Kabul (70), on the Kabul River,
at the foot of the Takht-i-Shah Hills, 650 m. NW. of Delhi,
is the capital of Afghanistan, an ancient, mud-built city,
but progressing; noted for its fruit and trading in carpets,
camel-hair cloth, and skins; the town was taken by General
Pollok 1842, avenging the death of Burnes and Macnaughten,
and by General Roberts in 1879, avenging the murder of Cavagnari.
Kabyles, the name given
to a division of the Berbers of N. Africa, who occupy the
coast and tablelands of Mauritania, and are indigenous to
Kadijah, a rich widow, the
wife of Mahomet, who had been her steward and factotum,
and whom he married when she was forty and himself only
twenty-five, and with whom he lived till her death, "loving
her truly and her alone," himself now a man of fifty;
he had begun his mission as a prophet before she died, and
one service she did him he never forgot as the greatest
of them all: she believed in him, when no one else did.
Kadris, a set of Mohammedan
dervishes who lacerate themselves with scourges, like the
Kaffirs, including Kaffirs
proper and Zulus, a division of the Bantu negroes, found
all over S. Africa, are a pastoral and latterly agricultural
people of fine physique, naturally hospitable, honest, and
truthful, but now much contaminated by the white man; Kaffir
wars broke out in 1834, 1846, 1850, and 1877; the name,
which means infidel, was originally applied by the Mohammedans
to all pagans.
Kafiristan (200), a lofty
mountainous region in the E. of Afghanistan, S. of the Hindu-Kush,
with the Panjshir, Kabul, and Chitral Rivers on the W.,
S., and E.; the people are undersized, pastoral, and devoted
to their Aryan faith, which here has its last stronghold,
not organised politically, but united in their love of independence
and hatred of Mohammedanism.
Kairwan` (5), the sacred
city of Northern Africa, in Tunis, 80 m. S. of Tunis, a
decayed town, was the chief seat of the Mohammedans
in N. Africa, and a sacred city; manufactures copper vessels,
carpets, and articles of leather.
e. Cæsar of India), a title applied to Queen Victoria
as Empress of India since 1876.
Kaiser, the name, derived
from the Latin Cæsar, given to the emperor of the
old German Empire or Reich, and resumed by the modern Emperor,
William I., and his successors.
Kaiser Wilhelm's Land
(116), the N. of the eastern half of New Guinea, belonging
partly to Britain, partly to Holland, and partly to Germany.
Kaithal (15), in the Punjab,
90 m. NW. of Delhi, an ancient town, with saltpetre refineries;
has old associations with the Hindu monkey-god,
Hanuman (q. v.).
Kâla, the Hindu Chronus,
or god of time, who, as in the Greek mythology, at once
produces and devours all things.
in S. Africa, stretches far northward from the Orange River
between German SW. Africa and the Transvaal, an elevated
plateau, not really desert, but covered with scrub and affording
coarse pasturage for cattle.
Kalamazoo` (18), a railway
centre and flourishing town in the SW. of Michigan, 144
m. NE. of Chicago; manufactures machinery, paper, and flour.
Kaleidoscope, an optical
instrument, invented by Sir David Brewster in 1817, consisting
of a cylinder with two mirrors set lengthwise inside, two
plates of glass with bits of coloured glass loose between
at one end and an eye-hole at the other, presents varying
patterns on rotation.
Kalevale, a collection
of popular songs current among the peasantry of Finland
from earliest times.
Kali (i. e. the black
one), one of the names of the wife of
Siva (q. v.), and of whom
she is the female counterpart, and has been identified with
the Greek Hecate (q. v.);
she is represented with a necklace of human heads.
a great Indian dramatist and poet, probably of the 6th century
A.D.; was author of "The Lost Ring" and "The
Hero and the Nymph," translated by Sir William Jones,
much praised by Goethe and Max Müller.
Kalmar (12), seaport in SE.
of Sweden, on an island in Kalmar Sound; carries on a large
timber trade, and manufactures of tobacco and matches.
Kalmucks, the name given
to the Western Moguls, inhabiting Central Asia, and considerably
intermingled with their neighbours, the Russians, Persians,
and Turks; they are Buddhists, nomadic, and have herds of
horses and cattle.
Kalpa, a Braminical name for
the immense period of time which separates one destruction
of the world from the next, a day and a night of Brahma.
Kalpi (14), a decaying town
in the NW. Provinces of India, on the Jumna, 50 m. SW. of
Cawnpore; was the scene of the defeat of 12,000 mutineers
in 1858; manufactures paper, and exports grain and cotton.
Kâma, the Hindu Cupid,
or god of love, a potent god of the Hindu pantheon, able
to subdue nearly all the rest of the gods except Siva, who
once with a single glance of his Cyclop eye reduced him
to ashes for daring to bring trouble into his breast; he
is one of the primitive gods of the Hindu pantheon, like
the Eros (q. v.) of the
Kamchatka (7), a long
narrow peninsula on the E. coast of Siberia, stretching
southwards between the Behring Sea and the Sea of Okhotsk,
with a precipitous coast and a volcanic range of mountains
down the centre, has a cold, wet climate, grass and tree
vegetation, and many hot springs; the people live by fishing,
hunting, and trading in furs; they are Russianised, the
peninsula having been Russian since the 17th century.
Kames, Henry Home, Lord,
Scottish judge and philosopher, born in Berwickshire; became
an advocate in 1723 and judge in 1752; wrote books on law, "Essays
on Morality and Natural Religion," and other philosophical
works, in which he indulged in a wide and often fanciful
range of speculation; was noted for his sociality and public
spirit, and died at Edinburgh (1696-1782).
Kampen (19), a reviving Dutch
town on the Yssel, 3 m. from the Zuyder Zee, and 5½
m. W. of Zwolle; has shipbuilding and fishing industries;
the inhabitants are the proverbial fools of Holland.
Kamptulicon, a floorcloth
composed of cork and india-rubber or similar substance.
Kamthi (43), a town of recent
origin in the Central Provinces of India, 9 m. NW. of Nagpur;
trades in cattle and grain, salt, and timber.
Kanara, a rainy district
on the W. coast of India, between Goa and Malabar, mostly
malarial forest country, with the Ghat Mountains and many
rivers. North Kanara (446) is in Bombay Presidency.
South Kanara (1,056), capital Mangalore, is in Madras.
an intrepid Greek sea-captain who distinguished himself
by his exploits in the Greek War of Independence, particularly
in the destruction of the Turkish vessels by means of fire-ships;
he attained the rank of admiral in 1862, and took part in
the revolution which overthrew King Otho (1780-1877).
Kandahar, capital of Southern
Afghanistan, near the Argandab River, 200 m. SW. of Kabul;
a well-watered, regularly built town in the middle of orchards
and vineyards; is of great political and commercial importance;
a centre of trade with India, Persia, and Turkestan; it
was held by the British through the war of 1839-41, and
again in 1880-81; population variously estimated from 25,000
Kandy (20), a town on a mountain
lake in the middle of Ceylon, 75 m. NE. of Colombo; is a
railway centre; has the ruins of the palace of the old native
kings, and a temple with the famous tooth of Buddha.
Kane, Elisha Kent,
an American explorer, born in Philadelphia; bred to medicine;
became a surgeon in the navy; acquired a taste for adventure;
from his experiences in such accompanied, in 1850, the first
Grinnell expedition to the Arctic seas, and commanded the
second in 1853, after three years returning with many discoveries;
he wrote accounts of both expeditions (1820-1857).
Kane, Sir Robert,
chemist, born in Dublin; originator of the Dublin Journal
of Medical Science in 1832, and of the Irish Museum
of Industry in 1846; was President of Queen's College, Cork,
and President of the Royal Irish Academy in 1876; Published "Elements
of Chemistry," and other works (1810-1890).
Kansas (1,427), the central
State of the American Union; lies in the basin of the Kansas
and Arkansas Rivers, between Nebraska on the N. and Oklahoma
on the S., with Colorado on the W. and Missouri on the E.
It is a rolling prairie, with a fine climate subject to
occasional extremes, and a rainfall, except in some districts,
sufficient; raises crops of grain and sugar, and affords
excellent grazing ground. Pork and beef packing, flour-milling,
and iron-founding industries are carried on. The State University
is at Lawrence, an agricultural college at Manhattan, and
good schools in every town. Previous to its admission to
the Union in 1859 Kansas was the scene of violent conflicts
between pro- and anti-slavery parties for five years. In
the Civil War it joined the North. The capital is Topeka
(31), and the largest other towns Kansas City (38) and Wichita
Kansas City, two contiguous
towns on the S. bank of the Missouri River, 280 m. W. of
St. Louis, are so called. The larger and more easterly one
(164) is the second city of Missouri; an important railway
centre, and distributes the agricultural products of a large
region; has pork-packing industries and iron manufactures.
The smaller, westerly city (51), is in Kansas, the largest
town of that State; has a remarkable elevated railway.
Kant, Immanuel, a celebrated
German philosopher, born in Königsberg, the son of
a saddler, of Scotch descent, and fortunate in both his
parents; entered the university in 1740 as a student of
theology; gave himself to the study of philosophy, mathematics,
and physics; wrote an essay, his first literary effort,
on "Motive Force" in 1747; settled at the University
as a private lecturer on a variety of academic subjects
in 1755; became professor of Logic and Metaphysics in 1770,
when he was 46, and continued till his retirement, in 1797,
from the frailties of age, spending the last 17 years of
his life in a small house with a garden in a quiet quarter
of the town; his great work, the "Kritic of Pure Reason,"
was published in 1781, and it was followed by the "Kritic
of Practical Reason" in 1788, and the "Kritic
of Judgment" in 1790; his works inaugurate a new era
in philosophic speculation, and by the adoption of a critical
method dealt a death-blow to speculative dogmatism on the
one hand and scepticism on the other; it was, he says, the
scepticism of Hume that first broke his dogmatic slumber,
so that had Hume not been, he had not been, and the whole
course of modern thought different; Kant by his critical
method did for philosophy what Copernicus did for astronomy;
he centralised the intelligence in the reason or soul, as
the latter did the planetary system in the sun; Kant was
a lean, little man, of simple habits, and was never wedded
Kaolin, a fine white clay,
a hydrous silicate of alumina, which does not colour when
fired; used in making porcelain; called also China clay.
of an orchestra or choir, more particularly of the band
of a German prince.
Kapila, the founder of the
Sankhya system of Hindu philosophy
(q. v.); was regarded as an incarnation of
Vishnu (q. v.).
Kara, a gold-mining district
in East Siberia, 300 m. from Chita, of which the mines are
the private property of the Czar, and are worked by convicts,
who are often disgracefully treated, many of them merely
Kara Sea is a portion of
the Arctic Sea, on the NE. corner of Russia, between Nova
Zembla and the Yalmal; receives the rivers Obi and Yenisei,
and is navigable from July to September.
Karaites, a Jewish sect
which originated in the 8th century; adhered to the letter
of Scripture and repudiated all tradition; were strict Sabbatarians.
Karakorum, a range of
the Himalayas, extending from the Hindu-Kush eastward into
Thibet, and a pass in the centre
of it 18,000 ft. high. Also the name of the old capital
Karamsin, a Russian historian;
his first work was "Letters of a Russian Traveller,"
in 6 vols., published in 1797-1801, which gained him a high
reputation, and it was followed by his "History of
Russia," in 12 vols., published in 1816-1829, for the
materials of which he had access, to the most authentic
documents as imperial historiographer, an office to which
he was appointed in 1803, and the work is a work in the
highest repute (1766-1826).
Karikal (93), a French possession
in India, on the Coromandel coast, 150 m. S. of Madras;
rears and exports rice in large quantities.
Karli, a famous temple-cave
in Bombay Presidency, on the Bombay-Poona road; dates from
the 1st century B.C. at latest.
Karma, the unbroken sequence,
according to the Theosophists, of cause and effect, in which
every effect is regarded the cause of the next.
Karman, the name given in
the Brahminical philosophy and in Buddhism to that act of
the soul by which, as is conceived, it determines its own
destiny, a truly serious conception, and in itself soul
a secret society of the Ismaîlis, developed into a
religious and communistic sect, and waged a great peasants'
war under successive leaders between A.D. 900 and 950; Mecca
was captured 930; the movement of the Karmathians did much
to overthrow the power of the Khalifate.
Karr, Jean Baptiste
Alphonse, French novelist, born at Paris; entered
journalism, became editor of the Figaro 1839, started
Les Guepes the same year, retired to Nice 1855, and
there died; his chief novel is "Géneviève,"
and best known book, "Voyage autour de mon Jardin"
Karroo, the name of a barren
tract of tableland in South Africa with a clay soil, which,
however, bursts into grassy verdure and blossom after rain;
the Great Karroo, which is 850 m. long and about 80 m. broad,
is 3000 ft. above the sea-level, while the Little Karroo
is 1000 ft. lower; large flocks of sheep are pastured on
them, and the value of the land has immensely increased
within late years.
Kars (9), an almost impregnable
fortress on the Russo-Turkish frontier in Asia, 100 m. E.
of the Caspian Sea; was successfully held by the Turks under
General Williams in 1855, of which Laurence Oliphant wrote
an account, but captured by Russia in 1877, and ceded to
her by the Treaty of Berlin, 1878; it is a strong place,
and a prize to any power that possesses it.
Karun River, rising in
the Zarduh Koh Mountains W. of Ispahân; flows W. and
S. past Shuster into the Persian Gulf; is the sole navigable
waterway of Persia, and was thrown open to trade 1888.
Kaschau (29), a beautiful
town in Northern Hungary, on the Hernad River, 140 m. NW.
of Budapest; has a royal tobacco factory, is noted for hams,
has an agricultural school and a Jesuit university.
Kashgar (120), political
capital and second largest city of Chinese Turkestan, on
the Kizil River; has cotton, silk, carpet, and saddlery
industries, and trades with Russia; it is the centre of
Mohammedanism in Eastern Turkestan, a pilgrim city; has
been in Chinese hands since 1758, but is chiefly under Russian
Kassala (3), a fortified
town in the Soudan, near the Abyssinian boundary, on the
Chor-el-Gash, a tributary of the Atbara, is 260 m. S. of
Suakim; suffered severely from the Madhist rising of 1883-1885.
Katakama, the square style
of writing of the Japanese.
Kater, Henry, a physicist,
born in Bristol; bred to the law, but entered the army,
and went out to India, where, to the injury of his constitution,
he was for seven years engaged on the trigonometrical survey
of the country; devoted the rest of his life to scientific
research; he contributed to the Philosophical Transactions,
determined the length of the seconds pendulum at the latitude
of London, and invented the floating collimator (1777-1835).
Nikiforovitch, Russian journalist and publicist,
born at Moscow, educated at Moscow, Königsberg, and
Berlin; became professor of Philosophy in Moscow and in
1801 editor of the Moscow Gazette; though at first
an advocate of parliamentary government, he became a violent
reactionary, made his paper the most influential in Russia,
and had great influence in public affairs; he is said to
have determined the reactionary policy of Alexander III.
Katrine, Loch, a long
narrow beautiful lake in the Trossachs, Scotland, about
30 m. N. of Glasgow, to which it affords an abundant water
supply, is 8 m. long and ¾ broad; the splendid scenery
of it is described in Scott's "Lady of the Lake."
painter, born in the Tyrol; gave early evidence of artistic
talent; came to London, and became one of the first members
of the Royal Academy; produced pictures on classical and
mythological subjects, as well as portraits of the royal
family among others; her story forms the basis of a fiction
by Miss Thackeray (1741-1807).
von, Russian general, of German descent; did much
to contribute to the establishment of the Russian power
in Central Asia (1818-1882).
Kaulbach, Wilhelm von,
German painter, head of the new German school, born in Waldeck;
was a pupil of Cornelius, and associated with him in painting
the frescoes in the Glyptothek in Münich; among other
works, which have made his name famous, he executed the
splendid series of compositions that adorn the vestibule
of the Berlin Museum; he illustrated Goethe's "Faust"
and his "Reinecke Fuchs" (1805-1874).
Kaunitz, Prince von,
Austrian statesman, born at Vienna; under Charles VI. and
Maria Theresa distinguished as a diplomatist at the Congress
of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748, and sided with France in the
Seven Years' War; was for nearly 40 years "the shining
star and guide of Austrian politics, and greatest of diplomatists
in his day, supreme Jove in that extinct Olympus; regarded
with sublime pity, not unalloyed to contempt, all other
diplomatic beings"; he shared with Colonne the sobriquet
of the "European coach-driver"; he was sold body
and soul to the interests of Austria (1711-1794).
Kavanagh, Julia, novelist,
born in Tipperary, a very dainty little lady; wrote "Madeleine," "Woman
in France," "Women of Letters," "Women
of Christianity," &c.; spent most of her life in
Kawi, the old language of Java
found in old documents and inscriptions.
Kay, Sir, a rude and boastful
Knight of the Round Table, foster-brother of King Arthur,
who from his braggart ways often made himself the butt of
the whole court.
Kay, John, a Scottish caricaturist,
born near Dalkeith; began business in Edinburgh first as
a barber and then as a print-seller; author of sketches
of local celebrities, now collected in two
volumes, and of much interest and
value as a record of the Edinburgh of his time (1742-1826).
Kaye, Sir John William,
historian of English India, an officer in the Bengal Artillery,
retired in 1841; in 1856 entered the East India Company's
service in England, and was subsequently a secretary in
the Government India Office; he wrote "History of the
Sepoy War 1857-58," and "Essays of an Optimist"
Kean, Charles John,
actor, second son of the succeeding, born in Waterford;
made his first appearance in Drury Lane in 1827, which proved
unsuccessful, but by assiduous study and his marriage with
Helen Tree, a popular actress who played along with him,
he rose in the profession and became lessee of the Princess's
Theatre, London, where he distinguished himself by his revivals
of Shakespeare's plays, with auxiliary effects due to scenery
and costume; he was at his best in melodramas, such as "Louis
Kean, Edmund, distinguished
English tragedian, born in London; trod the stage from his
infancy; his first success was Shylock in the "Merchant
of Venice" in 1814, and the representation of it was
followed by equally famous representations of Richard III.,
Othello, and Sir Giles Overreach; he led a very dissipated
life, and under the effects of it his constitution gave
way; he broke down one evening beside his son as Iago, as
he was playing the part of Othello, was carried off the
stage, and never appeared on the boards again (1787-1833).
Keary, Annie, novelist,
born in Yorkshire; began as a writer of children's books, "Castle
Daly," an Irish novel, among her best; was a woman
of a sympathetic nature, and was devoted to works of benevolence
Keats, John, was the son
of a livery-stable proprietor, born at Finsbury, London;
never went to a university, but was apprenticed to a London
surgeon, and subsequently practised medicine himself in
London; abandoning his profession in 1817, he devoted himself
to literature, made the acquaintance of Leigh Hunt, Hazlitt,
Lamb, Wordsworth, and other literary men; left London for
Carisbrooke, moved next year to Teignmouth, but on a visit
to Scotland contracted what proved to be consumption; in
1819 he was betrothed to Miss Fanny Browne, and struggled
against ill-health and financial difficulties till his health
completely gave way in the autumn of 1820; accompanied by
the artist Joseph Severn he went to Naples and then to Rome,
where, in the spring following, he died; his works were
three volumes of poetry, "Poems" 1817, "Endymion"
1818, "Lamia, Isabella and other Poems," including "Hyperion"
and "The Eve of St. Agnes" 1820; he never reached
maturity in his art, but the dignity, tenderness, and imaginative
power of his work contained the highest promise; he was
a man of noble character, sensitive, yet strong, unselfish,
and magnanimous, by some regarded as the most original of
modern poets (1795-1821).
Keblah, the point of the
compass to which people turn their faces when they worship,
as the Mohammedans do to Mecca when they pray.
Keble, John, English clergyman,
author of the "Christian Year," born in Fairford,
Gloucestershire; studied at Oxford, and became Fellow of
Oriel College in 1811; in 1827 appeared the "Christian
Year," which he published anonymously; in 1831 was
appointed professor of Poetry in Oxford, and that same year
issued an "Address to the Electors of the United Kingdom"
against the Reform Bill; he was one of four who originated
the Tractarian movement at Oxford, and was the author of
several of the "Tracts for the Times"; in 1835
he was presented to the vicarage of Hursley, which he held
till his death; he was author of "Lyra Innocentium,"
and along with Newman and others of "Lyra Apostolica";
the secession of Newman rather riveted than loosened his
attachment to the English Church (1792-1866).
Kedron, a wady E. of Jerusalem,
traversed by a brook in the rainy season, and which runs
in the direction of the Dead Sea.
Keelhauling, a naval
punishment of the 17th and 18th centuries; consisted in
dropping the victim into the sea from one yardarm, hauling
him under the keel and up to the yardarm on the other side;
is now a term for a severe rebuke.
See Cocos Islands.
Keewatin, a district in
Canada under the jurisdiction of the government of Manitoba,
and N. of it; the mineral wealth is great, and includes
copper and silver.
Kehama, a Hindu rajah who
obtains and sports with supernatural powers, whose adventures
are given in Southey's "Curse of Kehama."
Keighley (30), a Yorkshire
town, on the Aire, 9 m. NW. of Bradford; manufactures woollen
and worsted fabrics and spinning-machinery.
man of letters, born in Dublin; wrote a number of school
manuals, and "Fairy Mythology" (1789-1872).
Keim, Theodor, a German
theologian, born at Stuttgart, professor at Zurich and afterwards
at Giessen; his great work, to which others were preliminary,
was his "History of Jesu of Nazara," in which
he presents the person of Christ Himself as the one miracle
in the story and that eclipses every other in it, and makes
them of no account comparatively (1823-1878).
Keith, James, known as
Marshal Keith, born near Peterhead, of an old Scotch family,
Earls Marischal of Scotland; having had to leave the country
for his share in the Jacobite rebellion, fled first to Spain
and then to Russia, doing military service in both, but
quitted both in 1747 for service in Prussia under Frederick
the Great, who soon recognised the worth of him, and under
whom he rose to be field-marshal; he distinguished himself
in successive engagements, and fell shot through the heart,
when in the charge of the right wing at Hochkirch; as he
opened his way by his bayonet the enemy gathered round him
after being twice repulsed (1696-1758).
Keith, Lord, English admiral,
born near Stirling; served in various parts of the world,
and distinguished himself in the American and French wars.
Kelat (14), capital of Beluchistan,
in a lofty region 140 m. S. of Kandahar; is the residence
of a British agent since 1877, and was annexed as a British
possession in 1888. It is a military stronghold, and of
great importance in a military point of view.
Swiss archæologist; his reputation rests on his investigations
of lake-dwellings in Switzerland in 1853-54 (1800-1881).
distinguished poet and novelist, born in Zurich; his greatest
remance, and the one by which he is best known, is "Der
Grüne Heinrich"; wrote also a collection of excellent
tales entitled, "Die Leute von Seldwyla" (1819-1890).
François Christophe, Duke of Valmy, French
general born in Alsace, son of a peasant; entered the army
at 17; served in the Seven Years' War; embraced the Revolution;
defeated the Duke of Brunswick at Valmy in 1792; served
under Napoleon as commander of the
reserves on the Rhine, but supported the Bourbons at
the Restoration (1735-1820).
Kells (2), an ancient town
in co. Meath, with many antiquities; gives its name to the "Book
of Kells," a beautiful 9th-century Keltic illuminated
manuscript of the Gospels, now in the library of Trinity
Kelp, an alkaline substance
derived from the ashes of certain sea-weeds, yielding iodine,
soda, potass, and certain oils; kelp-burning was formerly
a valuable industry in Orkney and the Hebrides.
Kelpie, an imaginary water-spirit
which, it is said, appears generally in the form of a horse.
Kelso, a market-town in Roxburghshire,
beautifully situated on the Tweed, where the Teviot joins
it, with the ruins of an abbey of the 12th or the early
Kelvin, Lord. See
Kemble, a family of three
sons and one daughter, children of Roger Kemble, a provincial
theatrical manager, all actors, of whom the greatest was
the eldest, Sarah, Mrs. Siddons
daughter of Charles, was noted as an operatic singer, but
retired from the stage on her marriage 1842 (1814-1879).
Kemble, Charles, son
of Roger, born at Brecon; appeared first at Sheffield as
Orlando, in 1792, and two years later came to London, where
he continued playing till 1840, when he was appointed Examiner
of Plays (1775-1854). Two daughters of Charles also won
fame on the stage.
Kemble, Frances Anne,
daughter of Charles, born in London; made her début
in 1829, and proved a queen of tragedy; in 1832 went to
America, where, in 1834, she married a planter, from whom
she was divorced in 1848; resuming her maiden name, Fanny
Kemble, she gave Shakespearian readings for 20 years (1809-1893).
Kemble, John Mitchell,
Anglo-Saxon scholar, born in London, son of Charles Kemble;
edited writings belonging to the Anglo-Saxon period; his
chief work "The Saxons in England" (1807-1857).
Kemble, John Philip,
eldest son of Roger, born at Prescot, Lancashire; began
to study for the Roman Catholic priesthood, but adopted
the stage, and appeared first at Wolverhampton in 1776;
after touring in Yorkshire and Ireland he came to London
in 1783, playing Hamlet at Drury Lane; became manager of
that theatre in 1788; in 1802 transferred himself to Covent
Garden, where, on the opening of the new house in 1809,
the "Old Price" riots brought him ill-will; he
retired in 1817, and lived at Lausanne till his death (1757-1823).
Kemble, Stephen, son
of Roger, was from 1792 till 1800 manager of Edinburgh Theatre
Kemp, George Meikle,
architect, born in Moorfoot, Peeblesshire; bred a millwright,
became a draughtsman, studied Gothic architecture, and designed
the Scott Monument in Edinburgh; was drowned one evening
in the Union Canal before the work was finished (1796-1844).
Kempen, a Prussian town,
27 m. NW. of Düsseldorf; manufactures textile fabrics
in silk, cotton, linen, &c.; was the birthplace of Thomas à
British admiral, born at Westminster; distinguished himself
in several actions, was on board of the Royal George
as his flagship when she went down at Spithead, carrying
him along with her and over a thousand others also on board
at the time; he was a brave and skilful officer, and his
death was a great loss to the service (1718-1782).
Kempis, Thomas à,
born at Kempen, near Düsseldorf, son of a poor but
honest and industrious craftsman named Hämerkin; joined,
while yet a youth, the "Brotherhood of Common Life"
at Deventer, in Holland, and at 20 entered the monastery
of St. Agnes, near Zwolle, in Oberyssel, where he chiefly
resided for 70 long years, and of which he became sub-prior,
where he spent his time in acts of devotion and copying
MSS., that of the Bible, among others, in the Vulgate version
of it, as well as in the production of works of his own,
and in chief the "Imitation of Christ," a work
that in the regard of many ranks second to the Bible, and
is thought likely to survive in the literature of the world
as long as the Bible itself; it has been translated into
all languages within, as well as others outside, the pale
of Christendom, and as many as six thousand editions, it
is reckoned, have issued from the press; it is five centuries
and a half since it was first given to the world, and it
has ever since continued to be a light in it to thousands
in the way of a holy and divine life; it draws its inspiration
direct from the fountain-head of Holy Scripture, and is
breathing full of the same spirit that inspires the sacred
Ken, Thomas, English prelate,
born at Little Berkhampstead; is famous as the author of
hymns, especially the morning one, "Awake, my Soul,"
and the evening one, "Glory to Thee, my God";
was committed to the Tower for refusing to read James II.'s "Declaration
of Indulgence," and deprived of his bishopric, that
of Bath and Wells, for refusing to take the oath of allegiance
to William III. (1637-1711).
Kendal (14), a Westmorland
market-town on the Kent, 38 m. S. of Carlisle; manufactures
heavy woollen goods, paper, and snuff; it owes the introduction
of its woollen manufacture to the settlement in it of Flemings
in the reign of Richard III.
Kenia, Mount, a mountain
in British East Africa, 10° S. of the Equator, 18,000
ft. above the sea-level, and one of the highest on the continent.
Kenilworth (4), a Warwickshire
market-town, 5 m. N. of Warwick; noted for its castle, where,
as described by Scott in his novel of the name, Leicester
sumptuously entertained Elizabeth in 1575; has some tanworks,
tanning being the chief industry.
Kennaquhair (i. e.
know-not-where), an imaginary locality in Scott's "Monastery."
Kennedy, Benjamin Hall,
head-master of Shrewsbury, son of a schoolmaster, born at
Birmingham; after a brilliant career at Cambridge became,
in 1828, Fellow of St. John's, in 1830 assistant-master
at Harrow, and in 1830 was appointed to Shrewsbury, where
he proved one of the greatest of schoolmasters (1804-1889).
English Hebraist, born at Totnes, Devonshire, educated at
Oxford; became Fellow of Exeter, Radcliffe librarian, and
in 1770 canon of Christ Church; from 1753 he organised and
took part in an extensive collation of Hebrew texts, issuing
in 1776-80 the "Hebrew Old Testament, with Various
Kensal Green, a cemetery
in the NW. of London; celebrated as the burial-place of
many eminent men, Thackeray in chief.
Kensington (166), a West
London parish, in which stand the Palace (Queen Victoria's
birthplace), the Albert Memorial and Hall, South Kensington
Museum, the Royal College of Music, the Imperial Institute,
and many other institutions: contains also Holland House,
and has long been the place of residence of notably artistic
and literary men.
Kent (1,142), English maritime
county in the extreme SE.; lies between the Thames estuary
and the Strait of Dover, with Surrey
and Sussex on the W.; it is hilly, with marshes in the SE.
and on the Thames shore; is watered by the Medway, Stour,
and Darent; has beautiful scenery, rich pasturage, and fine
agricultural land, largely under hops and market-gardens;
a large part of London is in Kent; Maidstone (32) is the
county town; Rochester (26) and Canterbury (23) are cathedral
cities; Woolwich (99), Gravesend (35), and Dover (33) are
seaports, and Margate and Ramsgate watering-places.
Kentigern, St., or
St. Mungo, the Apostle of Cumbria, born at Culross,
the natural son of a princess named Thenew; entered the
monastery there, where he had been trained from a boy, and
founded a monastery near Glasgow and another in Wales; was
distinguished for his missionary labours; was buried at
Glasgow Cathedral (518-603).
Kentish Fire, vehement
and prolonged derisive cheering, so called from indulgence
in it in Kent at meetings to oppose the Catholic Emancipation
Bill of 1829.
Kentucky (1,859), an American
State in the S. of the Ohio basin, with the Virginias on
its E. and Tennessee on its S. border and the Mississippi
River on the W.; is watered by the Licking and Kentucky
Rivers that cross the State from the Cumberland Mountains
in the SE. to the Ohio, and the Tennessee River traverses
the western corner; the climate is mild and healthy; much
of the soil is extremely fertile, giving hemp and the largest
tobacco crops in the Union; there are dense forests of virgin
ash, walnut, and oak over two-thirds of the State, and on
its pasturage the finest stock and horses are bred; coal
is found in both the E. and the W., and iron is plentiful;
the chief industries are whisky distilling, iron smelting
and working; admitted to the Union in 1792, Kentucky was
a slave-holding State, but did not secede in the Civil War;
the capital is Frankfort (8), the largest city Louisville
(160); the State University is at Lexington (29).
Kepler, John, illustrious
astronomer, born at Weil der Stadt, Würtemberg, born
in poverty; studied at Tübingen chiefly mathematics
and astronomy, became lecturer on these subjects at Grätz;
joined Tycho Brahé at Prague as assistant, who obtained
a pension of £18 for him from the Austrian government,
which was never paid; removed to Lintz, where Sir Henry
Wotton saw him living in a camera obscura tent doing
ingenious things, photographing the heavens, "inventing
toys, writing almanacs, and being ill off for cash ... an
ingenious person, if there ever was one among Adam's posterity
... busy discovering the system of the world—grandest
conquest ever made, or to be made," adds Carlyle, "by
the sons of Adam"; he was long occupied in studying
the "'motions of the star' Mars, with calculations
repeated seventy times, and with the discovery of the planetary
laws of the Universe"; these last are called from his
discovery of them Kepler's Laws; the first, that the planets
move on elliptic orbits, the sun in one of the foci; the
second, that, in describing its orbit, the radius vector
of a planet traverses equal areas in equal times; and the
third, that the square of the time of the revolution of
a planet is proportional to the cube of its mean distance
from the sun; poverty pursued Kepler all his days, and he
died of fever at Ratisbon (1571-1630).
Kepler's Laws. See
Viscount, son of the Earl of Albemarle; entered
the navy, and was in several engagements between 1757 and
1778; when encountering the French off Ushant he quarrelled
with his second-in-command and let them escape; was court-martialled,
but acquitted; he was afterwards First Lord of the Admiralty
Ker, Dr. John, minister
and professor, was horn in Peeblesshire, brought up in Edinburgh;
studied there and in Halle, was chosen to fill the chair
of Practical Training in the U.P. Theological College in
1876; published some "Sermons," and "The
Psalms in History and Biography" (1819-1886).
Keratin, a substance forming
the chief constituent in the hair, nails, and horn of animals.
an island with rugged coasts, 85 m. long by 70 wide, of
volcanic origin, in the Antarctic Ocean; so called after
its discoverer in 1772, changed to Desolation Island in
1776 by Captain Cook; belongs to France.
Kerman (300), an eastern
province of Persia, the N. and the NE. of it a desolate
salt waste, and with a chief town (30) of the name in the
middle of it, once a great emporium of trade; manufactures
Kerner, Andreas, a
lyric poet of the Swabian school, born in Würtemberg;
studied and wrote on animal magnetism and spiritualism (1786-1862).
Kerosene, a refined petroleum
used as oil for lamps.
Kerry (179), maritime county
in the SW. of Ireland, between the Shannon and Kenmare Rivers,
with Limerick and Cork on the E.; has a rugged, indented
coast, Dingle Bay running far inland; is mountainous, having
Mount Brandon, the Macgillicuddy, and Dunkerron ranges,
and contains the picturesque Lakes of Killarney; there is
little industry or agriculture, but dairy-farming, slate-quarrying,
and fishing are prosecuted; iron, copper, and lead abound,
but are not wrought; the population is Roman Catholic; county
town, Tralee (9).
Kertch (30), a seaport of
the Crimea, on the eastern shore; had a large export trade,
which suffered during the Crimea War, but has revived since.
Keswick (4), a Cumberland
market-town and tourist centre and capital of the Lake District,
on the Derwent, 20 m. SW. of Carlisle; manufactures woollens,
hardware, and lead-pencils; is the seat of an annual religious
convention which gives its name to a phase of Evangelicalism.
Ket, Robert, a tanner
in Norfolk, leader of an insurrection in the country in
1549, was after seizing Norwich driven out by the Earl of
Warwick, captured, and hanged.
Kettering (20), market-town
in Northamptonshire; manufactures boots and shoes, stays,
Kew (2), a village on the Thames,
in Surrey, 6 m. W. of Hyde Park, where are the Royal Botanic
Gardens, a national institution since 1840, and an observatory.
Key, Francis Scott,
author of "The Star-spangled Banner," born in
Maryland, U.S.; wrote the words that have immortalised him
when he saw the national flag floating over the ramparts
of Baltimore in 1814 (1780-1857).
Key West (10), a seaport,
health resort, and naval station on a coral island 60 m.
SW. of Caple Sable, Florida; it has a good harbour and strong
fort; was the basis of operations in the Spanish-American
War, 1898; exports salt, turtles, and fruit, and manufactures
Keyne, St., a pious virgin,
lived in Cornwall about 490, and left her name to a church
and to a well whose waters are said to give the upper hand
to whichever of a bridal pair first drinks of them after
Keys, House of, the
third estate in the Isle of Man,
consisting of 24 members chosen by themselves, when a vacancy
occurs, by presenting to the Governor "two of the oldest
and worthiest men in the isle" for his selection.
Keys, Power of the,
power claimed, according to Matt. xvi. 19, by the authorities
of the Church to admit or exclude from church membership,
a power the Roman Catholics allege conferred at first on
St. Peter and afterwards on his successors in office.
Khamsin (fifty), a hot sand
wind which blows in Egypt from the desert for fifty days,
chiefly before and after the month of May.
Khan, the title of a Tartar
sovereign or prince; also an Eastern inn or caravansary.
Khandesh, a district of
Bombay in the valley of the Tapti; a great cotton-growing
centre; Dhulia, the capital.
Kharkoff (194), important
town in Little Russia, 350 m. NE. of Odessa; has immense
horse and wool fairs, and manufactures sugar, soap, felt,
and iron; it is a Greek bishopric, a university seat, and
has various schools of learning.
Khartoum (60), a caravan
depôt in the Soudan, just above the confluence of
the Blue and White Niles, 1100 m. S. of Cairo; was an active
slave-trade centre, and commercially important; was captured
by the Mahdists in 1885, when General Gordon fell; retaken
by Lord Kitchener in 1898; lately has been superseded by
Omdurman on the opposite bank of the Nile.
Khatmandu (50), the capital
of Nepal, India, at the confluence of the Baghmati and Vishnumati
Rivers, 60 m. N. of the British frontier; is the centre
of a considerable trade.
Khedive, the official title
of the Viceroy of Egypt since 1867, the first to hold it
being Ismail, the son of
Ibrahim Pasha (q. v.), by grant of the Sultan,
Kherson (62), on the Dnieper,
19 m. from the sea and 60 m. E. of Odessa; capital of the
Russian government of Kherson; has been surpassed in importance
by Odessa; its trade is in timber, and industries are soap-making,
brewing, and wool-cleansing.
Khingans, The, a range
of volcanic mountains on the E. of the desert of Gobi.
Khiva (500), a Turkestan province
or khanate in Central Asia, S. of the Sea of Aral; is under
Russian protection since 1873; a sandy desert with many
oases, and in some parts well irrigated from the Oxus; it
produces wheat, rice, cotton, and fruit; climate subject
to extremes. Khiva, the capital (20), on a canal
connected with the Amu, some distance from the left bank
of the Oxus, and 300 m. NW. of Merv, is a town of earth
huts; it was at one time one of the chief slave-markets
in Asia till the traffic was put a stop to by Russia.
Khorassan, the largest
province of Persia; is on the Afghan border, mountainous,
and fertile only in the N. among the valleys of the Elburz
range; grain, tobacco, and medicinal plants are grown; gold
and silver, turquoises, and other gems found. The capital
is Meshed (50), a sacred Moslem city, with carpet, jewellery,
and silk manufactures.
Khyber Pass, a narrow
defile 33 m. long, in one place only 10 ft. wide, through
not lofty but precipitous mountains; lies to the NW. of
Peshawur, and is the chief route between the Punjab and
Afghanistan; was the scene of a British catastrophe in the
war of 1839-42, but has been repeatedly forced since, and
since 1879 has been under British control.
Kiakhta (9), a Russian town
in Transbaikalia, Siberia, on the borders of China; an emporium
of trade between China and Russia.
Kiao-chau, a province
of Shantung, China; occupied by Germany in 1897, and ceded
to her on a 99 years' lease by China in 1898; extends to
about 160 m. along the coast, and about 20 m. inland.
Kidd, William, a noted
pirate, born of Covenanting parents at Greenock; went to
sea early, and served in privateering expeditions with distinction;
appointed to the command of a privateer about 1696, and
commissioned to suppress the pirates of the Indian Ocean,
he went to Madagascar, and there started piracy himself;
entering Boston harbour in 1700 he was arrested, sent to
London, tried on a charge of piracy and murder, and executed
in the N. of Worcester, 18 m. SW. of Birmingham; has been
since 1735 noted for its carpets; manufactures also silk,
paper, and leather; was the scene of Richard Baxter's labours
as vicar, and the birthplace of Sir Rowland Hill.
Kieff (184), on the Dnieper,
300 m. N. of Odessa, is a holy city, the capital of the
province of Kieff, strongly fortified, and one of the oldest
towns in Russia, where Christianity was proclaimed the religion
of the country in 988; has St. Vladimir's University, theological
schools, and Petchersk monastery; a pilgrim resort; industries
unimportant, include tanning and candle-making; trade chiefly
in the hands of the Jews.
Kiel (69), on the Baltic, 60
m. N. of Hamburg, is the capital of Schleswig-Holstein,
a German naval station and important seaport, with shipments
of coal, flour, and dairy produce; has shipbuilding and
brewing industries, a university and library, and is the
eastern terminus of the Baltic Ship Canal, opened 1895.
distinguished German cartographer, born at Berlin; was professor
of Geography there; his chief works an "Atlas of Asia
Minor," and his "Atlas Antiquus"; b.
Aaby, philosophical and religious thinker, born
at Copenhagen; lived a quiet, industrious, literary life,
and exerted a chief influence on 19th-century Dano-Norwegian
literature; his greatest works are "Either-Or,"
and "Stadia on Life's Way" (1813-1855).
Kieselghur, powder used
for polishing and in the manufacture of dynamite, formed
from shells of microscopic organisms.
Kilda, St., a lonely island
in the Atlantic, 60 m. W. of Harris, 3 m. long by 2 broad,
with a precipitous coast and a few poor inhabitants, who
live by fishing and fowling.
Kildare (70), inland Irish
county, in Leinster, in the upper basins of the Liffey and
Barrow, W. of Dublin and Wicklow; is level and fertile,
with the great Bog of Allen in the N., and in the centre
the Curragh, a grassy plain; agriculture is carried on in
the river basins; the county town is Naas (4); other towns
Maynooth, with the Roman Catholic theological college, and
Kilian, St., the first
apostle of the Franks, an Irish monk; deputed by the Pope
Kilima-Njaro, a volcanic
mountain group, 19,000 ft. high, on the northern border
of German East Africa, 170 m. from the coast, with two peaks,
Kibo and Kimawenzi; in 1894 an Austrian communistic settlement
was established on the slopes.
Kilkenny (87), inland Irish
county in Leinster, surrounded by Waterford, Tipperary,
Queen's County, Carlow, and Wexford, watered by the Barrow,
Suir, and Nore; extremely fertile in the
S. and E., producing fine corn, hay, and green crops; is
moorland, and devoted to cattle-rearing in the N., where
also anthracite coal is abundant. Kilkenny (11), the county
town, is noted for a fine black marble quarried near it.
Killarney (5), market-town
and tourist centre, in co. Kerry, Ireland, on the shores
of the lake, 15 m. SE. of Tralee; has a Roman Catholic cathedral
and some arbutus-carving industry.
Killarney, The Lakes
of, three beautiful lakes at the northern foot of
the Macgillicuddy Reeks, in the basin of the Leane, much
resorted to by tourists.
of, 15 m. NW. of Dunkeld, in Perthshire, where General
Mackay was defeated by Claverhouse, who fell, in 1689; is
traversed by a road and a railway.
Kilmainham (5), a suburb
of Dublin, with a royal hospital for disabled soldiers and
a jail; the treaty of Kilmainham was an agreement said to
have been made in 1882 between Gladstone and Parnell, who
was then confined in Kilmainham jail, affecting Irish government
Kilmarnock (28), on the
Irvine, 20 m. SW. of Glasgow, largest town in Ayrshire;
is an important railway centre, has extensive engineer works,
carpet factories, and breweries; is in the middle of a rich
coal and iron district, and has a great annual cheese and
dairy produce show.
Kimberley (29), 500 m.
NE. of Cape Town; is capital of Griqualand West, and chief
inland town in South Africa, in a dry but healthy situation;
exists in virtue of diamond mines in the vicinity, the richest
in the world. Also the name of a district in the N. of West
Australia, a district of rising prosperity.
Kimberley, Earl of,
English Liberal statesman, son of Baron Wodehouse; succeeded
to the title 1846; was twice over Under-Secretary for Foreign
Affairs, and Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland 1864-66; in 1866
created Earl of Kimberley, he was in succession Lord Privy
Seal, Colonial Secretary, Secretary for India, and Foreign
Secretary; b. 1826.
Kimchi, David, a Jewish
rabbi, born at Narbonne; wrote a Hebrew grammar and lexicon,
which forms the basis of all subsequent ones, also commentaries
on most books of the Old Testament (1160-1235).
(35), east coast Scottish county, lying between Aberdeen
and Forfar, faces the North Sea, with precipitous cliffs;
has much fertile soil under corn, green crops, and small
fruit, also pasture and grazing land where cattle are reared;
the fishing is important, and there are some coarse linen
factories; chief towns, Stonehaven (5) and Bervie (1).
conducted according to Froebel's system for the development
of the power of observation and the memory of young children.
Kinematics, the science
of pure motion under the categories of space and time, irrespective
of consideration of the forces determining it and the mass
of the body moved.
Kinematograph, a photographic
apparatus by which an impression is taken of closely consecutive
stages in the development of a scene.
Kinetics, the science of
the action of forces causing motion; both this law and the
two preceding are derived from a Greek word signifying "to
King, William Rufus,
American statesman and diplomatist, born in North Carolina;
was a member of Congress and the Senate, and Vice-President
of the Republic, represented the United States both at St.
James's and in France (1755-1827).
King Nibelung, king
of the Nibelungen (q.
v.), who left his two sons an inexhaustible hoard of
wealth, so large that 12 waggons in 12 days at the rate
of 3 journeys a day could not carry it off.
King of the Romans,
a title assumed by the Emperor Henry II., and afterwards
conferred on the eldest son of the emperor of Germany.
William, historian, born near Taunton; bred for
the bar, gave up the legal profession, in which he had a
lucrative practice, for literature; is the author of two
works, "Eothen" and the "History of the War
in the Crimea," in 8 vols., the former a brilliantly
written book of travels in the East, published in 1844,
the latter a minute record of the war, of which the last
vol. was published in 1890, pronounced by Prof. Saintsbury,
in a literary point of view, to be "an imposing failure"
Kingmaker, The, a title
popularly given to Richard Nevil, Earl of Warwick, who was
instrumental in raising Edward IV. to the throne of England
by dethroning Henry VI., and afterwards in restoring Henry
by the defeat of Edward.
Kings, The Book of,
two books of the Old Testament, originally one, but divided
in the Septuagint into two, containing the history of the
Jewish kingdom under the kings from its establishment under
David to its fall, and covering a period from 1015 B.C.
to 560 B.C., during which time the kingdom fell into two,
that of Israel and that of Judah, the captivity of the former,
occurring 130 years before that of the latter; the author,
who is unknown, wrote the history at the time of the captivity,
and his object is didactic of the effect on the history
of a nation of its apostasy from faith in its God, not,
however, without a promise of restoration in the case of
King's College, London,
a Church of England institution, with faculties of Theology,
Arts, Science, and Medicine, Evening Class, Civil Service
and Art departments, a preparatory School and a Ladies'
department; it grants the title of associate.
King's Counsel or
Queen's Counsel are those barristers in England and
Ireland who, having been successful in their profession
have received the letters-patent conferring that title and
right of precedence in all courts; the appointment is honorary
and for life, but in acting against the Crown a Q.C. must
obtain leave by special license, which is always granted.
King's County (66),
an inland Irish county on the left bank of the Shannon,
between Tipperary and West Meath; is mostly flat, a quarter
of it bogland and a quarter under crops; the chief towns
are Tullamore (5), the county town, on the Grand Canal,
and Birr or Parsonstown (4), where Lord Rosse's great telescope
canon of Westminster and chaplain to the Queen, born at
Holne Vicarage, near Dartmoor; studied at Cambridge; became
rector of Eversley, in Hampshire, in 1844; was the author
in 1848 of a drama, entitled "The Saint's Tragedy,"
with St. Elizabeth of Hungary for heroine, which was followed
successively by "Alton Locke" (1849), and "Yeast"
(1851), chiefly in a Socialistic interest; "Hypatia,"
a brilliant book in the interest of early Christianity in
Alexandria and "Westward Ho!" a narrative of the
rivalry of England with Spain in the days of Elizabeth,
and besides other works, including "Two Years Ago," "Water
Babies," and "Hereward the Wake," he was
the author of the popular ballads of "The Three Fishers," "The
Starlings," and "The Sands of Dee"; his writings
had a great influence on his contemporaries, particularly
on young men; Professor Saintsbury writes an appreciative
estimate of Kingsley (1819-1875).
Kingsley, Henry, younger
brother of the preceding; after a brief experience of life
in Australia he returned home to start on the career of
letters in rivalry with his brother, and distinguished himself
by exhibitions of similar literary ability, as a novelist
especially, as well as kindred sympathies; his principal
novels were "Geoffrey Hamlyn," one of the best
novels on Australian life; "Ravenshoe," his masterpiece,
and "The Hillyars and the Burtons" (1830-1876).
Kingston, 1, capital (13)
of Frontenac County, Ontario, on the NE. shore of the Lake,
150 m. E. of Toronto, an important commercial town with
shipbuilding and engineering works; is the seat of Queen's
University, military and medical colleges, and an observatory.
2, Capital (47) of Jamaica, on a great bay on the S. coast,
on the edge of a sugar-growing district; exports sugar,
tobacco, and dye-woods, and imports cotton, flour, and rice.
3, a town (21) on the Hudson, N.Y., has great blue stone-flag
quarries, and cement-works, breweries, and tanneries.
(27), in Surrey, 10 m. SW. of London, has a fine church
and other buildings, and malting industry.
Kingston, W. H. G.,
popular boys' story-writer, born in London, spent his youth
in Oporto, was interested in philosophic schemes, and helped
to arrange the Anglo-Portuguese commercial treaty; he wrote
120 tales, of which the "Three Midshipmen" series
is the best, and died at Willesden (1814-1880).
Kingstown, seaport of
Dublin, 7 m. SE.; was till 1817 but a fishing village; has
a harbour designed by Rennie, which cost £525,000;
was originally Dunleary, and changed into Kingstown on George
IV.'s visit in 1821.
Kinkel, Johann Gottfried,
German poet and writer on æsthetics, born near Bonn;
studied for the Church, but became lecturer on Art in Bonn,
1846; two years later he was imprisoned for revolutionary
proceedings; escaped in 1850 to England, and became professor
at Zurich in 1866; wrote "Otto der Schütz,"
an epic, and "Nimrod," a drama (1815-1882).
Kinross (7), small Scottish
county lying between Perth and Fife, round Loch Leven, is
agricultural and grazing, with some hills of no great height,
and coal mines; the co. town, Kinross (2), is on
the W. shore of Loch Leven; manufactures tartan.
Kinsale (5), a once important
seaport in co. Cork, at the mouth of the Bandon, 13 m. S.
of Cork; has lost its trade, and is now a summer resort
and fishing station; King James II. landed here in 1689,
and re-embarked in 1690.
Kintyre, a long narrow isthmus
on the W. coast of Scotland, between the Atlantic and the
Firth of Clyde, is chiefly hill and grass country; but at
Campbeltown are great distilleries; at Machrihanish Bay,
on the W. coast, are fine golfing links.
Kipchaks, a nomadic Turkish
race who settled on the south-eastern steppes of Russia
about the 11th century, and whose descendants still occupy
story-teller and poet, born in Bombay, and educated in England;
went out to India as a journalist; his stories respect Anglo-Indian,
and especially military, life in India, and his "Soldiers
Three," with the rest that followed, such as "Wee
Willie Winkie," gained for him an immediate and wide
reputation; as a poet, his most successful effort is his "Barrack-Room
Ballads," instinct with a martial spirit, in 1864;
he is a writer of conspicuous realistic power; he deems
it the mission of civilisation to drill the savage races
in humanity; b. 1865.
Kirby, William, entomologist,
born in Suffolk; distinguished as the author of "Monographia
Apium Angliæ," and "Introduction to Entomology";
was rector of Barham, Suffolk, for 68 years (1759-1850).
Kirghiz, a nomadic Turkish
people occupying the Kirghiz steppes, an immense tract E.
of the Ural River and the Caspian Sea, numbering 2½
millions, adventurous, witty, and free-spirited; refuse
to settle; retain ancient customs and characteristics, and
are Moslems only in name.
Kirk Session, an ecclesiastical
court in Scotland, composed of the minister and elders of
a parish, subject to the Presbytery of the district.
Kirkcaldy (27), a manufacturing
and seaport town in Fifeshire, extending 4 m. along the
north shore of the Forth, known as the "lang toon."
It was the birthplace of Adam Smith, and one of the scenes
of the schoolmastership period of Thomas Carlyle's life;
manufactures textile fabrics and floorcloth; is a busy town.
a Scottish county on the Solway shore between Wigtown and
Dumfries, watered by the rivers Nith, Dee, and Cree; has
Mount Merrick on the NW. border, and Loch Dee in the middle;
one-third of its area cultivated, the rest chiefly hill
pasturage. County town Kirkcudbright (3), on the
Dee, 6 m. from the Solway; held St. Cuthbert's church.
Kirkdale Cave, a cave
in the vale of Pickering, Yorkshire, discovered by Buckland
to contain the remains of a number of extinct species of
Kirke's Lambs, the soldiers
of Colonel Kirke, an officer of the English army in James
the Second's time, distinguished for their acts of cruelty
inflicted on the Monmouth party.
a town on the Forth and Clyde Canal, 7 m. N. of Glasgow,
manufactures chemicals, has calico works, and mines of coal
Kirkwall (4), capital of
Orkney, in the E. of Mainland, 35 m. NE. of Thurso; has
a fine cathedral named St. Magnus, and some shipping trade;
it was in mediæval times subject to Norway, and was
the residence of the jarls.
Kirriemuir (4), a small
Forfarshire town, 5 m. NW. of Forfar, native place of J.
M. Barrie, and the "Thrums" of his books; manufactures
water), a liqueur formed from ripe cherries with the stones
pounded in it after fermentation and then distilled.
Hungarian dramatist, brother of the following, was founder
of the national drama, and with his brother ranks high in
the literature of the country (1788-1830).
a Hungarian lyric poet, "Himfy's Loves" his chief
work, was less distinguished as a dramatist (1772-1844).
Kissingen (4), Bavarian
watering-place on the Saale, 65 m. E. of Frankfort-on-the-Main,
visited for its saline springs by 14,000 people annually;
its waters are used both internally and externally, and
are good for dyspepsia, gout, and skin-diseases.
Kitcat Club, founded
in 1688 ostensibly to encourage literature and art, and
named after Christopher Catt, in whose premises it met;
became ultimately a Whig society to promote the Hanoverian
succession; Marlborough, Walpole, Congreve, Addison, and
Steele were among the thirty-nine members.
Kitchener of Khartoum, Horatio
Herbert, Lord, son of Col. Kitchener; joined the
Royal Engineers, and was first engaged in survey work
in Palestine and Cyprus; became a
major of cavalry in the Egyptian army 1882, served in the
1884 expedition, was governor of Suakim 1886, and after
leading the Egyptian troops at Handub 1888 was made aide-de-camp
to the Queen, C.B., and adjutant-general in the Egyptian
army; he was appointed Sirdar, commander-in-chief of that
army, in 1892, organised and led the expedition of 1898
which overthrew the Khalifa at Omdurman, and for which he
was awarded a peerage and received many honours, the freedom
of the cities of London and Edinburgh, &c.; a gift of £30,000
was voted by the Government in 1899; b. 1850.
Kizil (red river), the ancient
Halys, the largest river in Asia Minor, which flows into
the Black Sea 40 m. E. of Sinope after a course of 450 m.
Klapka, a Hungarian patriot,
distinguished in arms against the Austrians during the revolution,
and for his heroic defence of Komorn in the end (1820-1892).
Klaproth, Julius von,
Orientalist and philologist; was an accomplished Chinese
scholar; explored Siberia and Caucasia (1783-1835).
Klaus, Peter, the German
prototype of Rip Van Winkle, a goat-herd who slept for the
same number of years and at the end had similar experiences.
Klausthal (9), in Hanover,
25 m. NE. of Göttingen, is the chief mining town of
the northern Hartz Mountains, and the seat of the German
mining administration, surrounded by silver, copper, lead,
and zinc mines.
Kléber, Jean Baptiste,
French general, born at Strasburg; originally an architect,
served with distinction in the Revolutionary army, accompanied
Bonaparte to Egypt, and was left by him in command, where,
after a bold attempt to regain lost ground and while in
the act of concluding a treaty with the Turks, he was assassinated
by an Arab fanatic (1753-1800).
Kleist, Heinrich von,
German dramatist and poet, born at Frankfort-on-the-Oder;
entered the army, but afterwards devoted himself to literature;
slow recognition and other trials preyed on his mind, and
he shot himself near Potsdam (1777-1811).
Klondike, a small section
of Yukon, a territory in the extreme NW. of N. America,
and a present-day centre of pilgrimage by gold-seekers since
the recent discovery of the gold-fields there.
Gottlieb, German poet, born at Quedlinburg; distinguished
as the author of an epic poem entitled the "Messiah,"
which is his chief work, his treatment of which invested
him with a certain sense of sanctity, and the publication
of which did much to quicken and elevate the literary life
of Germany (1724-1803).
Yorkshire market-town, 14 m. W. of York; manufactures woollen
rugs, grinds flour, and trades in corn.
Kneller, Sir Godfrey,
portrait-painter, born at Lübeck; studied under Rembrandt
and at Italy, came to England in 1674, and was appointed
court painter to Charles II., James II., William III., and
George I.; practised his art till he was seventy, and made
a large fortune (1646-1723).
imaginary author of the fictitious "History of New
York," by Washington Irving.
Knight, Charles, London
publisher and editor, publisher for the Useful Knowledge
Society, of "Library of Entertaining Knowledge,"
of the "Penny Magazine," and the "Penny Cyclopædia," &c.,
as well as a "Pictorial Shakespeare," edited by
Knighthood, a distinction
granted to commoners, ranking next to baronet, now bestowed
by the crown; formerly knighthood was a military order,
any member of which might create new knights; it was originally
the highest rank of Chivalry
(q. v.); it was an order of many subdivisions developed
during the crusades, and in full flower before the Norman
conquest of England.
Knights of Labour,
an American labour organisation, founded in 1869, resembling
a union of all trades, male and female; in 1886 had 730,000
members, which have since disagreed and fallen off.
Knights of the Round
Table, King Arthur's knights, so called from the
round table at which they sat, so that when seated there
might seem no precedency, numbered popularly at twelve,
though reckoned by some at forty.
Knights of the Shire,
English gentry representing a middle class between the barons
and the peasants, acting as members of Parliament for the
county they belonged to.
dramatist, born at Cork; was connected with the stage first
as actor and then as an author of plays, which include "Virginius," "The
Hunchback," and "The Wife"; latterly he gave
up the stage, and took to preaching in connection with the
Baptist body (1784-1862).
Know-nothings, a party
in the United States that sprung up in 1853 and restricted
the right of American citizenship to those who were born
in America or of an American parentage, so called because
to those inquisitive about their secret organisation they
uniformly answered "I know nothing."
Knox, John, the great Scottish
Reformer, born at Giffordgate, Haddington, in 1505; studied
at Glasgow University; took priest's orders; officiated
as a priest, and did tutoring from 1530 to 1540; came under
the influence of George Wishart, and avowed the Reformed
faith; took refuge from persecution in St. Andrews Castle
in 1547; was there summoned to lead on the movement; on
the surrender of the castle was taken prisoner, and made
a slave in a French galley for 19 months; liberated in 1549
at the intercession of Edward VI., came and assisted the
Protestant cause in England; was offered preferments in
the Church, but declined them; fled in 1553 to France, from
the persecution of Bloody Mary; ministered at Frankfort
and Geneva to the English refugees; returned to Scotland
in 1555, but having married, went back next year to Geneva;
was in absence, in 1557, condemned to be burned; published
in 1558 his "First Blast against the Monstrous Regiment
of Women"; returned to Scotland for good in 1559, and
became minister in Edinburgh; saw in 1560 the jurisdiction
of the Pope abolished in Scotland; had successive interviews
with Queen Mary after her arrival at Leith in 1561; was
tried for high-treason before the Privy Council, but acquitted
in 1563; began his "History of the Reformation in Scotland"
in 1566; preached in 1567 at James VI.'s coronation in Stirling;
was in 1571 struck by apoplexy; died in Edinburgh on the
24th November 1572, aged 67, the Regent Morton pronouncing
an éloge at his grave, "There lies one
who never feared the face of man." Knox is pronounced
by Carlyle to have been the one Scotchman to whom, "of
all others, his country and the world owe a debt"; "In
the history of Scotland," he says, "I can find
properly but one epoch; we may say it contains nothing of
world interest at all but this Reformation by Knox.... It
is as yet a country without a soul ... the people now begin
to live ... Scottish literature
and thought, Scottish industry, James Watt, David Hume,
Walter Scott (little as he dreamt of debt in that quarter),
and Robert Burns, I find Knox and the Reformation acting
on the heart's core of every one of these persons and phenomena;
I find that without the Reformation they would not have
been; or," he adds, "the Puritanism of England
and of New England either"; and he sums up his message
thus: "Let men know that they are men, created by God,
responsible to God; who work in any meanest moment of time
what will last through eternity. This great message,"
he adds, "Knox delivered with a man's voice and strength,
and found a people to believe him."
Kobdo, a town in Mongolia,
the entrepôt of Russian dealers in connection with
the Altai mines.
Koch, Robert, an eminent
bacteriologist, born at Klansthal, in Hanover; famous for
his researches in bacteriology; discovered sundry bacilli,
among others the cholera bacillus and the phthisis bacillus,
and a specific against it; b. 1843.
Kock, Charles Paul de,
popular French novelist and dramatist, born near Paris,
and educated for a mercantile career, but turned to writing
and produced a series of works, not of first merit, but
illustrating contemporary French middle-class life (1794-1871).
Koheleth (the preacher,
originally gatherer), the Hebrew name for the book of Ecclesiastes,
and a personification of wisdom.
Kola, a small town, the most
northerly in Russia, on a peninsula of the same name, with
a capacious harbour.
Kolin, a Bohemian town on
the Elbe, 40 m. SE. of Prague, where Frederick the Great
was defeated by Marshal Daun in 1757.
Kölliker, an eminent
embryologist, born at Zurich; professor of Anatomy at Würzburg;
Köln, the German name
for Cologne (q. v.).
German mechanician, born in Eisleben; bred a printer, and
invented the steam-press, or printing by machinery (1774-1833).
(16), a Bohemian town 60 m. E. of Prague; was the scene
of a terrible battle called Sa'dowa, in Austria, where the
Germans defeated the Austrians in 1866.
the capital of E. Prussia, on the Pregel, with several manufactures
and an extensive trade; has a famous university, and is
the birthplace of Kant, where also he lived and died.
Korân (i. e.
book to be read), the Bible of the Mohammedans, accepted
among them as "the standard of all law and all practice;
thing to be gone upon in speculation and life; it is read
through in the mosques daily, and some of their doctors
have read it 70,000 times, and hard reading it is";
it contains the teaching of Mahomet, collected by his disciples
after his death, and arranged the longest chapters first
and the shortest, which were the earliest, last; a confused
Kordofan (280), an Egyptian
Soudanese province on the W. bank of the Nile; an undulating
dry country, furnishing crops of millet, and exporting gums,
hides, and ivory; was lost in the Mahdist revolt of 1883,
but recovered by Lord Kitchener's expedition in 1898; El
Obeid (30), the capital is 230 m. SW. of Khartoum.
Koreish, the chief tribe
among the Arabs in Mahomet's time, and to which his family
Körner, Karl Theodor,
a German soldier poet, often called the German Tyrtæus,
born in Dresden; famous for his patriotic songs and their
influence on German patriots; fell in a skirmish with the
French at Mecklenburg (1791-1813).
Polish general and patriot, born in Lithuania, of noble
parentage, bred to arms; first saw service in the American
War on the side of the colonists, and returning to Poland,
twice over did valiant service against Russia, but at length
he was taken prisoner at the battle of Maciejowice in 1794;
he was subsequently set at liberty by the Emperor Paul,
when he removed to America, but soon returned to settle
in Switzerland, where he died by a fall of his horse over
a precipice; he was buried at Cracow beside John Sobieski
Kossuth, Louis, Hungarian
patriot, born near Zemplen; studied for his father's profession,
the law, but giving that up for politics, became editor
of several Liberal papers in succession; elected member
of the Diet at Pesth in 1847, he next year demanded autonomy
for Hungary, and set himself to drive out the Hapsburgs
and establish a republic; he raised a large army and large
funds, but Russia aided Austria, and the struggle, though
hopeful at first, proved in vain, defeated at Temesvar and
escaping to Turkey, he came to England in 1851, was enthusiastically
received, and lived there for many years; ultimately he
resided in Turin, studied science, and died there (1802
Kotzebue, German dramatist,
born at Weimar; went to St. Petersburg, obtained favour
at court and a government appointment; was banished to Siberia,
but regained the favour of Paul, and was recalled; on Paul's
death he returned to Germany, but went back to Russia from
fear of Napoleon, whom he had violently attacked; he had
a facile pen, and wrote no fewer than 200 dramatic pieces;
his strictures on the German university students greatly
exasperated them, and one of them attacked him in his house
at Mannheim and stabbed him to death (1761-1819).
Koumiss, an intoxicating
beverage among the Kalmucks, made by fermentation from mare's
Russian embryologist, professor at St. Petersburg; studied
and wrote on the Ascidians; b. 1840.
Krakatao, a volcanic island
in the narrow Strait of Sunda, between Java and Sumatra;
was the scene of a terrific eruption in 1883, causing a
tidal wave that swept round the globe, and raising quantities
of dust that made the sunsets in Britain even more than
usually red for three years.
Kraken, a huge fabulous sea-monster,
reported as at one time seen in the Norwegian seas; it would
rise to the surface, and as it plunged down drag ships and
every floating or swimming thing along with it.
Krapotkin, Prince Peter,
a Russian Nihilist, born in Moscow; became a member of the
v.); was arrested in Russia and imprisoned, but escaped,
as also in France, but released, and settled in England;
has written extensively on Socialistic subjects; b.
Christian Friedrich, German philosopher, born at
Eisenberg; studied under Fichte and Schelling, and was himself
lecturer successively in Jena, Dresden, Berlin, Göttingen,
and Münich, where he died; of the school of Kant, his
work has suffered through the pedantry of his style; he
wrote "The Ideal of Humanity," and many philosophical
Krefeld (105), in Rhenish
Prussia, 12 m. NW. of Düsseldorf; important manufacturing
town; noted for its silk and velvet factories founded by
Protestant refugees; has also machinery
and chemical works.
Kremlin, gigantic pile of
buildings in Moscow of all styles of architecture;, including
palaces, cathedrals, museums, government offices; founded
by Ivan III. in 1485.
Kreuzer, a German coin,
worth one-third or one-fifth of an English penny.
Kriegsspiel, a military
game played on large-scale maps with metal blocks for troops,
and designed to represent as fully as possible the conditions
of warfare; was invented by a Prussian lieutenant in 1824.
Krilof, Ivan Andreevich,
the great Russian fabulist, born at Moscow, son of a soldier;
began his literary career writing dramas and editing magazines;
was some time secretary to the governor of Livonia, and
for years lived an idle roving life; at 40 his fables in
the Moscow Spectator brought him fame in 1805; next
year he was appointed to a Government post at St. Petersburg,
and in 1821 to a post in the Imperial Public Library; he
was an eccentric, much-loved man, and the humour and sympathy
of his writings have won for him the title of the La Fontaine
of Russia (1768-1844).
Krishna (i. e. the
swarthy one), the man-god, or god-man, viewed as the 8th
and final incarnation or avatar of
Vishnu (q. v.), in whose
manifestation the latter first reveals himself as supreme
divinity, being, as the Theosophist might say, his Mahatma.
Krüdener, Madame de,
novelist, born at Riga; authoress of an autobiographical
novel entitled "Valérie"; lived partly
at St. Petersburg and partly at Paris; was a mystic religious
enthusiast and political prophetess (1764-1824).
Krüger, S. J. Paul,
President of the Transvaal Republic, born at Rastenburg;
became member of the Executive Council in 1872; in 1882
was chosen President, and has been three times elected to
the same office since; a man of sturdy, stubborn principles,
a champion of the rights of the Boers, and a cunning diplomatist;
German theologian, author of "Elijah the Tisbite,"
a popular work; was an opponent of the Rationalists (1796-1868).
Krupp, Alfred, metal
and steel founder, born at Essen, where through his father
he became the proprietor of a small foundry which grew in
his hands into such dimensions as to surpass every other
establishment of the kind in the world; the
Bessemer (q. v.) process
was early introduced here in the manufacture of steel, which
Krupp was the first to employ in the manufacture of guns;
the works cover an immense area, and employ 20,000 people,
and supply artillery to every Government of Europe (1810-1887).
Kubera or Kuvera,
the Hindu Plutus, or god of riches, represented as deformed
and mounted on a car drawn by hobgoblins.
Kublai Khan was a great
Mongol emperor of the 13th century; built up an empire which
included all the continent of Asia (except India, Arabia,
and Asia Minor) and Russia, the most extensive that ever
existed; he was an enlightened prince, adopted Chinese civilisation,
promoted learning, and established Buddhism throughout his
Kuenen, Abraham, a
Dutch Biblical critic, born at Haarlem; studied at Leyden,
and became professor there; distinguished for his researches
on the lines of the so-called higher criticism bearing upon
the literary history of the books of the Old Testament,
beginning with that of the Pentateuch (1828-1891).
Kuen-Lun, N. of Thibet,
a great snow-clad mountain range, 18,000 to 25,000 ft. high;
stretches for 700 m., with a breadth of 100 m. It was explored
by General Prjevalski, a Russian, 1876-88.
Kulm, a Bohemian village on
the left bank of the Elbe, 50 m. NW. of Prague, where the
French under Vandamme surrendered to the Russians and Prussians
Kunersdorf, a village
near Frankfort-on-Oder, where Frederick the Great was defeated
by Russians and Austrians in 1759.
Kurdistan (2,250), a stretch
of plateau and mountain land in Turkish, Persian, and Russian
Trans-Caucasian territory, consisting of grassy plains and
lofty ranges through which rivers like the Zabs, Batman-su,
and Euphrates force their way; is inhabited by a partly
nomad, partly agricultural people of ancient stock, who
export wool, gum, and hides; the Kurds retain their old
customs and organisation, are subject to their own chiefs,
impatient of the rule of the Porte and the Shah; predatory
by instinct, but brave and chivalrous; they are Moslems
Kurile Islands, a
chain of 26 islands, being a continuation of the peninsula
of Kamchatka, enclosing the sea of Okhotsk; very sparsely
Kurrachee (105), the chief
port of the Punjab; situated on the delta of the Indus,
with an extensive harbour and trade.
Kurtz, Heinrich, German
theologian, professor at Dorpat; author, among other works,
of a "Handbook of Church History"; b. 1809.
Kuruman, in Bechuanaland,
140 m. NW. of Kimberley; is the place where Livingstone
and Moffat laboured.
Kyd, Thomas, Elizabethan
dramatist, born in London, and trained a scrivener, but
won fame as a writer of tragedies, of which the best was "The
Spanish Tragedy" (1557-1595).
Kyoto (298), from 784 to 1868
the capital of Japan, on the Kamo River, inland, 190 m.
W. of Yedo; is still the centre of Japanese Buddhism, and
is noted for its pottery, bronze-work, crapes, and velvets.
Kyrie Eleison, means "Lord
have mercy upon us," and with Christe Eleison, "Christ
have mercy upon us," occurs in all Greek liturgies,
in the Roman Mass, and in the English Prayer Book, where
it forms the "lesser litany."
Kyrle, John, philanthropist,
born in Gloucestershire; celebrated by Pope as the "Man
of Ross," from the name of the place in Herefordshire
where he lived; was distinguished for his benefactions;
has given name to a society founded, among other things,
for the betterment of the homes of the people (1637-1724).