, Duc de, French
soldier; served first under Prince Maurice of Orange, and commanded
the Huguenots against Louis XIII., but after some successes
was compelled to take refuge in England; distinguished himself
at the defence of Rochelle, but was defeated again and had to
betake himself to England as before, where he died (1589-1641).
Soubise, Prince de,
marshal of France; was aide-de-camp to Louis XV. in Flanders,
was favoured by Pompadour, held an important command in the
Seven Years' War, but was defeated by Frederick the Great at
Soudan or "The Land of
the Blacks," the cradle of the negro race, a vast tract
of territory stretching E. and W. across the African continent
from the Atlantic (W.) to the Red Sea and Highlands of Abyssinia
(E.), between the Sahara (W.) and the Gulf of Guinea and the
central equatorial provinces (S.); divided into (a) Upper Soudan,
embracing Senegambia, Sierra Leone, Ashanti, Dahomey, Liberia,
and west coast-lands; (6) Lower Soudan, including the Fulah
States, Massina, Gando, Sokoto, &c.; (c) Egyptian Soudan,
which in 1882 was subdivided into (1) West Soudan, including
Dar-Fur, Kordofan, Bahr-el-Ghazal, and Dongola; (2) Central
Soudan, comprising Khartoum, Sennaar, Berber, Fashoda, and the
Equatorial Province, &c.; (3) Eastern Soudan, bordering
on the Red Sea, and embracing Taka, Suakim, and Massowah; (4)
Harar, stretching E. of Abyssinia. The extension of Egyptian
rule into this territory began in 1819 with the capture of Khartoum,
which became the base of military operations, ending in the
gradual conquest of the surrounding regions in 1874. A serious
revolt, fanned by religious fanaticism, broke out in 1882, and
headed by the Mahdi (q. v.)
and his lieutenant Osman Digna, ended in the utter rout of the
Egyptian forces under Hicks Pasha and Baker Pasha; Gordon, after
a vain attempt to relieve him, perished in Khartoum; but Stanley
was more successful in relieving Emin Bey in the Equatorial
Province. Anarchy and despotism ensued until the victorious
campaign of Kitchener (q.
v.) again restored the lost provinces to Egypt.
Soufflot, French architect
of the Pantheon of Paris (1713-1780).
Soul, the name given to the spiritual
part of man, the seat of reason
(q. v.) and conscience, by which he relates and subordinates
himself to the higher spiritual world, inspiring him with a
sense of individual responsibility.
de Dieu, duke of Dalmatia and marshal of France, born
at St. Amans-la-Bastide, department of Tarn; enlisted as a private
in 1785, and by 1794 was general of a brigade; gallant conduct
in Swiss and Italian campaigns under Masséna won him
rapid promotion, and in 1804 he was created a marshal; served
with the emperor in Germany, and led the deciding charge at
Austerlitz, and for his services in connection with the Treaty
of Tilsit received the title of Duc de Dalmatia; at the head
of the French army in Spain he outmanoeuvred the English in
1808, conquered Portugal, and opposed to Wellington a skill
and tenacity not less than his own, but was thwarted in his
efforts by the obstinate incompetence of Joseph Bonaparte; turned
Royalist after the abdication of Napoleon, but on his return
from Elba rallied to the emperor's standard, and fought at Waterloo;
was subsequently banished, but restored in 1819; became active
in the public service, and was honoured as ambassador in England
in 1838; retired in 1845 with the honorary title of "Marshal-General
of France" (1769-1851).
Sound, The, a strait, 50 m.
long, between Sweden and Denmark, which connects the Cattegat
with the Baltic Sea; dues at one time levied on ships passing
through the channel were abolished in 1857, and over three millions
paid in compensation, Britain contributing one-third and undertaking
to superintend the navigation and maintain the lighthouses.
South, Robert, an English
divine, born at Hackney; obtained several preferments in the
Church, but refused a bishopric; was distinguished for his hostility
to the Dissenters, and was never tired of heaping ridicule on
them and their principles; wrote a book in defence of the Trinity
in a somewhat rationalistic view of it, which involved him in
a furious controversy with Dr. Sherlock; was a man of great
wit and good sense as well as refinement; his chief writings
consist of "Sermons" (1633-1716).
South African Company.
South African Republic.
South Australia (320),
second largest of the five colonies of Australia, stretches
N. and S. in a broad band, 1850 in. long, through the heart
of the continent from the Southern Ocean to the Gulf of Carpentaria
and the Arafura Sea, having Queensland, New South Wales, and
Victoria on the E., and Western Australia on the W.; ten times
the size of Great Britain, but the greater portion comprises
the Northern Territory, which consists, save a low alluvial
coastal strip, of parched and uninhabited tableland. South Australia
proper begins about 26° S. latitude, and is
traversed southwards by the Finke River
as far as Eyre Lake (3706 sq. m.), by the Flinders Range, and
the lower Murray River in the E., and diversified here and there
by low ranges and Lake Amadeus (NW.), Torrens and Gairdner (S.);
the S. coast is penetrated by the great gulfs of Spencer and
St. Vincent, round and to the N. and E. of which the bulk of
the population is gathered in a region not much larger than
Scotland; is the chief wheat-growing colony, and other important
industries are mining (chiefly copper), sheep-rearing, and wine-making;
chief exports, wool, wheat, and copper; the railway and telegraph
systems are well developed, the Overland Telegraph Line (1973
m.) stretching across the continent from Adelaide to Port Darwin
being a marvel of engineering enterprise. Adelaide is the capital.
The governor is appointed by the crown, and there are a legislative
council or upper house, and an assembly or lower house. State
education is free. Began to be settled in 1836, and five years
later became a Crown colony.
South Sea Bubble, the
name given to the disastrous financial project set on foot by
Harley (q. v.) to relieve
the national debt and restore public credit, which produced
an unparalleled rush of speculation, ending in the ruin of thousands
of people. Through the efforts of Harley a company of merchants
was induced in 1711 to buy up the floating national debt of £10,000,000
on a government guarantee of 6 per cent. interest, and a right
to a monopoly of trade in the South Seas. The shares rose by
leaps and bounds as tales of the fabulous wealth of the far
South Seas circulated, till, in 1720, £200 shares were
quoted at £1000; earlier in the same year the company
had taken over the entire national debt of upwards of 30 millions.
In the craze for speculation which had seized the public hundreds
of wild schemes were floated. At length the "Bubble"
burst. The chairman and several directors of the company sold
out when shares had reached £1000; suspicion followed,
confidence vanished, stock fell, and in a few days thousands
from end to end of the country were bewailing their ruin. The
private estates of the fraudulent directors were confiscated
for the relief of the sufferers. To Sir Robert Walpole belongs
the credit of extricating the finances of the country from the
muddle into which they had fallen.
Southampton (94), an important
seaport of South Hampshire, 79 m. SW. of London, situated on
a small peninsula at the head of Southampton Water (a fine inlet,
11 m. by 2), between the mouths of the Itchen (E.) and the Test
(W.); portions of the old town-walls and four gateways still
remain; is the head-quarters of the Ordnance Survey; has splendid
docks, and is an important steam-packet station for the West
Indies, Brazil, and South Africa; yacht and ship building and
engine-making are flourishing industries.
Southcott, Joanna, a
prophetess, born in Devon, of humble parents; became a Methodist;
suffered under religious mania; gave herself out as the woman
referred to in Revelation xii.; imagined herself to be with
child, and predicted she would on a certain day give birth to
the promised Prince of Peace, for which occasion great preparations
were made, but all to no purpose; she died of dropsy two months
after the time predicted; she found numbers to believe in her
even after her death; she traded in passports to heaven, which
she called "seals," and persuaded numbers to purchase
Southern Cross, a constellation
of the southern heavens, the five principal stars of which form
a rough and somewhat irregular cross, the shape of which is
gradually changing; it corresponds in the southern heavens to
the Great Bear in the northern.
Southey, Robert, poet-laureate,
born, the son of a linen-draper, at Bristol; was expelled from
Westminster School for a satirical article in the school magazine
directed against flogging; in the following year (1793) entered
Balliol College, where he only remained one year, leaving it
a Unitarian and a red-hot republican; was for a time enamoured
of Coleridge's wild pantisocratic scheme; married (1795) clandestinely
Edith Frickes, a penniless girl, sister to Mrs. Coleridge, and
in disgrace with his English relatives visited his uncle in
Lisbon, where in six months he laid the foundation of his knowledge
of Spanish history and literature; the Church and medicine had
already, as possible careers, been abandoned, and on his return
to England he made a half-hearted effort to take up law; still
unsettled he again visited Portugal, and finally was relieved
of pecuniary difficulties by the settlement of a pension on
him by an old school friend, which he relinquished in 1807 on
receiving a pension from Government; meanwhile had settled at
Keswick, where he prosecuted with untiring energy the craft
of authorship; "Joan of Arc," "Thalaba," "Madoc,"
and "The Curse of Kehama," won for him the laureateship
in 1813, and in the same year appeared his prose masterpiece "The
Life of Nelson"; of numerous other works mention may be
made of his Histories of Brazil and the Peninsular War, Lives
of Bunyan and Wesley, and "Colloquies on Society";
declined a baronetcy offered by Peel; domestic affliction—the
death of children, and the insanity and death of his wife—saddened
his later years, which were brightened in the last by his second
marriage (1839) with the poetess and his twenty years' friend,
Caroline Bowles; as a poet Southey has few readers nowadays;
full of miscellaneous interest, vigour of narrative, and spirited
rhythm, his poems yet lack the finer spirit of poetry; but in
prose he ranks with the masters of English prose style "of
a kind at once simple and scholarly" (1774-1843).
Southport (41), a watering-place
of Lancashire, situated on the southern shore of the Ribble
estuary, 18 m. N. of Liverpool; is a town of quite modern growth
and increasing popularity; has a fine sea-shore, esplanade,
park, theatre, public library, art gallery, etc.
Southwark (339), or the
Borough, a division of London, on the Surrey side of the
Thames, opposite the City, and annexed to it in 1827; it sends
three members to Parliament, and among its principal buildings
are St. Saviour's Church and Guys Hospital.
Southwell, Robert, poet,
born in Norfolk; studied at Douay, and became a Jesuit priest;
came to England as a missionary, was thrown into prison, tortured
ten times by the rack, and at length executed at Tyburn as a
traitor for disseminating Catholic doctrine; his poems are religious
chiefly, and excellent, and were finally collected under the
title "St. Peter's Complaint," "Mary Magdalen's
Tears, and Other Works"; "The Burning Babe" is
characterised by Professor Saintsbury as a "splendid poem"
French novelist and playwright, born at Morlaix; at 30 he established
himself in Paris as a journalist, and became noted as a writer
of plays and of charming sketches of Breton life, essays, and
fiction; "Les Derniers Bretons"
and "Foyer Breton" are considered his best work (1806-1854).
Souza, Madame de (maiden
name Adelaide Filleul), French novelist, born in Paris, and
educated in a convent, on her leaving which she was married
to the Comte de Flahaut, a man much older than herself, and
with whom she lived unhappily; fled to Germany and then to England
on the outbreak of the Revolution; afterwards returned to Paris,
and as the wife of the Marquis de Souza-Botelho presided over
one of the most charming of salons, in which the chief
attraction was her own bright and gifted personality; her novels, "Eugène
de Rothelin," "Eugénie et Mathilde," etc.,
breathe the spirit of the old régime, and are full of
natural and vivacious pictures of French life (1761-1836).
Sowerby Bridge (10), manufacturing
town in West Riding of Yorkshire, 3 m. SW. of Halifax; cotton-spinning,
woollen manufactures, and dyeing are the chief; it was the birthplace
Soy, a sauce or condiment used in
Japan and China; prepared from a bean which is extensively cultivated
in those countries.
Soyer, Alexis, a famous
cook, born at Meaux; turned aside from a tempting career as
a vocalist and took up gastronomy as a profession; during the
1830 Revolution he narrowly escaped with his life to London,
which he henceforth made his head-quarters, rising to the position
of cook to the Reform Club; rendered important services as a
culinary expert in Ireland during the 1847 famine, and at the
Crimea (1855); was the author of various highly popular works
on the art of cooking, "The Modern Housewife," "Shilling
Cookery Book," etc. (1809-1858).
Spa (7), a watering-place in Belgium,
20 m. SE. of Liège; a favourite health and fashionable
resort on account of its springs and its picturesque surroundings,
the number of visitors during the season amounting to 12,000.
Spahi, an Algerine cavalry soldier
serving in the French army.
Spain (17,800), a kingdom of South-West
Europe, which with Portugal (less than one-fifth the size of
Spain) occupies the entire Iberian Peninsula, and is divided
from France on the N. by the Pyrenees Mountains, and on the
E. and S. is washed by the Mediterranean; the NW. corner fronts
the Bay of Biscay (N.) and the Atlantic (W.), while Portugal
completes the western boundary; its area, three and one-third
times the size of England and Wales, is, along with the Canaries
and the Balearic Isles, divided into 49 provinces, although
the more familiar names of the 14 old kingdoms, states, and
provinces (New and Old Castile, Galicia, Aragon, etc.) are still
in use; forms a compact square, with a regular, in parts precipitous,
coast-line, which is short compared with its area; is in the
main a highland country, a vast plateau (2000 to 3000 ft. high)
occupying the centre, buttressed and crossed by ranges (Sierra
Nevada in the S., Sierra de Guadarrama, Sierra Morena, etc.),
and diversified by the long valleys of the Ebro, Douro, Tagus,
Guadalquivir, and other lesser rivers, all of which are rapid,
and only a few navigable; climate varies considerably according
as one proceeds to the central plains, where extremes of heat
and cold are experienced, but over all is the driest in Europe;
agriculture, although less than a half of the land is under
cultivation, is by far the most important industry, and Valencia
and Catalonia the provinces where it is most successfully carried
out, wheat and other cereals, the olive and the vine, being
the chief products; other important industries are mining, the
Peninsula being extremely rich in the useful minerals; Merino
sheep farming, anchovy and sardine fisheries, wine-making, and
the manufacture of cotton, silk, leather, and paper; chief exports
are wine, fruits, mineral ores, oil and cork; Madrid, Barcelona,
Valencia, Seville, and Malaga are the chief towns; the widest
variety of character exists among the natives of the various
provinces, from the hard-working, thrifty Catalan to the lazy,
improvident Murcian, but all possess the southern love "of
song, dance, and colour," and have an inherent grace and
dignity of manner; Roman Catholicism is the national religion;
and although systems of elementary and secondary schools are
in vogue, education over all is in a deplorably backward condition;
the Government is a hereditary and constitutional monarchy;
the Cortes consists of the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies;
universal suffrage and trial by jury are recent innovations.
The outstanding fact in the history of Spain, after the downfall
of the Roman Empire, of which she had long formed a part, is
the national struggle with the Moors, who overran the peninsula
in the 8th century, firmly established themselves, and were
not finally overthrown till Granada, their last possession,
was taken in 1492; sixteen years later the country became a
united kingdom, and for a brief period, with its vast American
colonies and wide European possessions, became in the 16th century
the dominant power of Europe; since then she has lagged more
and more in the race of nations, and her once vast colonial
empire has gradually crumbled away till now, since the unsuccessful
war with America in 1898, only an island or two remains to her.
Spalato (15), a historic and
flourishing town of Dalmatia, finely situated on a promontory
on the E. side of the Adriatic, 160 m. SE. of Fiume; a place
of considerable antiquity, and one of the great cities of the
Roman world; is chiefly famed for the vast palace built by Diocletian,
and which became his residence after his abdication; subsidiary
buildings and grounds were enclosed by walls, within which now
a considerable part of the town stands; the noblest portions
of the palace are still extant; the modern town carries on an
active trade in grain, wine, cattle, etc.; is noted for its
Spalding, a market-town in
Lincolnshire, 34 m. SE. of Lincoln, in the heart of the Fens;
is a very ancient place; has a trade in agricultural produce,
and is a railway centre.
a noted Italian scientist, born at Scandiano, in Modena; held
chairs of Philosophy and Greek in the Universities of Reggio
and Modena, but more attracted to natural science he in 1768
became professor of Natural History at Pavia; wrote elaborate
accounts of expeditions to Sicily and elsewhere; overturned
Button's theory of spontaneous generation, and in important
works made some valuable contributions to physiological science
Spandau (45), an important town
and fortress of Prussia, in Brandenburg, at the confluence of
the Spree and Havel, 8 m. W. by N. of Berlin; fortifications
are of the strongest and most modern kind, and in the "Julius
Tower" of the powerful citadel the German war-chest of £6,000,000
is preserved; there is an arsenal and large Government cannon-foundries,
a theological professor at Geneva (1631), and afterwards at
Leyden (1641); author of the work on "Universal Grace"
(1600-1648). His son, Ezechiel Spanheim (1629-1710) became
professor of Eloquence in his native town,
Geneva, and after acting as tutor to the sons of the Elector
Palatine was employed on several important diplomatic missions
to Italy, England, and France; meanwhile devoted his leisure
to ancient law and numismatics, publishing learned works on
these subjects. Friedrich Spanheim, brother of preceding,
was a learned Calvinistic professor of Theology at Heidelberg
(1685), and afterwards at Leyden (1632-1701).
Spanish Main (i. e.
mainland), a name given at one time to the Central American
provinces of Spain bordering on the Caribbean Sea, and also
to the Caribbean Sea itself.
Sparks, James, president
of Harvard University, born in Connecticut; bred a carpenter,
took to study, attended Harvard, where he graduated, studied
theology, and became Unitarian, becoming a minister in that
body, but retired from the ministry and settled in Boston; edited
the North American Review; wrote and edited biographies
of eminent Americans, and edited the writings of Benjamin Franklin
and George Washington (1789-1866).
Sparta or Lacedemon, the
capital of ancient Laconia, in the Peloponnesus, on the right
bank of the Eurotas, 20 m. from the sea; was 6 m. in circumference,
consisted of several distinct quarters, originally separate
villages, never united into a regular town; was never surrounded
by walls, its walls being the bravery of its citizens; its mythical
founder was Lacedemon, who called the city Sparta from the name
of his wife; one of its early kings was Menelaus, the husband
of Helen; Lycurgus (q. v.)
was its law-giver; its policy was aggressive, and its sway gradually
extended over the whole Peloponnesus, to the extinction at the
end of the Peloponnesian War of the rival power of Athens, which
for a time rose to the ascendency, and its unquestioned supremacy
thereafter for 30 years, when all Greece was overborne by the
Spartacus, leader of the revolt
of the slaves at Rome, which broke out about 73 B.C.; was a
Thracian by birth, a man of powerful physique, in succession
a shepherd, a soldier, and a captain of banditti; was in one
of his predatory expeditions taken prisoner and sold to a trainer
of gladiators, and became one of his slaves; persuaded his fellow-slaves
to attempt their freedom, and became their chief and that of
other runaways who joined them; for two years they defied and
defeated one Roman army after another sent to crush them, and
laid Italy waste, till at the end of that time Licinius Crassus,
taking up arms in earnest, overpowered them in a decisive battle
at the river Silarus, in which Spartacus was slain.
Spasmodic School, name
given to a small group of minor poets about the middle of the
19th century, represented by Philips, James Bailey, Sydney Dobell,
and Alexander Smith, from their strenuous, overstrained, and
Specific Gravity, the
weight of a body compared with another of equal bulk taken as
a standard, such as the weight of a cubic inch of water.
Spectrum, the name given to
coloured and other rays of pure light separated by refraction
in its transmission through a prism, as exhibited on a screen
in a darkened chamber.
name given to the method of determining the composition of a
body by means of the spectrum of light which it gives forth
or passes through it, founded on the principle that a substance
powerfully absorbs exactly the rays it radiates, and every substance
has its own absorbing powers; or it may be defined the method
of distinguishing different kinds of matter by their properties
in relation to light.
Speculative, The, that
which we think and which as such goes no deeper than the intellect,
which is but the eye of the soul, not the heart of it. See
Spedding, James, editor
of Bacon, born at Mirehouse, near Keswick, son of a Cumberland
squire; scholar and honorary Fellow of Cambridge; became in
1847 Under-Secretary of State with £2000 a year; devoted
his life to the study of Bacon, the fruit of which the "Letters
and the Life of Francis Bacon, including all his Occasional
Works, newly selected and set forth with a Commentary, Biographical
and Historical," in 7 vols.; a truly noble man, and much
esteemed by his contemporaries in literature (1808-1881).
Speke, John Banning,
African explorer, born in Somersetshire; became a soldier, and
served in the Punjab; joined Burton in 1854 in an expedition
into Somaliland, and three years after in an attempt to discover
the sources of the Nile, and setting out alone discovered Victoria
Nyanza, which he maintained was the source of the river, but
which Burton questioned; on his return he published in 1863
an account of his discovery, which he was about to defend in
the British Association when he was shot by the accidental discharge
of his gun while he was out hunting (1827-1864).
Spence, Joseph, a miscellaneous
writer, born in Hants; educated at and a Fellow of Oxford; his
principal work, "Polymetis; or, an Inquiry into the Agreement
between the Works of the Roman Poets and the Remains of Ancient
Artists"; his "Anecdotes" are valuable from his
acquaintance with the literary class of the time, and have preserved
his name (1699-1768).
Spencer, Herbert, systematiser
and unifier of scientific knowledge up to date, born at Derby,
son of a teacher, who early inoculated him with an interest
in natural objects, though he adopted at first the profession
of a railway engineer, which in about eight years he abandoned
for the work of his life by way of literature, his first effort
being a series of "Letters on the Proper Sphere of Government"
in the Nonconformist in 1842, and his first work "Social
Statics," published in 1851, followed by "Principles
of Psychology" four years after; in 1861 he published a
work on "Education," and his "First Principles"
the following year, after which he began to construct his system
of "Synthetic Philosophy," which fills a dozen large
volumes, and has established his fame as the foremost scientific
philosopher of the time. Following in the lines of Auguste Comte
and John Stuart Mill, he takes a wider sweep than either of
them, fills the field he occupies with fuller and riper detail,
resolves the whole of science into still more ultimate principles,
and works the whole up into a more compact and comprehensive
system. He is valiant before all for science, and relegates
everything and every interest to Agnosticism that cannot give
proof of its scientific rights. "What a thing is in itself,"
he says, "cannot be known, because to know it we must strip
it of all that it becomes, of all that has come to adhere to
it." The ultimate thus arrived at he finds to be, and calls,
Energy, and that therefore, he says, we don't and can't know.
That a thing is what it becomes seems never to occur
to him, and yet only the knowledge of that is the knowledge
of the ultimate of being, which is the thing he says we cannot
know. To trace life to its roots he goes back to the cell, whereas
common-sense would seem to require us, in order
to know what the cell is, to inquire
at the fruit. This is the doctrine of St. John, "The Word
was God." In addition to agnosticism another doctrine of
Spencer's is Evolution, but in maintaining this he fails to
see he is arguing for an empty conception barren of all thought,
which thought is the alpha and omega of the whole process, and
is as much an ultimate as and still more so than the energy
in which he absorbs God. Indeed, his philosophy is what is called
the Aufklärung (q.
v.) in full bloom, and in which he strips us of all our
spiritual content or Inhalt, and under which he would
lead us out of "Houndsditch"
(q. v.), not with, but without, all that
properly belongs to us; b. 1820.
Spencer Gulf, a deep inlet
on the coast of South Australia, 180 m. by 90 m.
Spener, Philip Jacob,
German Protestant theologian, founder of the
Pietists (q. v.), born
in Alsace, studied in Strasburg; in 1670 held a series of meetings
which he called "Collegia Pietatis," whence the name
of his sect; established himself in Dresden and in Berlin, but
Halle was the centre of the movement; he was an earnest and
universally esteemed man (1636-1705).
Spenser, Edmund, author
of the "Faërie Queene," and one of England's
greatest poets; details of his life are scanty and often hypothetical;
born at London of poor but well-connected parents; entered Pembroke
Hall, Cambridge, as a "sizar" in 1569, and during
his seven years' residence there became an excellent scholar;
took a master's degree, and formed an important friendship with
Gabriel Harvey; three years of unsettled life followed, but
were fruitful in the production of the "Shepheards' Calendar"
(1579), which at once placed him at the head of the English
poets of his day; had already taken his place in the best London
literary and political circles as the friend of Sir Philip Sidney
and Leicester, and in 1580 was appointed private secretary to
Lord Grey, then proceeding to Ireland as the Lord Deputy, and
although his master soon returned to England Spencer continued
to make his home in Ireland, where he obtained some civil appointments,
and in 1591 entered into possession of a considerable portion
of the forfeited estates of the Earl of Desmond, adjacent to
his house, Kilcolman Castle, co. Cork; seems to have been a
pretty stern landlord, and, as expounded in his admirable tract, "A
View of the Present State of Ireland," the advocate of
a policy of "suppression and repression"; consequently
was little loved by the Irish, and on the outbreak of Tyrone's
rebellion in 1598 his house was sacked and burned, and he himself
forced to flee to London, where he died a few weeks later "a
ruined and heart-broken man"; the rich promise of the "Shepheards'
Calendar" had been amply fulfilled in the "Complaints," "Amoretti," "Colin
Clout's Come Home Again," the "Epithalamium"
the finest bridal song in any language, and above all in the
six published books of "The Faërie Queene" (1589
and 1596), in which all his gifts and graces as a poet are at
their best; "He may be read," says Professor Saintsbury, "in
childhood, chiefly for his adventure; in later youth, for his
display of voluptuous beauty; in manhood, for his historical
and ethical weight; in age, for all combined" (1552-1599).
Spermaceti, a white waxy
matter obtained in an oily state from the head of the sperm-whale
inhabiting the Pacific and Indian Oceans; candles made of it
yield a particularly steady and bright light.
Spey, a river in the N. of Scotland
which, rising in Badenoch, flows NE. through Inverness, Elgin,
and Banffshire, falls into the Moray Firth after a course of
107 miles; the salmon-fisheries are valuable; it is the swiftest
of the rivers of Great Britain.
Spezia (20), the chief naval
station, "the Portsmouth," of Italy; occupies a strongly
fortified site at the head of a bay on the W. side of Italy,
56 m. SE. of Genoa; here are the naval shipbuilding yards, national
arsenal, navy store-houses, besides schools of navigation, manufactures
of cables, sail-cloth, &c.
Sphinx, a fabled animal, an invention
of the ancient Egyptians, with the body and claws of a lioness,
and the head of a woman, or of a ram, or of a goat, all types
or representations of the king, effigies of which are frequently
placed before temples on each side of the approach; the most
famous of the sphinxes was the one which waylaid travellers
and tormented them with a riddle, which if they could not answer
she devoured them, but which Oedipus answered, whereupon she
threw herself into the sea. "Such a sphinx," as we
are told in "Past and Present," "is this life
of ours, to all men and nations. Nature, like the Sphinx, is
of womanly celestial loveliness and tenderness, the face and
bosom of a goddess, but ending in the claws and the body of
a lioness ... is a heavenly bride and conquest to the wise and
brave, to them who can discern her behests and do them; a destroying
fiend to them who cannot. Answer her riddle—Knowest thou
the meaning of to-day?—it is well with thee. Answer it
not; the solution for thee is a thing of teeth and claws."
Spice Islands. See
Spinello, Aretino, a
celebrated Italian fresco-painter, born at Arezzo, where, with
visits to Florence, his life was chiefly spent; was in his day
the rival of Giotto, but few of his frescoes are preserved,
and such of his paintings as are to be found in various galleries
of Europe are inferior to his frescoes (1330-1410).
Marquis of, great Spanish general under Philip II. of
Spain, born at Genoa, with a following of 9000, maintained at
his own expense, took Ostend after a resistance of 3 years,
in consequence of which feat he was appointed commander-in-chief,
in which capacity maintained and again maintained a long struggle
with Prince Maurice of Nassau, terminated only with the death
of the latter; his services on behalf of Spain, in the interest
of which he spent his fortune, were never acknowledged, and
he died with poignant grief (1571-1630).
Spinoza, Benedict, great modern
philosopher, born in Amsterdam, of Jews of Portuguese extraction
in well-to-do circumstances, and had been trained as a scholar;
began with the study of the Bible and the Talmud, but soon exchanged
the study of theology in these for that of physics and the works
of Descartes, in which study he drifted farther and farther
from the Jewish creed, and at length openly abandoned it; this
exposed him to a persecution which threatened his life, so that
he left Amsterdam and finally settled at The Hague, where, absorbed
in philosophic study, he lived in seclusion, earning a livelihood
by polishing optical glasses, which his friends disposed of
for him; his days were short; he suffered from ill-health, and
died of consumption when he was only 44; he was a man of tranquil
temper, moderate desires, purity of motive, and kindly in heart;
his great work, his "Ethica," was published a year
after his death; he had held it back during his lifetime because
he foresaw it would procure him the name of atheist, which he
shrank from with horror; Spinoza's doctrine is summed up by
Dr. Stirling thus, "Whatever is, is; and that is extension
and thought. These two are all that is;
and besides these there is nought. But these two are one; they
are attributes of the single substance (that which, for its
existence, stands in need of nothing else), very God, in whom,
then, all individual things and all individual ideas (modes
of extension those, of thought these) are comprehended and take
place"; thus we see Spinoza includes under the term extension
all individual objects, and under thought all individual ideas,
and these two he includes in God, as He in whom they live and
move and have their being,—a great conception and a pregnant,
being the speculative ground of the being of all that lives
and is; not without good reason does Novalis call him "Der
Gott-getrunkene Mensch," the God-intoxicated man (1632-1677).
Spinozism, the pantheism of
Spinoza (q. v.), which
regards God as the one self-subsistent substance, and both matter
and thought attributes of Him.
Spires or Speyer, an old
German town on the left bank of the Rhine, in the Palatinate,
14 m. SW. of Heidelberg, the seat of a bishop and with a cathedral,
of its kind one of the finest in Europe, and the remains of
the Retscher, or imperial palace, where in 1529 the Diet of
the Empire was held at which the Reformers first got the name
of Protestants, because of their protestation against the imperial
decree issued at Worms prohibiting any further innovations in
Spirit (lit. breath of
life), in philosophy and theology is the Divine mind incarnating
itself in the life of a man, and breathing in all he thinks
and does, and so is as the life-principle of it; employed also
to denote any active dominating and pervading principle of life
inspired from any quarter whatever and coming to light in the
Spirit, The Holy, the
Divine Spirit manifested in Christ which descended upon His
disciples in all its fulness when, shortly after His decease,
their eyes were opened to see the meaning of His life and their
hearts to feel the power of it.
Spiritual, The, the fruit
of the quickening and abiding action of a higher principle at
the centre of the being, operating so as to suffuse the whole
of it, pervade the whole of it, to its utmost limits, which,
seating itself in the heart of the thoughts and affections,
works and weaves itself into all the life tissues and becomes
part and parcel of the very flesh and blood. No idea, however
true, however elevated or elevating one may feel it, is spiritual
till it centralises in the heart and affects all the issues
Spiritualism, a term that
has two very different meanings, denoting at one time the doctrine
that the only real is the spiritual
(q. v.), and at another time a belief in the existence
of spirits whom we, by means of certain media, can hold correspondence
with, and who, whether we are conscious of it or not, exercise
in some cases an influence over human destiny, more particularly
of the spirits of dead men with whom in their disembodied state
we can by means of certain mediums hold correspondence, and
who, from their continued interest in the world, do in that
state keep watch and ward over its affairs as well as mingle
in them, forming a world of spirits gone from hence, yet more
or less active in the sense world.
Spithead, the eastern portion
of the strait which separates the Isle of Wight from the Hampshire
coast, 14 m. long, with an average breadth of 4 m.; is a sheltered
and safe riding for ships, and as such is much used by the British
navy; receives its name from a long "spit" of sandbank
jutting out from the mainland. See the
Spitzbergen, the name of
an Arctic archipelago lying 400 m. N. of Norway, embracing West
Spitzbergen (15,260 sq. m.), North-East Land, Stans Foreland,
King Charles land or Wiche Island, Barents Land, Prince Charles
Foreland, besides numerous smaller islands; practically lies
under great fields of ice, enormous glaciers, and drifts of
snow, pierced here and there by mountain peaks, hence the name
Spitzbergen; the home of vast flocks of sea-birds, of polar
bears, and Arctic foxes, while herds of reindeer are attracted
to certain parts by a scanty summer vegetation; there are no
permanent inhabitants, but the fiord-cut shores are frequented
in summer by Norwegian seal and walrus hunters.
Splügen, an Alpine pass
in the Swiss canton of the Grisons; the roadway 24 m. long,
opened in 1822, crosses the Rhætian Alps from Chur, the
capital of Grisons, to Chiavenna, in Lombardy, and reaches a
height of 6595 ft.
Spohr, Ludwig, musical composer
and violinist, born in Brunswick; produced both operas and oratorios, "Faust"
among the former, the "Last Judgment" and the "Fall
of Babylon" among the latter; his violin-playing was admirable,
producing from the tones of the instrument the effects of the
human voice; wrote a handbook for violinists (1784-1859).
Spoleto (8), an ancient city
of Central Italy, built on the rocky slopes of a hill, in the
province of Umbria, 75 m. NE. of Rome; is protected by an ancient
citadel, and has an interesting old cathedral with frescoes
by Lippo Lippi, and an imposing 7th-century aqueduct; was capital
of a Lombard duchy, and in 1220 was joined to the Papal States.
Spontini, Gasparo, Italian
operatic composer, born at Majolati; settled in Paris in 1803,
and a year later made his mark with the little opera "Milton,"
and subsequently established his fame with the three grand operas, "La
Vestale," "Ferdinand Cortez," and "Olympia";
from 1820 to 1842 was stationed at Berlin under court patronage,
and in the face of public and press opposition continued to
write in a strain of elevated and melodious music various operas,
including his greatest work "Agnes von Hohenstaufen"
Sporades, a group of islands
in the Ægean Sea, of which the largest is the Mitylene.
archbishop of St. Andrews; accompanied James VI. to London,
was zealous for the establishment of Episcopacy in Scotland;
was archbishop of Glasgow before he was translated to St. Andrews;
officiated at coronation of Charles I. at Holyrood in 1633,
and was two years after made Chancellor of Scotland; wrote a "History
of the Church of Scotland"; was buried in Westminster (1565-1639).
mathematician and physician, born in London; was Queen's printer,
as his father had been before him; published numerous important
papers on scientific subjects, his greatest work "The Polarization
of Light," a subject on which he was a great authority
Spree, a river of Prussia, rises
in East Saxony close to the Bohemian border, follows a winding
and generally N. and NW. course of 227 m. till its Junction
with the Havel at Spandau; chief towns on its banks are Bautzen,
Kottbus, Lübben, and Berlin; is connected with the Oder
by the Frederick William Canal.
Sprengel, Carl, physician
and botanist, born in Pomerania; held professorship in Halle;
wrote on the history of both medicine and botany (1766-1833).
Sprenger, Aloys, eminent
Orientalist, born in the Tyrol; studied
in Vienna; went to India in 1843, where he diligently occupied
his mind in study, and on his return in 1857 was appointed professor
of Oriental Languages at Bern, from which he was translated
to Heidelberg; edited Persian and Arabic works, and wrote the "Life
and Doctrine of Mohammed"; b. 1813.
Springfield, 1, capital
(34) of Illinois, situated in a flourishing coal district, 185
m. SW. of Chicago; has an arsenal, two colleges, and a handsome
marble capitol; coal-mining, foundries, and flour, cotton, and
paper mills are the chief industries; the burial-place of Abraham
Lincoln. 2, A nicely laid out and flourishing city (62) of Massachusetts,
capital of Hampden County, on the Connecticut River (spanned
here by five bridges), 99 m. W. by S. of Boston; settled in
1635; has important manufactories of cottons, woollens, paper,
and a variety of other articles, besides the United States armoury.
3, Capital (22) of Greene County, Missouri, 232 m. WSW. of St.
Louis; has rapidly increasing manufactories of cottons, woollens,
machinery, &c.; in the vicinity was fought the battle of
Wilson's Creek, 10th August 1861. 4, Capital (38) of Clark County,
Ohio, on Lagonda Creek and Mad River, 80 m. NE. of Cincinnati;
is an important railway centre, and possesses numerous factories
of machinery, bicycles, paper, &c.
Spurgeon, Charles Haddon,
a great preacher, born at Kelvedon, Essex; had no college training;
connected himself with the Baptists; commenced as an evangelist
at Cambridge when he was but a boy, and was only 17 when he
was appointed to a pastorate; by-and-by on invitation he settled
in Southwark, and held meetings which were always requiring
larger and larger accommodation; at length in 1861 the Metropolitan
Tabernacle, capable of accommodating 6000, was opened, where
he drew about him large congregations, and round which he, in
course of time, established a number of institutions in the
interest at once of humanity and religion; his pulpit addresses
were listened to by thousands every Sunday, and were one and
all printed the week following, and circulated all over the
land and beyond it till they filled volumes; no preacher of
the time had such an audience, and none such a wide popularity;
he preached the old Puritan gospel, but it was presented in
such a form and in such simple, idiomatic phrase, as to commend
it as no less a gospel to his own generation: besides his sermons
as published, other works were also widely circulated; special
mention may be made of "John Ploughman's Talk" (1834-1892).
Spurzheim, Johann Caspar,
phrenologist, born in Trèves; went to study medicine
at Vienna; attended the lectures of Gall and became a disciple,
accompanying him on a lecturing tour through Central Europe,
and settling with him in 1807 in Paris; in 1813 he separated
from Gall, and went to lecture in England with much acceptance;
in 1832 he proceeded to America with the same object, but he
had hardly started on his mission when he died at Boston; he
wrote numerous works bearing on phrenology, education, &c.
Sruti, the name given to sacred
and revealed tradition, or revelation generally, among the Hindus.
Staal, Jean, a French lady
of humble circumstances, of metaphysical turn; skilled in the
philosophies of Descartes and Malebranche; was in the Bastille
for two years for political offences; was a charming woman,
and captivated the Baron de Staal; left Memoirs and Letters
Stabat Mater, A Latin hymn
on the dolours of the Virgin, beginning with these words, and
composed in the 13th century by Jacopone da Todi, a Franciscan
monk, and set to music by several composers, the most popular
Stadium, the course on which
were celebrated the great games (foot-racing, wrestling, &c.)
of ancient Greece, held at Olympia, Athens, and other places;
the most famous was that laid out at Olympia; length 600 Greek
feet, which was adopted as the Greek standard of measure, and
equalled 606½ English feet.
Stadtholder, an anglicised
form of the Dutch "stadhouder" (i. e. stead-holder),
a title conferred on the governors of provinces in the Low Countries,
but chiefly associated with the rulers of Holland, Zealand,
and Utrecht; in 1544 the title was held by William the Silent,
and continued to be the designation of the head of the new republic
of the United Provinces of the Netherlands until 1802, when
William V. was compelled to resign his stadtholdership to France,
the country afterwards assuming a monarchical government.
Staël, Madame de,
distinguished French lady, born in Paris, daughter of Necker,
and only child; a woman of eminent ability, and an admirer of
Rousseau; wrote "Letters" on his character and works;
married a man ten years older than herself, the Baron de Staël-Holstein,
the Swedish ambassador in Paris, where she lived all through
the events of the Revolution in sympathy with the royal family;
wrote an appeal in defence of the queen, and quitted the city
during the Reign of Terror; on her return in 1795 her salon
became the centre of the literary and political activity of
the time; the ambition of Napoleon excited her distrust, and
forced her into opposition so expressed that in 1801 she was
ordered to leave Paris within 24 hours, and not to come within
40 leagues of it; in 1802 she was left a widow, and soon after
she went first to Weimar, where she met Goethe and Schiller,
and then to Berlin; by-and-by she returned to France, but on
the publication of her "Corinne," was ordered out
of the country; after this appeared her great epoch-making work
on Germany, "L'Allemagne," which was seized by the
French censors; after this she quitted for good the soil of
France, to which she had returned; settled in Switzerland, at
Coppet, where she died (1766-1817).
Staffa ("pillar Island"),
an uninhabited islet of basaltic formation off the W. coast
of Scotland, 54 m. W. of Oban; 1½ m. in circumference,
and girt with precipitous cliffs, except on the sheltered NE.,
where there is a shelving shore; is remarkable for its caves,
of which Fingal's Cave is the most famous, having an entrance
42 ft. wide and 66 ft. high, and penetrating 227 ft.
Stafford (20), county town
of Staffordshire, on the Sow, 29 m. NNW. of Birmingham; has
two fine old churches, St. Mary's and St. Chad's, interesting
architecturally, King Edward's grammar school, and Stafford
Castle finely situated on the outskirts; is an important railway
centre, and noted for its boot and shoe manufactures.
a midland mining and manufacturing county of England, wedged
in on the N. between Cheshire (W.) and Derby (N.), and extending
southward to Worcester, with Shropshire on the W., and Leicester
and Warwick on the E.; with the exception of the wild and hilly "moorland"
in the N. consists of an undulating plain crossed by the Trent,
and intersected in all directions by canals and railways; embraces
two rich coal-fields, one in the "Black Country" of
the S., where rich deposits of iron-stone are also worked, and
one in the N., embracing the district
of the "Potteries"; famous breweries exist at
Burton; Wolverhampton is the largest town.
Aristotle (q. v.), so
called from his native place Stagira.
Stahl, Friedrich Julius,
writer of jurisprudence, born at Münich, of Jewish parents;
embraced Christianity; wrote "The Philosophy of Law";
became professor thereof at Berlin; was a staunch Lutheran,
and a Conservative in politics (1802-1861).
Stahl, Georg Ernest,
a German chemist, born at Anspach; was professor of Medicine
at Halle; author of the theory of
phlogiston (q. v.) and
of animism (q. v.) (1650-1735).
Staines (5), a pretty little
town of Middlesex, on the Thames (spanned here by a fine granite
bridge), 6 m. SE. of Windsor; St. Mary's church has a tower
designed by Inigo Jones; has breweries, mustard-mills, and other
factories; in the neighbourhood are Runnymede and
Cooper's Hill (q. v.).
Stair, John Dalrymple,
1st Earl of, eldest son of James Dalrymple (1619-1695)
of Stair (a distinguished lawyer in his day, who rose to be
President of the Court of Session; wrote a well-known work, "Institutes
of the Law of Scotland"; as a Protestant supported the
Prince of Orange, and by him was raised to the peerage as viscount
in 1690); adopted law as a profession, and was called to the
bar in 1672; got into trouble with Claverhouse, and was fined
and imprisoned, but in 1687 was received into royal favour,
became Lord Advocate, a Lord Ordinary in the Court of Session,
and subsequently as Secretary of State for Scotland was mainly
responsible for the massacre
of Glencoe (q. v.); was created an earl in 1703,
and later was active in support of the union of the English
and Scottish Parliaments (1648-1707).
Stair, John Dalrymple,
2nd Earl of, second son of preceding; entered the army
at 19, and fought with his regiment, the Cameronians, at Steinkirk;
studied law for some time at Leyden, but went back to the army,
and by 1701 was a lieutenant-colonel in the Scots Foot Guards,
and in 1706 colonel of the Cameronians; fought with distinction
under Marlborough at Venlo, Ramillies, Oudenarde, and, as commander
of a brigade, at the siege of Lille and at Malplaquet; was active
in support of the Hanoverian succession, and subsequently in
the reigns of George I. and II. filled important diplomatic
and military posts (1673-1747).
Stalactite, a cone of carbonate
of lime attached like an icicle to the roof of a cavern, and
formed by the dripping of water charged with the carbonate from
the rock above; Stalagmite being the name given to the cone
formed on the floor by the dripping from a stalactite above.
Stalybridge (44), a manufacturing
town of Cheshire and Lancashire, on both banks of the Tame,
7½ m. E. by N. of Manchester; is of modern growth, and
noted for its large cotton-yarn and calico factories, iron-foundries
Stamford (8), an interesting
old town, partly in Lincolnshire and partly in Northamptonshire,
on the Welland, 12 m. WNW. of Peterborough; was one of the five
Danish burghs, and is described in
Domesday Book (q. v.);
a massacre of Jews occurred here in 1140, and in Plantagenet
times it was a place of ecclesiastical, parliamentary, and royal
importance; figures in the Wars of the Roses and the Civil War
of Charles I.'s time; has three fine Early English churches,
a corn exchange, two handsome schools, Browne's Hospital, founded
in Richard III.'s reign, and Burghley House, a noble specimen
of Renaissance architecture; the Stamford Mercury (1695)
is the earliest provincial newspaper; the district is mainly
Stamford (16), a town of
Connecticut, situated amid surrounding hills in Long Island
Sound, 33 m. NE. of New York; is a summer resort, and has iron
and bronze foundries, etc.
Stamford Bridge, a village
of Yorkshire, on the Derwent, 9¼ m. NE. of York; the
scene of Harold's victory over the invading forces of Harold
Haarfager on September 25, 1066.
Stamp Act, a measure passed
by Grenville's Ministry in 1765 enacting that all legal documents
used in the colonies should bear Government stamps. The Americans
resisted on the ground that taxation without representation
in Parliament was unjust. Riots broke out, and the stamped paper
was carefully avoided. In 1766 Pitt championed the cause of
the colonists, and largely through his eloquence Government
in that year was induced to repeal the Act.
Standing Stones, rude
unhewn stones standing singly or in groups in various parts
of the world, and erected at remote periods, presumably in memory
of some great achievement or misfortune, or as having some monumental
Standish, Miles, one of
the Puritan fathers, of Lancashire birth, and a cadet of a family
of knightly rank in the county; served in the Netherlands as
a soldier, and went to America in the Mayflower in 1620, and
was helpful to the colony in its relations both with the Indians
and the mother-country; is the hero of a poem of Longfellow's.
English landscape-painter, born in Sunderland, of Irish descent;
began as a scene-painter; his first picture, "Market-boats
on the Scheldt," proving a success, he devoted himself
to easel-painting, and his principal works were "Wreckers
off Fort Rouge," "A Calm at Sea," "The Abandoned," "The
Bass Rock"; his frequent visits to the Continent supplied
him with fresh subjects; and Ruskin says of one of his pictures, "it
shows as much concentrated knowledge of the sea and sky as,
diluted, would have lasted any of the old masters for life"
Stanhope, Lady Hester
Lucy, born at Chevening, Kent, the eldest daughter of
the third Earl of Stanhope, and niece of William Pitt; a woman
of unusual force of character and attractiveness; from 1803
to 1806 was, as the confidant and housekeeper of her uncle William
Pitt, a leader of society; retired with a Government pension
after Pitt's death, but impelled by her restless nature, led
an unsettled life in Southern Europe, and finally settled in
Syria in 1814, making her home in the old convent of Mar Elias,
near Mount Lebanon, where, cut off from Western civilisation,
for 25 years she exercised a remarkable influence over the rude
tribes of the district; assumed the dress of a Mohammedan chief,
and something of the religion of Islam, and in the end came
to look upon herself as a sort of prophetess; interesting accounts
of her strange life and character have been published by her
English physician, Dr. Madden, and others (1776-1839).
Stanhope, Philip Henry,
Earl, historian, born at Walmer, only son of the fourth
Earl of Stan hope; graduated at Oxford in 1827, and three years
later entered Parliament as a Conservative; held office as Under-Secretary
for Foreign Affairs in Peel's Ministry of 1834-35, and as Secretary
to the Indian Board of Control during 1845-46; succeeded his
father in 1855, before which he was known by the courtesy title
of Lord Mahon; literature was his chief interest, and as a historian
and biographer he has a deservedly high reputation for
industry and impartial judgment; a "History
of England from 1713 to 1783," a "History of Spain
under Charles II.," "Historical and Critical Essays,"
and Lives of Pitt, Condé, and Belisarius, are his most
important works (1805-1875).
Stanislas I., Leczinski,
king of Poland, born in Lemberg; afterwards sovereign of the
Duchies of Bar and Lorraine; became the father-in-law of Louis
Stanley. Arthur Penrhyn,
widely known as Dean Stanley, having been dean of Westminster,
born at Alderley, in Cheshire, son of the rector, who became
bishop of Norwich; was educated at Rugby under Dr. Arnold, and
afterwards at Balliol College, Oxford; took orders, and was
for 12 years tutor in his college; published his "Life
of Dr. Arnold" in 1844, his "Sinai and Palestine"
in 1855, after a visit to the East; held a professorship of
Ecclesiastical History in Oxford for a time, and published lectures
on the Eastern Church, the Jewish Church, the Athanasian Creed,
and the Church of Scotland; accompanied the Prince of Wales
to the East in 1862, and became dean of Westminster next year
in succession to Trench; wrote "Historical Monuments of
Westminster Abbey" and "Christian Institutions";
he had been married to Lady Augusta Bruce, and her death deeply
affected him and accelerated his own; he was buried beside her
in Henry VII.'s chapel; he was an amiable man, an interesting
writer, and a broad churchman of very pronounced views (1815-1881).
Stanley, Henry Morton,
African explorer, born in Denbigh, Wales, in humble circumstances,
his parental name being Rowlands, he having assumed the name
of Stanley after that of his adopted father, Mr. Stanley, New
Orleans; served in the Confederate army; became a newspaper
foreign correspondent, to the New York Herald at length;
was summoned to go and "find Livingstone"; after many
an impediment found Livingstone on 10th November 1871, and after
staying with him, and accompanying him in explorations, returned
to England in August next year; in 1874 he set out again at
the head of an expedition, solved several problems, and returned
home; published "Congo and its Free State," "In
Darkest Africa," &c.; represents Lambeth, North, in
Parliament, having been elected in 1895; b. 1840.
Stannary, a general term used
to cover the tin mines of a specified district, the miners themselves,
and such customs and privileges as appertain to the workers
and the mines. In England the term is specially associated with
the stannaries of Devon and Cornwall, which by an Act of Edward
III. were conferred in perpetuity upon the Prince of Wales as
Duke of Cornwall, who holds the title of Lord Warden of the
Stannaries. Special Stannary Courts for the administration of
justice amongst those connected with the mines are held in the
two counties, and are each presided over by a warden and a vice-warden.
Up to 1752 representative assemblies of the miners, called Stannary
Parliaments, were held. Appeals from the Stannary Courts may
be made now to the higher courts of England.
Star-Chamber, a court which
originated in the reign of Edward III., and consisted practically
of the king's ordinary council, meeting in the Starred Chamber,
and dealing with such cases as fell outside the jurisdiction
of the Court of Chancery; was revived and remodelled by Henry
VII., and in an age when the ordinary courts were often intimidated
by powerful offenders, rendered excellent service to the cause
of justice; was further developed and strengthened during the
chancellorship of Wolsey, and in the reign of James I. had acquired
jurisdiction as a criminal court over a great variety of misdemeanours—perjury,
riots, conspiracy, high-treason, &c. Already tending to
an exercise of unconstitutional powers, it in the reign of Charles
I. became an instrument of the grossest tyranny, supporting
the king in his absolutist claims, and in 1641 was among the
first of the many abuses swept away by the Long Parliament.
Stars, The, are mostly suns,
but being, the nearest of them, at a distance from us more than
500,000 times our distance from the sun, are of a size we cannot
estimate, but are believed to be 300 times larger than the earth;
they are of unequal brightness, and are, according to this standard,
classified as of the first, second, down to the sixteenth magnitude;
those visible to the naked eye include stars from the first
to the sixth magnitude, and number 3000, while 20,000,000 are
visible by the telescope; of these in the
Milky Way (q. v.) alone
there are 18,000,000; they are distinguished by their colours
as well as their brightness, being white, orange, red, green,
and blue according to their temperature and composition; they
have from ancient date been grouped into constellations of the
northern and the southern hemispheres and of the
zodiac (q. v.), the stars
in each of which being noted by the Greek letters, as [Greek:
alpha], [Greek: beta], according to their brightness; they all
move more or less, and some go round each other, and are called
double according as there are two or more of them so revolving;
besides stars singly visible there are others called
clusters or nebulæ (q.
Stars and Stripes, the
flag of the United States, the stripes representing the original
States of the Union, and stars those annexed since.
Staten Island, 1, belonging
to New York State (52), and comprising the county of Richmond;
is a picturesque island (14 m. long), 5 m. SW. of New York,
separated from Long Island by the Narrows and from New Jersey
by the Kill van Kull and Staten Island Sound; pretty watering-villages
skirt its shores, and Forts Richmond and Wadsworth guard the
entrance to the Narrows. 2, A lofty, precipitous, and rugged
island, snow-clad most of the year, belonging to Argentina,
lying to the SE. of Tierra del Fuego, from which it is separated
by Le Maire Strait (40 m.).
given to an assembly of the representatives of the three estates
of nobles, clergy, and bourgeoisie, or the Tiers État
as it was called, in France prior to the Revolution of 1789,
and which was first convoked in 1302 by Philip IV.; they dealt
chiefly with taxation, and had no legislative power; they were
convoked by Louis XIII. in 1614, and dismissed for looking into
finance, and not convoked again till the last time in 1789,
for the history of which see Carlyle's "French
of the contention of the Democrats in the United States that
the several States of the Union have all the rights, powers,
and privileges not expressly made over to the central government,
and by extremists even the right of secession.
Stationers' Hall, the
hall of the old Company of London Stationers, incorporated in
1557, who enjoyed till the Copyright Act of 1842 the sole right
of having registered at their offices every pamphlet, book,
and ballad published in the kingdom. Although no longer compulsory,
the practice of entering books at Stationers' Hall is still
found useful for copyright purposes. The register-rolls of books
entered at Stationers' Hall have been
carefully preserved, and are of the highest value to the literary
Stations of the Cross,
steps in the passage of Jesus from the judgment-hall to Calvary,
or representations of these, before each one of which the faithful
are required to kneel and offer up a prayer.
Statius, Publius Papinius,
a Latin poet, born in Naples; lived at Rome, flourished at court,
particularly that of Domitian, whom he flattered, but retired
to his native place after defeat in a competition; his chief
work is the "Thebaïs," an epic in 12 books, embodying
the legends connected with the war against Thebes; he ranks
first among the poets of the silver age; a collection of short
pieces of his named "Silvæ" have been often
Staubbach (dust stream), a
famous waterfall in Bern, near Lauterbrunnen, 8 m. S. of Interlaken,
with a sheer descent of 980 ft.; in the sunlight it has the
appearance of a rainbow-hued transparent veil, and before it
reaches the ground it is dissipated in silvery spray.
Staunton, Howard, a famous
chess-player; was an Oxford man, and led a busy life as a journalist
and miscellaneous writer in London; won the chess championship
in 1843, and did much to extend the scientific study of the
game by various publications, "The Chess-Player's Handbook," &c.;
was also held in high repute as a Shakespearian scholar; published
well-annotated editions of Shakespeare's works and a facsimile
of the first folio (1810-1874).
Stavanger (24), a flourishing
port of Norway, on a fiord on the SW. coast, 100 m. S. of Bergen;
is of modern aspect, having been largely rebuilt; has two excellent
harbours, a fine 11th-century Gothic cathedral, and is the centre
of important coast fisheries.
Stavropol (657), a Russian
government on the Caspian Sea, the inhabitants of which are
chiefly nomads and breed horses, with a capital of the same
name (36) on a hill, a modern town and a prosperous, both in
manufacture and trade.
Steel, Sir John, sculptor,
born at Aberdeen; studied at Edinburgh and Rome; made his mark
in 1832 by a model of a statue, "Alexander and Bucephalus,"
and soon took rank with the foremost and busiest sculptors of
his day; his works are mostly to be found in Edinburgh, and
include the equestrian statue of Wellington, statues of Sir
Walter Scott (in the Scott Monument), Professor Wilson, Dr.
Chalmers, Allan Ramsay, etc.; the splendid figure of Queen Victoria
over the Royal Institution gained him the appointment (1844)
of sculptor to Her Majesty in Scotland, and on the unveiling
of his fine equestrian statue of Prince Albert in 1876 he was
created a knight (1804-1891).
Steele, Sir Richard,
a famous English essayist, born, the son of an attorney, in
Dublin; educated as a foundationer at the Charterhouse and at
Oxford; enamoured of a soldier's life, enlisted (1694) as a
cadet in the Life Guards; in the following year received an
ensigncy in the Coldstream Guards, and continued in the army
till 1706, by which time he had attained the rank of a captain;
a good deal of literary work was done during his soldiering,
notably "The Christian Hero" and several comedies;
appointed Gazetteer (1707), and for some two years was in the
private service of the Prince Consort, George of Denmark; began
in 1709 to issue the famous tri-weekly paper the Tatler,
in which, with little assistance, he played the part of social
and literary censor about town, couching his remarks in light
and graceful essays, which constituted a fresh departure in
literature; largely aided by Addison, his old school companion,
he developed this new form of essay in the Spectator
and Guardian; sat in Parliament as a zealous Whig, and
in George I.'s reign was knighted and received various minor
court appointments; continued a busy writer of pamphlets, &c.,
but withal mismanaged his affairs, and died in Wales, secured
from actual penury by the property of his second wife; as a
writer shares with Addison the glory of the Queen Anne Essay,
which in their hands did much to purify, elevate, and refine
the mind and manners of the time (1671-1729).
Steen, Jan, Dutch painter,
born in Leyden; was a genre painter of the style of Rembrandt,
and his paintings display severity with sympathy and a playful
humour; he is said to have led a dissipated life, and to have
left his wife and a large family in extreme destitution (1626-1679).
Steevens, George, commentator
on Shakespeare, born at Stepney; in 1736 edited 20 of Shakespeare's
plays carefully reprinted from the original quartos, and in
1731 his notes with those of Johnson in another edition; a further
edition, with a number of gratuitous alterations of the text,
was issued by him in 1793, and that was the accepted one till
the publication of Knight's in 1838 (1736-1800).
Stein, Baron von, Prussian
statesman, born at Nassau; rose rapidly in the service of the
State, and became Prussian Prime Minister under William III.
in 1807, in which capacity he effected important changes in
the constitution of the country to its lasting benefit, till
Napoleon procured his dismissal, and he withdrew to Austria,
and at length to St. Petersburg, where he was instrumental in
turning the general tide against Napoleon (1757-1831).
Stein, Charlotte von,
a lady friend of Goethe's, born at Weimar; Goethe's affection
for her cooled on his return from Italy to see her so changed;
she never forgave him for marrying a woman beneath him; letters
by Goethe to her were published in successive editions, but
hers to him were destroyed by her (1742-1827).
Steinmetz, Carl Friedrich
von, Prussian general, born at Eisenach; distinguished
himself in the war of 1813-1814, and inflicted crushing defeats
on the Austrians in 1866; fell below his reputation in the Franco-German
War, and was deprived of his command after the battle of Gravelotte,
but was elected Governor-General of Posen and Silesia (1796-1877).
German philologist, born at Gröbzig, in Anhalt; studied
at Berlin, where in 1863 he became professor of Comparative
Philology, and in 1872 lecturer at the Jewish High School on
Old Testament Criticism and Theology; author of various learned
and acute works on the science of language; b. 1823.
Stella, the name under which
Swift has immortalised Hester Johnson, the story of whose life
is inseparably entwined with that of the great Dean; was the
daughter of a lady-companion of Lady Gifford, the sister of
Sir William Temple, who, it is conjectured, was her father.
Swift first met her, a child of seven, when he assumed the duties
of amanuensis to Sir William Temple in 1688, and during his
subsequent residence with Sir William (1696-1699) stood to her
in the progressive relationship of tutor, friend, and lover;
but for some unaccountable reason it would seem they never married,
although their mutual affection and intimacy endured till her
death; to her was addressed, without thought of publication,
the immortal "Journal to Stella," "the most faithful
and fascinating diary the world has ever
seen," which throws an invaluable flood of light on the
character of Swift, revealing unsuspected tendernesses and affections
in the great satirist (1681-1728).
Stencilling, a cheap and
simple process of printing on various surfaces letters or designs;
the characters are cut out in thin plates of metal or card-board,
which are then laid on the surface to be imprinted, and the
colour, by means of a brush, rubbed through the cut spaces.
Steno, Nicholas, a noted
anatomist, born at Copenhagen, where he studied medicine and
kindred sciences with great enthusiasm; became widely known
in European medical circles by his important investigations
into the natural functions of glands (salivary and parotid),
the heart, brain, &c.; in 1667 became physician to the Grand-Duke
of Tuscany, residing at Florence, where he renounced Lutheranism
for Catholicism; made valuable geological investigations, but
finally gave himself up to a religious life; was created a bishop,
and in 1677 Vicar-Apostolic of North Germany; chiefly remembered
for his contributions to anatomical science (1638-1687).
Stentor, a Grecian herald who
accompanied the Greeks in the Trojan War, and whom Homer describes
as "the great-hearted, brazen-voiced Stentor, whose shout
was as loud as that of fifty other men," hence the epithet
Stephen, king of England from
1135 to 1154, nephew of Henry I., his mother being Adela, daughter
of William I.; acquired French possessions through the favour
of his uncle and by his marriage; in 1127 swore fealty to his
cousin Matilda, daughter of Henry I., as his future sovereign,
but on the death of his uncle usurped the throne, an action
leading to a violent civil war, which brought the country into
a state of anarchy; the Scots invaded on behalf of Matilda,
but were beaten back at Northallerton (the Battle of the Standard,
1138); foreign mercenaries introduced by the king only served
to embitter the struggle; the clergy, despoiled by the king,
turned against him, and in the absence of a strong central authority
the barons oppressed the people and fought with one another; "Adulterine
Castles" sprang up over the country, and "men said
openly that Christ and His saints were asleep"; in 1141
Matilda won the battle of Lincoln and for a few months ruled
the country, but "as much too harsh as Stephen was too
lenient," she rapidly became unpopular, and Stephen was
soon again in the ascendant; the successes of Henry, son of
Matilda, led in 1153 to the treaty of Wallingford, by which
it was arranged that Stephen should retain the crown for life,
while Henry should be his heir; both joined in suppressing the
turbulent barons and the "Adulterine Castles"; more
fortunately circumstanced, Stephen had many qualities which
might have made him a popular and successful king (1105-1154).
Stephen, the name of nine
Popes; S. I., Pope from 253 to 257, signalised by his
zeal against the heresies of his time; S. II., Pope from
752 to 757, in whose reign, under favour of Pepin le Bref, began
the temporal power of the Popes; S. III., Pope from 768
to 772, sanctioned the worship of saints and images; S. IV.,
Pope from 816 to 817; S. V., Pope from 885 to 891, distinguished
for his charity; S. VI., Pope from 896 to 897, strangled
after a reign of 18 months; S. VII., Pope from 829 to
831, entirely under the control of his mistresses; S. VIII.,
Pope from 939 to 942; S. IX., Pope from 1057 to 1058,
vigorously opposed the sale of benefices and the immorality
of the clergy.
Stephen, George, archæologist,
born in Liverpool; settled in Sweden, and became professor of
English in Copenhagen; his great work entitled "Old Northern
Runic Monuments of Scandinavia and England"; b.
Stephen, James, slavery
abolitionist, born in Dorsetshire; held a post in the West Indies;
wrote "Slavery in the British West Indies," an able
book; had sons more or less distinguished in law and law practice
Stephen, Leslie, man of
letters, born at Kensington, educated at Eton and Trinity Hall,
Cambridge, of which he became a Fellow; became editor of the
Cornhill and of the first 26 volumes of the "Dictionary
of National Biography"; is the author of "Hours in
a Library" and "History of English Thought in the
Eighteenth Century," books that have produced a deep impression;
has also produced several biographies, distinguished at once
by accuracy, elegance, and critical acumen; b. 1832.
Stephen, St., protomartyr
of the Christian Church, who was (Acts vii.) stoned to death
in A.D. 33; his death is a frequent subject of the old painters,
the saint himself being less frequently depicted, but when so
he is represented usually in a deacon's dress, bearing a stone
in one hand and a palm-branch in the other, or both hands full
Stephens, James, Fenian
conspirator, born in Kilkenny; became "Head Centre,"
and zealous in the Fenian cause both in Ireland and America;
was arrested in Dublin, but escaped; found his way to New York,
but was deposed, and has sunk out of sight; b. 1824.
Stephen's, St., the Parliament
House of Westminister, distinguished from St. James's, which
denotes the Court, as Downing Street does the Government.
inventor of the locomotive, born, the son of a poor colliery
engineman, at Wylam, near Newcastle; was early set to work,
first as a cowherd and then as a turnip-hoer, and by 15 was
earning 12s. a week as fireman at Throckley Bridge Colliery,
diligently the while acquiring the elements of education; married
at 21, and supplemented his wage as brakesman at Killingworth
Colliery by mending watches and shoes; in 1815 invented a safety-lamp
for miners, which brought him a public testimonial of £1000;
while at Killingworth turned his attention to the application
of steam to machinery, and thus constructed his first locomotive
in 1814 for the colliery tram-road; railway and locomotive construction
now became the business of his life; superintended the construction
of the Stockton and Darlington Railway (1821-25), the Liverpool
and Manchester Railway (1826-29), over which he ran his locomotive
the "Rocket" at a maximum rate of 35 m. an hour; in
the outburst of railway enterprise which now ensued Stephenson's
services were in requisition all over the country; became principal
engineer on many of the new railways; bought the country-seat
of Tapton, near Chesterfield, to which he retired for much-needed
rest; a man of character, gentle and simple in his affections,
strong and purposeful in his labours, who, as he himself says, "fought
for the locomotive single-handed for nearly 20 years,"
and "put up with every rebuff, determined not to be put
son of preceding, born at Willington Quay, was well educated
at Newcastle, and for a session at Edinburgh University; began
in 1823 to assist his father, and from 1824 to 1827 fulfilled
an engineering engagement in Colombia,
South America; rendered valuable service in the construction
of the "Rocket," and as joint-engineer with his father
of the London and Birmingham line, was mainly responsible for
its construction; turning his attention specially to bridge-building
he constructed the Britannia and Conway Tubular bridges, besides
many others, including those over the Nile, St. Lawrence, &c.;
was returned to the House of Commons in 1847; received the Grand
Cross of the Legion of Honour from the French emperor, and many
other distinctions at home and abroad; was buried in Westminster
Stepniak, Russian Nihilist
and apostle of freedom; exiled himself to England; author of "Underground
Steppes, the name given to wide,
treeless plains, barren except in spring, of the SE. of Russia
and SW. of Siberia.
Stereoscope, a simple optical
apparatus which, when two photographs of an object taken from
slightly different standpoints (so as to secure the appearance
it presents to either eye singly) are placed under its twin
magnifying lenses, presents to the eyes of the looker a single
picture of the object standing out in natural relief.
Sterling, John, a friend
of Carlyle's, born at Kames Castle, Bute, son of Captain Sterling
of the Times; studied at Glasgow and Cambridge; a man
of brilliant parts and a liberal-minded, but of feeble health;
had Julius Hare for tutor at Cambridge, and became Hare's curate
at Hurstmonceaux for eight months; wrote for reviews, and projected
literary enterprises, but achieved nothing; spent his later
days moving from place to place hoping to prolong life; formed
an acquaintanceship with Carlyle in 1832; became an intelligent
disciple, and believed in him to the last; Hare edited his papers,
and wrote his life as a clergyman, and Carlyle, dissatisfied,
wrote another on broader lines, and by so doing immortalised
his memory (1806-1843).
Stern, Daniel. See
Sterne, Laurence, English
humourist, born at Clonmel, Ireland, son of Roger Sterne, captain
in the army; his mother an Irishwoman; was educated at Halifax
and Cambridge, by-and-by took orders, and received livings in
Sutton and Shillington, became a prebend at York, and finally
got a living at Coxwold; in 1759 appeared the first two volumes
of "Tristram Shandy," and in 1767 the last two; in
1768 his "Sentimental Journey," and in the interim
his "Sermons," equally characteristic of the man as
the two former productions. Stopford Brooke says, "They
have no plot, they can scarcely be said to have any story. The
story of 'Tristram Shandy' wanders like a man in a labyrinth,
and the humour is as labyrinthine as the story. It is carefully
invented, and whimsically subtle; and the sentiment is sometimes
true, but mostly affected. But a certain unity is given to the
book by the admirable consistency of the characters," his
masterpieces, among which is "Uncle Toby"; the author
died in London of pulmonary consumption (1713-1763).
Sternhold, Thomas, principal
author of the first English metrical version of the Psalms,
originally attached to the Prayer-Book as augmented by John
Hopkins; continued in general use till Tate and Brady's version
of 1696 was substituted in 1717; was a Hampshire man, and held
the post of Groom of the Robes to Henry VIII. and Edward VI.
Steropes, one of the three
Cyclops (q. v.).
Stesichorus, a celebrated
Greek lyric poet, born in Sicily; contemporary of Sappho, Aleacus,
and Pittacus; at his birth it is said a nightingale alighted
on his lips and sang a sweet strain (632-652 B.C.).
Stettin (116), capital of Pomerania,
and a flourishing river-port on both banks of the Oder, 30 m.
from its entrance into the Baltic, and 60 m. NE. of Berlin;
lies contiguous to, and is continuous with, the smaller towns
of Bredow, Grabow, and Züllchow; principal buildings are
the royal palace (16th century), the Gothic church of St. Peter
(12th century), and St. James's (14th century); is a busy hive
of industry, turning out ships, cement, sugar, spirits, &c.,
and carrying on a large export and import trade.
Steuben, Baron von,
general in the American War of Independence, born in Magdeburg;
originally in the Prussian service under Frederick the Great,
and had distinguished himself at the siege of Prague and at
Rossbach; emigrating to America at the end of the Seven Years'
War he offered his services, which were readily welcomed, and
contributed to organise and discipline the army, to the success
of the revolution (1730-1794).
Stevenson, Robert, an
eminent Scottish engineer, born at Glasgow, the son of a West
India merchant; adopted the profession of his stepfather Thomas
Smith, and in 1796 succeeded him as first engineer to the Board
of Northern Lighthouses, a position he held for 47 years, during
which he planned and erected as many as 23 lighthouses round
the coasts of Scotland, his most noted erection being that on
the Bell Rock; introduced the catoptric system of illumination
and other improvements; was also much employed as a consulting
engineer in connection with bridge, harbour, canal, and railway
Louis Balfour, novelist and essayist, grandson of the
preceding, born at Edinburgh, where in 1875 he was called to
the bar, after disappointing his father by not following the
family vocation of engineering; had already begun to write for
the magazines, and soon abandoned law for the profession of
letters, in which he rapidly came to the front; in 1878 appeared
his first book, "An Inland Voyage," quickly followed
by "Travels with a Donkey," "Virginibus Puerisque," "Familiar
Studies"; with "Treasure Island" (1883) found
a wider public as a writer of adventure and romance, and established
himself permanently in the public favour with "Kidnapped"
(1886, most popular story), "The Master of Ballantrae," "Dr.
Jekyll and Mr. Hyde," &c.; his versatility in letters
was further revealed in his charming "A Child's Garden
of Verse," "Ballads," "Memories and Portraits,"
and "A Footnote to History" (on Samoan politics);
in 1890 failing health induced him to make his home in the island
of Samoa, where he died and is buried; "His too short life,"
says Professor Saintsbury, "has left a fairly ample store
of work, not always quite equal, seldom quite without a flaw,
but charming, stimulating, distinguished as few things in this
last quarter of a century have been" (1850-1894).
Steward, Lord High,
in early times the highest office of state in England, ranking
in power next to the sovereign; hereditary during many centuries,
the office lapsed in the reign of Henry IV., and since has been
revived only on special occasions, e. g. a coronation,
a trial of a peer, at the termination of which the office is
demitted, the Lord High Steward himself breaking in two his
wand of office.
Stewart, Balfour, physicist,
born in Edinburgh; after finishing his university curriculum
went to Australia and engaged for some
time in business; returned to England; became director at Kew
Observatory, and professor of Natural Philosophy at Owens College,
Manchester; made discoveries in radiant heat, and was one of
the founders of spectrum
analysis (q. v.); published text-books on physics,
in wide repute (1828-1887).
Stewart, Dugald, Scottish
philosopher, born in Edinburgh, son of Matthew Stewart; attended
the High School and the University; studied one session at Glasgow
under Dr. Reid; assisted his father in conducting the mathematical
classes in Edinburgh, and succeeded Adam Ferguson in the Moral
Philosophy chair in 1785, a post, the active duties of which
he discharged with signal success for twenty-five years, lecturing
on a wide range of subjects connected with metaphysics and the
science of mind; he wrote "Elements of the Philosophy of
the Human Mind," "Philosophical Essays," &c.; "His
writings," says Carlyle, who held him in high veneration, "are
not a philosophy, but a making ready for one. He does not enter
on the field to till it; he only encompasses it with fences,
invites cultivators, and drives away intruders; often (fallen
on evil days) he is reduced to long arguments with the passers-by
to prove that it is a field, that this so highly-prized
domain of his is, in truth, soil and substance, not clouds and
shadows. It is only to a superficial observer that the import
of these discussions can seem trivial; rightly understood, they
give sufficient and final answer to Hartley's and Darwin's and
all other possible forms of Materialism, the grand Idolatry,
as we may rightly call it, by which, in all times, the true
Worship, that of the Invisible, has been polluted and withstood"
Stewart, House of. See
Stewart, Matthew, mathematician,
born at Rothesay; bred for the Church, was for a time minister
of Roseneath, and succeeded Maclaurin as professor of Mathematics
in Edinburgh in 1747; was the author of a mathematical treatise
or two, and the lifelong friend of Robert Simson (1717-1785).
Steyer (17), a manufacturing
town of Upper Austria, at the junction of the Steyer and Enns,
20 m. NE. of St. Valentin; noted for its flourishing iron and
steel manufactures, of which it is the chief seat in Austria.
Stheno, one of the
three Gorgons (q. v.).
Stieler, a celebrated German
cartographer, born at Gotha; his atlases are deservedly held
in high esteem for their excellence (1775-1836).
Stier, Rudolf Ewald,
German theologian; was a devout student of the Bible as the
very Word of God, and is best known as the author of the "Words
of the Lord Jesus" (1800-1862).
Stigand, archbishop of Canterbury
and favourite of Edward the Confessor, who advanced him to the
bishoprics of Elmham and Winchester and to the Primacy in 1052;
his appointment was popularly regarded as uncanonical, and neither
Harold nor William the Conqueror allowed him to perform the
ceremony of coronation; through William's influence was by the
Pope deprived of his office and condemned to imprisonment.
Stigmata, impressions of marks
corresponding to certain wounds received by Christ at His crucifixion,
and which certain of the saints are said to have been supernaturally
marked with in memory of His. St. Francis in particular showed
Stilicho, a Roman general,
son of a Vandal captain under the emperor Valens; on the death
of Theodosius I., under whom he served, became the ruler of
the West, and by his military abilities saved the Western Empire;
defeated Alaric the Goth in a decisive battle and compelled
him to retire from Italy, as he did another horde of invading
barbarians afterwards; aspired to be master of the Roman empires,
but was assassinated at Ravenna in 403.
Still, John, bishop of Bath
and Wells, born at Grantham; rose in the Church through a succession
of preferments: is credited with the authorship of one of the
oldest comedies in the English language, "Gammer Gurton's
Needle," turning on the loss and recovery by her of the
needle with which she was mending her goodman's breeches (1543-1607).
Stilling, Jung, a German
mystic; studied medicine at Strasburg, and when there became
acquainted with Goethe, who took a liking for him and remained
his warm friend; settled as a physician at Elberfeldt and became
professor at Marburg and at Heidelberg; he was distinguished
for his skill in operations on the eye, and is said to have
restored to sight without fee or reward 3000 poor blind persons;
he is best known by his autobiography; Carlyle defines him as
the German "Dominie Sampson."
bishop of Worcester, born in Dorsetshire; was a scholarly man,
wrote on apologetics, in defence of the Church of England as
a branch of the Church Catholic, in support of the doctrine
of the Trinity, and in advocacy of harmony in the Church; was
an able controversialist and a generous minded; was a handsome
man, and popularly called the "Beauty of holiness"
Stipple, a mode of engraving
by dots instead of lines, each dot when magnified showing a
group of small ones.
Stirling, James Hutchison,
master in philosophy, born in Glasgow; bred to medicine and
practised for a time in South Wales; went to Germany to study
the recent developments in philosophy there, on his return to
Scotland published, in 1863, his "Secret of Hegel: being
the Hegelian System in Origin, Principle, Form, and Matter,"
which has proved epoch-making, and has for motto the words of
Hegel, "The Hidden Secret of the Universe is powerless
to resist the might of thought! It must unclose before it, revealing
to sight and bringing to enjoyment its riches and its depths."
It is the work of a master-mind, as every one must feel who
tackles to the study of it, and of one who has mastered the
subject of it as not another in England, or perhaps even in
Germany, has done. The grip he takes of it is marvellous and
his exposition trenchant and clear. It was followed in 1881
by his "Text-book to Kant," an exposition which his "Secret"
presupposes, and which he advised the students of it to expect,
that they might be able to construe the entire Hegelian system
from its root in Kant. It is not to the credit of his country
that Dr. Stirling has never been elected to a chair in any of
her universities, though it is understood that is due to the
unenlightened state of mind of electoral bodies in regard to
the Hegelian system and the prejudice against it, particularly
among the clergy of the Church. He was, however, elected to
be the first Gifford Lecturer in Edinburgh University, and his
admirers have had to content themselves with that modicum of
acknowledgment at last. He is the author of a critique on Sir
William Hamilton's theory of perception, on Huxley's doctrine
of protoplasm, and on Darwinianism, besides a translation of
Schwegler's "History of
Philosophy," with notes, a highly serviceable work. His
answer to Huxley is crushing. He is the avowed enemy
of the Aufklärung and of all knowledge
that consists of mere Vorstellungen and does not grasp the ideas
which they present; b. 1820.
Alexander, Earl of, poet, born at Menstrie, near Alloa;
was for a time tutor to the family of Argyll; was the author
of sonnets called "Aurora," some curious tragedies,
and an "Elegy on the Death of Prince Henry"; he was
held in high honour by James VI. and followed him to London,
obtained a grant of Nova Scotia, and made Secretary of State
for Scotland; he has been ranked as a poet with Drummond of
Hawthornden, who was his friend (1580-1640).
Stirling (17), the county town
of Stirlingshire, and one of the most ancient and historically-interesting
cities of Scotland; occupies a fine site on the Forth, 36 m.
NW. of Edinburgh and 29 m. NE. of Glasgow; most prominent feature
is the rocky castle hill, rising at the westward end of the
town to a height of 420 feet, and crowned by the ancient castle,
a favourite Stuart residence, and associated with many stirring
events in Scottish history, and utilised now as a garrison-station;
interesting also are "Argyll's Lodging," Greyfriars
Church (Pointed Gothic of the 15th century), the fine statue
of Bruce, &c.; has manufactures of tartans, tweeds, carpets, &c.,
and a trade in agricultural and mining products.
Stirlingshire (126), a
midland county of Scotland, stretching E. and W. from Dumbarton
(W.) to the Forth (E.); between Lanark (S.) and Perth (N.) it
forms the borderland between the Lowlands and the Highlands;
Loch Lomond skirts the western border, and on the northern Loch
Katrine, stretching into Perthshire; Ben Lomond and lesser heights
rise in the NW.; main streams are the Avon, Carron, Bannock, &c.;
between Alloa and Stirling stretches the fertile and well-cultivated
plain, "The Carse of Stirling"; in the W. lies a portion
of the great western coal-field, from which coal and iron-stone
are largely extracted; principal towns are
Stirling (q. v.), Falkirk,
and Kilsyth; interesting remains of Antoninus' Wall, from Forth
to Clyde, still exist; within its borders were fought the battles
of Bannockburn, Sauchieburn, Stirling Bridge, Falkirk, &c.
Stirrup Cup, a "parting
cup" given by the Highlanders to guests when they are leaving
and have their feet in the stirrups.
a native of Stobi, in Macedonia; flourished at the end of the
5th and beginning of the 6th century; celebrated as the compiler
(about 500 A.D.) of a Greek Anthology, through which many valuable
extracts are preserved to us from works which have since his
day been lost.
Stock Exchange, a mart
for the buying and selling of Government stocks, company shares,
and various securities, carried on usually by the members of
an associated body of brokers having certain rules and regulations.
Such associations exist now in most of the important cities
of the United Kingdom and commercial world generally (on the
Continent are known as Bourses). The London Stock Exchange,
transacting business in handsome buildings in Capel Court, facing
the Bank of England, was established in 1801, stock-exchange
transactions previous to then being carried on in a loose, ill-regulated
fashion by private parties chiefly in and around Change Alley,
the scene of the memorable
South Sea Bubble (q. v.) speculation. The great development
in stock-exchange business in recent times is due chiefly to
the sale of foreign and colonial bonds, and the remarkable growth
and spread of joint-stock companies since the Joint-Stock Company
Act of 1862.
Stockholm (246), capital of
Sweden; occupies a charming site on the channel leading out
of Lake Mälar into a bay of the Baltic; stands partly on
the mainland and partly on nine islands, communication between
which is facilitated by handsome bridges and a busy service
of boats; its wooded and rocky islands, crowned with handsome
buildings, its winding waterways, peninsulas, crowded wharves,
and outlook over the isleted lake, combine to make it one of
the most picturesque cities of Europe; Town Island, the nucleus
of the city, is occupied by the royal palace, House of Nobles,
principal wharf, &c., while on Knights' Island stand the
Houses of Parliament, law-courts, and other public buildings;
Norrmalm, with the Academy of Science, National Museum, Academy
of Fine Arts, Hop Garden, &c., is the finest quarter of
the city; manufactures embrace sugar, tobacco, silks, linen,
cotton, &c., besides which there are flourishing iron-works
and a busy export trade in iron and steel, oats, and tar, despite
the hindrance caused by the ice during three or four months
in winter; founded in 1255 by Birger Jarl.
Stockmar, Baron de,
statesman, born at Coburg; bred to medicine, became physician
to Leopold I. of Belgium, and at length his adviser; was adviser
also of Queen Victoria before her accession; accompanied Prince
Albert to Italy before his marriage, and joined him thereafter
in England as the trusted friend of both the queen and him;
he had two political ideals—a united Germany under Prussia,
and unity of purpose between Germany and England (1757-1863).
Stockport (70), a cotton town
of East Cheshire; occupies a site on the slopes of a narrow
gorge overlooking the confluence of the Thame and Goyt (forming
the Mersey), 37 m. E. of Liverpool; a handsome viaduct spans
the river; has an old grammar-school, free library, technical
school, &c.; during the present century has grown to be
a busy centre of cotton manufactures, and has besides flourishing
iron and brass foundries, machine-shops, breweries, &c.
a prosperous manufacturing town and port of Durham, on the Tees,
4 m. from its mouth; an iron bridge spanning the river connects
it with Thornaby-on-Tees; has the usual public buildings; steel
and iron shipbuilding building, potteries, foundries, machine-shops
are flourishing industries; iron and earthenware are the chief
exports, and with imports of corn and timber give rise to a
busy and increasing shipping, facilitated by the excellent river-way.
Stoics, the disciples of Zeno;
derived their name from the stoa or portico in Athens
where their master taught and founded the school in 340 B.C.
The doctrines of the school were completely antagonistic to
those of Epicurus, and among the disciples of it are to be reckoned
some of the noblest spirits of the heathen world immediately
before and after the advent of Christ. These appear to have
been attracted to it by the character of its moral teachings,
which were of a high order indeed. The principle of morality
was defined to be conformity to reason, and the duty of man
to lie in the subdual of all passion and a composed submission
to the will of the gods. It came short of Christian morality,
as indeed all Greek philosophy did, in not recognising the Divine
significance and power of humility, and especially in its failure
to see, still more to conform to, the great doctrine of Christ
which makes the salvation of a man to depend on the
interest he takes in, as well as in the
fact of the salvation of, other men. The Stoic was a proud man,
and not a humble, and was content if he could only have his
own soul for a prey. He did not see—and no heathen ever
did—that the salvation of one man is impossible except
in the salvation of other men, and that no man can save another
unless he descend into that other's case and stand, as it were,
in that other's stead. It is the glory of Christ that He was
the first to feel Himself, and to reveal to others, the eternal
validity and divinity of this truth. The Stoic morality is selfish;
the morality of Christ is brotherly.
chief seat of the "Potteries," in Staffordshire, on
the Trent and the Trent and Mersey Canal, 15 m. SE. of Crewe;
is of modern growth, with free library, infirmary, public baths,
statue to Wedgwood, &c., and is busily engaged in the manufacture
of all sorts of porcelain ware, earthenware, encaustic tiles, &c.,
besides which there are flourishing iron-works, machine-shops,
Stokes, Sir George Gabriel,
mathematician and physicist, born in Skreen, co. Sligo; he is
great in the department of mathematical physics, and has been
specially devoted to the study of hydro-dynamics and the theory
of light; has opened new fields of investigation, and supplied
future experimenters with valuable hints; he was one of the
foremost physicists of the day; b. 1819.
Count, German poet of the Göttingen school, to
which Bürger and Voss belonged, born in Hamburg; was with
his brother a friend of Goethe's, and held a civil appointment
in Holstein (1748-1821).
Leopold, Count of, German poet, born in Holstein, brother
of preceding; held State appointments in Denmark; joined the
Romish Church, and showed a religious and ascetic temper (1750-1819).
Stole, a long scarf worn by bishops
and priests in the administration of the sacraments of the Church,
and sometimes when preaching, as well as in symbol of authority.
Stone Age, the name given to
that period in the history of civilisation when the weapons
of war and the chase and the implements of industry were made
of stone, prior to employment for these purposes of bronze,
characteristic of the age succeeding.
Stone Circles, circles
of standing stones (q.
v.) found in various parts of Great Britain, North Europe
generally, and also, but of more recent origin, in North India;
were certainly, in the most of cases, set up to mark the circular
boundary of a place of burial; erroneously ascribed to the Druids;
from the character of numerous cinerary urns exhumed, seem to
have belonged to the bronze age in Great Britain; most interesting
are those of Stennis, in Orkney, with a circumference of 340
ft., Avebury, in Wiltshire, and
Stonehenge (q. v.).
Stonehaven (4), fishing port
and county town of Kincardineshire, situated at the entrance
of Carron Water (dividing the town) into South Bay, 16 m. SSW.
of Aberdeen; has a small harbour, and is chiefly engaged in
herring and haddock fishing.
Stonehenge, the greatest
and best preserved of the stone
circles (q. v.) of Britain, situated in Salisbury
Plain, Wiltshire, 7 m. N. of Salisbury; "consists of two
concentric circles, enclosing two ellipses"; the diameter
of the space enclosed is 100 ft.; the stones are from 13 ft.
to 28 ft. high; is generally regarded as an exceptional development
of the ordinary stone circle, but the special purpose of its
unusual construction is still a matter of uncertainty.
Stonyhurst, a celebrated
Roman Catholic college in East Lancashire, 10 m. N. of Blackburn;
established in 1794 by certain Jesuit fathers who, after the
suppression of their seminary at St. Omer, in France, by the
Bourbons, took up their residence at Bruges and then at Liège,
but fled thence to England during the Revolution, and accepted
the shelter offered them at Stonyhurst by Mr. Weld of Lulworth;
there are about 300 students, and upwards of 30 masters; a preparatory
school has been established at Hodder, a mile distant; in 1840
was affiliated to the University of London, for the degrees
of which its students are chiefly trained; retains in its various
institutions many marks of its French origin.
Stool of Repentance,
in Scotland in former times an elevated seat in a church on
which for offences against morality people did penance and suffered
Storm, Theodore Woldsen,
German poet and exquisite story-teller, born in Sleswig; was
a magistrate and judge in Sleswig-Holstein (1817-1888).
name given in the history of German literature to a period at
the close of the 18th century, when the nation began to assert
its freedom from artificial literary restraint, a period to
which Goethe's "Goetz von Berlichingen" and Schiller's "Robbers"
belong, and the spirit of which characterises it; the representatives
of the period were called Kraftmänner (Power-men), who "with
extreme animation railed against Fate in general, because it
enthralled free virtue, and with clenched hands or sounding
shields hurled defiance towards the vault of heaven."
Storms, Cape of, name originally
given in 1486 to the Cape of Good Hope by the Portuguese navigator
Stornoway, a fishing-port,
the capital of Lewis, and the chief town in the Outer Hebrides,
with Stornoway Castle adjoining.
Storthing (i. e. great
court), the national Parliament of Norway, composed of two chambers,
the Lagthing or Upper Chamber, and the Odelsthing or Lower.
Story, Joseph, American
jurist and judge, born in Massachusetts (1779-1845).
Story, William Wetmore,
poet and sculptor, son of preceding; b. 1819.
Stothard, Thomas, artistic
designer and book illustrator, as well as painter, born in London,
son of an innkeeper; illustrated, among other works, "Pilgrim's
Progress," and along with Turner, Rogers' "Italy"
town in Worcestershire; its staple manufactures are glass and
Stow, John, English antiquary,
born in London; bred a tailor; took to antiquarian pursuits,
which he prosecuted with the zeal of a devotee that spared no
sacrifice; wrote several works on antiquities, the chief and
most valuable being his "Survey of London and Westminster";
he ended his days in poverty (1525-1605).
Stowell, William Scott,
eminent English judge, born at Heworth, brother of Lord Eldon;
famed for his judicial decisions (1745-1836).
Strabo, ancient geographer, born
at Amasia, in Pontus; flourished in the reign of Augustus, and
the early part of that of Tiberius; was a learned man, lived
some years in Rome, and travelled much in various countries;
wrote a history of 43 books, all lost, and a work on geography,
in 17 books, which has come down to us entire all to the 7th;
the work is in general not descriptive; it comprehends principally
important political events in connection with the countries
visited, with a notice of their illustrious men, or whatever
seemed to him characteristic in them or was of interest to himself;
born about 63 B.C.
Straddha, the funeral rites
and funeral offerings for the dead among the Hindus.
Strafford, Thomas Wentworth,
Earl of, English statesman, born in London, of an old
Yorkshire family; studied at Cambridge; after some months' travel
on the Continent entered Parliament in 1614, but took no active
part in affairs till 1621; he took sides at first with the party
for freedom, but in 1622 felt compelled to side with the king,
to his elevation of greater and greater influence as his counsellor;
his policy, named "Thorough," was to establish a strong
Government with the king at the head, and to put down with a
strong hand all opposition to the royal authority; appointed
Lord-Deputy in Ireland in 1633, he did all he could to increase
the royal resources, and was at length, in 1640, exalted to
the Lord-Lieutenancy, being at the same time created Earl of
Strafford; he had risen by this time to be the chief adviser
of the king, and was held responsible for his arbitrary policy;
after the meeting of the Long Parliament he was impeached for
high treason; the impeachment seemed likely to fail, when a
Bill of Attainder was produced; to this the king refused his
assent, but he had to yield to the excitement his refusal produced,
and as the result Strafford was beheaded on Tower Hill (1593-1641).
(507, of which 150 are Chinese), British colony in the East
Indies, embracing the British possessions in the Malay Peninsula
(on the Strait of Malacca), Singapore, Malacca, Penang, and
the Keeling Islands and Christmas Island; were under the jurisdiction
of the Governor-General of India till 1867, in which year they
passed under the control of the Colonial Office at home.
Stralsund (28), a fortified
seaport of North Prussia, on Strela Sound, opposite the island
of Rügen, in the Baltic, and 66 m. NW. of Stettin, forms
of itself an islet, and is connected with the mainland (Pomerania)
by bridges; is a quaint old town, dating back to the 13th century;
figures often in the wars of Prussia, and is now a place of
considerable commercial importance.
Percy C. S. Smythe, Viscount, diplomatist; graduated
at Trinity College, Dublin, in 1800; entered the diplomatic
service, and in the following year succeeded to the title; was
ambassador to Portugal, Sweden, Turkey, and Russia; translated
the "Rimas" of Camoëns, and was raised to the
peerage (1825) as Baron Penshurst (1780-1855).
E. F. W. Smythe, son of preceding, diplomatist and noted
philologist, born at St. Petersburg; passed through Harrow and
Oxford; entered the diplomatic service; became attaché
at Constantinople, and during the Crimean War served as Oriental
Secretary, acquiring the while a profound grip of the Eastern
Question, and an unrivalled knowledge of European and Asiatic
languages—Turkish, Persian, Arabic, Slavonic, Afghan,
Basque, &c.; succeeded to the title in 1855, and henceforth
resided chiefly in London; was President of the Asiatic Society,
and was considered by Freeman "our greatest English philologist";
author of various articles on political, geographical, and philological
Stranraer (6), a royal burgh
and seaport of Wigtownshire, finely situated at the southern
extremity of Loch Ryan, 73 m. W. of Dumfries; has an interesting
16th-century castle, and a handsome town-hall and court-house;
there is some shipping in agricultural produce, and steamers
ply daily between Stranraer and Larne, in Ireland.
Francesco, author of a famous collection of stories
after the style of Boccaccio's "Decameron," partly
borrowed and partly genuine folk-stories, which ranks as an
Italian classic, and has been translated into various European
languages; flourished in the 16th century.
Strap, Hugh, a simple-hearted
friend and adherent of Roderick Random in Smollett's novel of
Strappado, an obsolete military
punishment by drawing a culprit to the top of a beam and then
letting him drop the length of the rope.
Strasburg (124), capital,
since 1871, of Alsace-Lorraine, on the Ill, a few miles above
its confluence with the Rhine, 89 m. N. of Basel; a place of
great strategical importance, and a fortress of the first class;
is a city of Roman origin, and contains a magnificent Gothic
cathedral (11th century) with a famous astronomical clock, an
imperial palace, university, &c.; manufactures embrace beer,
leather, cutlery, jewellery, &c.; there is also a busy transit
trade; a free town of the German empire in the 13th century;
fell into the hands of the French in 1681, and was captured
by the Germans, after a seven weeks' siege, on 28th September
1870, after which it became finally German, as it was originally,
by the peace of Frankfort, May 1871.
Stratford (40), manufacturing
town in Essex, on the Lee, 4 m. NE. of London.
Stratford de Redcliffe, Sir Stafford Canning, first Viscount,
a distinguished ambassador, born in London, son of a well-connected
merchant, and cousin to Canning the statesman; passed from Cambridge
to the Foreign Office in 1807 as a précis-writer to his
cousin; in three years had risen to the post of minister-plenipotentiary
at Constantinople, where he speedily gave evidence of his remarkable
powers as a diplomatist by arranging unaided the treaty of Bucharest
(1814) between Russia and Turkey, and so setting free the Russian
army to fall upon Napoleon, then retreating from Moscow; as
minister to Switzerland aided the Republic in drawing up its
constitution, and in the same year (1815) acted as commissioner
at the Congress of Vienna; was subsequently employed in the
United States and various European capitals, but his unrivalled
knowledge of the Turkish question brought him again, in 1842,
to Constantinople as ambassador, where his remarkable power
and influence over the Turks won him the title of "Great
Elchi"; exerted in vain his diplomatic skill to prevent
the rupture between Turkey and Russia, which precipitated the
Crimean War; resigned his embassy in 1858; was raised to the
peerage in 1852; sat in Parliament for several years previous
to 1842, but failed to make his mark as a debater; ranks among
the great ambassadors of England (1786-1880).
(8), a pleasant old market-town of Warwickshire, on the right
bank of the Avon, 8 m. SW. of Warwick and 110 m. NW. of London;
forever famous as the birth and burial place of Shakespeare,
with whom all that is of chief interest in the town is associated,
the house he was born in, his old school, Anne Hathaway's
cottage on the outskirts, the fine Early
English church (14th century), where he lies buried, the Shakespeare
Memorial Theatre, museum, &c.; is Visited annually by some
20,000 pilgrims; a thriving agricultural centre.
Strathclyde or Northern
Cumbria, an ancient kingdom of the Britons, which originated
in the 8th century, and comprised the W. side of Scotland between
the Solway and the Clyde; Alclyde or Dumbarton was the capital;
was permanently annexed to Scotland in 1124 under David I.
estate in Hampshire with a fine Queen Anne mansion, 7 m. NE.
of Basingstoke, purchased by Parliament for £263,000,
and presented to the Duke of Wellington in 1817.
Strathmore ("Great Valley"),
the great plain of Scotland stretching for 100 m. (5 to 10 m.
broad), in a north-easterly direction from Dumbartonshire to
Stonehaven, in Kincardineshire, between the great mountain barrier
of the Highlands, the Grampians, and the Southern Lennox, Ochil,
and Sidlaw Hills; in a more restricted sense denotes the plain
between Perth and Brechin.
Strathpeffer, a watering-place
in Ross and Cromarty, 5 m. W. of Dingwall, a great health-resort,
and much frequented on account of its mineral waters and bracing
air and other attractions.
Strauss, David Friedrich,
German theological and biblical critic, born at Ludwigsburg,
in Würtemberg; studied in the Theological Institute of
Tübingen under Baur, was ordained in 1830, and went in
1834 to Berlin to attend the lectures of Hegel and Schleiermacher,
and returning to Tübingen gave lectures on Hegel in 1832,
he the while maturing his famous theory which, published in
1835, made his name known over the whole theological world;
this was his "Leben Jesu," the first volume of which
appeared that year, in which he maintained that, while the life
of Christ had a historical basis, all the supernatural element
in it and the accounts of it were simply and purely mythical,
and the fruit of the idea of His person as Divine which at the
foundation of the Christian religion took possession of the
mind of the Church; the book proved epoch-making, and the influence
of it, whether as accepted or as rejected, affected, as it still
does, the whole theology of the Church; the effect of it was
a shock to the whole Christian world, for it seemed as if with
the denial of the supernatural the whole Christian system fell
to pieces; and its author found the entire Christian world opposed
to him, and he was cast out of the service of the Church; this,
however, did not daunt his ardour, for he never abandoned the
ground he had taken up; his last work was entitled "Der
Alte und der Neue Glaube," in which he openly repudiates
the Christian religion, and assigns the sovereign authority
in spiritual matters to science and its handmaid art. In a spiritual
reference the whole contention of Strauss against Christianity
is a tissue of irrelevancies, for the spirit of it, which is
its life and essence, is true whatever conclusion critics in
their seraphic wisdom may come to regarding the facts (1808-1874).
Strauss, Johann, musical
composer, born at Vienna; was a musical conductor and composer,
chiefly of waltz music.
Streatham (48), a Surrey suburb
of London, 6½ m. SW. of St. Paul's.
Street, George Edmund,
architect, born in Essex; was the architect of the New Law Courts
in London; had been trained under Gilbert Scott (1824-1881).
Strelitzes, the name given
to the life-guards of the czar, which at one time numbered 40,000;
became so unruly and dangerous to the State that they were dissolved
by Peter the Great, and dispersed in 1705.
Stretton, Hesba, the
nom de plume of Sarah Smith, daughter of a Shropshire
bookseller, whose semi-religious stories, chiefly for the young,
have won wide acceptance in English homes since the publication
of "Jessica's First Prayer" in 1867; was a regular
contributor to Household Words and All the Year Round
during Dickens's editorship; has written upwards of 40 volumes.
Strickland, Agnes, biographer
of the queens of England, born at Roydon Hall, near Southwold,
Suffolk; had already published poems and some minor works before
she conceived the plan of writing a series of biographies of
the queens of England; these appeared in 12 vols. during 1840-1848,
and such was their popularity that a similar work dealing with
the queens of Scotland was immediately undertaken; was aided
in these by her sister Elizabeth (1794-1875); was the author
of various other works, "Lives of the Seven Bishops," "Bachelor
Kings of England," &c.; her writings are of no value
as history, but are full of entertaining details (1806-1874).
the most noted of modern Swedish writers, born at Stockholm;
accumulated stores of valuable experience during various early
employments, which he utilised in his first successful work, "The
Red Room" (1879), a satire on social life in Sweden, "The
New Kingdom" (1882), equally bitter in its attack on social
conventions, got him into trouble, and since then his life has
been spent abroad; "Married Life," a collection of
short stories, brought upon him a charge of "outraging
Christianity," but after trial at Stockholm, in which he
eloquently defended himself, he was acquitted; a prolific writer
in all kinds of literature, and imbued with modern scientific
and socialistic ideas, his writings lack the repose necessary
to the highest literary achievement; b. 1849.
Stromboli, one of the Lipari
Islands; has an active volcano, the cone 3022 ft., which erupts
every five minutes what happens to be little else than steam;
it is 12 m. in circuit, and contains about 1000 inhabitants.
Stromkarl, a Norwegian spirit
who has 11 different music strains, to 10 of which people may
dance, the 11th being his night strain, to the tune of which
every one and everything begins to dance.
Stromness, a seaport on the
Orkney island of Pomona.
Stroud (10), a busy manufacturing
town of Gloucestershire; stands on rising ground overlooking
the confluence of the Frome and Slade, which unite to form the
Frome or Stroud Water, 10 m. SE. of Gloucester; numerous cloth
and dye works are built along the banks of the river; in the
town are several woollen factories.
Struck Jury, a jury of men
who possess special qualifications to judge of the facts of
Struensee, Danish statesman,
bred to medicine; became minister of Charles VII., took advantage
of his imbecility and directed the affairs of government, roused
the jealousy of the nobles, and he was arrested, tried on false
charges, and was beheaded (1737-1776).
Strutt, Joseph, antiquary,
born in Essex; wrote the "Regal and Ecclesiastical Antiquities
of England," followed by other works on the manners and
customs of the English people, that on their "Sports and
Pastimes" the chief (1742-1802).
Strype, John, historian and
biographer, born in London; was a voluminous writer, wrote Lives
of eminent English Churchmen and upon
the English Reformation (1643-1737).
Stuart, Arabella, daughter
of the Earl of Lennox, and, as descended from Margaret Tudor,
heiress to the English throne in default of James VI. of Scotland
and his family, and towards whom James all along cherished a
jealous feeling, and who was subjected to persecution at his
hands; when she chose to marry contrary to his wish he confined
her in the Tower, where she went mad and died.
Stuart Dynasty, a dynasty of
Scotch and finally English kings as well, commenced with Robert
II., who was the son of Marjory, Robert the Bruce's daughter,
who married Walter, the Lord High Steward of Scotland, hence
the name, his successors being Robert III., James I., James
II., James III., James IV., and James V., Mary Queen of Scots,
and James VI. in Scotland, and ended with James II. of England,
who was expelled from the throne for an obstinacy of temper
which characterised all the members of his house, "an unfortunate
dynasty," too, being appointed at length to rule at a time
and over a people that thought kings were born for the country
and not the country for kings, a dictum which they stubbornly
refused to concede, thinking that the nation existed for them
instead of them for the nation. The line became extinct by the
death of Cardinal York in 1807, who survived his brother Charles
Edward 19 years.
Stuart, Gilbert Charles,
American portrait-painter, born at Narragansett, Rhode Island;
was taken up by a Scotch painter named Alexander, whom he accompanied
to Edinburgh, but was set adrift by the death of his patron,
and for some years led a wandering life in America and London
till his great gift of portrait-painting was recognised; in
1792 returned to America, and there painted portraits of Washington,
Jefferson, and other noted Americans (1756-1828).
Stuart, John, Scottish antiquary;
author of "The Sculptured Stones of Scotland," "The
Book of Deer," and frequent contributor to the Proceedings
of the Scottish Society of Antiquaries; held a post in the
Register House for 24 years (1813-1877).
Stubbs, C. W., English clergyman,
born in Liverpool; has held several incumbencies; is rector
at Wavertree, near Liverpool, and takes a great interest in
the working-classes and in social subjects; is liberal both
in his political and in his theological opinions; has written
on questions of the day in a Christian reference; b.
Stubbs, William, historian,
born at Knaresborough; studied at Oxford; became a Fellow of
Trinity and of Oriel, professor of Modern History at Oxford,
and finally bishop; was author of "Constitutional History
of England," an epoch-making book in three volumes, and
editor of a collection of mediæval Chronicles, with valuable
prefaces accompanying; his writings are distinguished by their
learning and accuracy; b. 1825.
an old historic Hungarian town, 42 m. SW. of Pesth; was for
long the residence of the Hungarian kings, in the cathedral
of which they were crowned and buried.
Stukeley, William, antiquary,
born at Holbeach, Lincolnshire; graduated in medicine at Cambridge,
and practised in London and elsewhere till 1729, when he took
holy orders, and, after holding livings at Stamford and Somerby,
was presented in 1747 to the rectory of St George the Martyr
in London; maintained a lifelong interest in antiquarian research,
and published many volumes on British and Roman antiquities,
in which he displays unflagging industry and an exuberant fancifulness; "I
have used his materials," says Gibbon, "and rejected
most of his fanciful conjectures"; his credulous works
on the supposed Druidical remains at Stonehenge and elsewhere
gained him the title of the "Arch-Druid" (1687-1765).
Stump Orator, one who is
ready to take up any question of the day, usually a political
one, and harangue upon it from any platform offhand; the class,
the whole merely a talking one, form the subject, in a pretty
wide reference, of one of Carlyle's scathing "Latter-Day
Sturm, Johann, educational
reformer, born In Luxemburg; settled in Paris; established a
school there for dialectics and rhetoric for a time, but left
it on account of his Protestantism for Strasburg at the invitation
of the civic authorities, and became rector of the gymnasium
there, which under him acquired such repute that the Emperor
Maximilian constituted it a university with him at the head;
his adoption of the theological views of Zwingli in opposition
to those of Luther made him many enemies, and he was dismissed
from office, but was allowed a pension; he was a great student
of Cicero; he wrote many works in Latin in a style so pure and
elegant that he was named the German Cicero (1507-1589).
Sturt, Charles, a noted
Australian explorer, and a captain in the army; during 1828-45
was the determined leader of three important exploratory expeditions
into Central Australia, the results of which he embodied in
two works; became colonial secretary of South Australia, but
failing health and eyesight led to his retirement, and he was
pensioned by the first Parliament of South Australia; he returned
to England totally blind (1795-1869).
Stuttgart (140), capital of
Würtemberg, stands amid beautiful vine-clad hills in a
district called the "Swabian Paradise," on an affluent
of the Neckar, 127 m. SE. of Frankfort; is a handsome city with
several royal palaces, a 16th-century castle, interesting old
churches, a royal library (450,000 vols.), a splendid royal
park, conservatory of music, picture gallery, and various educational
establishments; ranks next to Leipzig as a book mart, and has
flourishing manufactures of textiles, beer, pianofortes, chemicals, &c.
fabulous birds with brazen claws, wings, and beaks, that used
their feathers as arrows, ate human flesh, and infested Arcadia;
Hercules startled them with a rattle, and with his arrows either
shot them or drove them off.
Styria (1,281), a central duchy
of Austria, stretching in a semicircle from Upper Austria and
Salzburg on the NW. to Croatia and Slavonia on the SE., and
flanked by Hungary on the E.; a mountainous region crossed by
various eastern ranges of the Alpine system, and drained by
the Drave, Save, Inn, and other rivers; more than half lies
under forest; agriculture flourishes, but mineral products,
iron, salt, coal, &c., constitute the chief wealth. The
principal manufactures are connected therewith; was joined to
the Austrian crown in 1192.
Styx, name (from the Greek verb
signifying "to abhor") of the principal river of the
nether world, which it flows sluggishly round seven times; is
properly the river of death, which all must cross to enter the
unseen world, and of which, in the Greek mythology, Charon was
the ferryman. In their solemn engagements it was by this river
the gods took oath to signify that they would forego their godhood
if they swore falsely. The Styx was a
branch of the Great Ocean which girds the universe. See
Suakin or Sawakin (11),
a seaport under Egyptian control, and since the Mahdi's revolt
garrisoned by the English, on the Nubian coast of the Red Sea;
stands on a rocky islet, and is connected with El Keff on the
mainland by a causeway; is the starting-point of caravans to
Berber and Khartoum, and as such has a large transit trade,
exporting silver ornaments, ivory, gums, hides, gold, &c.;
here African pilgrims to Mecca embark to the number of 6000
or 7000 annually.
Suarez, Francisco, scholastic
philosopher, born at Grenada; after joining the Jesuit body
became professor of Theology at Coimbra, attempted to reconcile
realism with nominalism, and adopted in theology a system called "Congruism,"
being a modification of Molinism; wrote a "Defence of the
Catholic Faith against the Errors of the Anglican Sect"
at the instance of the Pope against the claims of James I. in
his oath of allegiance (1548-1617).
Subahdar, a title given to
governors of provinces in the times of the Mogul dynasty, now
bestowed upon native officers in the Indian army holding rank
equivalent to an English captaincy.
Subiaco (7), an ancient and
interesting town of Central Italy; occupies a pleasant site
amid encircling hills on the Teverone, 32 m. E. by N. of Rome;
has a quaint, mediæval appearance, and is overlooked by
an old castle, a former residence of the Popes; there are two
Benedictine monasteries dating from the 6th century, and in
a grotto near St. Benedictine lived, in his youth, a hermit
life for three years.
Subjective, The, that,
in contrast to objective, which rests on the sole authority
of consciousness, and has no higher warrant.
Subjectivism, the doctrine
of the pure relativity of knowledge, or that it is purely subjective.
as infralapsarianism (q.
Sublimation, the vaporisation
of a solid body and its resumption thereafter of the solid form.
Sublime Porte, a name given
to the Ottoman Government, so called from a lofty gateway leading
into the residence of the Vizier.
Substitution, in theology
the doctrine that Christ in His obedience and death stood in
the place of the sinner, so that His merits on their faith in
Him are imputed to them.
Subtle Doctor, name given
to Duns Scotus (q. v.)
for his hairsplitting acuteness and extreme subtlety of distinction.
Succession Wars, the
general title of several European wars which arose in the 18th
century consequent on a failure of issue in certain royal lines,
most important of which are (1) War of the Spanish Succession
(1701-1713). The death (1700) of Charles II. of Spain without
direct issue caused Louis XIV. of France and the Emperor Leopold
I. (the former married to the elder sister of Charles, the latter
to the younger sister, and both grandsons of Philip III. of
Spain) to put forth claims to the crown, the one on behalf of
his grandson, Philip of Anjou, the other for his second son,
the Archduke Charles. War broke out on the entry of Philip into
Madrid and his assumption of the crown, England and the United
Netherlands uniting with the emperor to curb the ambition of
Louis. During the long struggle the transcendent military genius
of Marlborough asserted itself in the great victories of Blenheim,
Ramillies, and Oudenarde, but the lukewarmness of England in
the struggle, the political fall of Marlborough, and the Tory
vote for peace prevented the allies reaping the full benefit
of their successes. The Treaty of Utrecht (1713) left Philip
in possession of his Spanish kingdom, but the condition was
exacted that the crowns of Spain and France should not be united.
The emperor (the Archduke Charles since 1711) attempted to carry
on the struggle, but was forced to sign the Treaty of Rastadt
(1714), acknowledging Philip king of Spain. Spain, however,
ceded her Netherlands Sardinia, &c., to the emperor, while
Gibraltar, Minorca, and parts of North America fell to England.
(2) War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748) followed
on the death (1740) of the Emperor Charles VI. without male
issue. His daughter, Maria Theresa, entered into possession
of Bohemia, Hungary, and the Archduchy of Austria, but was immediately
attacked by the Elector Charles Albert of Bavaria and Augustus
of Saxony and Poland, both rival claimants for the imperial
crown, while Frederick II. of Prussia seized the opportunity
of Maria's embarrassment to annex Silesia. France, Spain, and
England were drawn into the struggle, the last in support of
Maria. Success oscillated from side to side, but the Treaty
of Aix-la-Chapelle, which brought the war to a close, left Maria
pretty well in possession of her inheritance save the loss of
Silesia to Frederick.
Gabriel, Duc d'Albufera, marshal of France, born in
Lyons; distinguished himself in Italy, Egypt, Austria, and Prussia,
and became general in command in Aragon, by his success in ruling
which last he gained the marshal's baton and a dukedom; he rejoined
Napoleon during the Hundred Days; after Waterloo he lost his
peerage, but recovered it in 1819 (1770-1826).
Suckling, Sir John,
poet, born, of good parentage, at Whitton, Middlesex; quitted
Cambridge in 1628 to travel on the Continent, and for a time
served in the army of Gustavus Adolphus in Germany; returning
to England about 1632 he became a favourite at Court, where
he was noted for his wit, prodigality, and verses; supported
Charles in the Bishops' Wars against the Scots; sat in the Long
Parliament; was involved in a plot to rescue Strafford, and
to bring foreign troops to the aid of the king, but discovered,
had to flee the country; died, probably by his own hand, in
Paris; wrote several forgotten plays, a prose treatise on "Religion
by Reason," and miscellaneous poems, amongst which are
his charming songs and ballads, his title to fame (1609-1642).
Sudarium, the handkerchief
given by St. Veronica (q.
v.) to Christ as He was passing to crucifixion, and on which
His face was miraculously impressed as He wiped the sweat off
Sudbury (7), a borough of Suffolk,
on the Stour, where it crosses the Essex border, 58 m. NE. of
London; has three old churches (Perpendicular style), a grammar-school
founded in the 15th century, a corn-exchange, &c.; manufactures
embrace cocoa-nut matting, silk, &c.
Sudetic Mountains stretch
in irregular broken masses and subsidiary chains for 120 m.
across South-East Germany, separating Bohemia and Moravia from
Saxony and Prussian Silesia, and forming a link between the
Carpathians and mountains of Franconia; highest and central
position is known as the Riesengebirge
(q. v.); Schneekoppe is the culminating point of the
Sudras, the fourth and lowest
of the Hindu castes (q. v.);
are by some alleged to be of the aboriginal race of India who
to retain their freedom adopted Brahmanism.
a writer of sensational novels, born
at Paris; was for some years an army surgeon, and served in
the Spanish campaign of 1823; his father's death (1829) bringing
him a handsome fortune, he retired from the army to devote himself
to literature; his reputation as a writer rests mainly on his
well-known works "The Mysteries of Paris" (1842) and "The
Wandering Jew" (1845), which, displaying little skill on
the artistic side, yet rivet their readers' attention by a wealth
of exciting incident and plot; was elected to the Chamber of
Deputies in 1850, but the coup d'état of 1852
drove him an exile to Annecy, in Savoy, where he died (1804-1859).
Roman historian; practised as an advocate in Rome in the reign
of Trajan; was a friend of the Younger Pliny, became private
secretary to Hadrian, but was deprived of this post through
an indiscretion; wrote several works, and of those extant the
chief is the "Lives of the Twelve Cæsars," beginning
with Julius Cæsar and ending with Domitian, a work which
relates a great number of anecdotes illustrating the characters
of the emperors; b. A.D. 70.
Suez (13), a town of Egypt, stands
at the edge of the desert at the head of a gulf of the same
name and at the S. end of the Suez Canal, 75 m. E. of Cairo,
with which it is connected by railway; as a trading place, dating
back to the times of the Ptolemies, has had a fluctuating prosperity,
but since the completion of the canal is growing steadily in
importance; is still for the most part an ill-built and ill-kept
town; has a large English hospital and ship-stores.
Suez Canal, a great artificial
channel cutting the isthmus of Suez, and thus forming a waterway
between the Mediterranean and the Red Sea; was planned and undertaken
by the French engineer Lesseps, through whose untiring efforts
a company was formed and the necessary capital raised; occupied
10 years in the construction (1859-69), and cost some 20 million
pounds; from Port Said on the Mediterranean to Suez at the head
of the Red Sea the length is about 100 m., a portion of which
lies through Lakes Menzaleh, Ballah, Timsah, and the Bitter
Lakes; as widened and deepened in 1886 it has a minimum depth
of 28 ft., and varies from 150 to 300 ft. in width; traffic
is facilitated by electric light during the night, and the passage
occupies little more than 24 hours; has been neutralised and
exempted from blockade, vessels of all nations in peace or war
being free to pass through; now the highway to India and the
East, shortening the voyage to India by 7600 m.; three-fourths
of the ships passing through are English; an annual toll is
drawn of close on three million pounds, the net profit of which
falls to be divided amongst the shareholders, of whom since
1875 the British Government has been one of the largest.
Suffolk (371), eastmost county
of England, fronts the North Sea between Norfolk (N.) and Essex
(S.); is a pleasant undulating county with pretty woods and
eastward-flowing streams (Waveney, Aide, Orwell, Stour, &c.);
long tracts of heathland skirt the coast; agriculture is still
the staple industry, wheat the principal crop; is famed for
its antiquities, architecture, historic associations, and long
list of worthies. Ipswich is the county town.
Suffren, Bailli de,
a celebrated French admiral, who entered the navy a boy of 14
during the wars with England, and rose to be one of his country's
greatest naval heroes, especially distinguishing himself as
commander of a squadron in the West Indies, proving himself
a master of naval tactics in more or less successful engagements
with the English; is regarded by Professor Laughton as "the
most illustrious officer that has ever held command in the French
navy"; sprang from good Provence stock (1729-1788).
Sufism, the doctrine of the Sufis,
a sect of Mohammedan mystics; imported into Mohammedanism the
idea that the soul is the subject of ecstasies of Divine inspiration
in virtue of its direct emanation from the Deity, and this in
the teeth of the fundamental article of the Mohammedan creed,
which exalts God as a being passing all comprehension and ruling
it by a law which is equally mysterious, which we have only
to obey; this doctrine is associated with the idea that the
body is the soul's prison, and death the return of it to its
original home, a doctrine of the dervish fraternity, of which
the Madhi is high-priest.
Suger, Abbé, abbot
of St. Denis, minister of Louis VI. and Louis VII.; reformed
the discipline in his abbey, emancipated the serfs connected
with it, maintained the authority of the king against the great
vassals; he was regent of the kingdom during the second Crusade,
and earned the title of Father of his Country; he wrote a Life
of Louis VI. (1082-1152).
Suidas, name of a grammarian
and lexicographer of the 10th or 11th century; his "Lexicon"
is a kind of encyclopædic work, and is valuable chiefly
for the extracts it contains from ancient writers.
Suir, a river of Ireland which
rises in Tipperary and joins the Barrow after a course of 100
Sukkur (29), a town on the Indus
(here spanned by a fine bridge), 28 m. SE. of Shikarpur; has
rail communication with Kurrachee and Afghanistan, and considerable
trade in various textiles, opium, saltpetre, sugar, &c.;
1 m. distant is Old Sukkur; the island of Bukkur, in the river-channel
and affording support to the bridge, is occupied and fortified
by the British.
Suleiman Pasha, a distinguished
Turkish general, born in Roumelia; entered the army in 1854,
fought in various wars, became director of the Military Academy
at Constantinople; distinguished himself in the Servian War
of 1876, and was elected governor of Bosnia and Herzegovina;
during the Russian-Turkish War made a gallant attempt to clear
the enemy from the Shipka Pass, but as commander of the Danube
army was defeated near Philippopolis (1878), and subsequently
court-martialled and sentenced to 15 years' imprisonment, but
was pardoned by the sultan (1838-1883).
Suliman or Suleiman Mountains,
a bare and rugged range, stretching N. and S. for upwards of
350 m. from the Kyber Pass almost to the Arabian Sea, and forming
the boundary between Afghanistan and the Punjab, India.
Suliotes, a Græco-Albanian
race who in the 17th century, to escape their Turkish oppressors,
fled from their old settlement in Epirus to the mountains of
Suli, in South Albania, where they prospered in the following
century in independence; driven out by the Turks in 1803, they
emigrated to the Ionian Islands; came to the aid of Ali Pasha
against the sultan in 1820, but, defeated and scattered, found
refuge in Cephalonia, and later gave valuable assistance to
the Greeks in their struggle for independence. The treaty of
1829 left their district of Suli in the hands of the Turks,
and since then they have dwelt among the Greeks, many of them
holding high government rank.
Sulla, Lucius Cornelius,
a Roman of patrician birth; leader of the aristocratic party
in Rome, and the rival of Marius
(q. v.), under whom he got his first lessons in war;
rose to distinction in arms afterwards, and during his absence
the popular party gained the ascendency,
and Marius, who had been banished, was recalled; the blood of
his friends had been shed in torrents, and himself proscribed;
on the death of Marius he returned with his army, glutted his
vengeance by the sacrifice of thousands of the opposite faction,
celebrated his victory by a triumph of unprecedented splendour,
and caused himself to be proclaimed Dictator 81 B.C.; he ruled
with absolute power two years after, and then resigning his
dictatorship retired into private life; d. 76 B.C. at
the age of 60.
sentences of proscription issued by Sulla against Roman citizens
in 81 B.C. under his dictatorship.
Sullivan, Sir Arthur
Seymour, English composer, born in London; won the Mendelssohn
scholarship at the Royal Academy of Music, and by means of it
completed his musical education at Leipzig; in 1862 composed
incidental music for "The Tempest," well received
at the Crystal Palace; since then has been a prolific writer
of all kinds of music, ranging from hymns and oratorios to popular
songs and comic operas; his oratorios include "The Prodigal
Son" (1868), "The Light of the World," "The
Golden Legend," &c., but it is as a writer of light
and tuneful operas (librettos by
W. S. Gilbert, q. v.) that he is best known; these
began with "Cox and Box" (1866), and include "Trial
by Jury," "The Sorcerer" (1877), "Pinafore," "Patience"
(1881), "Mikado" (1885), &c., in all of which
he displays great gifts as a melodist, and wonderful resource
in clever piquant orchestration; received the Legion of Honour
in 1878, and was knighted in 1883; b. 1842.
Sullivan's Island, a
long and narrow island, a favourite sea-bathing resort, on the
N. of the entrance to Charleston Harbour, South Carolina, U.S.
Sully, Maximilien de Béthune,
Duke of, celebrated minister of Henry IV. of France,
born at the Château of Rosny, near Mantes, whence he was
known at first as the Baron de Rosny; at first a ward of Henry
IV. of Navarre, he joined the Huguenot ranks along with him,
and distinguished himself at Coutras and Ivry, and approved
of Henry's policy in changing his colours on his accession to
the throne, remaining ever after by his side as most trusted
adviser, directing the finances of the country with economy,
and encouraging the peasantry in the cultivation of the soil;
used to say, "Labourage et pasteurage, voilà les
deux mamelles dont La France est alimentée, les vraies
mines et trésors de Pérou," "Tillage
and cattle-tending are the two paps whence France sucks nourishment;
these are the true mines and treasures of Peru;" on the
death of the king he retired from court, and occupied his leisure
in writing his celebrated "Memoirs," which, while
they show the author to be a great statesman, give no very pleasant
idea of his character (1560-1611).
poet, born in Paris; published a volume of poems in 1865 entitled "Stances
and Poèmes," which commanded instant regard, and
have been succeeded by others which have deepened the impression,
and entitled him to the highest rank as a poet; they give evidence
of a serious mind occupied with serious problems; was elected
to the Academy in 1881; b. 1839.
an ecclesiastical historian, born in Aquitaine; wrote a "Historia
Sacra," and a Life of St. Martin (363-406).
Sultan, the title of a Mohammedan
sovereign, Sultana being the feminine form.
Sulu Islands (75), an archipelago
of 162 islands in Asiatic waters, lying to the NE. of Borneo,
and extending to the Philippines; belongs to the Spaniards who,
in 1876, subdued the piratical Malay inhabitants; the trade
in pearls and edible nests is mainly carried on by Chinese.
Sumatra (3,572, including adjacent
islands), after Borneo the largest of the East Indian islands,
stretches SE. across the Equator between the Malay Peninsula
(from whose SW. coast it is separated by the Strait of Malacca)
to Java (Strait of Sunda separating them); has an extreme length
of 1115 m., and an area more than three times that of England;
is mountainous, volcanic, covered in central parts by virgin
forest, abounds in rivers and lakes, and possesses an exceptionally
rich flora and peculiar fauna; rainfall is abundant; some gold
and coal are worked, but the chief products are rice, sugar,
coffee, tobacco, petroleum, pepper, &c.; the island is mainly
under Dutch control, but much of the unexplored centre is still
in the hands of savage tribes who have waged continual warfare
with their European invaders. Padang (150) is the official Dutch
Sumbawa (150), one of the Sunda
Islands, lying between Lombok (W.) and Flores (E.); mountainous
and dangerously volcanic; yields rice, tobacco, cotton, &c.;
is divided among four native rulers under Dutch authority.
Sumner, Charles, American
statesman and abolitionist, born in Boston; graduated at Harvard
(1830), and was called to the bar in 1834, but found a more
congenial sphere in writing and lecturing; during 1837-40 pursued
his favourite study of jurisprudence in France, Germany, and
England; was brought into public notice by his 4th of July oration
(1845) on "The True Grandeur of Nations," an eloquent
condemnation of war; became an uncompromising opponent of the
slave-trade; was one of the founders of the Free Soil Party,
and in 1851 was elected to the National Senate, a position he
held until the close of his life, and where he did much by his
eloquent speeches to prepare the way for emancipation, and afterwards
to win for the blacks the rights of citizenship (1811-1874).
Sumner, John Bird, archbishop
of Canterbury; rose by a succession of preferments to the Primacy,
an office which he discharged with discretion and moderation
Sumptuary Laws, passed
in various lands and ages to restrict excess in dress, food,
and luxuries generally; are to be found in the codes of Solon,
Julius Cæsar, and other ancient rulers; Charles VI. of
France restricted dinners to one soup and two other dishes;
appear at various times in English statutes down to the 16th
century against the use of "costly meats," furs, silks, &c.,
by those unable to afford them; were issued by the Scottish
Parliament against the extravagance of ladies in the matter
of dress to relieve "the puir gentlemen their husbands
and fathers"; were repealed in England in the reign of
James I.; at no time were they carefully observed.
Sumter, Fort, a fort on a
shoal in Charleston harbour, 3½ m. from the town; occupied
by Major Anderson with 80 men and 62 guns in the interest of
the secession of South Carolina from the Union, and the attack
on which by General Beauregard on 12th April 1861 was the commencement
of the Civil War; it held out against attack and bombardment
till the month of July following.
Sun, The, is a star; is the centre
of the solar system, as it is in consequence called, is a globe
consisting of a mass of vapour at white heat, and of such enormous
size that it is 500 times larger than all the planets of the
system put together, or of a bulk one
million and a half times greater than the earth, from which
it is ninety-two and a half million miles distant; the bright
surface of it is called the photosphere, and this brightness
is diversified with brighter spots called faculæ,
and dark ones called sun-spots, and by watching which
latter as they move over the sun's disk we find it takes 25
days to revolve on its axis, and by means of
spectrum analysis (q.
v.) find it is composed of hydrogen and a number of vaporised
Sunda Islands, a name sometimes
applied to the long chain of islands stretching SE. from the
Malay Peninsula to North Australia, including Sumatra, Timor, &c.,
but more correctly designates the islands Bali, Lombok, Sumbawa,
Flores, Sandalwood Island, &c., which lie between Java and
Timor, are under Dutch suzerainty, and produce the usual East
Indian products. See various islands named.
Sunderbunds or Sundarbans,
a great tract of jungle, swamp, and alluvial plain, forming
the lower portion of the Ganges delta; extends from the Hooghly
on the W. to the Meghna on the E., a distance of 165 m.; rice
is cultivated on the upper part by a sparse population; the
lower part forms a dense belt of wild jungle reaching to the
sea, and is infested by numerous tigers, leopards, rhinoceroses,
pythons, cobras, &c.
Sunderland (142), a flourishing
seaport of Durham, situated at the mouth of the Wear, 12 m.
SE. of Newcastle-upon-Tyne; embraces some very old parishes,
but as a commercial town has entirely developed within the present
century, and is of quite modern appearance, with the usual public
buildings; owes its prosperity mainly to neighbouring coal-fields,
the product of which it exports in great quantities; has four
large docks covering 50 acres; also famous iron shipbuilding
yards, large iron-works, glass and bottle works, roperies, &c.
Charles Spencer, third Earl, son of succeeding, and
son in law of the Duke of Marlborough; was a Secretary of State
in Queen Anne's reign during 1706-1710, and in the following
reign, as leader of the Whigs, exercised unbounded influence
over George I.; narrowly escaped, chiefly through Walpole's
help, being found guilty of accepting heavy bribes from the
South Sea Company; lost office, and was displaying his father's
propensity to underhand scheming by intriguing with the Tories
and the Pretender's party when death cut short his career (1675-1722).
Robert Spencer, second Earl of, an English statesman
prominent in the reign of Charles II., James II., and William
III.; was for some years engaged in embassies abroad before
being appointed Secretary of State in 1679; adroit and insinuating,
and with great capacity for business, he soon became a leading
minister; attached himself to the Duchess of Portsmouth, and
in the corrupt politics of the two Stuart kings played his own
hand with consummate if unscrupulous skill, standing high in
King James's favour as Prime Minister, although he had formerly
intrigued in favour of Monmouth; supported the Exclusion Bill,
and even then was in secret communication with the Prince of
Orange; after the Revolution rose to high office under William;
was instrumental in bringing the Whigs into power, and during
1695-1697 was acknowledged head of his Government (1640-1702).
Sunnites, the orthodox Mohammedans,
a name given to them because they accept the Sunna,
i. e. traditional teaching of the Prophet, as of the
same authority as the Korân, in the matter of both faith
and morals, agreeably to a fundamental article of Mohammedanism,
that not only the rule of life, but the interpretation of it,
is of divine dictation.
Sun-Worship, the worship
of the sun is conceived of as an impersonation of the deity,
that originated among races so far advanced in civilisation
as to recognise what they owed to its benignant influence, in
particular as tillers of the soil, and, is associated with advance
as the worship of Bacchus was, which could not originate prior
to cultivation of the vine.
Suonada, the Inland Sea of Japan,
separating Kyushu and Shikoku from the Main Island, Honshiu,
a fine sheet of water (250 m. by 50), picturesquely studded
with islands which, however, render navigation difficult.
of, name given in the Roman Catholic theology to works
or good deeds performed by saints over and above what is required
for their own salvation, and the merit of which is held to be
transferable to others in need of indulgence.
(above grammar), name given to Sigismund, emperor of Germany,
from his rejoinder to a cardinal who one day on a high occasion
mildly corrected a grammatical mistake he had made in a grand
oration, "I am King of the Romans, and above grammar."
Superior, Lake, largest
fresh-water lake on the globe, lies between the United States
and Canada, the boundary line passing through the centre; area,
31,200 sq. m., almost the size of Ireland; maximum depth, 1008
ft.; St. Mary's River, the only outlet, a short rapid stream,
carries the overflow to Lake Huron; receives upwards of 200
rivers, but none of first-class importance, largest is the St.
Louis; is dotted with numerous islands; water is singularly
clear and pure, and abounds with fish; navigation is hindered
in winter by shore-ice, but the lake never freezes over.
Superstition, the fear
of that which is not God, as if it were God, or the fear of
that which is not the devil, as if it were the devil; or, as
it has in more detail been defined by Ruskin, "the fear
of a spirit whose passions and acts are those of a man present
in some places and not others; kind to one person and unkind
to another, pleased or angry, according to the degree of attention
you pay him, or the praise you refuse him; hostile generally
to human pleasure, but may be bribed by sacrificing part of
that pleasure into permitting the rest."
the doctrine of the extreme Calvinists, that the decree of God
as regards the eternal salvation of some and the eternal reprobation
of others is unconditional.
Supremacy, Royal, the
supremacy of the sovereign in matters ecclesiastical and matters
of civil right to the exclusion of matters spiritual and the
jurisdiction in the former claimed by the Pope.
Surabaya (127), a seaport on
the NE. coast or Java, is the head-quarters of the Dutch military,
and exports tropical products; of the population 6000 are European,
and 7000 or so Chinese.
Surat (109), a city of India,
Bombay Presidency, on the Tapti, 14 m. from its entrance into
the Gulf of Bombay; stretches along the S. bank of the river,
presenting no architectural features of interest save some Mohammedan,
Parsee, and Hindu temples, and an old castle or fortress; chief
exports are cotton and grain; the English erected here their
first factory on the Indian continent in 1612, and with Portuguese
and Dutch traders added, it became one of the principal commercial
centres of India; in the 18th century
the removal of the English East India Company to Bombay
drew off a considerable portion of the trade of Surat, which
it has never recovered.
Surplice, a linen robe with
wide sleeves worn by officiating clergymen and choristers, originating
in the rochet or alb of early times.
Surrey (1,731), an inland county,
and one of the fairest of England, in the SE. between Kent (E.)
and Hampshire (W.), with Sussex on the S., separated from Middlesex
on the N. by the Thames; the North Downs traverse the county
E. and W., slope gently to the Thames, and precipitously in
the S. to the level Weald; generally presents a beautiful prospect
of hill and heatherland adorned with splendid woods; the Wey
and the Mole are the principal streams; hops are extensively
grown round Farnham; largest town is Croydon; the county town,
Surrey, Henry Howard,
Earl of, poet, son of the Duke of Norfolk; early attached
to the court of Henry VIII., he attended his royal master at
the "Field of the Cloth of Gold," and took part in
the coronation ceremony of Anne Boleyn (1533); was created a
Knight of the Garter in 1542, and two years later led the English
army in France with varying success; imprisoned along with his
father on a charge of high treason, for which there was no adequate
evidence, he was condemned and executed; as one of the early
leaders of the poetic renaissance, and introducer of the sonnet
and originator of blank verse, he deservedly holds a high place
in the history of English literature (1516-1547).
Surya, in the Hindu mythology
the sun conceived of as a female deity.
Susa (the Shushan of Daniel, Esther, &c.),
an ancient city of Persia, now in ruins, that spread over an
area of 3 sq. m., on the Kerkha, 250 m. SE. of Bagdad; was for
long the favourite residence of the Persian kings, the ruins
of whose famous palace, described in Esther, are still extant.
Susan, St., the patron saint
and guardian of innocence and saviour from infamy and reproach.
Susanna, The History of, a story
in the Apocrypha, evidently conceived to glorify Daniel as a
judge, and which appears to have been originally written by
a Jew in Greek. She had been accused of adultery by two of the
elders and condemned to death, but was acquitted on Daniel's
examination of her accusers to their confusion and condemnation
to death in her stead. The story has been allegorised by the
Church, and Susanna made to represent the Church, and the two
elders her persecutors.
Susquehanna, a river of
America, formed by the junction at Northumberland, Pennsylvania,
of the North Branch (350 m.) flowing out of Schuyler Lake, central
New York, and the West Branch (250 m.) rising in the Alleghany
Mountains; flows in a shallow, rapid, unnavigable course S.
and SE. through beautiful scenery to Port Deposit, at the N.
end of Chesapeake Bay; length, 150 m.
Sussex (550), a S. maritime county
of England, fronts the English Channel between Hampshire (W.)
and Kent (E.), with Surrey on its northern border; is traversed
E. and W. by the South Downs, which afford splendid pasturage
for half a million sheep, and terminates in Beachy Head; in
the N. lies the wide, fertile, and richly-wooded plain of the
Weald; chief rivers are the Arun, Adur, Ouse, and Rother, of
no great size; is a fine agricultural county, more than two-thirds
of its area being under cultivation; was the scene of Cæsar's
landing (55 B.C.), of Ælla's, the leader of the South
Saxons (whence the name Sussex), and of William the Conqueror's
(1066); throughout the country are interesting antiquities;
largest town, Brighton; county town, Lewes.
Sutherland (22), a maritime
county of N. Scotland; presents a N. and a W. shore to the Atlantic,
between Ross and Cromarty (S.) and Caithness (E.), and faces
the North Sea on the SE., whence the land slopes upwards to
the great mountain region and wild, precipitous loch-indented
coasts of the W. and N.; scarcely 3 per cent, of the area is
cultivated, but large numbers of sheep and cattle are raised;
the Oykell is the longest (35 m.) of many streams, and Loch
Shin the largest of 300 lochs; there are extensive deer forests
and grouse moors, while valuable salmon and herring fisheries
exist round the coasts; is the most sparsely populated county
in Scotland. Dornoch is the county town.
Sutlej, the eastmost of the five
rivers of the Punjab; its head-waters flow from two Thibetan
lakes at an elevation of 15,200 ft., whence it turns NW. and
W. to break through a wild gorge of the Himalayas, thence bends
to the SW., forms the eastern boundary of the Punjab, and joins
the Indus at Mithankot after a course of 900 m.
Sutras, name given to a collection
of aphorisms, summaries of the teachings of the Brahmans, and
of rules regulative of ritual or religious observances, and
also given to these aphorisms and rules themselves.
Suttee, a Hindu widow who immolates
herself on the funeral pile of her husband, a term applied to
the practice itself. The practice was of very ancient date,
but the custom was proclaimed illegal in 1829 under Lord William
Bentinck's administration, and it is now very seldom that a
widow seeks to violate the law. In 1823, in Bengal alone, 575
widows gave themselves to be so burned, of whom 109 were above
sixty, 226 above forty, 209 above twenty, and 32 under twenty.
Suwarrow or Suvoroff,
Russian field-marshal, born at Moscow; entered the army as a
private soldier, distinguished himself in the Seven Years' War,
and after 20 years' service rose to command; in command of a
division he in 1773 routed an army of the Turks beyond the Danube,
and in 1783 he reduced a tribe of Tartars under the Russian
yoke; his greatest exploit perhaps was his storming of Ismail,
which had resisted all attempts to reduce it for seven months,
and which he, but with revolting barbarities however, in three
days succeeded by an indiscriminate massacre of 40,000 of the
inhabitants; his despatch thereafter to Queen Catharine was "Glory
to God and the Empress, Ismail is ours!" he after this
conducted a cruel campaign in Poland, which ended in its partition,
and a campaign in Italy to the disaster of the French and his
elevation to the peerage as a prince, with the title of Italinski;
he was all along the agent of the ruthless purposes of
Potemkin (q. v.) (1730-1800).
Sveaborg, a strong fortress
in Finland, protecting Helsingfors, in the Baltic, 3 m. distant
from that town, and called the "Gibraltar of the North."
Svir, a Russian river that flows
into Lake Ladoga.
Swabia, an ancient duchy in the
SW. of Germany, and most fertile part, so called from the Suevi,
who in the 1st century displaced the aboriginal Celts, and which,
along with Bavaria, formed the nucleus of the Fatherland; was
separated by the Rhine from France and Switzerland,
having for capital Augsburg, and being
divided now into Würtemberg, Bavaria, Baden, and Lichtenstein.
Swahili (i. e. coast
people), a people of mixed Bantu and Arab stock occupying Zanzibar
and the adjoining territory from nearly Mombasa to Mozambique;
they are an enterprising race, and are dispersed as traders,
hunters, carriers, &c., far and wide over Central Africa.
Swale, a river in the North Riding
of Yorkshire, uniting, after a course of 60 miles, with the
Ure to form the Ouse.
Swammerdam, Jan, a Dutch
entomologist, born at Amsterdam, where he settled as a doctor,
but turning with enthusiasm to the study of insect life, made
important contributions to, and practically laid the foundations
of, entomological science (1637-1680).
Swan of Avon, sweet name
given by Ben Jonson to Shakespeare.
Swan of Mantua, name given
to Virgil, as born at Mantua.
Swansea (90), a flourishing
and progressive seaport of Glamorganshire, at the entrance of
the Tawe, 45 m. into Swansea Bay; has a splendid harbour, 60
acres of docks, a castle, old grammar-school, &c.; is the
chief seat of the copper-smelting and of the tin-plate manufacture
of England, and exports the products of these works, as well
as coal, zinc, and other minerals, in large quantities.
Swatow (30), a seaport of China,
at the mouth of the Han, 225 m. E. of Canton; has large sugar-refineries,
factories for bean-cake and grass-cloth; since the policy of "the
open door" was adopted in 1867 has had a growing export
Swaziland (64), a small South
African native State to the E. of the Transvaal, of which in
1893 it became a dependency, retaining, however, its own laws
and native chief; is mountainous, fertile, and rich in minerals;
the Swazis are of Zulu stock, jealous of the Boers, and friendly
an epidemic of extraordinary malignity which swept over Europe,
and especially England, in the 15th and 16th centuries, attacking
with equal virulence all classes and all ages, and carrying
off enormous numbers of people; was characterised by a sharp
sudden seizure, high fever, followed by a foetid perspiration;
first appeared in England in 1485, and for the last time in
Sweating System, a term
which began to be used about 1848 to describe an iniquitous
system of sub-contracting in the tailoring trade. Orders from
master-tailors were undertaken by sub-contractors, who themselves
farmed the work out to needy workers, who made the articles
in their own crowded and foetid homes, receiving "starvation
wages." The term is now used in reference to all trades
in cases where the conditions imposed by masters tend to grind
the rate of payment down to a bare living wage and to subject
the workers to insanitary surroundings by overcrowding, &c.,
and to unduly long hours. Kingsley's pamphlet, "Cheap Clothes
and Nasty," and novel, "Alton Locke," did much
to draw public attention to the evil. In 1890 an elaborate report
by a committee of the House of Lords was published, and led
in the following year to the passing of the Factory and Workshops
Act and the Public Health Act, which have greatly mitigated
Sweden (4,785), a kingdom of
Northern Europe, occupying the eastern portion of the great
Scandinavian Peninsula, bounded W. by Norway, E. by Russian
Finland, Gulf of Bothnia, and the Baltic, and on the N. stretches
across the Arctic circle between Norway (NW.) and Russia (NE.),
while its southern serrated shores are washed by the Skager-Rack,
Cattegat, and Baltic. From the mountain-barrier of Norway the
country slopes down in broad terrace-like plains to the sea,
intersected by many useful rivers and diversified by numerous
lakes, of which Lakes Wenner, Wetter, and Mälar (properly
an arm of the sea) are the largest, and lying under forest to
the extent of nearly one-half its area; is divided into three
great divisions: 1, Norrland in the N., a wide and wild tract
of mountainous country, thickly forested, infested by the wolf,
bear, and lynx, in summer the home of the wood-cutter, and sparsely
inhabited by Lapps. 2, Svealand or Sweden proper occupies the
centre, and is the region of the great lakes and of the principal
mineral wealth (iron, copper, &c.) of the country. 3, Gothland,
the southern portion, embraces the fertile plains sloping to
the Cattegat, and is the chief agricultural district, besides
possessing iron and coal. Climate is fairly dry, with a warm
summer and long cold winter. Agriculture (potatoes, grain, rye,
beet), although scarcely 8 per cent. of the land is under cultivation,
is the principal industry, and with dairy-farming, stock-raising, &c.,
gives employment to more than one-half of the people; mining
and timber-felling are only less important; chief industries
are iron-works, sugar-refineries, cotton-mills, &c.; principal
exports timber (much the largest), iron, steel, butter, &c.,
while textiles and dry-goods are the chiefly needed imports.
Transit is greatly facilitated by the numerous canals and by
the rivers and lakes. Railways and telegraphs are well developed
in proportion to the population. As in Norway, the national
religion is Lutheranism; education is free and compulsory. Government
is vested in the king, who with the advice of a council controls
the executive, and two legislative chambers which have equal
powers, but the members of the one are elected for nine years
by provincial councils, while those of the other are elected
by the suffrages of the people, receive salaries, and sit only
for three years. The national debt amounts to 14½ million
pounds. In the 14th century the country became an appanage of
the Danish crown, and continued as such until freedom was again
won in the 16th century by the patriot king, Gustavus Vasa.
By the 17th century had extended her rule across the seas into
certain portions of the empire, but selling these in the beginning
of the 18th century, fell from her rank as a first-rate power.
In 1814 Norway was annexed, and the two countries, each enjoying
complete autonomy, are now united under one crown.
a mystic of the mystics, founder of the "New Church,"
born at Stockholm, son of a bishop, a boy of extraordinary gifts
and natural seriousness of mind; carefully educated under his
father, attended the university of Upsala and took his degree
in philosophy in 1709; in eager quest of knowledge visited England,
Holland, France, and Germany; on his return, after four years,
was at 28 appointed by Charles XII. assessor of the Royal College
of Mines; in 1721 went to examine the mines and smelting-works
of Europe; from 1716 spent 30 years in the composition and publication
of scientific works, when of a sudden he threw himself into
theology; in 1743 his period of illumination began, and the
publication of voluminous theological treatises; the Swedish
clergy interfered a little with the publication of his works,
but he kept the friendship of people in power. He was never
married, his habits were simple, lived on bread, milk, and vegetables,
occupied a house situated in a large
garden; visited England several times, but attracted no special
attention; died in London of apoplexy in his eighty-fifth year. "He
is described, in London, as a man of quiet, clerical habit,
not averse to tea and coffee, and kind to children. He wore
a sword when in full velvet dress, and whenever he walked out
carried a gold-headed cane." This is Emerson's account
in brief of his outer man, but for a glimpse or two of his ways
of thinking and his views the reader is referred to Emerson's "Representative
Men." The man was a seer; what he saw only himself could
tell, and only those could see, he would say, who had the power
of transporting themselves into the same spiritual centre; to
him the only real world was the spirit-world and the world of
sense only in so far as it reflected to the soul the great invisible
Swedenborgians, the members
of the "New Jerusalem Church," founded on the teaching
of Emmanuel Swedenborg
(q. v.) on a belief in direct communion with the world
of spirits, and in God as properly incarnate in the divine humanity
name popularly given to Jenny Lind
Swerga or Svarga, the
summit of Mount Meru, the Hindu Olympus, the heaven or abode
of Indra (q. v.) and of the
gods in general.
Swetchine, Madame, a
Russian lady, Sophie Soymanof, born at Moscow, who married General
Swetchine, and, after turning Catholic, became celebrated in
Paris during 1817-51 as the gracious hostess of a salon where
much religious and ethical discussion went on; plain and unimposing
in appearance, she yet exercised a remarkable fascination over
her "coterie" by the elevation of her character and
eager spiritual nature (1782-1857).
Swift, Jonathan, born
at Dublin, a posthumous son, of well-connected parents; educated
at Kilkenny, where he had Congreve for companion, and at Trinity
College, Dublin, where he was a somewhat riotous and a by no
means studious undergraduate, only receiving his B.A. by "special
grace" in 1686; two years later the Revolution drove him
to England; became amanuensis to his mother's distinguished
relative Sir William Temple, whose service, however, was uncongenial
to his proud independent nature, and after taking a Master's
degree at Oxford he returned to Dublin, took orders, and was
presented to the canonry of Kilroot, near Belfast; the quiet
of country life palling upon him, he was glad to resume secretarial
service in Temple's household (1696), where during the next
three years he remained, mastering the craft of politics, reading
enormously, and falling in love with
Stella (q. v.); was set
adrift by Temple's death in 1699, but shortly afterwards became
secretary to Lord Berkeley, one of the Lord-Deputies to Ireland,
and was soon settled in the vicarage of Laracor, West Meath;
in 1704 appeared anonymously his famous satires, the "Battle
of the Books" and the "Tale of a Tub," masterpieces
of English prose; various squibs and pamphlets followed, "On
the Inconvenience of Abolishing Christianity," &c.;
but politics more and more engaged his attention; and neglected
by the Whigs and hating their war policy, he turned Tory, attacked
with deadly effect, during his editorship of the Examiner
(1710-11), the war party and its leader Marlborough; crushed
Steele's defence in his "Public Spirit of the Whigs,"
and after the publication of "The Conduct of the Allies"
stood easily the foremost political writer of his time; disappointed
of an English bishopric, in 1713 reluctantly accepted the deanery
of St. Patrick's, Dublin, a position he held until the close
of his life; became loved in the country he despised by eloquently
voicing the wrongs of Ireland in a series of tracts, "Drapier's
Letters," &c., fruitful of good results; crowned his
great reputation by the publication (1726) of his masterpiece "Gulliver's
Travels," the most daring, savage, and amusing satire contained
in the world's literature; "Stella's" death and the
slow progress of a brain disease, ending in insanity, cast an
ever-deepening gloom over his later years (1667-1745).
Swilly, Lough, a narrow
inlet of the Atlantic, on the coast of Donegal, North Ireland,
running in between Dunaff Head (E.) and Fanad Point (W.), a
distance of 25 m.; is from 3 to 4 m. broad; the entrance is
Charles, poet and prose writer, born in London, son
of Admiral Swinburne; educated at Balliol College, Oxford, went
to Florence and spent some time there; his first productions
were plays, two of them tragedies, and "Poems and Ballads,"
his later "A Song of Italy," essay on "William
Blake," and "Songs before Sunrise," instinct
with pantheistic and republican ideas, besides "Studies
in Song," "Studies in Prose and Poetry," &c.;
he ranks as the successor of Landor, of whom he is a great admirer,
stands high both as a poet and a critic, and is a man of broad
and generous sympathies; his admirers regard it as a reproach
to his generation that due honour is not paid by it to his genius;
Swindon (32), a town in Wiltshire,
77 m. W. of London; contains the Great Western Company's engineering
works, which cover 200 acres, and employ 10,000 hands.
Swinemünde (9), a fortified
seaport on the island of Usedom, in the Baltic, near the mouth
of the Swine, one of the outlets of the Oder.
a league of the several Swiss cantons to resist an attempt on
the part of the Emperor Albrecht to incorporate certain of the
free towns into his family possessions.
Swiss Guards. See
Swithin, St., bishop of Winchester
from 852 to 862; was buried by his own request in Winchester
Churchyard, "where passers-by might tread above his head,
and the dews of heaven fall on his grave." On his canonisation,
a century after, the chapter resolved to remove his body to
a shrine in the cathedral, but their purpose was hindered on
account of a rain which lasted 40 days from the 15th July; hence
the popular notion that if it rained that day it would be followed
by rain for 40 days after.
Switzerland (2,918), a republic
of Central Europe, bounded by Germany (N.), France (W.), Italy
(S.), and Austria and Germany (E.); in size is slightly more
than one-half of Scotland, of semicircular shape, having the
Jura Alps on its French border, and divided from Italy by the
great central ranges of the Alpine system, whence radiate the
Swiss Alps—Pennine, Lepontine, Bernese, &c.—covering
the E. and S., and occupying with intervening valleys two-thirds
of the country; the remaining third is occupied by an elevated
fertile plain, extending between Lakes of Constance and Geneva
(largest of numerous lakes), and studded with picturesque hills;
principal rivers are the Upper Rhône, the Aar, Ticino,
and Inn; climate varies with the elevation, from the high regions
of perpetual snow to warm valleys where ripen the vine, fig,
almond, and olive; about one-third of the land surface is under
forest, and one quarter arable, the grain grown forming only
one-half of what is required; flourishing dairy farms exist,
prospered by the fine meadows and mountain
pastures which, together with the forests, comprise the country's
greatest wealth; minerals are exceedingly scarce, coal being
entirely absent. Despite its restricted arable area and lack
of minerals the country has attained a high pitch of prosperity
through the thrift and energy of its people, who have skilfully
utilised the inexhaustible motive-power of innumerable waterfalls
and mountain streams to drive great factories of silks, cottons,
watches, and jewellery. The beauty of its mountain, lake, and
river scenery has long made Switzerland the sanatorium and recreation
ground of Europe; more than 500 health resorts exist, and the
country has been described as one vast hotel. The Alpine barriers
are crossed by splendid roads and railways, the great tunnels
through St. Gothard and the Simplon being triumphs of engineering
skill and enterprise. In 1848, after the suppression of the
Sonderbund (q. v.),
the existing league of 22 semi-independent States (constituting
since 1798 the Helvetic Republic) formed a closer federal union,
and a constitution (amended in 1874) was drawn up conserving
as far as possible the distinctive laws of the cantons and local
institutions of their communes. The President is elected annually
by the Federal Assembly (which consists of two chambers constituting
the legislative power), and is assisted in the executive government
by a Federal Council of seven members. By an institution known
as the "Referendum" all legislative acts passed in
the Cantonal or Federal Assemblies may under certain conditions
be referred to the mass of the electors, and this is frequently
done. The public debt amounts to over two million pounds. The
national army is maintained by conscription; 71 per cent. of
the people speak German, 22 per cent. French, and 5 per cent.
Italian; 59 per cent. are Protestants, and 41 per cent. Catholics.
Education is splendidly organised, free, and compulsory; there
are five universities, and many fine technical schools.
Sybaris, an ancient city of
Magna Græcia, on the Gulf of Tarentum, flourished in the
17th century B.C., but in 510 B.C. was captured and totally
obliterated by the rival colonists of Crotona; at the height
of its prosperity the luxury and voluptuousness of the inhabitants
was such as to become a byword throughout the ancient world,
and henceforth a Sybaris city is a city of luxurious indulgence,
and Sybarite a devotee of pleasure.
Sybel, Heinrich von,
German historian, born at Düsseldorf; was a pupil of
Ranke's (q. v.),
and became professor of History at Münich and Bonn; he
was a Liberal in politics; his great works are a "History
of the Period of the French Revolution from 1789 to 1795, and
then to 1800," in five volumes, and the "History of
the Founding of the German Empire under William I.," in
five volumes; he has also written a "History of the First
Sycorax, a hag in the "Tempest,"
the dam of Caliban.
Sydenham, a district of Kent
and suburb of London, to the SE. of which it lies 7 m., includes
the Surrey parish of Lambeth, where in 1852-54 the Crystal Palace
was erected and still stands, a far-famed sight of London, containing
valuable collections illustrative of the arts and sciences,
and surrounded by a magnificent park and gardens.
Sydenham, Floyer, Greek
scholar; translated some of the Dialogues of Plato into English,
and wrote a dissertation on Heraclitus, which failed of being
appreciated, and involved in embarrassment, he was thrown into
prison because he could not pay a small bill for provisions,
and there died; his sad fate led to the foundation of the Literary
Sydenham, Thomas, the "English
Hippocrates," born in Dorsetshire, educated at Oxford,
and a Fellow of All Souls'; practised medicine in London, where,
though regarded with disfavour by the faculty, he stood in high
regard, and had an extensive practice, from his study of the
symptoms of disease, and the respect he paid to the constitution
of the patient; he used his own sense and judgment in each case,
and his treatment was uniformly successful; he commanded the
regard of his contemporaries Locke and Boyle, and his memory
was revered by such experts as Boerhaave, Stahl, Pinel, and
Haller; he ranks as a great reformer in the healing art (1624-1689).
Sydney (488), the capital of
New South Wales, the oldest city in Australia, and one of the
first in the world, on the S. shore of the basin of Port Jackson;
and the entrance of a magnificent, almost land-locked, harbour
for shipping of the largest tonnage; the situation of the city
is superb, and it is surrounded by the richest scenery; the
shores of the basin are covered with luxuriant vegetation, studded
with islands and indented with pretty bays; it is well paved,
has broad streets, and some fine buildings, the principal being
the university, the two cathedrals, the post-office, and the
town hall. It is a commercial rather than a manufacturing city,
though its resources for manufacture are considerable, for it
is in the centre of a large coal-field, in connection with which
manufacturing industries may yet develop.
Sydney, Algernon. See
Syllogism, an argument consisting
of three propositions, of which two are called premises, major
and minor, and the one that necessarily follows from them the
Sylphs, elemental spirits of
the air, as salamanders, are of fire, of light figure with gliding
movements and procreative power.
Sylvester, St., the name
of three Popes: S. I., Pope from 314 to 335; S. II.,
Pope from 999 to 1003, alleged, from his recondite knowledge
as an alchemist, to have been in league with the devil; and
S. III., Anti-Pope from 1041 to 1046.
Sylvester, St., the first
Pope of the name, said to have converted Constantine and his
mother by restoring a dead ox to life which a magician for a
trial of skill killed, but could not restore to life; is usually
represented by an ox lying beside him, and sometimes in baptizing
Symbolism has been divided
into two kinds, symbolism of colour and symbolism of form. Of
colours, black typifies grief and death; blue,
hope, love of divine works, divine contemplation, piety, sincerity;
pale blue, power, Christian prudence, love of good works,
serene conscience; gold, glory and power; green,
faith, immortality, resurrection, gladness; pale green,
baptism; grey, tribulation; purple, justice, royalty;
red, martyrdom for faith, charity, divine love; rose-colour,
martyrdom; saffron, confessors; scarlet, fervour
and glory; silver, chastity and purity; violet,
penitence; white, purity, temperance, innocence, chastity,
and faith in God. Instances of form: Anchor typifies
hope; palm, victory; sword, death or martyrdom;
the lamb, Christ; unicorn, purity. Of stones,
moreover, the amethyst typifies humility; diamond,
invulnerable faith; sardonyx, sincerity; sapphire,
Syme, James, a great surgeon,
born in Edinburgh; was demonstrator under
Liston; was elected to the chair of Clinical Surgery in 1833;
gave up the chair to succeed Liston in London in 1848, but returned
a few months after; was re-elected to the chair he had vacated;
he was much honoured by his pupils, and by none more than Dr.
John Brown, who characterised him as "the best, ablest,
and most beneficent of men"; he wrote treatises and papers
on surgery (1799-1870).
Symonds, John Addington,
English man of letters, born at Bristol; educated at Harrow
and Oxford; author of "The Renaissance in Italy,"
a work which shows an extensive knowledge of the subject, and
is written in a finished but rather flowery style, and a number
of other works of a kindred nature showing equal ability and
literary skill; his translation of Benvenuto Cellini's autobiography
is particularly noteworthy; was consumptive, and spent his later
years at Davos, in the Engadine (1840-1893).
Symphlagades, two fabulous
floating rocks at the entrance of the Euxine, which, when driven
by the winds, crushed every vessel that attempted to pass between
them; the ship Argo (q. v.)
managed to pass between them, but with the loss of part of her
stern, after which they became fixed.
Symphony, an elaborate orchestral
composition consisting usually of four contrasted and related
movements; began to take distinctive shape in the 17th century,
and was for long merely a form of overture to operas, &c.,
but as its possibilities were perceived was elevated into an
independent concert-piece, and as such exercised the genius
of Mozart and Haydn, reaching its perfection of form in the
symphonies of Beethoven.
Synagogue, a Jewish institution
for worship and religious instruction which dates from the period
of the Babylonian Captivity, specially to keep alive in the
minds of the people a knowledge of the law. The decree ordaining
it required the families of a district to meet twice every Sabbath
for this purpose, and so religiously did the Jewish people observe
it that it continues a characteristic ordinance of Judaism to
this day. The study of the law became henceforth their one vocation,
and the synagogue was instituted both to instruct them in it
and to remind them of the purpose of their separate existence
among the nations of the earth. High as the Temple and its service
still stood in the esteem of every Jew, from the period of the
Captivity it began to be felt of secondary importance to the
synagogue and its service. With the erection and extension of
the latter the people were being slowly trained into a truer
sense of the nature of religious worship, and gradually made
to feel that to know the will of God and do it was a more genuine
act of homage to Him than the offering of sacrifices upon an
altar or the observance of any religious rite. Under such training
the issue between the Jew and the Samaritan became of less and
less consequence, and he and not the Samaritan was on the pathway
which led direct to the final worship of God in spirit and in
truth (John iv. 22).
Synagogue, the Great,
the name given to a council at Jerusalem, consisting of 120
members, there assembled about the year 410 B.C. to give final
form to the service and worship of the Jewish Church. A Jewish
tradition says Moses received the law from Sinai; he transmitted
it to Joshua, Joshua to the elders, the elders to the prophets,
to the men of the Great Assembly, who added thereto these words: "Be
circumspect in judgment, make many disciples, and set a hedge
about the law." To them belong the final settlement and
arrangement of the Jewish Scriptures, the introduction of a
new alphabet, the regulation of the synagogue worship, and the
adoption of sundry liturgical forms, as well as the establishment
of the Feast of Purim (q. v.),
and probably the "schools" of the Scribes.
Syncretism, name given to
an attempted blending of different, more or less antagonist,
speculative or religious systems into one, such as Catholic
and Protestant or Lutheran and Reformed.
Syndicate, in commercial parlance
is a name given to a number of capitalists associated together
for the purpose of carrying through some important business
scheme, usually having in view the controlling and raising of
prices by means of a monopoly or "corner."
Synergism, the theological
doctrine that divine grace requires a correspondent action of
the human will to render it effective, a doctrine defended by
Melanchthon when he ascribes to the will the "power of
seeking grace," the term "synergy" meaning co-operation.
Synesius, Bishop Ptolemais,
born at Cyrene; became a pupil of
Hypatia (q. v.) and was to the last a disciple, "a
father of the Church without having been her son," and
is styled by Kingsley "the squire bishop," from his
love of the chase; "books and the chase," on one occasion
he writes, "make up my life"; wrote one or two curious
books, and several hymns expressive of a longing after divine
Synod, name given to any assembly
of bishops in council, and in the Presbyterian Church to an
assembly of a district or a general assembly.
Synoptic Gospels, the
first three Gospels, so called because they are summaries of
the chief events in the story, and all go over the same ground,
while the author of the fourth follows lines of his own.
Syra (31), an island of the Cyclades
group, in the Ægean Sea, 10 m, by 5 m., with a capital
called also Hermoupolis; on the E. coast is the seat of the
government of the islands, and the chief port.
Syracuse, 1, one of the great
cities of antiquity (19), occupied a wide triangular tableland
on the SE. coast of Sicily, 80 m. SW. of Messina, and also the
small island Ortygia, lying close to the shore; founded by Corinthian
settlers about 733 B.C.; amongst its rulers were the tyrants
Dionysius the Elder
and Dionysius the Younger
(q. v.) and Hiero, the patron of Æschylus, Pindar, &c.;
successfully resisted the long siege of the Athenians in 414
B.C., and rose to a great pitch of renown after its struggle
with the Carthaginians in 397 B.C., but siding with Hannibal
in the Punic Wars, was taken after a two years' siege by the
Romans (212 B.C.), in whose hands it slowly declined, and finally
was sacked and destroyed by the Saracens in 878 A.D. Only the
portion on Ortygia was rebuilt, and this constitutes the modern
city, which has interesting relics of its former greatness,
but is otherwise a crowded and dirty place, surrounded by walls,
and fortified; exports fruit, olive-oil, and wine. 2, A city
(108) of New York State, United States, 148 m. W. of Albany,
in the beautiful valley of Onondaga; is a spacious and handsomely
laid-out city, with university, &c.; has flourishing steel-works,
foundries, rolling-mills, &c., and enormous salt manufactures.
Syria (2,000), one of three divisions
of Asiatic Turkey, slightly larger than Italy, forms a long
strip of mountains and tableland intersected by fertile valleys,
lying along the eastern end of the Mediterranean from the Taurus
range in the N. to the Egyptian border on the 8., and extending
to the Euphrates and Arabian desert The
coastal strip and waters fall within the
Levant (q. v.). In the S.
lies Palestine, embracing Jordan, Dead Sea, Lake of Tiberias
(Sea of Galilee), Jerusalem, Gaza, &c.; in the N., between
the parallel ranges of Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon, lies the valley
of Coele-Syria, through which flows the Orontes. Important towns
are Aleppo, Damascus, Beyrout (chief port), &c.; principal
exports are silk, wool, olive-oil, and fruits. Four-fifths of
the people are Mohammedans of Aramæan (ancient Syrian)
and Arabic stock. Once a portion of the
Assyrian empire (q. v.),
it became a possession successively of the Persians, Greeks,
Romans, Arabs, Egyptians, and finally fell into the hands of
the Ottoman Turks in 1516, under whose rule it now languishes.
For further particulars see various names and places mentioned.
Syrianus, a Greek Neoplatonic
philosopher of the 5th century; had
Proclus (q. v.) for a disciple;
left a valuable commentary on the metaphysics of Aristotle.
Syrinx, an Arcadian nymph, who,
being pursued by Pan, fled into a river, was metamorphosed into
a reed, of which Pan made his flute.
Syrtis, Major and Minor,
the ancient names of the Gulfs of Sidra and Cabes on the N.
coast of Africa, the former between Tripoli and Barca, the latter
between Tunis and Tripoli.
Syrus, Publius, a slave
brought to Rome, and on account of his wit manumitted by his
master; made his mark by composing memoirs and a collection
of pithy sayings that appear to have been used as a school-book;
flourished in 45 B.C.
Système de la Nature,
a book, the authorship of which is ascribed to
Baron Holbach (q. v.),
which appeared in 1770, advocating a philosophical materialism
and maintaining that nothing exists but matter, and that mind
is either naught or only a finer kind of matter; there is nowhere
anything, it insists, except matter and motion; it is the farthest
step yet taken in the direction of speculative as opposed to
Syzygy, the point on the orbit
of a planet, or the moon when it is in conjunction with, or
in opposition to, the sun.
Szechuan (71,000), the largest
province of China, lies in the W. between Thibet (NW.) and Yunnan
(SW.); more than twice the size of Great Britain; a hilly country,
rich in coal, iron, &c., and traversed by the Yangtse-kiang
and large tributaries; Chingtu is the capital; two towns have
been opened to foreign trade, opium, silk, tobacco, musk, white
wax, &c., being chief exports.
Szegedin (89), a royal free
city of Hungary, situated at the confluence of the Maros and
Theiss, 118 m. SE. of Budapest, to which it ranks next in importance
as a commercial and manufacturing centre; has been largely rebuilt
since the terribly destructive flood of 1879, and presents a
handsome modern appearance.