Raab (20), a town in Hungary, 67
m. NW. of Buda Pesth, manufactures tobacco and cutlery.
Raasay, one of the Inner Hebrides,
belonging to Inverness-shire, lies between Skye and Ross-shire;
bare on the W., picturesque on the E.; has interesting ruins
of Brochel Castle.
Rabant de St. Étienne,
a moderate French Revolutionary; member of the Constituent Assembly;
one of the Girondists; opposed the extreme party, and concealed
himself between two walls he had built in his brother's house;
was discovered, and doomed to the guillotine, as were also those
who protected him (1743-1793).
Rabat (26), known also as New
Sallee, a declining port in Morocco, finely situated on
elevated ground overlooking the mouth of the Bu-Ragrag River,
115 m. SE. of Fez; is surrounded by walls, and has a commanding
citadel, a noted tower, interesting ruins, &c.; manufactures
carpets, mats, &c., and exports olive-oil, grain, wool, &c.
Rabbi (lit. my master),
an appellation of honour applied to a teacher of the Law among
the Jews, in frequent use among them in the days of Christ,
who was frequently saluted by this title.
Rabbism, the name applied in
modern times to the principles and methods of the Jewish Rabbis,
particularly in the interpretation of the Jewish Scriptures.
great French humorist, born at Chinon, the son of a poor apothecary;
was sent to a convent at nine; became a Franciscan monk; read
and studied a great deal, but, sick of convent life, ran away
at forty years of age; went to Montpellier, and studied medicine,
and for a time practised it, particularly at Lyons; here he
commenced the series of writings that have immortalised his
name, his "Gargantua" and "Pantagruel,"
which he finished as curé of Meudon, forming a succession
of satires in a vein of riotous mirth on monks, priests, pedants,
and all the incarnate solecisms of the time, yet with all their
licentiousness revealing a heart in love with mankind, and a
passionate desire for the establishment of truth and justice
among men (1495-1553).
Races of Mankind. These
have been divided into five, the
Caucasian (q. v.) or Indo-European, the Mongolian
or Yellow, the Negro or Black, the Malayan or Tawny, and the
India or Copper-coloured.
Rachel, Eliza, a great French
tragédienne, born in Switzerland, of Jewish parents;
made her début in Paris in 1838, and soon became
famous as the interpreter of the principal characters in the
masterpieces of Racine and Corneille, her crowning triumph being
the representation, in 1843, of Phèdre in the tragedy
of Racine; she made a great impression wherever she appeared,
realised a large fortune, and died of decline (1821-1858).
Racine (21), a flourishing city
of Wisconsin, U.S.A., capital of Racine County, at the entrance
of Root River into Lake Michigan, 62 m. N. of Chicago; has an
Episcopal university: trades in lumber, flax, and the products
of various factories.
Racine, Jean, great French
tragic poet, born at La Ferté Milon, in the dep. of Aisne;
was educated at Beauvais and the Port Royal; in 1663 settled
in Paris, gained the favour of Louis XIV. and the friendship
of Boileau, La Fontaine, and Molière, though he quarrelled
with the latter, and finally lost favour with the king, which
he never recovered, and which hastened his death; he raised
the French language to the highest pitch of perfection in his
tragedies, of which the chief are "Andromaque" (1667), "Britannicus"
(1669), "Mithridate" (1673), "Iphigénie"
(1774), "Phèdre" (1677), "Esther"
(1688), and "Athalie" (1691), as well as an exquisite
comedy entitled "Les Plaideurs" (1669); when Voltaire
was asked to write a commentary on Racine, his answer was, "One
had only to write at the foot of each page, beau, pathétique,
harmonieux, admirable, sublime" (1639-1699).
Rack, an instrument of torture;
consisted of an oblong wooden frame, fitted with cords and levers,
by means of which the victim's limbs were racked to the point
of dislocation; dates back to Roman times, and was used against
the early Christians; much resorted to by the Spanish Inquisition,
and also at times by the Tudor monarchs of England, though subsequently
prohibited by law in England.
Radcliffe (20), a prosperous
town of Lancashire, on the Irwell, 7 m. NW. of Manchester; manufactures
cotton, calico, and paper; has bleaching and dye works, and
Radcliffe, Mrs. Ann,
née Ward, English novelist, born in London;
wrote a series of popular works which abound in weird tales
and scenes of old castles and gloomy forests, and of which the
best known is the "Mysteries of Udolpho" (1764-1823).
Radcliffe, John, physician,
born at Wakefield, studied at Oxford; commenced practice in
London; by his art and professional skill rose to eminence;
attended King William and Queen Mary; summoned to attend Queen
Anne but did not, pleading illness, and on the queen's death
was obliged to disappear from London; left £40,000 to
found a public library in the University of Oxford (1650-1714).
Radetzky, Johann, Count
von, Austrian field-marshal, born in Bohemia; entered
the Austrian army in 1784; distinguished himself in the war
with Turkey in 1788-89, and in all the wars of Austria with
France; checked the Revolution in Lombardy in 1848; defeated
and almost annihilated the Piedmontese army under Charles Albert
in 1849, and compelled Venice to capitulate in the same year,
after which he was appointed Governor of Lombardy (1766-1858).
Radicals, a class of English
politicians who, at the end of the 18th century and the beginning
of the 19th, aimed at the political emancipation of the mass
of the people by giving them a share in the election of parliamentary
representatives. Their Radicalism went no farther than that,
and on principle could not go farther.
Radnorshire (22), the least
populous of the Welsh counties; lies on the English border between
Montgomery (N.) and Brecknock (S.); has a wild and dreary surface,
mountainous and woody. Radnor Forest covers an elevated
heathy tract in the E.; is watered by the Wye and the Teme.
The soil does not favour agriculture, and stock-raising is the
chief industry. Contains some excellent spas, that at Llandrindod
the most popular. County town, Presteign.
Radowitz, Joseph von,
Prussian statesman; entered the army as an artillery officer,
rose to be chief of the artillery staff; by marriage became
connected with the aristocracy; at length head of the Anti-Revolutionary
party in the State, and the political adviser of William IV.,
in which capacity he endeavoured to effect a reform of the German
Diet, and to give a political constitution to Germany (1797-1853).
Rae, John, Arctic voyager, born
in Orkney, studied medicine in Edinburgh; first visited the
Arctic regions as a surgeon; was engaged in three expeditions
to these regions, of which he published reports; was made a
LL.D. of Edinburgh University on the occasion of Carlyle's installation
as Lord Rector (1813-1893).
Raeburn, Sir Henry,
portrait-painter, born at Stockbridge, Edinburgh; was educated
at George Heriot's Hospital; apprenticed to a goldsmith in the
city, and gave early promise of his abilities as an artist;
went to Italy; was introduced to Reynolds by the way, and after
two years' absence settled in Edinburgh, and became famous as
one of the greatest painters of the day; the portraits he painted
included likenesses of all the distinguished Scotsmen of the
period, at the head of them Sir Walter Scott; was knighted by
George IV. a short time before his death (1756-1823).
Raff, Joachim, musical composer
of the Wagner School, born at Lachen, in Switzerland; began
life as a schoolmaster; was attracted to music; studied at Weimar;
lived near Liszt, and became Director of the Conservatorium
at Frankfort-on-Main; his works include symphonies, overtures,
with pieces for the violin and the piano (1822-1882).
Raffles, Sir Thomas
Stamford, English administrator, born in Jamaica; entered
the East India Company's service, and rose in it; became Governor
of Java, and wrote a history of it; held afterwards an important
post in Sumatra, and formed a settlement at Singapore; returned
to England with a rich collection of natural objects and documents,
but lost most of them by the ship taking fire (1781-1826).
Rafn, Karl Christian,
Danish archæologist, born in Fünen; devoted his life
to the study of northern antiquities; edited numerous Norse
MSS.; executed translations of Norse literature; wrote original
treatises in the same interest, and by his researches established
the fact of the discovery of America by the Norsemen in the
10th century (1796-1864).
Ragged Schools, a name
given to the charity schools which provide education and, in
most cases, food, clothing, and lodging for destitute children;
they receive no Government support. The movement had its beginning
in the magnanimous efforts of John Pounds (d. 1839),
a shoemaker of Portsmouth; but the zeal and eloquence of Dr.
Guthrie (q. v.) of Edinburgh
greatly furthered the development and spread of these schools
throughout the kingdom.
Raglan, Fitzroy Somerset,
Lord, youngest son of the Duke of Beaufort; entered
the army at sixteen; served with distinction all through the
Peninsular War; became aide-de-camp to the Duke of Wellington,
and his military secretary; lost his right arm at Waterloo;
did diplomatic service at Paris in 1815, and held afterwards
a succession of important military posts; was appointed commander-in-chief
of the British forces in the Crimea, and was present at all
the engagements till attacked by cholera, aggravated by a repulse
and unjust reflections on his conduct of the war, he sank exhausted
and died (1788-1855).
Ragman Roll, the name given
to a record of the acts of fealty and homage done by the Scottish
nobility and gentry in 1296 to Edward I. of England, and of
value for the list it supplies of the nobles, gentry, burgesses,
and clergy of the country at that period. The original written
rolls of parchment have perished, but an abridged form is extant,
and preserved in the Tower of London.
Ragnarök, in the Norse
mythology the twilight of the gods, when it was predicted "the
Divine powers and the chaotic brute ones, after long contest
and partial victory by the former, should meet at last in universal,
world-embracing wrestle and duel, strength against strength,
mutually extinctive, and ruin, 'twilight' sinking into darkness,
shall swallow up the whole created universe, the old universe
of the Norse gods"; in which catastrophe Vidar and another
are to be spared to found a new heaven and a new earth, the
sovereign of which shall be Justice. "Insight this,"
says Carlyle, "of how, though all dies, and even gods die,
yet all death is but a Phoenix fire-death, and new birth into
the greater and the better as the fundamental law of being."
Ragusa, a decayed Austrian city
on the Dalmatian coast, fronting the Adriatic; has interesting
remains of its ancient greatness, and still contains several
fine monastic and other buildings.
Rahel, wife of Varnhagen von Ense,
born in Berlin, of Jewish parentage; was a woman of "rare
gifts, worth, and true genius, and equal to the highest thoughts
of her century," and lived in intimate relation with all
the intellectual lights of Germany at the time; worshipped at
the shrine of Goethe, and was the foster-mother of German genius
generally in her day; she did nothing of a literary kind herself;
all that remains of her gifts in that line are her Letters,
published by her husband on her death, which letters, however,
are intensively subjective, and reveal the state rather of her
feelings than the thoughts of her mind (1771-1833).
Raikes, Robert, the founder
of Sunday Schools, born in Gloucester; by profession a printer;
lived to see his pet institution established far and wide over
England; left a fortune for benevolent objects (1735-1811).
Railway King, name given
by Sydney Smith to George Hudson
(q. v.), the great railway speculator, who is said to
have one day in the course of his speculations realised as much
in scrip as £100,000.
Rainy, Robert, eminent Scottish
ecclesiastic, born in Glasgow; professor of Church History and
Principal in the Free Church College, Edinburgh; an able man,
a sagacious and an earnest, a distinguished leader of the Free
Church; forced into that position more by circumstances, it
is believed, than by natural inclination, and in that situation
some think more a loss than a gain to the Church catholic, to
which in heart and as a scholar he belongs; b. 1826.
Rajah, a title which originally
belonged to princes of the Hindu race, who exercised sovereign
rights over some tract of territory; now applied loosely to
native princes or nobles with or without territorial lordship.
Rajmahal (4), an interesting
old Indian town, crowns an elevated site on the Ganges, 170
m. NW. of Calcutta; has ruins of several palaces.
Rajon, Paul Adolphe,
French etcher, born at Dijon; made his mark in 1866 with his "Rembrandt
at Work"; carried off medals at the Salon; visited England
in 1872, and executed notable etchings of portraits of J.S.
Mill, Darwin, Tennyson, &c. (1842-1888).
Rajput, a name given to a Hindu
of royal descent or of the high military caste. See
Rajputana (12,016), an extensive
tract of country in the NW. of India, S. of the Punjab, embracing
some twenty native States and the British district, Ajmere-Merwara.
The Aravalli Hills traverse the S., while the Thar or Great
Indian Desert occupies the N. and W. Jodhpur is the largest
of the native territories, and the Rajputs, a proud and warlike
people are the dominant race in many of the States.
Rakoczy March, the national
anthem of the Hungarians, composed about the end of the 17th
century by an unknown composer, and said to have been the favourite
march of Francis Rakoczy II. of Transylvania.
Rakshasas, in the Hindu mythology
a species of evil spirits, akin to ogres.
Raleigh, Sir Walter,
courtier, soldier, and man of letters, born near Budleigh, in
E. Devon, of ancient family; entered as student at Oxford, but
at 17 joined a small volunteer force in aid of the Protestants
in France; in 1580 distinguished himself in suppressing a rebellion
in Ireland; was in 1582 introduced at court, fascinated the
heart of the Queen by his handsome presence and his gallant
bearing, and received no end of favours at her hand; joined
his half-brother, Sir Humphrey Gilbert, in an expedition to
North America, founded a colony, which he called Virginia in
honour of the queen, and brought home with him the potato and
the tobacco plants, till then unknown in this country; rendered
distinguished services in the destruction of the Armada; visited
and explored Guiana, and brought back tidings of its wealth
in gold and precious things; fell into disfavour with the queen,
but regained her esteem; under King James he became suspected
of disloyalty, and was committed to the Tower, where he remained
12 years, and wrote his "History of the World"; on
his release, but without a pardon, he set out to the Orinoco
in quest of gold-mines there, but returned heart-broken and
to be sentenced to die; he met his fate with calm courage, and
was beheaded in the Old Palace Yard; of the executioner's axe
he smilingly remarked, "A sharp medicine, but an infallible
Ralston, William Shedden,
a noted Russian scholar and translator, born in London; studied
at Cambridge, and in 1862 was called to the bar, but never practised;
assistant in the British Museum library till 1875; visited Russia;
his works embrace "Songs of the Russian People," "Russian
Folk-Tales," &c. (1828-1889).
Râma, in the Hindu mythology
an avatar of Vishnu, being the seventh, in the character of
a hero, a destroyer of monsters and a bringer of joy, as the
name signifies, the narrative of whose exploits are given in
Ramadan, the ninth month of
the Mohammedan year, a kind of Lent, held sacred as a month
of fasting by all Moslems, being the month in the life of Mahomet
when, as he spent it alone in meditation and prayer, his eyes
were opened to see, through the shows of things, into the one
eternal Reality, the greatness and absolute sovereignty of Allah.
Râmâyana, one of
the two great epic poems, and the best, of the Hindus, celebrating
the life and exploits of Râma, "a work of art in
which an elevated religious and moral spirit is allied with
much poetic fiction, ... written in accents of an ardent charity,
of a compassion, a tenderness, and a humility at once sweet
and plaintive, which ever and anon suggest Christian influences."
Rambler, a periodical containing
essays by Johnson in the Spectator vein, issued in 1750-52,
but written in that "stiff and cumbrous style which,"
as Professor Saintsbury remarks, "has been rather unjustly
identified with Johnson's manner of writing generally."
de, a lady of wealth and a lover of literature and art,
born in Rome, who settled in Paris, and conceiving the idea
of forming a society of her own, gathered together into her
salon a select circle of intellectual people, which, degenerating
into pedantry, became an object of general ridicule, and was
dissolved at her death (1588-1665).
Rameau, Jean Philippe,
French composer, born at Dijon; wrote on harmony, and, settling
in Paris, composed operas, his first "Hippolyte et Aricie,"
and his best "Castor et Pollux" (1683-1764).
Rameses, the name of several
ancient kings of Egypt, of which the most famous are R. II.,
who erected a number of monuments in token of his greatness,
and at whose court Moses was brought up; and R. III., the first
king of the twentieth dynasty, under whose successors the power
of Egypt fell into decay.
Ramillies, Belgian village
in Brabant, 14 m. N. of Namur; scene of Marlborough's victory
over the French under Villeroy in 1706.
Rammohun Roy, a Brahman,
founder of the Brahmo-Somaj, born at Burdwân, Lower Bengal;
by study of the theology of the West was led to embrace deism,
and tried to persuade his countrymen to accept the same faith,
by proofs which he advanced to show that it was the doctrine
of their own sacred books, in particular the Upanishads; with
this view he translated and published a number of texts from
them in vindication of his contention, as well as expounded
his own conviction in original treatises; in doing so he naturally
became an object of attack, and was put on his defence, which
he conducted in a succession of writings that remain models
of controversial literature; died in Bristol (1772-1833).
Ramsay, Allan, Scottish
poet, born in Crawford, Lanarkshire; bred a wig-maker; took
to bookselling, and published his own poems, "The Gentle
Shepherd," a pastoral, among the number, a piece which
describes and depicts manners very charmingly (1686-1758).
Ramsay, Allan, portrait-painter,
son of preceding; studied three years in Italy, settled in London,
and was named first painter to George III. (1715-1764).
Ramsay, Edward Bannerman,
dean of Edinburgh, born at Aberdeen, graduated at Cambridge;
held several curacies; became incumbent of St. John's Episcopal
Church, Edinburgh, in 1830, and dean of the diocese in 1840;
declined a bishopric twice over; is widely known as the author
of "Reminiscences of Scottish Life and Character";
was a most genial, lovable man, a great lover of his country,
and much esteemed in his day by all the citizens of Edinburgh
Ramsbottom (17), a busy manufacturing
town in Lancashire, on the Irwell, 4 m. N. of Bury, engaged
in cotton-weaving, calico-printing, rope-making, &c.
Ramsden, Jesse, mathematical
instrument-maker and inventor, born in Yorkshire; invented the
theodolite for the Ordnance Survey of Great Britain (1735-1800).
Ramsey, a beautifully situated,
healthy watering-place, 14 m. NE. of Douglas, in the Isle of
Ramsgate (25), a popular watering-place
in the Isle of Thanet, Kent, fronting the Downs, 72 m.
E. by S. of London; has a famous harbour of refuge; to the W.
lies Pegwell Bay with Ebbsfleet.
Ramus, Peter, or Pierre
de la Ramée, a French philosopher and humanist, son
of poor parents; became a servant in the College of Navarre;
devoted his leisure to study, and became a great scholar; attacked
scholasticism in a work against Aristotle as the main pillar
of the system, and was interdicted from teaching philosophy,
but the judgment was reversed by Henry II., and he was made
a royal professor; he turned Protestant in the end, and was
massacred on the eve of St. Bartholomew (1515-1572).
Ranavalona III., queen
of Madagascar; was crowned in 1883, but her kingdom and capital
were taken from her by the French in 1893, and she is now queen
only in name; b. 1861.
Ranching, a term of Spanish
derivation applied to the business of rearing cattle, as carried
on in the southern and western States of America; vast herds
of cattle in a half-wild condition are raised on the wide stretches
of prairie land, and are tended by "cowboys," whose
free, adventurous life attracts men of all sorts and conditions.
Randall, James Ryder,
American journalist; author of "Maryland, my Maryland," "Stonewall
Jackson," and other popular lyrics, which greatly heartened
the Southern cause in the Civil War; born in Baltimore; engaged
in teaching till he took to journalism; b. 1839.
Randolph, John, a noted
eccentric American politician, born at Cawsons, Virginia; entered
Congress in 1799, and held a commanding position there as leader
of the Democratic party; was a witty, sarcastic speaker; sat
in the Senate from 1825 to 1827, and in 1830 was Minister to
Russia; liberated and provided for his slaves (1773-1833).
Randolph, Sir Thomas,
English diplomatist, was sent on diplomatic missions by Queen
Elizabeth, and particularly mixed up in Scotch intrigues, and
had to flee from Scotland for his life; left Memoirs (1523-1590).
Randolph, Thomas, English
poet, wrote odes and sundry dramas, of which the "Muses'
Looking-Glass" and "Amyntas" are the best, though
not absolutely good (1605-1634).
Ranee, name given to a Hindu princess
or queen; a rajah's wife.
Ranelagh, a place of resort
in grounds at Chelsea of people of fashion during the last half
of the 18th century, with a promenade where music and dancing
were the chief attractions.
Rangoon (180), capital and chief
port of British Burmah, situated 20 m. inland from the Gulf
of Martaban, on the Hlaing or Rangoon River, the eastmost of
the delta streams of the Irrawaddy; British since 1852; a well-appointed
city of modern appearance, strongly fortified; contains the
famous Shway-Dagon pagoda erected in the 6th century B.C.; has
extensive docks, and negotiates the vast bulk of Burmese exports
and imports; the former include teak, gums, spices, and rice.
Ranjit Singh, the maharajah
of the Sikhs, after taking possession of Lahore, became undisputed
master of the Punjab, and imposed on his subjects the monarchical
form of government, which was shattered to fragments after his
death; he was the possessor of the Koh-i-Nur diamond (1797-1839).
Ranjitsinhji, Indian prince,
born at Sarodar; studied at Cambridge; devoted himself to cricket,
and became famous for his brilliant play; b. 1872.
Ranke, Leopold von,
distinguished German historian, born in Thüringia just
16 days after Thomas Carlyle; began life similarly as a teacher
and devoted his leisure hours to the study of history and the
publication of historical works; was in 1825 appointed professor
of History at Berlin; was commissioned by the Prussian government
to explore the historical archives of Vienna, Rome, and Venice,
the fruit of which was seen in his subsequent historical labours,
which bore not only upon the critical periods of German history,
but those of Italy, France, and even England; of his numerous
works, all founded on the impartial study of facts, it is enough
to mention here his "History of the Popes in the Sixteenth
and Seventeenth Centuries" and his "German History
in the Times of the Reformation" (1795-1886).
Rankine, W. J. Macquorn,
mathematician and physicist, born in Edinburgh; devoted himself
to engineering, and held the chair of Engineering in Glasgow
University; wrote extensively on mathematical and physical subjects,
both theoretical and practical (1820-1872).
Rannoch, an elevated, dreary
moorland in NW. of Perthshire, crossed by the West Highland
Railway; Lochs Rannoch and Tummel lie to the E. and Loch Lydoch
in the W.
Ranters, a name given to the
Primitive Methodists who seceded from the Wesleyan body on account
of a deficiency of zeal.
Ranz des Vaches, a simple
melody, played on the horn by the Swiss Alpine herdsmen as they
drive their cattle to or from the pasture, and which, when played
in foreign lands, produces on a Swiss an almost irrepressible
yearning for home.
Rape of the Lock, a dainty
production of Pope's, pronounced by Stopford Brooke to be "the
most brilliant occasional poem in the language."
Raphael, one of the seven archangels
and the guardian of mankind, conducted Tobias to the country
of the Medes and aided him in capturing the miraculous fish,
an effigies of which, as also a pilgrim's staff, is an attribute
of the archangel.
Raphael, Santi, celebrated
painter, sculptor, and architect, born at Urbino, son of a painter;
studied under Perugino for several years, visited Florence in
1504, and chiefly lived there till 1508, when he was called
to Rome by Pope Julius II., where he spent the rest of his short
life and founded a school, several of the members of which became
eminent in art; he was one of the greatest of artists, and his
works were numerous and varied, which included frescoes, cartoons,
madonnas, portraits, easel pictures, drawings, &c., besides
sculpture and architectural designs, and all within the brief
period of 37 years; he had nearly finished "The Transfiguration"
when he died of fever caught in the excavations of Rome; he
was what might be called a learned artist, and his works were
the fruits of the study of the masters that preceded him, particularly
Perugino and the Florentines, and only in the end might his
work be called his own; it is for this reason that modern Pre-Raphaelitism
is so called, as presumed to be observant of the simple dictum
of Ruskin, "Look at Nature with your own eyes, and paint
only what yourselves see" (1483-1520). See
Rapin de Thoyras, French
historian, born at Castres; driven from France by the Revocation
of the Edict of Nantes, settled in Holland, came over to England
with and served under the Prince of Orange, withdrew to Holland
and wrote a "History of England," deservedly much
in repute for long, if not still (1661-1725).
Rapp, George, German fanatic,
born in Würtemberg, emigrated to America, and founded a
fraternity called Harmonites, who by tillage of land on
the Ohio and otherwise amassed great
wealth, to be kept in store for the service of Christ at His
second coming (1770-1847).
Rapp, Jean, French general,
born at Colmar; served under Napoleon with distinction all through
his wars, held Danzig for a whole year against a powerful Russian
army, was kept prisoner by the Russians after surrender, returned
to France, and submitted to Louis XVIII. after Waterloo (1772-1821).
Rappahannock, a navigable
river of Virginia State, rises in the Alleghanies, and after
a course of 125 m. to the SE. discharges into Chesapeake Bay.
Rashi, a Jewish scholar and exegete,
born at Troyes; was an expert in all departments of Jewish lore
as contained in both the Scriptures and the Talmud, and indulged
much in the favourite Rabbinical allegorical style of interpretation
Rask, Rasmus Christian,
Danish philologist, born near Odense; studied first the primitive
languages of the North, chiefly Icelandic, and then those of
the East, and published the results of his researches both by
his writings and as professor of Oriental Languages and of Icelandic
in the university of Copenhagen (1787-1832).
Raskolink (lit. a separatist),
in Russia a sect, of which there are many varieties, of dissenters
from the Greek Church.
Vincent, French chemist, physiologist, and socialist;
got into trouble both under Louis Philippe and Louis Napoleon
for his political opinions (1794-1878).
Rassam, Hormuzd, Assyriologist,
born at Mosul; assisted Layard in his explorations at Nineveh,
and was subsequently, under support from Britain, engaged in
further explorations both there and elsewhere; being sent on
a mission to Abyssinia, was put in prison and only released
after the defeat of Theodore; b. 1826.
Rasselas, a quasi-novel written
in 1759 by Johnson to pay the expenses of his mother's funeral,
the subject of which is an imaginary prince of Abyssinia, and
its aim a satire in sombre vein on human life.
Rastatt or Rastadt (12),
a town in Baden, on the Murg, 15 m. SW. of Carlsruhe; is fortified,
and manufactures hardware, beer, and tobacco.
Rataña, a brandy flavoured
with kernels of fruits.
Rathlin (1), a picturesque,
cliff-girt island (6½ by 1-1/3 m.) off the N. coast of
Antrim; fishing is the chief industry; has interesting historical
Ratich, Wolfgang, German
educationalist, born in Wilster (Holstein); a forerunner of
Comenius; his theory of education, which in his hands proved
a failure, was based on Baconian principles; proceeded from
things to names, and from the mother tongue to foreign ones
Rational Horizon, a
great circle parallel to the horizon, the centre of which is
the centre of the earth.
a speculative point of view that resolves the supernatural into
the natural, inspiration into observation, and revelation into
what its adherents called reason, when they mean simply understanding,
and which ends in stripping us naked, and leaving us empty of
all the spiritual wealth accumulated by the wise in past ages,
and bequeathed to us as an inheritance that had cost them their
Ratisbo or Regensburg
(38), one of the oldest and most interesting of German towns
in Bavaria, on the Danube, 82 m. NE. of Münich; has a quaint
and mediæval appearance, with Gothic buildings and winding
streets; associated with many stirring historical events; till
1806 the seat of the imperial diet; does an active trade in
salt and corn, and manufactures porcelain, brass, steel, and
Rattazzi, Urbano, Italian
statesman, born at Alessandria; was leader of the extreme party
in the Sardinian Chamber in 1849, and was several times minister,
but was unstable in his politics (1808-1873).
Rauch, Christian, eminent
Prussian sculptor, born in Waldeck; patronised by royalty; studied
at Rome under Thorwaldsen and Canova; resided chiefly in Berlin;
executed statues of Blücher, Dürer, Goethe, Schiller,
and others, as well as busts; his masterpiece is a colossal
monument in Berlin of Frederick the Great (1777-1857).
Rauhes Haus ("Rough
House"), a remarkable institution for the reclamation and
training of neglected children, founded (1831), and for many
years managed by Johann Heinrich Wichern at Hoon, near Hamburg;
it is affiliated to the German Home Mission.
Ludwig Georg von, German historian; was professor of
History at Berlin; wrote the "History of the Hohenstaufen
and their Times," and a "History of Europe from the
End of the 15th Century" (1781-1873).
the assassin of Henry IV., born at Angoulême; a Roman
Catholic fanatic, who regarded the king as the arch-enemy of
the Church, and stabbed him to the heart as he sat in his carriage;
was instantly seized, subjected to torture, and had his body
torn by horses limb from limb (1578-1640).
Ravana, in the Hindu mythology
the king of the demons, who carried off Sita, the wife of Râma,
to Ceylon, which, with the help of the monkey-god Hanuman, and
a host of quadrumana, Râma invaded and conquered, slaying
his wife's ravisher, and bringing her off safe, a story which
forms the subject of the Hindu epic, "Râmâyana."
Ravenna (12), a venerable walled
city of Italy; once a seaport, now 5 m. inland from the Adriatic,
and 43 m. E. of Bologna; was capital of the Western Empire for
some 350 years; a republic in the Middle Ages, and a papal possession
till 1860; especially rich in monuments and buildings of early
Christian art; has also picture gallery, museum, library, leaning
tower, etc.; manufactures silk, linen, paper, etc.
Ravenna, Exarch of,
the viceroy of the Byzantine Empire in Italy while the latter
was a dependency of the former, and who resided at Ravenna.
musical composer, born in London; was a chorister in St. Paul's
Cathedral; composed many part-songs, etc., but is chiefly remembered
for his "Book of Psalmes," which he edited and partly
composed; some of the oldest and best known Psalms (e. g.
Bangor, St David's) are by him (1592-1640).
Ravenswood, a Scottish Jacobite,
the hero of Scott's "Bride of Lammermoor."
Delacroix de, a noted Jesuit preacher, born at Bayonne;
won wide celebrity by his powerful preaching in Notre Dame,
Paris; wrote books in defence of his order (1795-1858).
Rawal Pindi (74), a trading
and military town in the Punjab, 160 m. NW. of Lahore; has an
arsenal, fort, etc., and is an important centre for the Afghanistan
and Cashmere trades.
Rawlinson, George, Orientalist,
brother of following, Canon of Canterbury; has written extensively
on Eastern and Biblical subjects: b. 1815.
Rawlinson, Sir Henry,
Assyriologist, born in Oxfordshire; entered the Indian Army
in 1827; held several diplomatic posts, particularly in Persia;
gave himself to the study of cuneiform inscriptions, and became
an authority in the rendering of them and matters relative (1810-1895).
Ray, John, English naturalist,
born in Essex; studied at Cambridge; travelled extensively collecting
specimens in the departments of both botany and zoology, and
classifying them, and wrote works on both as well as on theology
Rayleigh, Lord, physicist,
was senior wrangler at Cambridge; is professor of Natural Philosophy
in the Royal Institution; author of "The Theory of Sound";
discovered, along with Professor Ramsay, "argon" in
the atmosphere; b. 1842.
Raymond, name of a succession
of Counts of Toulouse, in France, seven in number, of which
the fourth count, from 1088 to 1105, was a leader in the first
crusade, and the sixth, who became Count in 1194, was stripped
of his estate by Simon de Montfort.
Raynal, the Abbé,
French philosopher; wrote "Histoire des Indes" and
edited "Philosophic History," distinguished for its "lubricity,
unveracity, loose, loud eleutheromaniac rant," saw it burnt
by the common hangman, and his wish fulfilled as a "martyr"
to liberty (1713-1796).
French littérateur and philologist, born in Provence;
was of the Girondist party at the time of the Revolution, and
imprisoned; wrote poems and tragedies, but eventually gave himself
up to the study of the language and literature of Provence (1761-1836).
Ré, Isle of (16), small
island, 18 m. by 3, off the French coast, opposite La Rochelle;
salt manufacturing chief industry; also oysters and wine are
exported. Chief town, St. Martin (2).
Reade, Charles, English
novelist, born at Ipsden, in Oxfordshire; studied at Oxford;
became a Fellow of Magdalen College, and was called to the bar
in 1842; began his literary life by play-writing; studied the
art of fiction for 15 years, and first made his mark as novelist
in 1852, when he was nearly 40, by the publication of "Peg
Woffington," which was followed in 1856 by "It is
Never too Late to Mend," and in 1861 by "The Cloister
and the Hearth," the last his best and the most popular;
several of his later novels are written with a purpose, such
as "Hard Cash" and "Foul Play"; his most
popular plays are "Masks and Faces" and "Drink"
Reading (61), capital of Berkshire,
on the Kennet, 36 m. N. of London; a town of considerable historic
interest; was ravaged by the Danes; has imposing ruins of a
12th-century Benedictine abbey, &c.; was besieged and taken
by Essex in the Civil War (1643); birthplace of Archbishop Laud;
has an important agricultural produce-market, and its manufactures
include iron-ware, paper, sauce, and biscuits.
Reading (79), capital of Berks
Co., Pennsylvania, on the Schuylkill River, 58 m. NW. of Philadelphia;
has flourishing iron and steel works; population includes a
large German settlement.
Real, an old Spanish silver coin
still in use in Spain, Mexico, and some other of the old Spanish
colonies, also is a money of account in Portugal; equals one-fourth
of the peseta, and varies in value from 2½ d.
to 5d. with the rise and fall of exchange.
Real, a legal term in English
law applied to property of a permanent or immovable kind,
e. g. land, to distinguish it from personal or movable
Real Presence, the assumed
presence, really and substantially, in the bread and wine of
the Eucharist of the body and blood, the soul and divinity,
of Christ, a doctrine of the Romish and certain other Churches.
Realism, as opposed to Nominalism,
is the belief that general terms denote real things and are
not mere names or answerable to the mere conception of them,
and as opposed to idealism, is in philosophy the belief that
we have an immediate cognition of things external to us, and
that they are as they seem. In art and literature it is the
tendency to conceive and represent things as they are, however
unsightly and immoral they may be, without any respect to the
beautiful, the true, or the good. In Ruskin's teaching mere
realism is not art; according to him art is concerned with the
rendering and portrayal of ideals.
Realm, Estates of the,
the Sovereign, the House of Lords, and the House of Commons
in Great Britain.
Real-schule, a German school
in which languages, sciences, and arts are taught to qualify
for apprenticeship in some special business or craft.
Reason, in philosophy is more
than mere understanding or reasoning power; it is the constitutive
and regulative soul of the universe assumed to live and breathe
in the inner life or soul of man, as that develops itself in
the creations of human genius working in accord with and revealing
the deep purpose of the Maker.
Reason, in German Vernunft,
defined by Dr. Stirling "the faculty that unites and brings
together, as against the understanding," in German Verstand, "the
faculty that separates, and only in separation knows,"
and that is synthetic of the whole, whereof the latter is merely
analytic of the parts, sundered from the whole, and without
idea of the whole, the former being the faculty which construes
the diversity of the universe into a unity or the one, whereas
the latter dissolves the unity into diversity or the many.
Reason, Goddess of,
a Mrs. Momoro, wife of a bookseller in Paris, who, on the 10th
November 1793, in the church of Notre Dame, represented what
was called Reason, but was only scientific analysis, which the
revolutionaries of France proposed, through her representing
such, to install as an object of worship to the dethronement
of the Church, l'infâme.
Réaumur, French scientist,
born in La Rochelle; made valuable researches and discoveries
in the industrial arts as well as in natural history; is best
known as the inventor of the thermometer that bears his name,
which is graduated into 80 degrees from the temperature of melting
ice to that of boiling water (1683-1757).
Rebecca the Jewess,
a high-souled Hebrew maiden, who is the heroine in Sir Walter
Rebeccaites, a band of Welsh
rioters who in 1843, dressed as females, went about at nights
and destroyed the toll-gates, which were outrageously numerous;
they took their name from Gen. xxiv. 60.
Rebellion, name of two risings
of Jacobites in Scotland to restore the exiled Stuart dynasty
to the throne, one in behalf of the Pretender in 1715, headed
by the Earl of Mar, and defeated at Sheriffmuir, and the other
in behalf of the Young Chevalier, and defeated at Culloden in
Frenchwoman, born at Lyons; became at
15 the wife of a rich banker In Paris thrice her own age; was
celebrated for her wit her beauty, and her salon; was a friend
of Madame de Staël and Châteaubriand, whom she soothed
in his declining years, and a good woman (1777-1849).
Recanati (6), a pretty Italian
town, 15 m. S. of the Adriatic port Ancona, the birthplace of
Leopardi; has a Gothic cathedral.
Recension, the name given
to the critical revision of the text of an author, or the revised
Rechabites, a tribe of Arab
origin and Bedouin habits who attached themselves to the Israelites
in the wilderness and embraced the Jewish faith, but retained
their nomadic ways; they abstained from all strong drink, according
to a vow they had made to their chief, which they could not
be tempted to break, an example which Jeremiah in vain pleaded
with the Jews to follow in connection with their vow to the
Lord (see Jer. xxxv.).
Recidivists, a name applied
to the class of habitual delinquents or criminals of France.
Reciprocity, a term used
in economics to describe commercial treaties entered into by
two countries, by which it is agreed that, while a strictly
protective tariff is maintained as regards other countries,
certain articles shall be allowed to pass between the two contracting
countries free of or with only light duties; this is the cardinal
principle of Fair Trade, and is so far opposed to Free Trade.
a celebrated French geographer; from his extreme democratic
opinions left France In 1851, lived much in exile, and spent
much time in travel; wrote "Géographie Universelle,"
in 14 vols., his greatest work; b. 1830.
Recorde, Robert, mathematician,
born in Pembroke; a physician by profession, and physician to
Edward VI. and Queen Mary; his works on arithmetic, algebra, &c.,
were written in the form of question and answer; died in the
debtors' prison (1500-1558).
Recorder, an English law official,
the chief Judicial officer of a city or borough; discharges
the functions of judge at the Quarter-Sessions of his district;
must be a barrister of at least five years' standing; is appointed
by the Crown, but paid by the local authority; is debarred from
sitting on the licensing bench, but is not withheld from practising
at the bar; the sheriff in Scotland is a similar official.
Rector, a clergyman of the Church
of England, who has a right to the great and small tithes of
the living; where the tithes are impropriate he is called a
Recusants, a name given to
persons who refused to attend the services of the Established
Church, on whom legal penalties were first imposed in Elizabeth's
reign, that bore heavily upon Catholics and Dissenters; the
Toleration Act of William III. relieved the latter, but the
Catholics were not entirely emancipated till 1829.
Red Cross Knight, St.
George, the patron saint of England, and the type and the symbol
of justice and purity at feud with injustice and impurity.
Red Cross Society, an
internationally-recognised society of volunteers to attend to
the sick and wounded in time of war, so called from the members
of it wearing the badge of St. George.
Red Republicans, a party
in France who, at the time of the Revolution of 1848, aimed
at a reorganisation of the State on a general partition of Property.
Red River, an important western
tributary of the Mississippi; flows E. and SE. through Texas,
Arkansas, and Louisiana; has a course of 1600 m. till it joins
the Mississippi; is navigable for 350 m.
Red River of the North,
flows out of Elbow Lake, Minnesota; forms the boundary between
North Dakota and Minnesota, and flowing through Manitoba, falls
into Lake Winnipeg after a course of 665 m.; is a navigable
Red Sea, an arm of the Arabian
Sea, and stretching in a NW. direction between the desolate
sandy shores of Turkey in Asia and Africa; is connected with
the Gulf of Aden in the SE. by the Strait of Bab-el-Mandeb,
and in the NW. divides into the Gulfs of Suez and Akaba, between
which lies the Sinai Peninsula; the
Suez Canal (q. v.) joins
it to the Mediterranean; is 1200 m. long, and averages 180 in
breadth; has a mean depth of 375 fathoms (greatest 1200); receives
no rivers, and owing to the great evaporation its water is very
saline; long coral reefs skirt its shores, and of many islands
Jebel Zugur, in the Farisan Archipelago, and Dahlak are the
largest; the dangerous Dædalus Reef is marked by a lighthouse;
as a seaway between Europe and the East its importance was greatly
diminished by the discovery of the Cape route, but since the
opening of the Suez Canal it has much more than regained its
old position; owes its name probably to the deep red tint of
the water often seen among the reefs, due to the presence of
Redan, a rampart shaped like the
letter V, with its apex toward the enemy.
Redditch (11), a flourishing
town of Worcester, on the Warwick border, 13 m. SW. of Birmingham,
busy with the manufacture of needles, pins, fish-hooks, &c.
known as Trinitarians (q.
v.), a name bestowed on an order of monks consecrated to
the work of redeeming Christian captives from slavery.
Redesdale, in Northumberland,
the valley of the river Reed, which rises in the Cheviots and
flows SE. through pastoral and in part dreary moorland till
it joins the North Tyne; at the S. end is the field of
Otterburn (q. v.).
Redeswire, Raid of the,
a famous Border fight took place in July 1575 at the Cheviot
pass which enters Redesdale; through the timely arrival of the
men of Jedburgh the Scots proved victorious; is the subject
of a Border ballad.
Redgauntlet, an enthusiastic
Jacobite character in Sir Walter Scott's novel of the name,
distinguished by a "horse-shoe vein on his brow, which
would swell up black when he was in anger."
Redgrave, Richard, painter,
born at Pimlico, in London; studied at the Royal Academy, won
his first success in "Gulliver on the Farmer's Table,"
became noted for his genre and landscape paintings, held
Government appointments, and published among other works "Reminiscences"
and "A Century of English Painters" (1804-1888).
Reding, Aloys von, a
Swiss patriot, born in Schwyz; was the bold defender of Swiss
independence against the French, in which he was in the end
Redoubt Kali, a Russian
fort on the E. coast of the Black Sea, 10 m. N. of Poti, the
chief place for shipping Circassian girls to Turkey; captured
by the British in 1854.
Redruth (10), a town of Cornwall,
on a hilly site nearly 10 m. SW. of Truro, in the midst of a
tin and copper mining district.
Red-tape, name given to official
formality, from the red-tape employed in tying official documents,
Rees, Abraham, compiler
of "Rees' Cyclopedia" (45 vols.),
born in Montgomeryshire; became a tutor at Hoxton Academy, and
subsequently ministered in the Unitarian Chapel at Old Jewry
for some 40 years (1743-1825).
Reeve, name given to magistrates
of various classes in early English times, the most important
of whom was the shire-reeve or sheriff, who represented
the king in his shire; others were borough-reeves, port-reeves, &c.
Reeve, Clara, an English
novelist, born, the daughter of a rector, at Ipswich; the best
known of her novels is "The Champion of Virtue," afterwards
called "The Old English Baron," a work of the school
of Mrs. Radcliffe and of Walpole (1725-1803).
Reeves, John Sims, distinguished
singer, born at Shooter's Hill, Kent; made his first appearance
at the age of 18 as a baritone at Newcastle, and then as a tenor,
and the foremost in England at the time; performed first in
opera and then as a ballad singer at concerts, and took his
farewell of the public on May 11, 1891, though he has frequently
appeared since; b. 1822.
Referendum, a practice which
prevails in Switzerland of referring every new legislative measure
to the electorate in the several electoral bodies for their
approval before it can become law.
Reform, the name given in England
to successive attempts and measures towards the due extension
of the franchise in the election of the members of the House
Reformation, the great event
in the history of Europe in the 16th century, characterised
as a revolt of light against darkness, on the acceptance or
the rejection of which has since depended the destiny for good
or evil of the several States composing it, the challenge to
each of them being the crucial one, whether they deserved and
were fated to continue or perish, and the crucial character
of which is visible to-day in the actual conditions of the nations
as they said "nay" to it or "yea," the challenge
to each at bottom being, is there any truth in you or is there
none? Austria, according to Carlyle, henceforth "preferring
steady darkness to uncertain new light"; Spain, "people
stumbling in steep places in the darkness of midnight";
Italy, "shrugging its shoulders and preferring going into
Dilettantism and the Fine Arts"; and France, "with
accounts run up on compound interest," had to answer the "writ
of summons" with an all too indiscriminate "Protestantism"
of its own.
Star of the, the title given to
John Wycliffe (q. v.).
for the education and reformation of convicted juvenile criminals
(under 16). Under an order of court offenders may be placed
in one of these institutions for from 2 to 5 years after serving
a short period of imprisonment. They are supported by the State,
the local authorities, and by private subscriptions and sums
exacted from parents and guardians. Rules and regulations are
supervised by the State. The first one was established in 1838.
There are now 62 in Great Britain and Ireland; but the numbers
admitted are diminishing at a remarkable rate.
Reformed Church, the
Churches in Switzerland, Holland, Scotland, and elsewhere under
Calvin or Zwingle, or both, separated from the Lutheran on matter
of both doctrine and policy, and especially in regard to the
doctrine of the presence of Christ in the Eucharist.
Refraction. Light travels
in straight lines; but when a ray travelling through one medium
passes obliquely into another of either greater or less density
it is bent at the point of incidence. This bending or breaking
is called refraction. The apparent bend in a stick set sloping
in a sheet of water is due to this phenomenon, as are also many
mirages and other optical illusions.
Regalia, the symbols of royalty,
and more particularly those used at a coronation. The English
regalia include the crown, the sceptre with the cross, the verge
or rod with the dove, St. Edward's staff (in reality dating
from Charles II.'s coronation), the orbs of king and queen,
the sword of mercy called Curtana, the two swords of spiritual
and temporal justice, the ring of alliance with the nation,
bracelets, spurs, vestments, &c. These are to be seen in
the Tower of London, and are valued at £3,000,000. The
regalia of Scotland consist of the crown, the sceptre, and sword
of State, and are on exhibition in the Crown-room in Edinburgh
Regeneration, the, "new
or second birth" required of Christ before any one can
become a member of His kingdom, and which, when achieved, is
a resolute and irreversible No to the spirit of the world, and
a no less resolute and irreversible Yea to the spirit of Christ,
the No being as essential to it as the Yea. For as in the philosophy
of Hegel, so in the religion of Christ, the negative principle
is the creative or the determinative principle. Christianity
begins in No, subsists in No, and survives in No to the spirit
of the world; this it at first peremptorily spurns, and then
disregards as of no account, what things were gain in
it becoming loss. A stern requirement, but, as Carlyle
says, and knew, one is not born the second time any more than
the first without sore birth-pangs. See
his "Everlasting No" in "Sartor,"
the doctrine that the power of spiritual life, forfeited by
the Fall, is restored to the soul in the sacrament of baptism
Reggio (24), an Italian seaport;
capital of a province of the same name; occupies a charming
site on the Strait of Messina; built on the ruins of ancient
Rhegium; is the seat of an archbishop; manufactures silks, gloves,
Regicides, murderers of a
king, but specially applied to the 67 members of the court who
tried and condemned Charles I. of England, amongst whom were
Cromwell, Bradshaw, Ireton, and others, of whom 10 living at
the time of the Restoration were executed, and 25 others imprisoned
Regillus, Lake, celebrated
in ancient Roman history as the scene of a great Roman victory
over the Latins in 496 B.C.; site probably near the modern town
Regina, St., a virgin martyr
of the 3rd century, usually depicted as undergoing the torments
of martyrdom, or receiving spiritual consolation in prison by
a beautiful vision of a dove on a luminous cross.
Regiomontanus, name adopted
by Johann Müller, a celebrated German astronomer and mathematician,
born at Königsberg, in Franconia; appointed professor of
Astronomy in Vienna (1461); sojourned in Italy; settled in Nüremberg,
where much of his best work was done; assisted Pope Sixtus IV.
in reforming the Calendar; was made Bishop of Ratisbon; died
at Rome; was regarded as the most learned astronomer of the
time in Europe, and his works were of great value to Columbus
and other early navigators (1436-1476).
an official appointed to superintend registration, specially
of births, deaths, and marriages.
Regium Donum, an annual
grant formerly voted by Parliament to augment the stipends of
the Presbyterian clergy in Ireland, discontinued from 1869.
Regnard, Jean François,
comic dramatist, born in Paris; inherited a fortune, which he
increased by gambling; took to travelling, and was at 22 captured
by an Algerine pirate, and when ransomed continued to travel;
on his return to Paris wrote comedies, twenty-three in number,
the best of them being "Le Joueur" and "Le Légataire,"
following closely in the steps of Molière; he was admired
by Boileau (1656-1710).
Regnault, Henri, French
painter, born in Paris; son of following; a genius of great
power and promise, of which several remarkable works by him
are proof; volunteered in the Franco-German War, and fell at
Regnault, Henri Victor,
a noted French physicist, born at Aix-la-Chapelle; from being
a Paris shopman he rose to a professorship in Lyons; important
discoveries in organic chemistry won him election to the Academy
of Sciences in 1840; lectured in the "Collège de
France and the École Polytechnique;" became director
of the imperial porcelain manufactory of Sèvres; did
notable work in physics and chemistry, and was awarded medals
by the Royal Society of London (1810-1878).
Regnier, Mathurin, French
poet, born at Chartres; led when young a life of dissipation;
ranks high as a poet, but is most distinguished in satire, which
is instinct with verve and vigour (1572-1613).
Regulars, in the Romish Church
a member of any religious order who has taken the vows of poverty,
chastity, and obedience.
Regulus, a Roman of the Romans;
was twice over Consul, in 267 and 256 B.C.; defeated the Carthaginians,
both by sea and land, but was at last taken prisoner; being
sent, after five years' captivity, on parole to Rome with proposals
of peace, dissuaded the Senate from accepting the terms, and
despite the entreaties of his wife and children and friends
returned to Carthage according to his promise, where he was
subjected to the most excruciating tortures.
Regulus, St., or St. Rule,
a monk of the East who, in the 4th century, it is said, came
to Scotland with the bones of St. Andrew, and deposited them
at St. Andrews.
Rehan, Ada, actress, born in
Limerick; made her début at 16 in Albany, New
York; came to London in 1884, and again in 1893; plays Rosalind
in "As You Like It," Lady Teazle in "School for
Scandal," and Maid Marian in the "Foresters,"
and numerous other parts; b. 1859.
Rehoboam, the king of the Jews
on whose accession at the death of Solomon, in 976 B.C., the
ten tribes of Israel seceded from the kingdom of Judah.
Reich, The, the old German
Reichenbach, Karl, Baron
von, expert in the industrial arts, particularly in
chemical manufacture; he was a zealous student of animal magnetism,
and the discoverer of Od (1788-1869).
Reichenberg (31), a town
in North Bohemia, on the Neisse, 86 m. NE. of Prague; chief
seat of the Bohemian cloth manufacture.
Reichenhall (4), a popular
German health resort, in South-East Bavaria, 10 m. SW. of Salzburg;
is charmingly situated amidst Alpine scenery, and has a number
of mineral springs; is the centre of the great Bavarian salt-works.
Reichsrath, the Parliament
of the Austrian Empire.
Reichstadt, Duke of,
the son and successor of Napoleon as Napoleon II.; died at Vienna
Reichstag, the German Imperial
Legislature, representative of the German nation, and which
consists of 397 members, elected by universal suffrage and ballot
for a term of five years.
Reid, Sir George, a distinguished
portrait-painter, born in Aberdeen; his portraits are true to
the life, and are not surpassed by those of any other living
artist; b. 1841.
Reid, Right Hon. G. H.,
Premier of Australia, born at Johnstone, Renfrewshire; emigrated
with his parents in 1852; adopted law as his profession; became
Minister of Education in 1883; became Premier of N.S.W. in 1894;
is a great Free Trader, and visited England for the Jubilee
in 1897; Prime Minister of the Australian Commonwealth, 1904;
Reid, Captain Mayne,
novelist, born in Co. Down; led a life of adventure in America,
and served in the Mexican War, but settled afterwards in England
to literary work, and wrote a succession of tales of adventure
Reid, Thomas, Scottish philosopher,
and chief of the Scottish school, born in Kincardineshire, and
bred for the Scotch Church, in which he held office as a clergyman
for a time; was roused to philosophical speculation by the appearance
in 1730 of David Hume's "Treatise on Human Nature,"
and became professor of Philosophy in Aberdeen in 1752, and
in Glasgow in 1763, where the year after he published his "Inquiry
into the Human Mind," which was followed in course of time
by his "Philosophy of the Intellectual and Active Powers";
his philosophy was a protest against the scepticism of Hume,
founded on the idealism of Berkeley, by appeal to the "common-sense"
of mankind, which admits of nothing intermediate between the
perceptions of the mind and the reality of things (1710-1796).
Reid, Sir Wemyss, journalist
and man of letters, born in Newcastle-on-Tyne; editor of the
Leeds Mercury (1870-86), and of the Speaker since
1890; has written novels and biographies; is President of the
Institute of Journalists, and was knighted in 1894; b.
Reid, Sir William, soldier
and scientist; served in the Royal Engineers with distinction
under Wellington; became Governor successively of Bermudas,
Barbadoes, and Malta, and was the author of a scientific work
on "The Law of Storms" (1791-1858).
Reigate (23), a flourishing
market-town in Surrey, 21 m. S. of London; is a busy railway
centre; has interesting historic ruins; an old church, among
others containing the grave of Lord Howard of Effingham.
Reign of a Hundred Days,
the period during which Napoleon reigned in Paris from his return
from Elba in the beginning of March till he left on the 12th
June 1815 to meet the Allies in the Netherlands.
Reign of Terror, the name
given to the bloody consummation of the fiery French Revolution,
including a period which lasted 420 days, from the fall of the
Girondists on the 31st May 1793 to the overthrow of Robespierre
and his accomplices on 27th July 1794, the actors in which at
length, seeing nothing but "Terror" ahead, had in
their despair said to themselves, "Be it so. Que la
Terreur soit à l'ordre du jour (having sown the wind,
come let us reap the whirlwind). One of the frightfulest things
ever born of Time. So many as four thousand guillotined, fusilladed,
noyaded, done to dire death, of whom nine hundred were women."
Reimarus, a philosopher of
(q. v.), born at Hamburg; author of the "Wolfenbüttel
Fragments," published by Lessing in 1777, and written to
disprove the arguments for the historical truth of the Bible,
and in the interest of pure deism and natural religion (1694-1768).
Reis Effendi, one of the
chief Ministers of State in Turkey, who is Lord Chancellor,
and holds the bureau of foreign affairs.
Reiters, the cavalry of the
German Empire in the 14th and 15th centuries.
Relativity of Knowledge,
the doctrine that all knowledge is of things as they appear
to us and not of things as they are in themselves, is subjective
and not objective, is phenomenal and not noumenal.
Relief, prominence of a sculpture
from a plain surface; works in relief are of three kinds:
alto-relievo, high relief; mezzo-relievo, medium
relief; basso-relievo, low relief.
Religio Medici, a celebrated
work of Sir Thomas Browne's, characterised as a "confession
of intelligent, orthodox, and logical supernaturalism couched
in some of the most exquisite English ever written."
Religion, a sense, affecting
the whole character and life, of dependence on, reverence for,
and responsibility to a Higher Power; or a mode of thinking,
feeling, and acting which respects, trusts in, and strives after
God, and determines a man's duty and destiny in this universe,
or "the manner in which a man feels himself to be spiritually
related to the unseen world."
Religious Tract Society,
society founded in 1799 for the circulation of religious works
in home and foreign parts, has published in 220 languages, and
is conducted by an annually elected body, consisting of four
ministers and eight laymen in London.
Reliquary, name given to a
portable shrine or case for relics of saints or martyrs; they
assumed many forms, and were often rich in material and of exquisite
Rembrandt or Van Rejn,
a celebrated Dutch historical and portrait painter as well as
etcher, born at Leyden, where he began to practise as an etcher;
removed in 1630 to Amsterdam, where he spent the rest of his
life and acquired a large fortune, but lost it in 1656 after
the death of his first wife, and sank into poverty and obscurity;
he was a master of all that pertains to colouring and the distribution
of light and shade (1608-1669).
Remigius, St., bishop and
confessor of the 6th century, represented as carrying or receiving
a vessel of holy oil, or as anointing Clovis, who kneels before
Remington, Philo, inventor
of the Remington breech-loading rifle, born at Litchfield, in
New York State; 25 years manager of the mechanical department
in his father's small-arms factory; Remington type-writer also
the outcome of his inventive skill; retired in 1886; b.
Remonstrance, The, the
name given to a list of abuses of royal power laid to the charge
of Charles I. and drawn up by the House of Commons in 1641,
and which with the petition that accompanied it contributed
to bring matters to a crisis.
Remonstrants, a name given
to the Dutch Arminians who presented to the States-General of
Holland a protest against the Calvinist doctrine propounded
by the Synod of Dort in 1610.
Remus, the twin-brother of Romulus,
and who was slain by him because he showed his scorn of the
city his brother was founding by leaping over the wall.
Rémusat, Abel, Orientalist,
born in Paris; studied and qualified in medicine, but early
devoted himself to the study of Chinese literature and in 1814
became professor of Chinese in the College of France; wrote
on the language, the topography, and history of China, and founded
the Asiastic Society of Paris (1788-1832).
Comte de, French politician and man of letters, born
in Paris; was a Liberal in politics; drew up a protest against
the ordinances of Polignac, which precipitated the revolution
of July; was Minister of the Interior under Thiers, was exiled
after the coup d'état, and gave himself mainly
to philosophical studies thereafter (1797-1875).
Renaissance, the name given
to the revolution in literature and art in Europe during the
15th and 16th centuries, caused by the revival of the study
of ancient models in the literature and art of Greece and Rome,
especially the former, and to the awakening in the cultured
classes of the free and broad humanity that inspired them, an
epoch which marks the transition from the rigid formality of
mediæval to the enlightened freedom of modern times.
Renaix (17), a busy manufacturing
town in East Flanders, Belgium, 22 m. SW. of Ghent; has large
cotton and linen factories, breweries, and distilleries.
Renan, Ernest, Orientalist
and Biblical scholar, born in Brittany, son of a sailor, who,
dying, left him to the care of his mother and sister, to both
of whom he was warmly attached; destined for the Church, he
entered the seminary of St. Sulpice, where his studies threw
him out of the relation with the Church and obliged him to abandon
all thoughts of the clerical profession; accomplished in Hebrew,
he was appointed professor of that language in the College of
France in 1861, though not installed till 1870, and made a member
of the French Academy in 1878; having distinguished himself
by his studies in the Semitic languages, and in a succession
of essays on various subjects of high literary merit, he in
1863 achieved a European reputation by the publication of his "Vie
de Jésus," the first of a series bearing upon the
origin of Christianity and the agencies that contributed to
its rise and development; he wrote other works bearing more
immediately on modern life and its destiny, but it is in connection
with his views of Christ and Christianity that his name will
be remembered; he entertained at last an overweening faith in
science and scientific experts, and looked to the latter as
the elect of the earth for the redemption of humanity (1823-1893).
Rendsburg (12), a fortified
town in Schleswig-Holstein, on the North Sea and Baltic Canal,
19 m. W. of Kiel; manufactures cotton, chemicals, brandy &c.
René I., titular king of
Naples, born at Angers, son of Louis II., Duke of Anjou and
Count of Provence; on the death of his father-in-law, Duke of
Lorraine, he in 1431 claimed the dukedom; was defeated and imprisoned;
bought his liberty and the dukedom in 1437, in which year he
also made an ineffectual attempt to make good his claim to the
throne of Naples and Sicily; settled down in Provence and devoted
himself to literature and art and to developing the country
Renfrew (7), a royal burgh and
county-town of Renfrewshire, situated on the Clyde, 6 m. below
Glasgow; dates back to the 12th century as a burgh; industries
include thread, cotton cloths, shawl factories, and shipbuilding.
Renfrewshire (291), a south-western
county of Scotland; faces the Firth of Clyde on the W., between
Ayr on the S. and SW., and the river Clyde on the N.; bordered
on the E. by Lanark; hilly on the W.
and S., flat on the E.; is watered by the Gryfe, the Black Cart,
and the White Cart; dairy-farming is carried on in extensive
scale, stimulated by the proximity of Glasgow; nearly two-thirds
of the county is under cultivation; coal and iron are mined,
and in various parts the manufacture of thread, cotton, chemicals,
shipbuilding, &c., is actively engaged in.
Rennell, James, geographer,
born near Chudleigh, Devonshire; passed from the navy to the
military service of the East India Company; became surveyor-general
of Bengal; retired in 1782; author of many works on the topography
of India, hydrography, &c.; the "Geographical System
of Herodotus Examined and Explained" is his most noted
Rennes (65), a prosperous town
in Brittany, capital of the department of Ille-et-Vilaine, situated
at the junction of the Ille and the Vilaine; consists of a high
and low town, separated by the river Vilaine, mostly rebuilt
since the disastrous fire in 1720; has handsome buildings, a
cathedral, &c.; is the seat of an archbishop, a military
centre, and manufactures sail-cloth, linen, shoes, hats, &c.;
where the court-martial was held which condemned Captain Dreyfus
on a second trial in 1899.
Rennie, John, civil engineer,
born in East Linton, East Lothian; employed by the firm of Messrs.
Boulton & Watt at Soho, Birmingham, and entrusted by them
to direct in the construction of the Albion Mills, London, he
became at once famous for his engineering ability, and was in
general request for other works, such as the construction of
docks, canals, and bridges, distinguishing himself most in connection
with the latter, of which Waterloo, Southwark, and London over
the Thames, are perhaps the finest (1761-1821).
Rente, name given to the French
funds, or income derivable from them.
Renton (5), a town in Dumbartonshire,
on the Leven, 2 m. N. of Dumbarton; engaged in calico-printing,
dyeing, &c.; has a monument in memory of Tobias Smollett,
who was born in the neighbourhood.
Renwick, James, Scottish
martyr, born at Moniaive, Dumfriesshire; educated at Edinburgh
University, but was refused his degree for declining to take
the oath of allegiance; completed his studies in Holland, and
in 1683 was ordained at Gröningen; came to Scotland; was
outlawed in 1684 for his "Apologetic Declaration";
refused to recognise James II. as king; was captured after many
escapes, and executed at Edinburgh, the last of the martyrs
of the Covenant (1662-1688).
Repealer, an advocate of the
repeal of the Union of Great Britain and Ireland.
Replica, is properly the copy
of an original picture done by the hand of the same master.
Repoussé, a name applied
to a style of raised ornamentation in metal obtained by beating
out from behind a convex design, which is then chased in front;
was known to the Greeks, and carried to a high pitch of perfection
by Benvenuto Cellini in the 16th century; has been successfully
revived, especially in France, in this century.
Repton (2), a village of Derbyshire,
6½ m. SW. of Derby, dates back to the 7th century, and
is associated with the establishment of Christianity in England;
has a fine Public school, founded in 1556.
Republic, the name given to
a State in which the sovereign power is vested in one or more
elected by the community, and held answerable to it though in
point of fact, both in Rome and the Republic of Venice the community
was not free to elect any one outside of a privileged order.
Republicans, The, the
name given latterly in the United States to the party opposed
to the Democrats (q. v.)
and in favour of federalism.
Requiem, a mass set to music,
sung for the repose of the soul of a dead person.
Reredos, the name given to the
decorated portion of the wall or screen behind and rising above
a church altar; as a rule it is richly ornamented with niches
and figures, and stands out from the east wall of the church,
but not unfrequently it is joined to the wall; splendid examples
exist at All Souls' College, Oxford, Durham Cathedral, St. Albans, &c.
Resina (14), a town of South
Italy, looks out upon the sea from the base of Vesuvius, 4 m.
SE. of Naples, built on the site of ancient Herculaneum; manufactures
wine and silk.
Responsions, the first of
the three examinations for a degree at Oxford University, or
the Little Go.
Ressaidar, in India, a native
cavalry officer in command of a Ressalah, or a squadron of native
Restoration, The, the
name given in English history to the re-establishment of monarchy
and the return of Charles II. to the throne, 29th May 1660,
after the fall of the Commonwealth.
of a sect in America holding the belief that man will finally
recover his original state of purity.
who stealthily exhumed bodies from the grave and sold them for
Retford, East (11), market-town
of Nottinghamshire, on the Idle, 24 m. E. by S. of Sheffield;
has foundries, paper and flour mills, &c.
Retina, a retiform expansion
of the sensatory nerves, which receives the impression that
gives rise to vision, or visual perception.
justice which rewards good deeds, and inflicts punishment on
Retz, Cardinal de, born
at Montmirail, of Italian descent, and much given to intrigue,
obtained the coadjutorship of the archbishopric of Paris, plotted
against Mazarin, played an important part in the troubles of
the Fronde, and was in 1652 thrown into prison, from which he
escaped; he left "Memoirs" which are valuable as a
record of the times, though the readers are puzzled to construe
from them the character of the author (1614-1679).
Retz, Gilles de, marshal
of France, born in Brittany; distinguished himself under Charles
VII. against the English; was condemned to be burned alive at
Nantes in 1440 for his unnatural crimes and his cruelties.
Retzch, Moritz, painter
and engraver, born at Dresden, where he became a professor of
Painting; is famous for his etchings illustrative of Goethe's "Faust,"
of certain of Shakespeare's plays, as well as of Fouqué's "Tales";
the "Chess-Players" and "Man versus Satan,"
which is considered his masterpiece (1779-1857).
Reuchlin, Johann, a learned
German humanist, born in the Black Forest, devoted himself to
the study of Greek and Hebrew, and did much to promote the study
of both in Germany, and wrote "Rudiments of the Hebrew
Language"; though he did not attach himself to the Reformers,
he contributed by his works and labours to advance the cause
of the Reformation; his special enemies were the Dominicans,
but he was backed up against them by all the scholars of Germany
Reunion (formerly Île
de Bourbon) (166), mostly Creoles, a
French island in the Indian Ocean, 358 m. E. of Madagascar,
38 m. by 28; a volcanic range intersects the island; the scenery
is fine; streams plentiful, but small; one-third of the land
is uncultivated, and grows fruits, sugar (chief export), coffee,
spices, &c. St. Denis (33), on the N. coast, is the capital;
has been a French possession since 1649.
Reuss, name of two German principalities
stretching between Bavaria on the S. and Prussia on the N.;
they belong to the elder and younger branches of the Reuss family.
The former is called Reuss-Greiz (63), the latter Reuss-Schleiz-Gera
(120); both are hilly, well wooded, and well watered; farming
and textile manufacturing are carried on. Both are represented
in the Reichstag; the executive is in the hands of the hereditary
princes, and the legislative powers are vested in popularly
Reuter, Fritz, a German
humourist, born in Mecklenburg-Schwerin; when a student at Jena
took part in a movement among the students in behalf of German
unity; was arrested and condemned, after commutation of sentence
of death, to thirty years' imprisonment, but was released, after
seven of them, in broken health; and after eleven more took
to writing a succession of humorous poems in Low German, which
placed him in the front rank of the humourists of Germany (1810-1874).
Reuter, Baron Paul Julius,
the organiser of the conveyance of news by telegraph, born at
Cassel; commenced with Berlin for centre in 1851; transferred
his head-quarters to London, and now the "system,"
which is in the hands of a limited liability company, has connections
with even the remotest corner of the globe; b. 1818.
Reutlingen (19), a picturesque
old town in Würtemberg, on the Echatz, 20 m. S. of Stuttgart;
formerly one of the free imperial cities of the Swabian League;
has a splendid Gothic church; manufactures cloth, cutlery, leather,
woollen and cotton yarns, &c.
Revel or Reval (52), capital
of the government of Esthonia, in Russia, is a flourishing seaport
on the S. side of the Gulf of Finland, 232 m. W. of St. Petersburg;
has a castle, fortifications, cathedral, mediæval antiquities, &c.;
chiefly engaged in commerce; exports largely oats and other
cereals, spirits, flax, &c.
Revelation, name properly
applicable to the knowledge of God, or of divine things, imparted
to the mind of man, by the operation of the Divine Spirit in
the human soul, and as apprehended by it.
Revelation, Book of,
or The Apocalypse, the book that winds up the accepted
canon of Holy Scripture, of the fulfilment of the prophecies
of which there are three systems of interpretation: the Præteritist,
which regards them all as fulfilled; the Historical, which regards
them as all along fulfilling; and the Futurist, which regards
them as still all to be fulfilled. The first is the one which
finds favour among modern critics, and which regards it as a
forecast of the struggle then impending between the Church under
the headship of Christ and the civil power under the emperor
of Rome, though this view need not be accepted as excluding
the second theory, which regards it as a forecast of the struggle
of the Church with the world till the cup of the world's iniquity
is full and the day of its doom is come. The book appears to
have been written on the occurrence of some fierce persecution
at the hands of the civil power, and its object to confirm and
strengthen the Church in her faith and patience by a series
of visions, culminating in one of the Lamb seated on the throne
of the universe as a pledge that all His slain ones would one
day share in His glory.
Revels, Master of the,
also called Lord of Misrule, in olden times an official
attached to royal and noble households to superintend the amusements,
especially at Christmas time; he was a permanent officer at
the English court from Henry VIII.'s reign till George III.'s,
but during the 18th century the office was a merely nominal
a furnace with a domed roof, from which the flames of the fire
are reflected upon the vessel placed within.
Revere, Paul, American patriot,
born in Boston, U.S., bred a goldsmith; conspicuous for his
zeal against the mother-country, and one of the first actors
in the revolt (1735-1818).
Reverend, a title of respect
given to the clergy, Very Reverend to deans, Right Reverend
to bishops, and Most Reverend to archbishops.
a distinguished French Protestant theologian, born at Dieppe;
was from 1851 to 1872 pastor at Rotterdam, in 1880 became professor
of the History of Religions in the College of France, and six
years later was made President of the Section des Études
Religieuses at the Sorbonne, Paris; has been a prolific writer
on such subjects as "The Native Religions of Mexico and
Peru" (Hibbert Lectures for 1884), "Religions of Non-civilised
Peoples," "The Chinese Religion," &c.;
Revival of Letters,
revival in Europe in the 15th century of the study of classical,
especially Greek, literature, chiefly by the arrival in Italy
of certain learned Greeks, fugitives from Constantinople on
its capture by the Turks in 1453, and promoted, by the invention
of printing, to the gradual extinction of the dry, barren scholasticism
previously in vogue. See Renaissance.
Revival of Religion,
a reawakening of the religious consciousness after a period
of spiritual dormancy, ascribed by many to a special outpouring
of the Spirit in answer to prayer, and in connection with evangelical
Revolution, a sudden change
for most part in the constitution of a country in consequence
of internal revolt, particularly when a monarchy is superseded
by a republic, as in France in 1789, in 1848, and 1870, that
in 1830 being merely from one branch of the Bourbon family to
another, such as that also in England in 1658. The French Revolution
of 1798 is the revolution by pre-eminence, and the years 1848-49
were years of revolutions in Europe.
Revue des Deux Mondes,
a celebrated French review, devoted to literature, science,
art, politics, &c., established in 1829, and conducted afterwards
Reybaud, Marie Roch Louis,
a versatile littérateur and politician, born at Marseilles;
travelled in India, established himself as a Radical journalist
in Paris in 1829, and edited important works of travel, wrote
popular novels, published important studies in social science;
elected a member of the Academy of Moral Sciences (1850); was
an active politcian, investigated for government the agricultural
colonies in Algeria; author of "Scenes in Modern Life," "Industry
in Europe," &c. (1799-1879).
Reykjavik (i. e. reeky
town), (3), capital of Iceland, situated in a barren misty region
on the SW. coast, practically a village of some 100 wooden houses;
has a brick cathedral, and is the see of a bishop.
Reynard the Fox, an epic of
the Middle Ages, in which animals represent
men, "full of broad rustic mirth, inexhaustible in comic
devices, a world Saturnalia, where wolves tonsured into monks
and nigh starved by short commons, foxes pilgrimaging to Rome
for absolution, cocks pleading at the judgment-bar, make strange
mummery." The principal characters are Isengrim the wolf
and Reynard the fox, the former representing strength incarnated
in the baron and the latter representing cunning incarnated
in the Church, and the strife for ascendency between the two
one in which, though frequently hard pressed, the latter gets
the advantage in the end.
Reynolds, John Fulton,
an American general, born at Lancaster, Pennsylvania; graduated
at 21 at West Point, entered the army, distinguished himself
during the Civil War, especially at the second battle of Bull
Run; was killed at the battle of Gettysburg (1820-1863).
Reynolds, Sir Joshua,
the chief of English portrait-painters, born near Plymouth;
went to London in 1740 to study art, and remained three years;
visited Italy and the great centres of art there, when he lost
his hearing, and settled in London in 1752, where he began to
paint portraits, and had as the subjects of his art the most
distinguished people, "filled England with the ghosts of
her noble squires and dames"; numbered among his friends
all the literary notabilities of the day; he was the first President
of the Royal Academy, and though it was no part of his duty,
delivered a succession of discourses to the students on the
principles and practice of painting, 15 of which have been published,
and are still held in high esteem (1723-1792).
Rhabdomancy, a species of
divination by means of a hazel rod to trace the presence of
minerals or metals under ground.
Rhadamanthus, in the Greek
mythology a son of Zeus and Europa, and a brother of
Minos (q. v.), was distinguished
among men for his strict justice, and was after his death appointed
one of the Judges of the dead in the nether world along with Æacus
Rhapsodists, a class of
minstrels who in early times wandered over the Greek cities
reciting the poems of Homer, and through whom they became widely
known, and came to be translated with such completeness to us.
Rhea, in the Greek mythology a
goddess, the daughter of Uranus and Gaia, the wife of Kronos,
and mother of the chief Olympian deities, Zeus, Pluto, Poseidon,
Hera, Demeter, and Hestia, and identified by the Greeks of Asia
Minor with the great earth goddess Cybele, and whose worship
as such, like that of all the other earth deities, was accompanied
with wild revelry.
Rhea Silvia, a vestal virgin,
the mother of Romulus and Remus, twins, whom she bore to Mars,
the god of war, who had violated her.
Rheims (104), an important French
city in the department of Marne, on the Vesle, 100 m. NE. of
Paris; as the former ecclesiastical metropolis of France it
has historical associations of peculiar interest; the French
monarchs were crowned in the cathedral (a Gothic structure of
unique beauty) from 1179 to 1825; has a beautiful 12th-century
Romanesque church, an archiepiscopal palace, a Roman triumphal
arch, a Lycée, statues, &c.; situated in a rich wine
district, it is one of the chief champagne entrepôts,
and is also one of the main centres of French textiles, especially
woollen goods; is strongly fortified.
Rheingau, a fruitful wine district
in the Rhine Valley, stretching along the right bank of the
river in Hesse-Nassau; has a sunny, sheltered situation, and
its wines are famed for their quality.
Rhenish Prussia (4,710),
the most westerly and most densely populated of the Prussian
provinces, lies within the valleys of the Rhine and the Lower
Moselle, and borders on Belgium and the Netherlands; is mountainous
and forest-clad, except in the fertile plains of the N. and
in the rich river valleys, where vines, cereals, and vegetables
are extensively cultivated; large quantities of coal, iron,
zinc, and lead are mined; as an industrial and manufacturing
province it ranks first in Germany. Coblenz (capital), Aix-la-Chapelle,
Bonn, and Cologne are among its chief towns; was formed in 1815
out of several smaller duchies.
Rheochord, a wire to measure
the resistance or variability of an electric current.
Rheometry, measurement of
the force or the velocity of an electric current.
Rhesus, a monkey held sacred
in several parts of India.
Rhetoric, the science or art
of persuasive or effective speech, written as well as spoken,
and that both in theory and practice was cultivated to great
perfection among the ancient Greeks and Romans, and to some
extent in the Middle Ages and later, but is much less cultivated
either as a science or an art to-day.
Rhine, one of the chief rivers
of Europe; of several small Alpine head-streams, the Nearer
and the Farther Rhine are the two principal, issuing from the
eastern flanks of Mount St Gothard; a junction is formed at
Reichenau, whence the united stream—the Upper Rhine—flows
N. to Lake Constance, and issuing from the NW. corner curves
westward to Basel, forming the boundary between Switzerland
and Germany. From Basel, as the Middle Rhine, it pursues a northerly
course to Mainz, turns sharply to the W. as far as Bingen, and
again resumes its northward course. The Rhine-Highland between
Bingen and Bonn is the most romantic and picturesque part of
its course. As the Lower Rhine it flows in a sluggish, winding
stream through the Rhenish Lowlands, enters Holland near Clèves,
at Nimeguen bends to the W., and flowing through Holland some
100 m. reaches the German Ocean, splitting in its lowest part
into several streams which form a rich delta, one-third of Holland.
It is 800 m. in length; receives numerous affluents, e.g.
Neckar, Main, Moselle, Lippe; is navigable for ships to Mannheim.
an operation of repairing destroyed portions of the nose by
skin from adjoining parts.
Rhode Island (346), the
smallest but most densely populated of the United States, and
one of the original 13; faces the Atlantic between Connecticut
(W.) and Massachusetts (N. and E.); is split into two portions
by Narragansett Bay (30 m. long); hilly in the N., but elsewhere
level; enjoys a mild and equable climate, and is greatly resorted
to by invalids from the S.; the soil is rather poor, and manufactures
form the staple industry; coal, iron, and limestone are found.
Providence, Pawtucket, and Newport are the chief towns.
Rhodes (10), a Turkish island
in the Mediterranean, 12 m. distant from the SW, coast of Asia
Minor, area 49 m. by 21 m.; mountainous and woody; has a fine
climate and a fertile soil, which produces fruit in abundance,
also some grain; it is ill developed, and has a retrogressive
population, most of whom are Greeks; sponges, chief export;
figures considerably in ancient classic
history; was occupied by the Knights Hospitallers of St.
John for more than two centuries, and was taken from them by
the Turks in 1523.
Rhodes, Cecil, statesman,
born in Hertfordshire, son of a vicar; went to South Africa;
became director of the diamond mines at Kimberley, and amassed
a large fortune; entered the Cape Parliament, and became Prime
Minister in 1890; he has been active and successful to extend
the British territories in South Africa, aiming at destroying
the race prejudices that prevail in it, and at establishing
among the different colonies a federated union; b. 1853.
Rhodesia, the territory in
South Africa occupied and administered by the British South
Africa Company, under the leadership of Mr. Cecil Rhodes, and
founded by royal charter in 1889, hence the name it goes under,
is bounded on the E. by Portuguese East Africa, on the N. by
German East Africa and the Congo Free State, on the W. by Angola
and German South-West Africa, and on the S. by Bechuanaland
and the Transvaal; is traversed by the Zambesi, which divides
it into Northern and Southern Rhodesia; the Northern has been
little prospected, though the land is being cultivated, crops
raised, and cattle-breeding commenced, besides a new industry
started in fibre; the Southern is divided into two provinces,
Mashonaland (q. v.)
and Matabeleland (q. v.);
in Rhodesia public roads have been made to the extent of 2230
miles, and telegraph lines to the extent of 1856 miles of line
and 2583 of wire; it is favourable to the breeding of stock,
though the rinderpest raged in it disastrously for a time; the
climate is suitable for the cultivation of cereals of all kinds,
and vegetables, tobacco, india-rubber, and indigo are indigenous,
and well repay cultivation; there are forests of timber, and
gold, silver, copper, coal, tin, &c., have been discovered;
it is, roughly speaking, as large as the German Empire, and
in consequence of the Jameson raid the control of the military
forces, formerly under the control of the Company, is now in
the hands of the Imperial Government.
Rhône, one of the four great
rivers of France, rises on Mount St. Gothard, in the Swiss Alps;
passes through the Lake of Geneva, and flowing in a south-westerly
course to Lyons, is there joined by its chief affluent, the
Saône, hence it flows due S.; at Arles it divides into
two streams, which form a rich delta before entering the Gulf
of Lyons, in the Mediterranean; length, 504 m.; navigable to
Lyons, but the rapid current and shifting sandbanks greatly
Rhône (807), a department
of France lying wholly within the western side of the Saône
and Rhône basin, hilly and fruitful; wine is produced
in large quantities; has an active industrial population; capital,
Rhumb Line, a circle on the
earth's surface making a given angle with the meridian; applied
to the course of a ship in navigation.
Rhyl (6), a popular watering-place
of Flintshire, North Wales, situated on the coast at the mouth
of the Clwyd, 16 m. E. of Conway; has a fine promenade pier,
esplanade, gardens, &c.
Rhymer, Thomas the,
or True Thomas, Thomas of Ercildoune, or Earlston, a
Berwickshire notability of the 13th century, famous for his
rhyming prophecies, who was said, in return for his prophetic
gift, to have sold himself to the fairies.
Rhys, John, Celtic scholar,
born in Wales; professor of Celtic at Oxford; has written on
subjects related to that of the chair; b. 1840.
Ribbonism, the principles
of secret associations among the lower Irish Catholics, organised
in opposition to Orangeism, the name being derived from a green
ribbon worn as a badge in a button-hole by the members; they
were most active between 1835 and 1855.
Ribera, Jusepe, a Spanish
painter, born near Valencia; indulged in a realism of a gruesome
type; had Salvator Rosa and Giordano for pupils (1588-1656).
Ricardo, David, political
economist, born in London, of Jewish parentage; realised a large
fortune as a member of the Stock Exchange; wrote on political
economy on abstract lines, and from a purely mercantile and
materialistic standpoint (1772-1823).
Ricasoli, Baron, Italian
statesman, born at Florence; devoted to the cultivation of the
vine, the olive, and the mulberry; was drawn into political
life in 1847 in the interest of Italian unity, succeeded Cavour
as Prime Minister, but retired from political life in 1866;
his "Letters and Papers," in 5 vols., were published
Ricci, Lorenzo, last general
of the Jesuits, born in Florence; entered the order when 15;
became general in 1736; on the suppression of the order retired
to the castle of St. Angelo, where he died 1775.
Ricci, Matteo, founder of
the Jesuit mission in China, born in Macerato, Italy; accommodated
himself to the manners of the Chinese, and won their confidence
Riccio, David. See
Rice, James, novelist, born
at Northampton, educated at Cambridge; designed for the law,
but took to literature; owned and edited Once a Week;
best known as the successful collaborateur of
Walter Besant (q. v.)
in such popular novels as "The Golden Butterfly," "Ready-Money
Mortiboy," &c. (1844-1882).
Rich, Edmund. See
Richard I., (surnamed Coeur
de Lion), king of England from 1189 to 1199, third son and successor
of Henry II.; his early years were spent in Poitou and Aquitaine,
where he engaged in quarrels with his father; after his accession
to the throne he flung himself with characteristic ardour into
the Crusade movement; in 1190 joined his forces with Philip
Augustus of France in the third crusade; upheld the claims of
Tancred in Sicily; captured Cyprus, and won great renown in
the Holy Land, particularly by his defeat of Saladin; was captured
after shipwreck on the coast on his way home by the Archduke
of Austria, and handed over to the Emperor Henry VI. (1193);
was ransomed at a heavy price by his subjects, and landed in
England in 1194; his later years were spent in his French possessions
warring against Philip, and he died of an arrow wound at the
siege of Chalus; not more than a year of his life was spent
in England, and his reign is barren of constitutional change
Richard II., king of England
from 1377 to 1399, son of the Black Prince, born at Bordeaux;
succeeded his grandfather, Edward III.; during his minority
till 1389 the kingdom was administered by a council; in 1381
the Peasants' Revolt broke out, headed by Wat Tyler, as a result
of the discontent occasioned by the Statutes of Labour passed
in the previous reign, and more immediately by the heavy taxation
made necessary by the expense of the Hundred Years' War still
going on with France; a corrupt Church called forth the energetic
protests of Wycliffe, which started the
Lollard (q. v.) movement;
an invasion of Scotland (1385), resulting in the capture of
Edinburgh, was headed by the young king;
coming under French influence, and adopting despotic measures
in the later years of his reign, Richard estranged all sections
of his people; a rising headed by Henry of Lancaster forced
his abdication, and by a decree of Parliament he was imprisoned
for life in Pontefract Castle, where he died (probably murdered)
soon after (1367-1400).
Richard III., king of England
from 1483 to 1486, youngest brother of Edward IV., and last
of the Plantagenets, born at Fotheringhay Castle; in 1461 was
created Duke of Gloucester by his brother for assisting him
to win the crown; faithfully supported Edward against Lancastrian
attacks; married (1473) Anne, daughter of Warwick, the King-Maker;
early in 1483 was appointed Protector of the kingdom and guardian
of his young nephew, Edward V.; put to death nobles who stood
in the way of his ambitious schemes for the throne; doubts were
cast upon the legitimacy of the young king, and Richard's right
to the throne was asserted; in July 1483 he assumed the kingly
office; almost certainly instigated the murder of Edward and
his little brother in the Tower; ruled firmly and well, but
without the confidence of the nation; in 1488 Henry, Earl of
Richmond, head of the House of Lancaster, invaded England, and
at the battle of Bosworth Richard was defeated and slain (1452-1485).
Richard of Cirencester,
an English chronicler, born at Cirencester; flourished in the
14th century; was a monk in the Benedictine monastery of St.
Peter, Westminster; wrote a History of England from 447 to 1066;
for long the reputed author of a remarkable work on Roman Britain,
now proved to be a forgery; d. 1401.
Richards, Alfred Bate,
journalist and author; turned from law to literature; author
of a number of popular dramas, volumes of poems, essays, &c.;
was the first editor of the Daily Telegraph, and afterwards
of the Morning Advertiser; took an active interest in
the volunteer movement (1820-1876).
Richardson, Sir Benjamin
Ward, a distinguished physician and author, born at
Somerby, Leicestershire; took the diploma of the Royal College
of Physicians in 1850, and graduated in medicine at St. Andrews
four years later; founded the Journal of Public Health
in 1855, and The Asclepiad in 1861, and the Social
Science Review in 1862; won the Fothergilian gold medal
and the Astley-Cooper prize of 300 guineas; made many valuable
medical inventions, and was an active lecturer on sanitary science, &c.;
was knighted in 1893 (1828-1896).
lexicographer; was trained for the bar, but took to literature
and education; pensioned in 1852; his chief works are "Illustrations
of English Philology" and the "New Dictionary of the
English Language" (1837), according to Trench the best
dictionary of his day (1775-1865).
Richardson, Sir John, M.D.,
naturalist and Arctic explorer, born at Dumfries; graduated
at Edinburgh; for some time a navy surgeon; accompanied Franklin
on the expeditions in 1819-22 and 1825-27, and later commanded
one of the Franklin search expeditions (1848); held government
appointments, and was knighted in 1846 (1787-1865).
novelist, born in Derbyshire, the son of a joiner; was apprenticed
to a printer in London, whose daughter he married; set up in
the business for himself, and from his success in it became
Master of the Stationers Company in 1754, and King's Printer
in 1761; was 50 before he came out as a novelist; published
his "Pamela" in 1740, his masterpiece "Clarissa,"
written in the form of letters, in 1748, and "Sir Charles
Grandison" in 1753; they are all three novels of sentiment,
are instinct with a spirit of moral purity, and are more praised
than read (1689-1761).
Richelieu, Armand-Jean Duplessis, Cardinal de, born
in Paris, of a noble family; was minister of Louis XIII., and
one of the greatest statesmen France ever had; from his installation
as Prime Minister in 1624 he set himself to the achievement
of a threefold purpose, and rested not till he accomplished
it—the ruin of the Protestants as a political party, the
curtailment of the power of the nobles, and the humiliation
of the House of Austria in the councils of Europe; his administration
was signalised by reforms in finance, in the army, and in legislation;
as the historian Thierry has said of him, "He left nothing
undone that could be done by statesmanship for the social amelioration
of the country; he had a mind of the most comprehensive grasp,
and a genius for the minutest details of administration";
he was a patron of letters, and the founder of the French Academy
Richmond, 1, an interesting
old borough (4) in Yorkshire, on the Swale, 49 m. N.W. of York;
has a fine 11th-century castle, now partly utilised as barracks,
remains of a Franciscan friary, a racecourse, &c. 2, A town
(23) in Surrey, 9 m. W. of London; picturesquely situated on
the summit and slope of Richmond Hill, and the right bank of
the Thames; has remains of the royal palace of Sheen, a magnificent
deer park, a handsome river bridge, &c.; supplies London
with fruit and vegetables; has many literary and historical
associations. 3, Capital (85) of Virginia, U.S.; has a hilly
and picturesque site on the James River, 116 m. S. of Washington;
possesses large docks, and is a busy port, a manufacturing town
(tobacco, iron-works, flour and paper mills), and a railway
centre; as the Confederate capital it was the scene of a memorable,
year-long siege during the Civil War, ultimately falling into
the hands of Grant and Sheridan in 1865.
Richmond, Legh, an evangelical
clergyman of the Church of England, born in Liverpool, famed
for a tract "The Dairyman's Daughter" (1772-1827).
Richter, Jean Paul Friedrich,
usually called Jean Paul simply, the greatest of German humourists,
born at Wunsiedel, near Baireuth, in Bavaria, the son of a poor
German pastor; had a scanty education, but his fine faculties
and unwearied diligence supplied every defect; was an insatiable
and universal reader; meant for the Church, took to poetry and
philosophy, became an author, putting forth the strangest books
with the strangest titles; considered for a time a strange,
crack-brained mixture of enthusiast and buffoon; was recognised
at last as a man of infinite humour, sensibility, force, and
penetration; his writings procured him friends and fame, and
at length a wife and a settled pension; settled in Baireuth,
where he lived thenceforth diligent and celebrated in many departments
of literature, and where he died, loved as well as admired by
all his countrymen, and more by those who had known him most
intimately ... his works are numerous, and the chief are novels, "'Hesperus'
and 'Titan' being the longest and the best, the former of which
first (in 1795) introduced him into decisive and universal estimation
with his countrymen, and the latter of which he himself, as
well as the most judicious of his critics, regarded as his masterpiece"
Richthofen, Baron von,
traveller and geographer, born in Carlsruhe, Silesia; accompanied
in 1861 the Prussian expedition to Eastern Asia, travelled in
1862-68 in California, and in 1869-72 in China; has since been
professor of Geography successively at Bonn, Leipzig, and Berlin;
has written a great work on China; b. 1833.
Ricord, Philippe, a famous
French physician, born at Baltimore, U.S.; came to Paris, was
a specialist in a department of surgery, and surgeon-in-chief
to the hospital for venereal diseases (1800-1889).
Ridley, Nicolas, martyred
bishop, born in Northumberland, Fellow and ultimately Master
of Pembroke College, Cambridge; on a three years' visit to the
Continent fell in with certain of the Reformers and returned
convinced of and confirmed in the Protestant faith; became king's
chaplain, bishop of Rochester, and finally of London; favoured
the cause of Lady Jane Grey against Mary, who committed him
to the Tower, and being condemned as a heretic was at Oxford
burnt at the stake along with Latimer (1500-1555).
Riehm, Edward, Protestant
theologian, born at Diersburg, Baden, was professor at Halle;
wrote many theological works, among them "Handwörterbuch
des biblischen Alterthums" (1830-1888).
Rienzi, Cola di, Roman
tribune, born at Rome, of humble origin; gave himself to the
study of the ancient history of the city, became inspired with
a noble ambition to restore its ancient glory, and being endowed
with an eloquent tongue, persuaded, with sanction of Pope Clement
VI., who was then at Avignon, his fellow-citizens to rise against
the tyranny to which they were subjected at the hands of the
nobles, in which he at length was successful; but his own rule
became intolerable, and he was assassinated in an émeute
just seven years after the commencement of his political career
Riesengebirge (i. e.
Giant Mountains), a range dividing Bohemia from Silesia; Schneekoppe
(5260 ft.) is the highest peak; is a famous summer resort for
Rifacimento, a literary
work recast to adapt it to a change in the circumstances of
Riff, the name given to the N.
coast-lands of Morocco from Tangiers to Algeria; is a mountainous
and woody region, with a rugged foreshore, inhabited by lawless
Riga (182), the third seaport of
Russia and capital of Livonia, on the Dwina, 7 m. from its entrance
into the Gulf of Riga (a spacious inlet on the E. side of the
Baltic); has some fine mediæval buildings; is the seat
of an archbishop, and is a busy and growing commercial and manufacturing
town, exporting grain, timber, flax, linseed, wool, &c.
Rigdum Funnidos, Scott's
nickname for John Ballantyne
Rights, Declaration of,
a declaration of the fundamental principles of the constitution
drawn up by the Parliament of England and submitted to William
and Mary on their being called to the throne, and afterwards
enacted in Parliament when they became king and queen. It secures
to the people their rights as free-born citizens and to the
Commons as their representatives, while it binds the sovereign
to respect these rights as sacred.
Rigi, an isolated mountain, 5900
ft. high, in the Swiss canton of Schwyz, with a superb view
from the summit, on which hotels have been built for the convenience
of the many who visit it; is reached by two toothed railways
with a gradient of 1 ft. in 4.
Rigveda, the first of the four
sections into which the Vedas (q.
v.) are divided, and which includes the body of the hymns
or verses of invocation and praises; believed to have issued
from a narrow circle of priests, and subsequently recast many
Rimini (11, with suburbs 20),
a walled city of N. Italy, of much historic interest both in
ancient and mediæval times, on the small river Marecchia,
spanned by a fine Roman bridge close to its entrance into the
Adriatic, 69 m. SE. of Bologna; has a 15th-century Renaissance
cathedral, an ancient castle, and other mediæval buildings,
a Roman triumphal arch, &c.; manufactures silks and sail-cloth.
Rimmon, name of a Syrian god
who had a temple at Damascus called the house of Rimmon, a symbol
of the sun, or of the fertilising power of nature.
Rinaldo, one of Charlemagne's
paladins, of a violent, headstrong, and unscrupulous character,
who fell into disgrace, but after adventures in the Holy Land
was reconciled to the Emperor; Angelica, an infidel princess,
fell violently in love with him, but he turned a deaf ear to
her addresses, while others would have given kingdoms for her
Rinderpest or Cattle Plague,
a fever of a malignant and contagious type; the occurrence of
it in Britain is due to the importation of infected cattle from
the Asiatic steppes.
Ring and the Book, a
poem by Browning of 20,000 lines, giving different versions
of a story agreeably to and as an exhibition of the personalities
of the different narrators.
Rio de Janeiro (423), capital
and chief seaport of Brazil, charmingly situated on the E. coast
of Brazil, on the W. shore of a spacious and beautiful bay,
15 m. long, which forms one of the finest natural harbours in
the world; stretches some 10 m. along the seaside, and is hemmed
in by richly clad hills; streets are narrow and ill kept; possesses
a large hospital, public library (180,000 vols.), botanical
gardens, arsenal, school of medicine, electric tramways, &c.;
has extensive docks, and transacts half the commerce of Brazil;
coffee is the chief export; manufactures cotton, jute, silk,
tobacco, &c. Great heat prevails in the summer, and yellow
fever is common.
Rio Grande (known also as
Rio Bravo del Norte), an important river of North America, rises
in the San Juan Mountains in Colorado; flows SE., dividing Texas
from Mexico, and enters the Gulf of Mexico after a course of
1800 m.; is navigable for steamboats some 500 m.; chief tributary,
Rio Pecos; also the name given to the head-stream of the river
Paraná in Brazil and Argentina.
Rio Grande do Norte
(310), a maritime State in the NE. corner of Brazil, called
after the Rio Grande, which flows NE. and enters the Atlantic
at Natal, the capital of the State.
Rio Grande do Sul (645),
the southmost state in Brazil, lies N. of Uruguay, fronting
the Atlantic; capital, Rio Grande (18).
Rio Negro, 1, One of the larger
tributaries of the Amazon, rises as the Guainia in SE. Columbia;
crosses Venezuela and Brazil in a more or less SE. direction,
and joins the Amazon (the Marañon here) near Manaos after
a course of 1350 m.; some of its tributaries connect the Orinoco
with the Amazon. 2, Has its source in a small lake in the Chilian
Andes, flows NE. and E. to the Atlantic, is some 500 m. long,
and easily navigated.
Rioja (80), a province of W. Argentina,
embraces some of the most fruitful valleys of the
Andes which grow cereals, vines, cotton, &c.; some mining
in copper, silver, and gold is done. The capital, Rioja (6),
is prettily planted in a vine and orange district at the base
of the Sierra Velasco 350 m. NW. of Cordoba.
Riom (10), a pretty little French
town in the dep. of Puy-de-Dôme, noted for its many quaint
old houses of the Renaissance period; does a good trade in tobacco,
Rip Van Winkle, a Dutch
colonist of New York who, driven from home by a termagant wife
strolls into a ravine of the Katskill Mountains, falls in with
a strange man whom he assists in carrying a keg, and comes upon
a company of odd-looking creatures playing at ninepins, but
never uttering a word, when, seizing an opportunity that offered,
he took up one of the kegs he had carried, fell into a stupor,
and slept 20 years, to find his beard and all the world about
him quite changed.
Ripley, 1, a manufacturing town
(7) of Derbyshire, situated 10 m. NE. of Derby, in a busy coal
and iron district; manufactures silk lace. 2. A Yorkshire village
on the Nidd, 3½ m. NW. of Harrowgate; has an interesting
castle, old church, &c.
Ripley, George, American
transcendentalist, born in Massachusetts; a friend of Emerson's
and founder of Brook Farm (q.
v.); took to Carlyle as Carlyle to him, though he was "grieved
to see him" taken up with the "Progress of Species"
set, and "confusing himself" thereby (1802-1880).
John Robinson, Earl of, statesman, younger son of Lord
Grantham, entered Parliament in 1806 as a Tory; rose to be Chancellor
of the Exchequer, and was for a few months in 1827 Prime Minister;
was subsequently in different Cabinets Colonial Secretary, Lord
Privy Seal, and President of the Board of Trade; created an
Earl In 1833 (1782-1859).
Ripon, George Frederick Samuel Robinson, Marquis of,
statesman, born in London, son of preceding; entered House of
Commons in 1852 as a Liberal; became Secretary for War (1863),
and three years later for India; was President of the Council
in 1868, a popular Viceroy of India (1880-84), First Lord of
the Admiralty in 1886, and Colonial Secretary in 1892-95; was
created Marquis in 1871; went over to the Catholic Church in
1874, resigning in consequence the Grand-Mastership of the Freemasons;
("Chronigraphus"), an annalist and monk of St. Albans;
wrote what is in effect a continuation of
Matthew Paris's (q. v.) "Chronicle,"
and practically a history of his own times from 1259 to 1307,
which is both a spirited and trustworthy account, albeit in
parts not original; b. 1250.
Rishis (i. e. seers),
a name given by the Hindus to seven wise men whose eyes had
been opened by the study of the sacred texts of their religion,
the souls of whom are fabled to be incarnated in the seven stars
of the Great Bear.
Ristori, Adelaide, distinguished
Italian tragédienne; was one of a family of strolling
players; her career on the stage was a continuous triumph; the
rôle in which she specially shone was that of Lady Macbeth;
she was married in 1847 to the Marquis del Grillo, and is known
as Marquise; b. 1821.
Ritschl, Albrecht, Protestant
theologian, born at Berlin; studied at Rome, where in 1853 he
became professor extraordinarius of theology, and in 1860 ordinary
professor; after which he was in 1864 transferred to Göttingen,
where he spent the rest of his life, gathering year after year
around him a large circle of students, and enriching theological
literature by his writings; the work which defines his position
as a German theologian is entitled "The Christian Doctrine
of Justification and Reconciliation," in which he seeks
to draw the line between Christianity as exhibited respectively
in the theology of the Reformation and that of modern Pietism;
by his lectures and his writings he became the founder of what
is called the Göttingen School of Theology, and exercised
an influence on the religious philosophy of the time, such as
has not been witnessed in Germany since the days of Schleiermacher;
his teaching is distinguished by the prominence it gives to
the ethical side of Christianity, and that it is only as exhibited
on the ethical side that it becomes the exponent and medium
of God's grace to mankind (1822-1889).
Ritschl, Friedrich Wilhelm,
German philologist, born near Erfurt; became professor of Philology
successively at Breslau, Bonn, and Leipzig; his influence on
philological study was great, and his greatest work was an edition
of Plautus (1806-1876).
Ritson, Joseph, a whimsical
and crabbed antiquary; his industry was great, his works numerous,
among them one entitled "Ancient English Metrical Romances,"
containing a long and still valuable dissertation (1752-1803).
Ritter, Heinrich, German
philosopher, born in Anhalt; professor successively at Berlin,
Kiel, and Göttingen; is distinguished as the author of
an able "History of Philosophy" (1791-1860).
Ritter, Karl, celebrated
geographer, born at Quedlinburg; the founder of comparative
geography; professor of geography at Berlin; his chief works "Geography
in its Relation to Nature," and the "History of Man"
Ritualism, respect for forms
in the conduct of religious worship, particularly in connection
with the administration of the sacraments of the Church, under
the impression or on the plea that they minister, as they were
ordained in certain cases to minister, to the quickening and
maintenance of the religious life.
Rivarol, a French writer, born
at Bagnols, in the department of Var; famed for his caustic
wit; was a Royalist emigrant at the time of the Revolution,
and aided the cause by his pamphlets; he was styled by Burke "The
Tacitus of the Revolution" (1753-1801).
Rive-de-Gier (13), a flourishing
town in the department of Loire, France, on the Gier, 13 m.
NE. of St. Étienne; is favourably situated in the heart
of a rich coal district; has manufactures of silk, glass, machinery,
Rivers, Richard Woodville,
Earl, a prominent figure in the reigns of Henry VI.
and Edward IV.; was knighted in 1425; espoused the cause of
the Lancastrians in the Wars of the Roses, but changed sides
on the marriage of his daughter with Edward IV., who created
him an earl in 1460; fell out of jealousy into disfavour with
the nobility, and was beheaded in 1469; his son Anthony,
who succeeded to the title, after acting on the Council of Regency
during Edward V.'s reign, was put to death by Richard (III.),
Duke of Gloucester, in 1483.
Riviera, an Italian term for
coast-land flanked by mountains, especially applied to the strip
of land lying around the Gulf of Genoa from Nice to Leghorn,
which is divided by Genoa into the Western and Eastern Riviera,
the former the more popular as a health resort; but the whole
coast enjoys an exceptionally mild climate, and is replete with
beautiful scenery. Nice, Monaco, Mentone,
and San Remo are among its most popular towns.
celebrated painter of animals, born in London; among his pictures,
which are numerous, are "Daniel in the Lions' Den," "Ruins
of Persepolis," "Giants at Play," and "Væ
Victis"; b. 1840.
Rivoli, 1, town (5) in North
Italy, 8 m. W. of Turin; has two royal castles, and manufactures
silks, woollens, &c. 2, An Italian village, 12 m. NW. of
Verona; scene of Napoleon's crushing victory over the Austrians
Rixdollar, a silver coin current
on the Continent, of varying value.
Rizzio, David, favourite of Mary,
Queen of Scots, born in Turin; the son of a dancing-master;
was employed by the queen as her secretary, and being offensive
to the nobles, was by a body of them dragged from the queen's
presence and stabbed to death, 9th March 1566.
Roanne (31), an old French town
in the department of Loire, on the river Loire, 49 m. NW of
St. Étienne; has interesting ruins, a college flourishing
cotton and hat factories, dye-works, tanneries, &c.
Roanoke (16), a flourishing
city of Virginia, U.S., on the Roanoke River; has rapidly sprung
into a busy centre of steel, iron, machinery, tobacco, and other
Roaring Forties, a sailor's
term for the Atlantic lying between 40° and 50°N. latitude,
so called from the storms often encountered there.
Rob Roy, a Highland freebooter,
second son of Macgregor of Glengyle; assumed the name of Campbell
on account of the outlawry of the Macgregor clan; traded in
cattle, took part in the rebellion of 1715, had his estates
confiscated, and indemnified himself by raiding (1671-1734).
Robben Island, a small
island at the entrance of Table Bay, 10 m. NW. of Cape Town;
has a lunatic asylum and a leper colony.
Robbia, Luca Delia,
Italian sculptor, born in Florence, where he lived and worked
all his days; executed a series of bas-reliefs for the cathedral,
but is known chiefly for his works in enamelled terra-cotta,
the like of which is named after him, "Robbia-ware"
Robert I. See
Robert II., king of Scotland
from 1371 to 1390, son of Walter Stewart and Marjory, only daughter
of Robert the Bruce; succeeded David II., and became the founder
of the Stuart dynasty; was a peaceable man, but his nobles were
turbulent, and provoked invasions on the part of England by
their forays on the Borders (1316-1390).
Robert III., king of Scotland
from 1390 to 1406, son of Robert II.; was a quite incompetent
ruler, and during his reign the barons acquired an ascendency
and displayed a disloyalty which greatly diminished the power
of the Crown both in his and succeeding reigns; the government
fell largely into the hands of the king's brother, the turbulent
and ambitious Robert, Duke of Albany; an invasion (1400) by
Henry IV. of England and a retaliatory expedition under Archibald
Douglas, which ended in the crushing defeat of Homildon Hill
(1402), are the chief events of the reign (1340-1406).
Robert the Devil, the
hero of an old French romance identified with Robert, first
Duke of Normandy, who, after a career of cruelty and crime,
repented and became a Christian, but had to expiate his guilt
by wandering as a ghost over the earth till the day of judgment;
he is the subject of an opera composed by Meyerbeer.
Roberts, David, painter,
born in Edinburgh; began as a house-painter; became a scene-painter;
studied artistic drawing, and devoted himself to architectural
painting, his first pictures being of Rouen and Amiens cathedrals;
visiting Spain he published a collection of Spanish sketches,
and after a tour in the East published in 1842 a magnificently-illustrated
volume entitled the "Holy Land, Syria, Idumæa, Arabia,
Egypt, and Nubia;" a great number of his pictures are ecclesiastical
Roberts, Lord, born at Cawnpore,
educated in England; entered the Bengal Artillery in 1851; served
throughout the Indian Mutiny, commanded in the Afghan War, and
achieved a brilliant series of successes, which were rewarded
with honours on his return to England; was made commander-in-chief
of the Madras army in 1881, commander-in-chief in India in 1885,
and commander of the forces in Ireland in 1895; b. 1832.
William, distinguished preacher, born in London; a graduate
of Brasenose College, Oxford, entered the Church in 1840, was
curate first at Winchester, next at Cheltenham, and finally
settled in Brighton; is known far and wide by his printed sermons
for his insight into, and his earnestness in behalf of, Christian
Robertson, Joseph, antiquary,
born and educated at Aberdeen; apprenticed to a lawyer, but
soon took to journalism, and became editor of the Aberdeen
Constitutional, and afterwards of the Glasgow Constitutional;
in 1849 was editor of the Edinburgh Evening Courant,
and four years later received the post of curator of the historical
department of the Edinburgh Register House; author of various
historical, antiquarian, and topographical works (1810-1866).
Robertson, Thomas William,
a popular dramatist, the son of an actor, born at Newark-on-Trent;
brought up amongst actors, he naturally took to the stage, but
without success; always ready with his pen, he at last made
his mark with "David Garrick," and followed it up
with the equally successful "Ours," "Caste," "School," &c.
historian, born in Borthwick, Midlothian; was educated in Edinburgh;
entered the Church; became minister of Gladsmuir; distinguished
himself in the General Assembly of the Church; became leader
of the Moderate party; one of the ministers of Greyfriars Church,
Edinburgh, and Principal of the University, having previously
written his "History of Scotland," which brought him
other honours, and which was followed by a "History of
Charles V." and a "History of America," all of
which contributed to awaken an interest in historical studies;
he was what is called a "Moderate" to the backbone,
and his cronies were men more of a sceptical than a religious
turn of mind, David Hume being one of the number; while his
history of Scotland, however well it may be written, as Carlyle
testifies, is no history of Scotland at all (1721-1793)
leader of the Jacobins in the French Revolution, born in Arras,
of Irish origin; bred to the bar; became an advocate and a judge;
he resigned because he could not brook to sentence a man to
death; inspired by the gospel of Rousseau, became a red-hot
Republican and an "Incorruptible"
(q. v.); carried things with a high hand; was opposed
by the Girondists, and accused, but threw back the charge on
them; carried the mob along with him, and with them at his back
procured sentence of death against the king; head of the Committee
of Public Safety, he laid violent hands first on the
queen and then on all who opposed or
dissented from the extreme course he was pursuing; had the worship
of reason established in June 1794, and was at the end of the
month following beheaded by the guillotine, amid the curses
of women and men (1758-1794).
Robin Hood, a famous outlaw
who, with his companions, held court in Sherwood Forest, Nottingham,
and whose exploits form the subject of many an old English ballad
and tale. He was a robber, but it was the rich he plundered
and not the poor, and he was as zealous in the protection of
the weak as any Knight of the Round Table; he was an expert
in the use of the bow and the
quarter-staff (q. v.),
and he and his men led a merry life together.
Robins, Benjamin, father
of the modern science of artillery, born, the son of a Quaker,
at Bath; established himself in London as a teacher of mathematics,
as also his reputation by several mathematical treatises; turned
his attention to the theoretical study of artillery and fortification;
upheld Newton's principle of ultimate ratios against Berkeley,
and in 1742 published his celebrated work, the "New Principles
of Gunnery," which revolutionised the art of gunnery; was
appointed engineer-in-general to the East India Company (1749),
and planned the defences of Madras (1707-1751).
Robinson, Edward, Biblical
scholar, born in Connecticut; author of "Biblical Researches
in Palestine"; a professor in New York (1794-1863).
Robinson, Henry Crabb,
literary dilettante, born at Bury St. Edmunds; lived some years
at Weimar, and got acquainted with Goethe and his circle; called
to the English bar, and on quitting practice at it with a pension,
became acquainted with the literary notabilities in London,
and left a diary full of interesting reminiscences (1775-1807).
Hercules George Robert, Lord Rosmead, born, son of an
admiral, in 1824; withdrew from the army shortly after his first
commission, and gave himself to Government Colonial service;
received a knighthood, and held Governorship of Hong-Kong in
1859; was successively governor of Ceylon, New South Wales,
New Zealand, Cape of Good Hope, &c.; created Lord Rosmead
in 1896 (1824-1898).
Robinson, Mary, poetess,
born at Leamington; author of various poetical works, a translation
of Euripides' "Hippolytus," a Life of Emily Brontë, &c.;
married in 1886 to M. Darmesteter, a noted French Orientalist;
Robson, Frederick (stage
name of F. R. Brownhill), a noted comedian, born at Margate;
took to the stage in 1844 after serving some time as an apprentice
to a London engraver; his greatest triumphs were won after 1853
on the boards of the Olympic Theatre, London; he combined in
a high degree all the gifts of a low comedian with a rare power
of rising to the grave and the pathetic (1821-1864).
Rochambeau, Comte de,
marshal of France, born at Vendôme; commanded the troops
sent out by France to assist the American colonies in their
rebellion against the mother-country (1725-1807).
Rochdale (72), a flourishing
town and cotton centre in Lancashire, prettily situated on the
Roche, 11 m. NE. Of Manchester; its woollen and cotton trade
(flannels and calicoes) dates back to Elizabeth's time; has
an interesting 12th century parish church.
Roche, St., the Patron saint
of the plague-stricken; being plague-smitten himself, and overtaken
with it in a desert place, he was discovered by a dog, who brought
him a supply of bread daily from his master's table till he
Rochefort, Comte de,
commonly known as Henri Rochefort, French journalist and violent
revolutionary, who was deported for his share in the Commune
in 1871, but escaped and was amnestied, and went back to Paris
under eclipse; b. 1830.
Rochelle, La (23), a fortified
seaport of France, on an inlet of the Bay of Biscay, 95 m. NW.
of Bordeaux; capital of the department of Charente-Inférieure;
has a commodious harbour, noteworthy public buildings, a fine
promenade and gardens; shipbuilding, glass-works, sugar-refineries, &c.,
are among its chief industries.
Rochester, 1, an interesting
old city (26), of Kent, 29 m. SE. of London, on the Medway,
lying between and practically forming one town with Strood and
Chatham; the seat of a bishop since 604; has a fine cathedral,
which combines in its structure examples of Norman, Early English,
and Decorated architecture; a hospital for lepers founded in
1078; a celebrated Charity House, and a strongly posted Norman
castle. 2, Capital (163), of Monroe County, New York, on the
Genesee River, near Lake Ontario, 67 m. NE. of Buffalo; is a
spacious and well-appointed city, with a university, theological
seminary, &c.; has varied and flourishing manufactures.
Rochester, John Wilmot,
Earl of, a witty profligate of the court of Charles
II.; wrote poems, many of them licentious, among them, however,
some exquisite songs; killed himself with his debauchery; died
penitent; he was the author of the epitaph, accounted the best
epigram in the English language, "Here lies our sovereign
Lord the king," &c. (1648-1680).
Rochet, a linen vestment worn
by bishops, abbots, and other dignitaries, in the form of a
surplice, but shorter and open at the sides.
Rock Island (14), capital
of Rock Island county, Illinois, on the Mississippi; a busy
centre of railway and river traffic; derives its name from an
island in the river, where there is an extensive Government
arsenal; a fine bridge spans the river.
Rock Temples, temples hewn
out of solid rock, found in Western India especially, such as
those at Ellora (q. v.)
and Elephanta (q. v.).
Rockall, a remarkable peak of
granite rock, rising some 70 ft. above the sea-level from the
bed of an extensive sandbank in the Atlantic, 184 m. W. of St.
Kilda; a home and haunt for sea-birds.
Rock-butter, a soft mineral
substance found oozing from alum slates, and consisting of alum,
alumina, and oxide of iron.
Rockford (24), a busy manufacturing
town, capital of Winnebago County, Illinois, on the Rock River,
86 m. NW. of Chicago.
Rockhampton (12), the chief
port of Central Queensland, Australia, on the Fitzroy, 35 m.
from its mouth; in the vicinity are rich gold-fields, also copper
and silver; engaged in tanning, meat-preserving, &c.; is
connected by a handsome bridge with its suburb North Rockhampton.
Rocking Stones or Logans,
large stones, numerous in Cornwall, Wales, Yorkshire, &c.,
so finely poised as to rock to and fro under the slightest force.
Charles Watson Wentworth, Marquis of, statesman, of
no great ability; succeeded to the title in 1750; opposed the
policy of Bute, and headed the Whig opposition; in 1762 became
Prime Minister, and acted leniently with the American colonies,
repealing the Stamp Act; was a bitter opponent of North's American
policy of repression; held the Premiership
again for a few months in 1782 (1730-1782).
Rocky Mountains, an extensive
and lofty chain of mountains in North America, belonging to
the Cordillera system, and forming the eastern buttress of the
great Pacific Highlands, of which the Sierra Nevada and Cascade
Mountains form the western buttress, stretching in rugged lines
of almost naked rock, interspersed with fertile valleys, from
New Mexico through Canada to the Arctic Ocean, broken only by
a wonderfully beautiful tract of elevated plateau in southern
Wyoming, over which passes the Union Pacific Railroad; reaches
its greatest height in Colorado (Gray's Peak, 14,341 ft.); gold,
silver, &c., are found abundantly.
Rococo, name given to a debased
style of architecture, overlaid with a tasteless, senseless
profusion of fantastic ornamentation, without unity of design
or purpose, which prevailed in France and elsewhere in the 18th
Rocroi (2), a small fortified
town of France, about 3 m. from the Belgian frontier, in the
dep. of Ardennes; memorable for a great victory of the French
under Condé over the Spaniards in 1643.
Rodbertus, Johann Karl,
Socialist, born in Greifswald; believed in a Socialism that
would in course of time realise itself with the gradual elevation
of the people up to the Socialistic ideal (1815-1875).
Roderic, the last king of the
Visigoths in Spain, was slain in battle with the Moors, who
had invaded Spain during a civil war, and his army put to flight
Roderick Random, the
hero of a novel of Smollett's, a young Scotch scapegrace, rough
and reckless, and bold enough.
Rodez (15), a town of France,
in the dep. of Aveyron; crowns an eminence at the foot of which
flows the Aveyron, 80 m. NE. of Toulouse; has a beautiful Gothic
cathedral, interesting Roman remains; manufactures textiles,
leather, paper, &c.
Rodin, Auguste, eminent
French sculptor, born in Paris, distinguished for his statues
and busts; b. 1840-1917.
Rodney, Lord, English admiral,
born at Walton-on-Thames; entered the navy at the age of 12,
and obtained the command of a ship in 1742; did good service
in Newfoundland; was made Admiral of the Blue in 1759, and in
that year destroyed the stores at Havre de Grace collected for
the invasion of England; in 1780 defeated the Spanish fleet
off Cape St. Vincent; in 1782 defeated the French fleet under
Count de Grasse by breaking the enemy's line; was first made
a baronet and then a peer, with a pension of £2000, for
his services to the country (1718-1792).
Rodosto (19), a Turkish town
on the N. coast of the Sea of Marmora, 60 m. W. of Constantinople;
is the seat of an archbishop of the Greek Church, has many mosques;
fruitful vineyards in the vicinity produce excellent wine.
Rodriguez (2), an interesting
volcanic island lying far out in the Indian Ocean, 380 m. NE.
of Mauritius, of which it is a dependency; agriculture is the
chief employment; has a good climate, but is subject to severe
Roe, Edward Payson,
American novelist, born in New Windsor, New York; studied for
the ministry and served as a chaplain during the Civil War;
settled down as a pastor of a Presbyterian church at Highland
Fells; made his mark as a novelist in 1872 with "Barriers
Burned Away"; took to literature and fruit-gardening, and
won a wide popularity with such novels as "From Jest to
Earnest," "Near to Nature's Heart," &c. (1838-1888).
Roebuck, John Arthur,
English Radical politician, born at Madras; represented first
Bath and then Sheffield in Parliament, contributed to the downfall
of the Aberdeen Government, and played in general an independent
part; his vigorous procedure as a politician earned for him
the nickname of "Tear 'em" (1802-1879).
Roermond (12), an old Dutch
town in Limburg, at the confluence of the Roer and the Meuse,
29 m. N. by E. of Maestricht; has a splendid 13th-century cathedral;
manufactures cottons, woollens, &c.
Roeskilde, an interesting
old Danish city, situated on a fjord, 20 m. W. by S. of Copenhagen,
dates back to the 10th century; has a fine 13th-century cathedral,
the burying-place of most of the Danish kings.
Rogation Days, the Monday,
Tuesday, and Wednesday preceding Ascension Day, on which special
litanies are sung or recited by the Roman Catholic clergy and
people in public procession; has its origin in an old custom
dating from the 6th century. In England the practice ceased
after the Reformation.
Roger I., the youngest of the
12 sons of Tancred of Hauteville; conquered Sicily from the
Saracens after a war of 30 years, and governed it under the
title of count in part from 1071 and wholly from 1089 to 1101.
Roger II., son and successor
of the preceding, was crowned king of the two Sicilies by the
Pope; waged war advantageously against the Emperor of the East
and the Saracens of North Africa; ruled the country well and
promoted industry (1097-1154).
Roger of Wendover, an
early English chronicler, lived in the 13th century; was a monk
of St. Albans and subsequently prior of Belvoir; wrote a history
of the world down to Henry III.'s reign, the only valuable portion
of it being that which deals with his own times.
Rogers, Henry, English essayist;
contributed for years to the Edinburgh Review; author
of the "Eclipse of Faith" (1806-1877).
Rogers, James E. Thorwold,
political economist, born in Hampshire; became professor of
Political Economy at Oxford; author of a "History of Agriculture
and Prices in England" and "Six Centuries of Work
and Wages," an abridgment of it (1823-1890).
Rogers, John, the first of
the Marian martyrs, born at Birmingham; prepared a revised edition
of the English Bible, preached at Paul's Cross against Romanism
the Sunday after Mary's entrance into London, and was after
a long imprisonment tried for heresy, and condemned to be burned
at Smithfield (1505-1555).
Rogers, Samuel, English
poet, born in London, son of a banker, bred to banking, and
all his life a banker—took to literature, produced a succession
of poems: "The Pleasures of Memory" in 1792, "Human
Life" in 1819, and "Italy," the chief, in 1822;
he was a good conversationalist, and told lots of good stories,
of which his "Table-Talk," published in 1856, is full;
he issued at great expense a fine edition of "Italy"
and early poems, which were illustrated by Turner and Stothard,
and are much prized for the illustrations (1763-1855).
Roget, Peter Mark, physician,
born in London; was professor of Physiology at the Royal Institution;
wrote on physiology in relation to natural theology; was author
of a "Thesaurus of English Words and Phrases" (1779-1869).
Rohan, Prince Louis de,
a profligate ecclesiastic of France who attained to the highest
honours in the Church; became archbishop and cardinal, but who
had fallen out with royalty; was debarred from court, tried
every means to regain the favour of Marie Antoinette, which
he had forfeited, was inveigled into buying a necklace for her
in hope of thereby winning it back, found himself involved in
the scandal connected with it, and was sent to the Bastille
(1783-1803). See "Diamond Necklace" in
Rohilkhand (5,343), a northern
division of the North-West Provinces, British India; is a flat,
well-watered, fertile district, crossed by various railways;
takes its name from the Rohillas, an Afghan tribe, who had possession
of it in the 18th century.
Rohillas (i. e. hillmen),
a tribe of Afghans who settled in a district N. of Oudh, called
Rohilkhand after them, and rose to power in the 18th century,
till their strength was broken by the British in 1774.
Rohlfs, F. Gerard, German
traveller, born near Bremen, travelled in various directions
through North Africa; undertook missions to Abyssinia, and has
written accounts of his several journeys; b. 1832.
Rokitansky, Baron, eminent
physician, born at Königgrätz, professor of Pathological
Anatomy at Vienna, and founder of that department of medicine
Roland, one of the famous paladins
of Charlemagne, and distinguished for his feats of valour, who,
being inveigled into the pass of Roncesvalles, was set upon
by the Gascons and slain, along with the flower of the Frankish
chivalry, the whole body of which happened to be in his train.
Roland, Madame, a brave,
pure-souled, queen-like woman with "a strong Minerva face,"
the noblest of all living Frenchwomen, took enthusiastically
to the French Revolution, but when things went too far supported
the Moderate or Girondist party; was accused, but cleared herself
before the Convention, into whose presence she had been summoned,
and released; but two days after was arrested, imprisoned in
Charlotte Corday's apartments, and condemned; on the scaffold
she asked for pen and paper "to write the strange thoughts
that were rising in her," which was refused; looking at
the statue of Liberty which stood there, she exclaimed bitterly
before she laid her head on the block, "O Liberty, what
crimes are done in thy name!" (1754-1793).
Roland de la Platière,
Jean Marie, husband of Madame Roland, was Inspector
of Manufactures at Lyons; represented Lyons in the Constituent
Assembly; acted with the Girondists; fled when the Girondist
party fled, and on hearing of his wife's fate at Rouen bade
farewell to his friends who had sheltered him, and was found
next morning "sitting leant against a tree, stiff in the
rigour of death, a cane-sword run through his heart" (1732-1793).
Rollin, Charles, French
historian, born in Paris; rector of the University; wrote "Ancient
History" in 13 vols., and "Roman History" in
16 vols., once extremely popular, but now discredited and no
longer in request (1661-1741).
Rollo, a Norwegian, who became
the chief of a band of Norse pirates who one day sailed up the
Seine to Rouen and took it, and so ravaged the country that
Charles the Simple was glad to come to terms with them by surrendering
to them part of Neustria, which thereafter bore from them the
name of Normandy; after this Rollo embraced Christianity, was
baptized by the Bishop of Rouen, and was the first Duke of Normandy
Romagna, the former name of
a district in Italy which comprised the NE. portion of the Papal
States, embracing the modern provinces of Ferrara, Bologna,
Ravenna, and Forli.
Romaine, William, evangelical
divine of the English Church, born at Hartlepool, author of
works once held in much favour by the evangelicals, entitled
severally "The Life, the Walk, and the Triumph of Faith"
Roman Empire, Holy,
or the Reich, the name of the old German Empire which,
under sanction of the Pope, was established by Otho the Great
in 962, and dissolved in 1806 by the resignation of Francis
II., Emperor of Austria, and was called "Holy" as
being Christian in contrast with the old pagan empire of the
the name given to the languages that sprung from the Latin,
and were spoken in the districts of South Europe that had been
provinces of Rome.
Romanes, George John,
naturalist, born at Kingston, Canada; took an honours degree
in science at Cambridge; came under the influence of Darwin,
whose theory of evolution he advocated and developed in lectures
and various works, e. g. "Scientific Evidences of
Organic Evolution," "Mental Evolution in Animals," "Mental
Evolution in Man"; his posthumous "Thoughts on Religion"
reveal a marked advance from his early agnosticism towards a
belief in Christianity; founded the Romanes Lectures at Oxford
Romanoff, the name of an old
Russian family from which sprung the reigning dynasty of Russia,
and the first Czar of which was Michael Fedorovitch (1613-1645).
Romans (17), a town in the dep.
Drôme, France, on the Isère, 12 m. NE. of Valence;
a 9th-century bridge spans the river to the opposite town Péage;
has a 9th-century abbey; manufactures silk, &c.
Romans, Epistle to the,
an epistle written from Corinth, in the year 59, by St. Paul
to the Church at Rome to correct particularly two errors which
he had learned the Church there had fallen into, on the part,
on the one hand, of the Jewish Christians, that the Gentiles
as such were not entitled to the same privileges as themselves,
and, on the other hand, of the Gentile Christians, that the
Jews by their rejection of Christ had excluded themselves from
God's kingdom; and he wrote this epistle to show that the one
had no more right to the grace of God than the other, and that
this grace contemplates the final conversion of the Jews as
well as the Gentiles. The great theme of this epistle is that
faith in Christ is the one way of salvation for all mankind,
Jew as well as Gentile, and its significance is this, that it
contains if not the whole teaching of Paul, that essential part
of it which presents and emphasises the all-sufficiency of this
Romanticism, the name of
the reactionary movement in literature and art at the close
of last century and at the beginning of this against the cold
and spiritless formalism and pseudo-classicism that then prevailed,
and was more regardful of correctness of expression than truth
of feeling and the claims of the emotional nature; has been
defined as the "reproduction in modern art and literature
of the life and thought of the Middle Ages."
Rome (423), since 1871 capital
of the modern kingdom of Italy (q.
v.), on the Tiber, 16 m. from its entrance into the Tyrrhenian
Sea; legend ascribes its foundation to
Romulus in 753 B.C., and the story of its progress, first as
the chief city of a little Italian kingdom, then of a powerful
and expanding republic (510 B.C. to 30 B.C.), and finally of
a vast empire, together with its decline and fall in the 5th
century (476 A.D.), before the advancing barbarian hordes, forms
the most impressive chapter in the history of nations; as the
mother-city of Christendom in the Middle Ages, and the later
capital of the Papal States
(q. v.) and seat of the Popes, it acquired fresh glory;
it remains the most interesting city in the world; is filled
with the sublime ruins and monuments of its pagan greatness
and the priceless art-treasures of its mediæval period;
of ruined buildings the most imposing are the Colosseum (a vast
amphitheatre for gladiatorial shows) and the Baths of Caracalla
(accommodated 1600 bathers); the great aqueducts of its Pre-Christian
period still supply the city with water from the Apennines and
the Alban Hills; the Aurelian Wall (12 m.) still surrounds the
city, enclosing the "seven hills," the Palatine, Capitoline,
Aventine, &c., but suburbs have spread beyond; St. Peter's
is yet the finest church in the world; the Popes have their
residence in the Vatican; its manufactures are inconsiderable,
and consist chiefly of small mosaics, bronze and plaster casts,
prints, trinkets, &c.; depends for its prosperity chiefly
on the large influx of visitors, and the court expenditure of
the Quirinal and Vatican, and of the civil and military officials.
Romford (8), an old market-town
of Essex, on the Bourne or Rom, 12 m. NE. of London; noted for
its cattle and corn markets; industries include brewing, market-gardening,
Romilly, Sir Samuel,
English lawyer, born in London, of a Huguenot family; was a
Whig in politics, and was Solicitor-General for a time; devoted
himself to the amendment of the criminal law of the country,
and was a zealous advocate against slavery and the spy system
Romney, George, English
portrait-painter, born in Lancashire; married at Kendal, left
his wife and two children there, and painted portraits in London
for 35 years in rivalry with Reynolds and Gainsborough, and
retired at the end of that time to Kendal to die, his wife nursing
him tenderly, though in the whole course of the term referred
to, he had visited her only twice (1734-1862).
Romney, New (1), one of the
old Cinque Ports (q. v.),
in S. Kent, 8 m. SW. of Hythe; the sea has receded from its
shores, leaving it no longer a port; as centre of a fine pastoral
district it has an important sheep fair; the little village
of Old Romney lies 1½ m. inland.
Romola, a novel by George Eliot,
deemed her greatest by many, being "a deep study of life
in the city of Florence from an intellectual, artistic, religious,
and social point of view."
Romsay (4), a town in Hampshire,
on the Test, 8 m. NW. of Southampton; has a remarkably fine
old Norman church and a corn exchange; birthplace of Lord Palmerston.
Romulus, legendary founder of
Rome, reputed son of Mars and Rhea
Silvia (q. v.), daughter of Numitor, king of Alba
Longa; exposed at his birth, along with
Remus, his twin-brother (q. v.);
was suckled by a she-wolf and brought up by Faustulus, a shepherd;
opened an asylum for fugitives on one of the hills of Rome,
and founded the city in 753 B.C., peopling it by a rape of Sabine
women, and afterwards forming a league with the
Sabines (q. v.); he was
translated to heaven during a thunderstorm, and afterwards worshipped
as Quirinus, leaving Rome behind him as his mark.
Ronaldshay, North and
South, two of the Orkney Islands; North Ronaldshay is
the most northerly of the Orkney group; South Ronaldshay (2)
lies 6¼ m. NE. of Duncansby Head; both have a fertile
soil, and the coast fisheries are valuable.
Roncesvalles, a valley
of the Pyrenees, 23 m. NE. of Pampeluna, where in 775 the rear
of the army of Charlemagne was cut in pieces by the Basques,
and Roland (q. v.) with
the other Paladins was slain.
Ronda (19), one of the old Moorish
towns of Spain, built amid grand scenery on both sides of a
great ravine (bridged in two places), down which rushes the
Guadiaro, 43 m. W. of Malaga; is a favourite summer resort.
Rondeau, a form of short poem
(originally French) which, as in the 15th century, usually consists
of 13 lines, eight of which have one rhyme and five another;
is divided into three stanzas, the first line of the rondeau
forming the concluding line of the last two stanzas; Swinburne
has popularised it in modern times.
Rondo, a form of musical composition
which corresponds to the rondeau
(q. v.) in poetry; consists of two or more (usually three)
strains, the first being repeated at the end of each of the
other two, but it admits of considerable variation.
Ronsard, Pierre, celebrated
French poet, born near Vendôme; was for a time attached
to the Court; was for three years of the household of James
V. of Scotland in connection with it, and afterwards in the
service of the Duke of Orleans, but having lost his hearing
gave himself up to literature, writing odes and sonnets; he
was of the Pléiade
school of poets (q. v.), and contributed to introduce
important changes in the idiom of the French language, as well
as in the rhythm of French poetry (1521-1585).
Konrad von, discoverer of the Röntgen rays, born
at Lennep, in Rhenish Prussia; since 1885 has been professor
of Physics at Würzburg; his discovery of the X-rays was
made in 1898, and has won him a wide celebrity; b. 1845.
Röntgen Rays, described
by Dr. Knott as "rays of light that pass with ease through
many substances that are optically opaque, but are absorbed
by others." "For example," he says, "the
bony structures of the body are much less transparent than the
fleshy parts; hence by placing the hand between a fluorescent
screen and the source of these rays we see the shadow of the
skeleton of the hand with a much fainter shadow of the flesh
and skin bordering it." See Dr. Knott's "Physics."
Rooke, Sir George, British
admiral, born at Canterbury; distinguished himself at the battle
of Cape La Hogue in 1692; in an expedition against Cadiz destroyed
the Plate-fleet in the harbour of Vigo in 1702; assisted in
the capture of Gibraltar from the Spaniards in 1704, and fought
a battle which lasted a whole day with a superior French force
off Malaga the same year (1650-1709).
Roon, Count von, Prussian
general, born in Pomerania; was Minister of War in 1859 and
of Marine in 1861; was distinguished for the important reforms
he effected in the organisation of the Prussian army, conspicuous
in the campaigns of 1866 and 1871-72 (1803-1879).
Root, George Frederick,
a popular American song-writer, born at Sheffield, Massachusetts;
was for some time a music teacher in Boston and New York; took
to song writing, and during the Civil War leaped into fame as
the composer of "Tramp, tramp, tramp the Boys are Marching," "Just
before the Battle, Mother," "The
Battle Cry of Freedom," and other songs; was made a Musical
Doctor by Chicago University in 1872 (1820-1895).
Root and Branch Men,
name of a party in the Commons who in 1641 supported a petition
for the abolition of Episcopacy in England, and even carried
a bill through two readings, to be finally thrown out.
Ropemaker, The Beautiful.
See Labé, Louise.
Rorke's Drift, a station
on the Tugela River, Zululand, the defence of which was on the
night of the 24th January 1879 successfully maintained by 80
men of the 24th Regiment against 4000 Zulu warriors.
Rosa, Carl, father of English
opera, born at Hamburg; introduced on the English stage the
standard Italian, French, and German operas with an English
Rosa, Salvator, Italian
painter, born near Naples, a man of versatile ability; could
write verse and compose music, as well as paint and engrave;
his paintings of landscape were of a sombre character, and generally
representative of wild and savage scenes; he lived chiefly in
Rome, but took part in the insurrection of Masaniello at Naples
in 1647 (1615-1673).
Rosamond, Fair, a daughter
of Lord Clifford, and mistress of Henry II., who occupied a
bower near Woodstock, the access to which was by a labyrinth,
the windings of which only the king could thread. Her retreat
was discovered by Queen Eleanor, who poisoned her.
Rosario (51), an important city
of the Argentine Republic, on the Paraná, 190 m. NW.
of Buenos Ayres; does a large trade with Europe, exporting wool,
hides, maize, wheat, &c.
Rosary, a string of beads used
by Hindus, Buddhists, Mohammedans, and Roman Catholics as an
aid to the memory during devotional exercises; the rosary of
the Roman Catholics consists of beads of two sizes, the larger
ones mark the number of Paternosters and the smaller the number
of Ave Marias repeated; of the former there are usually five,
of the latter fifty.
Rosas, Jean Manuel,
Argentine statesman, born at Buenos Ayres; organised the confederation,
became dictator, failed to force the Plate River States into
the confederation, and took refuge in England, where he died
Roscher, Wilhelm, distinguished
political economist, born at Hanover, professor at Göttingen
and Leipzig, the head of the historical school of political
economy; his chief work a "System of Political Economy"
Roscius, Quintus, famous
Roman comic actor, born near Lanuvium, in the Sabine territory;
was a friend of Cicero, and much patronised by the Roman nobles;
was thought to have reached perfection in his art, so that his
name became a synonym for perfection in any profession or art.
Roscoe, Sir Henry, chemist,
born in London, grandson of succeeding, professor at Owens College,
Manchester; author of treatises on chemistry; b. 1834.
Roscoe, William, historian,
born in Liverpool; distinguished as the author of the "Life
of Lorenzo de' Medici" and of "Leo X.," as well
as of "Handbooks of the Italian Renaissance" and a
collection of poems (1753-1831).
Roscommon (114), an inland
county of Connaught, SW. Ireland; is poorly developed; one-half
is in grass, and a sixth mere waste land; crops of hay, potatoes,
and oats are raised, but the rearing of sheep and cattle is
the chief industry; the rivers Shannon and Suck lie on its E.
and W. borders respectively; there is some pretty lake-scenery,
interesting Celtic remains, castle, and abbey ruins, &c.
The county town, 96 m. NW. of Dublin, has a good cattle-market,
and remains of a 13th-century Dominican abbey and castle.
Roscrea (3), an old market-town
of Tipperary, 77 m. SW. of Dublin; its history reaches back
to the 7th century, and it has interesting ruins of a castle,
round tower, and two abbeys.
Archibald Philip Primrose, Earl of, born in London;
educated at Eton and Christ's Church, Oxford; succeeded to the
earldom in 1868; was twice over Secretary for Foreign Affairs
under Mr. Gladstone, in 1885 and 1892; was first Chairman of
London County Council; became Prime Minister on March 1894 on
Mr. Gladstone's retirement, and resigned in June 1895; he is
one of the most popular statesmen and orators of the day, and
held in deservedly high esteem by all classes; b. 1847.
Rosecrans, William Starke,
American general, born at Kingston, Ohio; trained as an engineer,
he had settled down to coal-mining when the Civil War broke
out; joined the army in 1861, and rapidly came to the front;
highly distinguished himself during the campaigns of 1862-63,
winning battles at Iuka, Corinth, and Stone River; but defeated
at Chickamauga he lost his command; reinstated in 1864 he drove
Price out of Missouri; has been minister to Mexico, a member
of Congress, and since 1885 Registrar of the U.S. Treasury;
Rosenkranz, Karl, philosopher
of the Hegelian school, born at Magdeburg; professor of Philosophy
at Königsberg; wrote an exposition of the Hegelian system,
a "Life of Hegel," on "Goethe and his Works," &c.
Roses, Wars of the, the
most protracted and sanguinary civil war in English history,
fought out during the reigns of Henry VI., Edward IV., and Richard
III. between the adherents of the noble houses of York and Lancaster—rival
claimants for the throne of England—whose badges were
the white and the red rose respectively; began with the first
battle of St. Albans (1455), in which Richard, Duke of York,
defeated Henry VI.'s forces under the Duke of Somerset; but
not till after the decisive victory at Towton (1461) did the
Yorkists make good their claim, when Edward (IV.), Duke of York,
became king. Four times the Lancastrians were defeated during
his reign. The war closed with the defeat and death of the Yorkist
Richard III. at Bosworth, 1485, and an end was put to the rivalry
of the two houses by the marriage of Henry VII. of Lancaster
with Elizabeth of York, 1486.
Rosetta (18), a town on the
left branch of the delta of the Nile, 44 m. NE. of Alexandria,
famous for the discovery near it by M. Boussard, in 1799, of
the Rosetta stone with inscriptions in hieroglyphic, demotic
and Greek, and by the help of which archæologists have
been able to interpret the hieroglyphics of Egypt.
Rosicrucians, a fraternity
who, in the beginning of the 15th century, affected an intimate
acquaintance with the secrets of nature, and pretended by the
study of alchemy and other occult sciences to be possessed of
sundry wonder-working powers.
Rosinante, the celebrated
steed of Don Quixote, reckoned by him superior to the Bucephalus
of Alexander and the Bavieca of the Cid.
Roslin, a pretty little village
of Midlothian, by the wooded side of the North Esk, 6½
m. S. of Edinburgh; has ruins of a 14th-century castle, and
a small chapel of rare architectural beauty,
built in the 16th century as the choir
of a projected collegiate church.
Rosmini-Serbati, distinguished Italian philosopher,
born at Rovereto, entered the priesthood, devoted himself to
the study of philosophy, founded a system and an institute called
the "Institute of the Brethren of Charity" at Stresa,
W. of Lake Maggiore, on a pietistic religious basis, which,
though sanctioned by the Pope, has encountered much opposition
at the hands of the obscurantist party in the Church (1797-1865).
Ross, Sir John, Arctic explorer,
born in Wigtownshire; made three voyages, the first in 1811
under Parry; the second in 1829, which he commanded; and a third
in 1850, in an unsuccessful search for Franklin, publishing
on his return from them accounts of the first two, in both of
which he made important discoveries (1777-1856).
Rossano (19), a town of Southern
Italy, in Calabria, 2 m. from the SW. shore of the Gulf of Taranto;
has a fine cathedral and castle; valuable quarries of marble
and alabaster are wrought in the vicinity.
Rossbach, a village in Prussian
Saxony, 9 m. SW. of Merseburg, where Frederick the Great gained
in 1767 a brilliant victory with 22,000 men over the combined
arms of France and Austria with 60,000.
Parsons, third Earl of, born in York; devoted to the
study of astronomy; constructed reflecting telescopes, and a
monster one at the cost of £30,000 at Parsonstown, his
seat in Ireland, by means of which important discoveries were
made, specially in the resolution of nebulæ (1800-1867).
Dante Gabriel, poet and painter, born in London, the
son of Gabriele Rossetti; was as a painter one of the
(q. v.), and is characterised by Ruskin as "the
chief intellectual force in the establishment of the modern
romantic school in England,... as regarding the external world
as a singer of the Romaunts would have regarded it in the Middle
Ages, and as Scott, Burns, Byron, and Tennyson have regarded
it in modern times," and as a poet was leader of the romantic
school of poetry, which, as Stopford Brooke remarks, "found
their chief subjects in ancient Rome and Greece, in stories
and lyrics of passion, in mediæval romance, in Norse legends,
in the old English of Chaucer, and in Italy" (1828-1882).
Georgina, poetess, born in London, sister of Dante Gabriel
Rossetti, and of kindred temper with her brother, but with distinct
qualities of her own; her first volume, called the "Goblin-Market,"
contains a number of very beautiful short poems; she exhibits,
along with a sense of humour, a rare pathos, which, as Professor
Saintsbury remarks, often "blends with or passes into the
utterance of religious awe, unstained and unweakened by any
craven fear" (1830-1894).
Italian poet and orator, born at Vasto; had for his patriotic
effusions to leave Italy, took refuge in London, and became
professor of Italian in King's College, London; was a man of
strong character, and student of literature as well as man of
letters himself; was the father of Dante Gabriel and Christina
Rossi, Pellegrino, an
Italian jurist and politician, born at Carrara, educated at
Bologna, where he became professor of Law in 1812; four years
later was appointed to a chair in Geneva, where he also busied
himself with politics as a member of the Council and deputy
in the Diet; settled in Paris in 1833, became professor at the
Collège de France, was naturalised and created a peer,
returned to Rome, broke off his connection with France, won
the friendship of Pius IX., and rose to be head of the ministry;
was assassinated (1787-1848).
celebrated Italian composer of operatic music, born at Pesaro;
his operas were numerous, of a high order, and received with
unbounded applause, beginning with "Tancred," followed
by "Barber of Seville," "La Gazza Ladra," "Semiramis," "William
Tell," &c.; he composed a "Stabat Mater,"
and a "Mass" which was given at his grave (1792-1868).
Rostock (44), a busy German
port in Mecklenburg, on the Warnow, 7 m. from its entrance into
the Baltic; exports large quantities of grain, wool, flax, &c.,
has important wool and cattle markets; shipbuilding is the chief
of many varied industries, owns a flourishing university, a
beautiful Gothic church, a ducal palace, &c.
Rostoff, 1, a flourishing town
(67) of South Russia, on the Don, 34 m. E. of Taganrog; manufactures
embrace tobacco, ropes, leather, shipbuilding, &c. 2, One
of the oldest of Russian market-towns (12), on the Lake of Rostoff,
34 m. SW. of Jaroslav, seat of an archbishop; manufactures linens,
Russian general, governor of Moscow; was charged with having
set fire to the city against the entrance of the French in 1812;
in his defence all he admitted was that he had set fire to his
own mansion, and threw the blame of the general conflagration
on the citizens and the French themselves (1763-1826).
Rostrum (lit. a beak),
a pulpit in the forum of Rome where the orators delivered harangues
to the people, so called as originally constructed of the prows
of war-vessels taken at the first naval battle in which Rome
Rothe, Richard, eminent
German theologian, born at Posen, professor eventually at Heidelberg;
regarded the Church as a temporary institution which would decease
as soon as it had fulfilled its function by leavening society
with the Christian spirit; he wrote several works, but the greatest
is entitled "Theological Ethics" (1799-1867).
Rotherham (42), a flourishing
town in Yorkshire, situated on the Don, 5 m. NE. of Sheffield;
its cruciform church is a splendid specimen of Perpendicular
architecture; manufactures iron-ware, chemicals, pottery, &c.
Rothesay (9), popular watering-place
on the W. coast of Scotland, capital of Buteshire, charmingly
situated at the head of a fine hill-girt bay on the NE. side
of the island of Bute, 19 m. SW. of Greenock; has an excellent
harbour, esplanade, &c.; Rothesay Castle is an interesting
ruin; is a great health and holiday resort.
Rothschild, Meyer Amschel,
the founder of the celebrated banking business, born at Frankfort-on-the-Main,
a Jew by birth; began his career as a money-lender and made
a large fortune (1743-1812); left five sons, who were all made
barons of the Austrian empire—Amselm von R., eldest,
head of the house at Frankfort (1773-1855); Solomon von R.,
the second, head of the Vienna house (1774-1855); Nathan
von R., the third, head of the London house (1777-1836);
Karl von R., the fourth, head of the house at Naples
(1755-1855); and Jacob von R., the fifth, head of the
Paris house (1792-1868).
Rotrou, Jean de, French
poet, born at Dreux; was a contemporary of Corneille and a rival,
wrote a number of plays, almost all tragedies, on romantic and
classical subjects, some of which have kept the stage till now
Rotterdam (223), the chief
port and second city of Holland, situated at the junction of
the Rotte with the Maas, 19 m. from the North Sea and 45 m.
SW. of Amsterdam; the town is cut in many parts by handsome
canals, which communicate with the river and serve to facilitate
the enormous foreign commerce; the quaint old houses, the stately
public buildings, broad tree-lined streets, canals alive with
fleets of trim barges, combine to give the town a picturesque
and animated appearance. Boymans' Museum has a fine collection
of Dutch and modern paintings, and the Groote Kerk is a Gothic
church of imposing appearance; there is also a large zoological
garden; shipbuilding, distilling, sugar-refining, machine and
tobacco factories are the chief industries.
Rotti (60), a fertile hilly island
in the Indian Archipelago, SW. of Timor, a Dutch possession.
Roubaix (115), a busy town in
the department of Nord, N. of France; situated on a canal 6
m. NE. of Lille; is of modern growth; actively engaged in the
manufacture of all kinds of textiles, in brewing, &c.
Roubilliac, Louis François,
sculptor, born at Lyons; studied in Paris, came to London; executed
there statues of Shakespeare in the British Museum, Sir Isaac
Newton at Cambridge, and Händel at London (1693-1762).
Rouble, a silver coin of the
value of 3s. 2d.; the unit of the Russian monetary system; a
much depreciated paper rouble is also in circulation; the rouble
is divided into 100 copecks.
Rouen (112), the ancient capital
of Normandy, a busy manufacturing town on the Seine, 87 m. NW
of Paris; a good portion of the old, crowded, picturesque town
has given place to more spacious streets and dwellings; the
old ramparts have been converted into handsome boulevards; has
several Gothic churches unrivalled in beauty, a cathedral (the
seat of an archbishop), &c.; the river affords an excellent
waterway to the sea, and as a port Rouen ranks fourth in France;
is famed for its cotton and other textiles; Joan of Arc was
burned here in 1431.
Rouget de Lisle, officer
of the Engineers, born at Lons-le-Saulnier; immortalised himself
as the author of the "Marseillaise"
(q. v.); was thrown into prison by the extreme party
at the Revolution, but was released on the fall of Robespierre;
fell into straitened circumstances, but was pensioned by Louis
Rouge-et-Noir (i. e.
red and black), a gambling game of chance with cards, so called
because it is played on a table marked with two red and two
black diamond-shaped spots, and arranged alternately in four
different sections of the table.
French Bonapartist statesman, born at Riom, where he became
a barrister; entered the Constituent Assembly in 1848, and in
the following year became Minister of Justice; was more or less
in office during the next 20 years; he became President of the
Senate in 1869; fled to England on the fall of the Empire; later
on re-entered the National Assembly, and vigorously defended
the ex-emperor Napoleon III. (1814-1884).
Roulers (20), a manufacturing
town in West Flanders, 19 m. SW. of Bruges; engaged in manufacturing
cottons, lace, &c.; scene of a French victory over the Austrians
Roulette, a game of chance,
very popular in France last century, now at Monaco; played with
a revolving disc and a ball.
Roumania (5,800), a kingdom
of SE. Europe, wedged in between Russia (N.) and Bulgaria (S.),
with an eastern shore on the Black Sea; the Carpathians on the
W. divide it from Austro-Hungary; comprises the old principalities
of Moldavia and Wallachia, which, long subject to Turkey, united
under one ruler in 1859, and received their independence in
1878, in which year the province of Dobrudja was ceded by Russia;
in 1881 the combined provinces were recognised as a kingdom;
forms a fertile and well-watered plain sloping N. to S., which
grows immense quantities of grain, the chief export; salt-mining
and petroleum-making are also important industries; the bulk
of the people belong to the Greek Church; peasant proprietorship
on a large scale is a feature of the national life; government
is vested in a hereditary limited monarch, a council of ministers,
a senate, and a chamber of deputies;
Bucharest (q. v.) is
the capital, and Galatz (q.
v.) the chief port.
Roumelia, a former name for
a district which embraced ancient Thrace and a portion of Macedonia;
the territory known as East Roumelia was incorporated with Bulgaria
Round Table, The, the
name given to the knighthood of King Arthur: a larger, from
including as many as 150 knights; and a smaller, from including
only 12 of the highest order.
Round Towers, ancient towers,
found chiefly in Ireland, of a tall, round, more or less tapering
structure, divided into storeys, and with a conical top, erected
in the neighbourhood of some church or monastery, and presumably
of Christian origin, and probably used as strongholds in times
of danger; of these there are 118 in Ireland, and three in Scotland—at
Abernethy, Brechin, and Eglishay (Orkney).
Roundheads, the name of contempt
given by the Cavaliers to the Puritans or Parliamentary party
during the Civil War, on account of their wearing their hair
Rous, Francis, provost of
Eton, born in Cornwall; sat in the Westminster Assembly, and
was the author of the metrical version of the Psalms, as used
in Presbyterian churches (1579-1659).
Rousseau, Jean Baptiste,
French lyric poet, born in Paris, the son of a shoemaker; gave
offence by certain lampoons ascribed to him which to the last
he protested were forgeries, and was banished; his satires were
certainly superior to his lyrics, which were cold and formal;
died at Brussels in exile (1670-1741).
Rousseau, Jean Jacques,
a celebrated French philosopher, and one or the great prose
writers of French literature, born in Geneva, the son of a watchmaker
and dancing-master; was apprenticed to an engraver, whose inhuman
treatment drove him at the age of 16 into running away; for
three years led a vagrant life, acting as footman, lackey, secretary, &c.;
during this period was converted to Catholicism largely through
the efforts of Madame de Warens, a spritely married lady living
apart from her husband; in 1731 he took up residence in his
patroness's house, where he lived for nine years a life of ease
and sentiment in the ambiguous capacity of general factotum,
and subsequently of lover; supplanted in the affections of his
mistress, he took himself off, and landed in Paris in 1741;
supported himself by music-copying, an occupation which was
his steadiest means of livelihood throughout his troubled career;
formed a liaison with an illiterate dull servant-girl
by whom he had five children, all of whom he callously handed
over to the foundling hospital; acquaintance with Diderot brought
him work on the famous Encyclopédie, but the true foundation
of his literary fame was laid in 1749 by "A
Discourse on Arts and Sciences," in which he audaciously
negatives the theory that morality has been favoured by the
progress of science and the arts; followed this up in 1753 by
a "Discourse on the Origin of Inequality," in which
he makes a wholesale attack upon the cherished institutions
and ideals of society; morosely rejected the flattering advances
of society, and from his retreat at Montlouis issued "The
New Héloïse" (1760), "The Social Contract"
(1762), and "Émile" (1762); these lifted him
into the widest fame, but precipitated upon him the enmity and
persecution of Church (for his Deism) and State; fled to Switzerland,
where after his aggressive "Letters from the Mountains,"
he wandered about, the victim of his own suspicious, hypochondriacal
nature; found for some time a retreat in Staffordshire under
the patronage of Hume; returned to France, where his only persecutors
were his own morbid hallucinations; died, not without suspicion
of suicide, at Ermenonville; his "Confessions" and
other autobiographical writings, although unreliable in facts,
reflect his strange and wayward personality with wonderful truth;
was one of the precursive influences which brought on the revolutionary
Rousseau, Pierre Étienne
Théodore, an eminent French artist, born in Paris;
at 19 exhibited in the Salon; slowly won his way to the front
as the greatest French landscape painter; in 1848 settled down
in Barbizon, in the Forest of Fontainebleau, his favourite sketching
ground; his pictures (e. g. "The Alley of Chestnut
Trees," "Early Summer Morning") fetch immense
prices now (1812-1867).
Roveredo (10), an Austrian
town in the Tyrol, pleasantly situated on the Leno, in the Lägerthal;
is the centre of the Tyrolese silk trade.
Row, John, a Scottish reformer;
graduated LL.D. in Padua; came over from the Catholic Church
in 1558, and two years later helped to compile the "First
Book of Discipline"; settled as a minister in Perth, and
was four times Moderator of the General Assembly (1525-1580).
His son, John Row, was minister of Carnock, near Dunfermline,
and author of an authoritative "History of the Kirk of
Rowe, Nicholas, dramatist
and poet-laureate, born at Barford, Bedfordshire; was trained
for the law, but took to literature, and made his mark as a
dramatist, "The Fair Penitent," "Jane Shore," &c.,
long maintaining their popularity; translated Lucan's "Pharsalia,"
which won Dr. Johnson's commendation; edited Shakespeare; became
poet-laureate in 1715; held some government posts; was buried
at Westminster Abbey (1674-1718).
caricaturist, born in London; studied art in Paris; gambled
and lived extravagantly; led a roving life in England and Wales;
displayed great versatility and strength in his artistic work,
e. g. in "Imitations of Modern Drawings," illustrations
to Sterne's "Sentimental Journey," "Munchausen's
Travels," &c.; ridiculed Napoleon in many cartoons
Rowley Regis (31), a flourishing
town of Staffordshire, 3 m. SE. of Dudley; has large iron-works,
Rowton Heath, in the vicinity
of Chester, scene of a great Parliamentary victory over the
forces of Charles I. in September 1645.
Roxburghshire (54), in
Border pastoral county of Scotland, between Berwick (NE.) and
Dumfries (SW.); the Cheviots form its southern boundary; lies
almost wholly within the basin of the Tweed, which winds along
its northern border, receiving the Teviot, Jed, &c.; includes
the fine pastoral districts of Teviotdale and Liddesdale, where
vast flocks of sheep are reared; agriculture and woollen manufactures
are important industries; Hawick is the largest town, and Jedburgh
the county town; near Kelso stood the royal castle and town
of Roxburgh, which gave its name to the county, destroyed in
Royal Academy of Arts,
in London; was instituted in 1768 by George III. as a result
of a memorial presented to him by 29 members who had seceded
from "The Incorporated Society of Artists of Great Britain"
(founded 1765); for some years received grants from the privy
purse, and was provided with rooms in Somerset House; removed
to Trafalgar Square in 1836, and to its present quarters at
Burlington House in 1869; receives now no public grant; holds
yearly exhibitions, and supports an art school; membership comprises
42 Royal Academicians, besides Associates. The present President
is Sir Edward John Poynter. The Royal Hibernian Academy (founded
1823) and the Scottish Academy (1826) are similar institutions.
Royal Society of
Edinburgh, The, was incorporated by royal charter in
1783 through the efforts of Robertson the historian, and superseded
the old Philosophical Society; held fortnightly meetings (December
till June) in the Royal Institution; receives a grant of £300;
publishes Transactions; has a membership of some 550,
including foreign and British Fellows.
Royal Society of London,
incorporated by royal charter in 1662, but owing its origin
to the informal meetings about 1645 of a group of scientific
men headed by Theodore Haak, a German, Dr. Wilkins, and others;
in 1665 the first number of their Philosophical Transactions
was published which, with the supplementary publication,
Proceedings of the Royal Society, begun in 1800, constitute
an invaluable record of the progress of science to the present
day; encouragement is given to scientific investigation by awards
of medals (Copley, Davy, Darwin, &c.), the equipping of
scientific expeditions (e. g. the Challenger), &c.;
weekly meetings are held at Burlington House (quarters since
1857) during the session (November till June); membership comprises
some 500 Fellows, including 40 foreigners; receives a parliamentary
grant of £4000 a year, and acts in an informal way as
scientific adviser to Government.
Royan (6), a pretty seaside town
of France, on the estuary of the Gironde, 60 m. NW. of Bordeaux;
trebles its population in the summer.
Paul, politician and philosopher, born at Sompuis; called
to the Paris bar at 20; supported the Revolution, but refused
to follow the Jacobins, and during the Reign of Terror sought
shelter in his native town; was elected to the Council of the
Five Hundred in 1797, retired in 1804, and betook himself to
philosophic studies; became professor of Philosophy in Paris
1811, and exercised great influence; re-entered political life
in 1815, and was actively engaged in administrative work till
his retirement in 1842; was all through his life a doctrinaire
and rather unpractical (1763-1842).
Royton (13), a busy cotton town
in Lancashire, 2 m. NW. of Oldham.
Ruabon (18), a mining town in
Denbighshire, 4½ m. SW. of Wrexham; has collieries and
Rubens, Peter Paul,
the greatest of the Flemish painters, born at Siegen, in Westphalia;
came with his widowed mother in 1587 to Antwerp, where he sedulously
cultivated the painter's art, and early
revealed his masterly gift of colouring; went to Italy, and
for a number of years was in the service of the Duke of Mantua,
who encouraged him in his art, and employed him on a diplomatic
mission to Philip III. of Spain; executed at Madrid some of
his finest portraits; returned to Antwerp in 1609; completed
in 1614 his masterpiece, "The Descent from the Cross,"
in Antwerp Cathedral; with the aid of assistants he painted
the series of 21 pictures, now in the Louvre, illustrating the
principal events in the life of Maria de' Medici during 1628-1629;
diplomatic missions engaged him at the Spanish and English Courts,
where his superabundant energy enabled him to execute many paintings
for Charles I.—e. g. "War and Peace,"
in the National Gallery—and Philip IV.; was knighted by
both; in all that pertains to chiaroscuro, colouring, and general
technical skill Rubens is unsurpassed, and in expressing particularly
the "tumult and energy of human action," but he falls
below the great Italian artists in the presentation of the deeper
and sublimer human emotions; was a scholarly, refined man, an
excellent linguist, and a successful diplomatist; was twice
married; died at Antwerp, and was buried in the Church of St.
Jacques; his tercentenary was celebrated in 1877 (1577-1640).
Rubicon, a famous river of Italy,
associated with Julius Cæsar, now identified with the
modern Fiumecino, a mountain torrent which springs out of the
eastern flank of the Apennines and enters the Adriatic N. of
Ariminum; marked the boundary line between Roman Italy and Cisalpine
Gaul, a province administered by Cæsar; when he crossed
it in 49 B.C. it was tantamount to a declaration of war against
the Republic, hence the expression "to cross the Rubicon"
is applied to the decisive step in any adventurous undertaking.
Rubinstein, Anton, a
famous Russian pianist and composer, born, of Jewish parents,
near Jassy, in Moldavia; studied at Moscow, under Liszt in Paris,
and afterwards at Berlin and Vienna; established himself at
St. Petersburg in 1848 as a music-teacher; became director of
the Conservatoire there; toured for many years through Europe
and the United States, achieving phenomenal success; resumed
his directorship at St. Petersburg in 1887; composed operas
(e. g. "The Maccabees," "The Demon"),
symphonies (e. g. "Ocean"), sacred operas (e.
g. "Paradise Lost"), chamber music, and many exquisite
songs; as a pianist he was a master of technique and expression;
was ennobled by the Czar in 1869; published an autobiography;
his works as well as his performances display both vigour and
Rubrics, a name, as printed
originally in red ink, applied to the rules and instructions
given in the liturgy of the Prayer-Book for regulating the conduct
of divine service, hence applied in a wider significance to
any fixed ecclesiastical or other injunction or order; was used
to designate the headings or title of chapters of certain old
law-books and MSS., formerly but not now necessarily printed
in red characters.
Ruby, a gem which in value and
hardness ranks next to the diamond; is dichroic, of greater
specific gravity than any other gem, and belongs to the hexagonal
system of crystals; is a pellucid, ruddy-tinted stone, and,
like the sapphire, a variety of corundum, also found (but rarely)
in violet, pink, and purple tints; the finest specimens come
from Upper Burmah; these are the true Oriental rubies, and when
above 5 carats exceed in value, weight for weight, diamonds;
the Spinel ruby is the commoner jeweller's stone; is of much
less value, specific gravity and hardness, non-dichroic, and
forms a cubical crystal.
German poet, born at Schweinfurt, in Bavaria; at Würzburg
University showed his talent for languages, and early devoted
himself to philology and poetry; was for 15 years professor
of Oriental Languages at Erlangen; introduced German readers,
by excellent translations, to Eastern poetry; filled for some
time the chair of Oriental Languages in Berlin; takes rank as
a lyrist of no mean powers; essayed unsuccessfully dramatic
Ruddiman, Thomas, author
of a well-known Latin grammar, a Banffshire man, and graduate
of Aberdeen University; was school-mastering at Laurencekirk,
where his scholarly attainments won him an assistantship in
the Advocates' Library, Edinburgh; spent a busy life in that;
city in scholarly occupation, editing many learned works, the
most notable being Buchanan's works and the "immaculate"
edition of Livy; his famous Latin grammar was completed in 1732;
in 1730 became principal keeper of the Advocates' Library (1674-1757).
Rudolf I., of the House of Hapsburg,
founder of the Austrian dynasty; born, the son of a count, at
Schloss Limburg (Breisgau); greatly increased his father's domain
by marriage, inheritance, and conquest, becoming the most powerful
prince in S. Germany; acquired a remarkable ascendency among
the German princes, and was elevated to the imperial throne
in 1273, and by friendly concessions to the Pope, Gregory IX.,
terminated the long struggle between the Church and the empire;
shattered the opposition of Ottocar, king of Bohemia, and brought
peace and order to Germany (1218-1291).
Rudolf II., German Emperor,
son of Maximilian II., born at Vienna; became king of Hungary
in 1573, and of Bohemia three years later; ascended the imperial
throne in 1576; indolent and incapable, he left the empire to
the care of worthless ministers; disorder and foreign invasion
speedily followed; persecution inflamed the Protestants; by
1611 his brother Matthias, supported by other kinsmen, had wrested
Hungary and Bohemia from him; had a taste for astrology and
alchemy, and patronised Kepler and Tycho Brahé (1552-1612).
Rudolf Lake, in British East
Africa, close to the highlands of S. Ethiopia, practically an
inland sea, being 160 m. long and 20 broad, and brackish in
taste; discovered in 1888.
Rudra, in the Hindu mythology
the old deity of the storm, and father of the Marutz.
Rugby (11), a town in Warwickshire,
at the junction of the Swift and the Avon, 83 m. NW. of London;
an important railway centre and seat of a famous public school
founded in 1567, of which Dr. Arnold
(q. v.), and Archbishops Tait and Temple were famous
head-masters, is one of the first public schools in England,
and scholars number about 450.
Ruge, Arnold, a German philosophical
and political writer, born at Bergen (Rügen); showed a
philosophic bent at Jena; was implicated in the political schemes
of the Burschenschaft (q.
v.), and was imprisoned for six years; taught for some years
in Halle University, but got into trouble through the radical
tone of his writings in the Halle Review (founded by
himself and another), and went to Paris; was prominent during
the political agitation of 1848, and subsequently sought refuge
in London, where for a short time he acted in consort with Mazzini
and others; retired to Brighton, and ultimately received a pension
from the Prussian Government; his numerous
plays, novels, translations, &c., including a lengthy autobiography,
reveal a mind scarcely gifted enough to grasp firmly and deeply
the complicated problems of sociology and politics; is characterised
by Dr. Stirling as the "bold and brilliant Ruge";
began, he says, as an expounder of Hegel, and "finished
off as translator into German of that 'hollow make-believe of
windy conceit,' he calls it, Buckle's 'Civilisation in England'"
Rügen (45), a deeply-indented
island of Germany, in the Baltic, separated from the Pomeranian
coast by a channel (Strela Sund) about a mile broad; the soil
is fertile, and fishing is actively engaged in. Bergen (4) is
Ruhr, an affluent of the Rhine,
which joins it at Ruhrort after a course of 142 m.; navigable
to craft conveying the product of the coal-mines to the Rhine.
Rule of Faith, the name
given to the ultimate authority or standard in religious belief,
such as the Bible alone, as among Protestants; the Bible and
the Church, as among Romanists; reason alone, as among rationalists;
the inner light of the spirit, as among mystics.
Rum, a mountainous, forest-clad
island in one of the Inner Hebrides, lies 15 m. off Ardnamurchan
Point; a handful of inhabitants cultivate a very small portion
of it; the rest is mountain, wood, and moorland; forms a deer-forest.
Rumford, Count, Benjamin
Thompson, soldier, philanthropist, and physicist, born at Woburn,
Massachusetts; a fortunate marriage lifted him into affluence,
relieving him from the necessity of teaching; fought on the
British side during the American War; became a lieutenant-colonel,
and for important services was knighted in 1782 on his return
to England; entered the Bavarian service, and carried through
a series of remarkable reforms, such as the suppression of mendicity,
the amelioration of the poorer classes by the spread of useful
knowledge, culinary, agricultural, &c.; was made a Count
of the Holy Roman Empire, and placed in charge of the War Department
of Bavaria; was a generous patron of science in England and
elsewhere; retired from the Bavarian service in 1799, and five
years later married the widow of Lavoisier the chemist; his
later years were spent in retirement in a village near Paris,
where he devoted himself to physical research, especially as
regards heat (1753-1814).
Rump, The, name of contempt
given to the remnant of the Long Parliament in 1659.
Runcorn (20), a flourishing
river-port of Cheshire, on the Mersey, 12 m. SE. of Liverpool,
at the terminus of the Bridgewater Canal; is an old place dating
back to the 10th century; has excellent docks; industries embrace
shipbuilding, iron-founding, &c.
Runeberg, Johan Ludwig,
the national poet of Finland, born at Jacobstad; educated at,
and afterwards lectured in, the university of Abo; published
his first volume, "Lyric Poems," in 1830; edited a
bi-weekly paper; for forty years (till his death) was Reader
of Roman Literature in the College of Borga; his epic idylls, "The
Elk Hunters," "Christmas Eve," his epic "King
Fjalar," &c., are the finest poems in the Swedish language;
are characterised by a repose, simplicity, and artistic finish,
yet have withal the warmth of national life in them (1804-1877).
Runes, a name given to the letters
of the alphabet by heathen Teutonic tribes prior to their coming
under the influence of Roman civilisation; are formed almost
invariably of straight lines, and scarcely exist except in inscriptions
dating back to A.D. 1; found chiefly in Scandinavia, also in
Britain. There are three runic alphabets (much alike), the oldest
being the Gothic of 24 letters or runes. They are now believed
to have first come into use among the Goths in the 6th century
B.C., and to be a modified form of the old Greek alphabet introduced
Runnimede, a meadow on the
right bank of the Thames, 36 m. SW. of London, where King John
signed the Magna Charta, 15th June 1215.
Rupee, a silver coin, the monetary
unit of India, whose face value is 2s., but which, owing to
the depreciation of silver, is now valued in outside markets
at about 1s. 2½d.; a lac of rupees equals 100,000.
Rupert, Prince, son of
Frederick V., Elector Palatine, and grandson of James I. of
England; received an excellent education; took part in the Thirty
Years' War, and suffered three years' imprisonment at Linz;
in England, at the outbreak of the Great Rebellion, he was entrusted
with a command by Charles I., and by his dash and daring greatly
heartened the Royalist cause, taking an active part in all the
great battles; finally surrendered to Fairfax at Oxford in 1646;
but two years later took command of the Royalist ships and kept
up a gallant struggle till his defeat by Blake in 1651; escaped
to the West Indies, where he kept up a privateering attack upon
English merchantmen; came in for many honours after the Restoration,
and distinguished himself in the Dutch War; the closing years
of his life were quietly spent in scientific research (physical,
chemical, mechanical), for which he had a distinct aptitude
Rupert's Land, a name given
by Prince Rupert to territory the drainage of which flows into
Hudson Bay or Strait.
Rush, Benjamin, a noted
American physician and professor, born at Byberry, near Philadelphia;
studied medicine at Princeton and Edinburgh; became professor
of chemistry at Philadelphia in 1769; sat in Congress, and signed
the Declaration of Independence (1776); held important medical
posts in the army; resigned, and assumed medical professorship
in Philadelphia; won a European reputation as a lecturer, philanthropist,
and medical investigator; published several treatises, and from
1799 acted as treasurer of the U.S. Mint (1745-1813).
Rushworth, John, historian
and politician, born at Warkworth, Northumberland; although
a barrister he never practised, but set himself to compile elaborate
notes of proceedings at the Star Chamber and other courts, which
grew into an invaluable work of 7 vols., entitled "Historical
Collections"; acted as assistant-clerk to the Long Parliament;
sat as a member in several Parliaments, and was for some years
secretary to Fairfax and the Lord-Keeper; fell into disfavour
after the Restoration, and in 1684 was arrested for debt and
died in prison; is an authority whom Carlyle abuses as a Dry-as-dust
Ruskin, John, art-critic
and social reformer, born in London, son of an honourable and
a successful wine-merchant; educated with some severity at home
under the eye of his parents, and particularly his mother, who
trained him well into familiarity with the Bible, and did not
object to his study of "Robinson Crusoe" along with
the "Pilgrim's Progress" on Sundays, while, left to
his own choice he read Homer, Scott, and Byron on week days;
entered Christ's Church, Oxford, as a gentleman Commoner in
1837, gained the Newdigate Prize in 1839, produced in 1843,
under the name of "A Graduate of Oxford,"
the first volume of "Modern Painters," mainly in defence
of the painter Turner and his art, which soon extended to five
considerable volumes, and in 1849 "The Seven Lamps of Architecture,"
in definition of the qualities of good art in that line, under
the heads of the Lamps of Sacrifice, of Truth, of Power, of
Beauty, of Life, of Memory, and Obedience, pleading in particular
for the Gothic style; these were followed in 1851 by "Pre-Raphaelitism"
(q. v.), and 1851-53 by the "Stones of Venice,"
in further exposition of his views in the "Seven Lamps,"
and others on the same and kindred arts. Not till 1862 did he
appear in the rôle of social reformer, and that
was by the publication of "Unto this Last," in the
Cornhill Magazine, on the first principles of political
economy, the doctrines in which were further expounded in "Munera
Pulveris," "Time and Tide," and "Fors
Clavigera" (q. v.), the principles in which
he endeavoured to give practical effect to by the Institution
of St. George's Guild, with the view of commending "the
rational organisation of country life independent of that of
cities." His writings are numerous, several of them originally
lectures, and nearly all on matters of vital account, besides
many others on subjects equally so which he began, but has had,
to the grief of his admirers, to leave unfinished from failing
health, among these his "Præterita," or memories
from his past life. The most popular of his recent writings
is "Sesame and Lilies," with perhaps the "Crown
of Wild Olive," and the most useful that of the series
beginning with "Unto this Last," and culminating in "Time
and Tide." He began his career as an admirer of Turner,
and finished as a disciple of Thomas Carlyle, but neither slavishly
nor with the surrender of his own sense of justice and truth;
Justice is the goddess he worships, and except in her return
to the earth as sovereign he bodes nothing but disaster to the
fortunes of the race; his despair of seeing this seems to have
unhinged him, and he is now in a state of fatal collapse; his
contemporaries praised his style of writing, but to his disgust
they did not believe a word he said; he sits sadly in these
days at Brantwood, in utter apathy to everything of passing
interest, and if he thinks or speaks at all it would seem his
sense of the injustice in things, and the doom it is under,
is not yet utterly dead—his sun has not even yet gone
down upon his wrath; the keynote of his wrath was, Men do the
work of this world and rogues take the pay, selling for money
what God has given for nothing, or what others have purchased
by their life's blood; b. 1819. He died 20th January
Russell, John, Earl,
known best as Lord John Russell, statesman, youngest
son of the Earl of Bedford; travelled in Spain, studied at Edinburgh,
entered Parliament in 1813, took up vigorously the cause of
parliamentary reform and Catholic Emancipation, joined Earl
Grey's ministry in 1830 as Paymaster of the Forces, framed and
zealously advocated the Reform Bill (1832), drove Peel from
office in 1835, and became, under Lord Melbourne, Home Secretary
and leader of the Commons; four years later he was appointed
Colonial Secretary, warmly espoused the cause of repeal of the
Corn Laws, formed a Ministry on the downfall of Peel in 1846,
and dealt with Irish difficulties and Chartism; resigned in
1852, and in the same year became Foreign Secretary under Aberdeen,
became unpopular on account of his management of the Crimean
War (1855) and conduct at the Vienna Conference; again Foreign
Secretary in Palmerston's ministry of 1859, an earl in 1861,
and premier a second time in 1865-66; author of various pamphlets,
biographies, memoirs, &c.; was twice married; was nicknamed "Finality
John" from his regarding his Reform Bill of 1832 as a final
Russell, William, Lord,
prominent politician in Charles II.'s reign, younger son of
the Earl of Bedford; entered the first Restoration Parliament,
became a prominent leader in the Country Party in opposition
to the Cabal (q. v.) and
the Popish schemes of the king; vigorously supported the Exclusion
Bill to keep James, Duke of York from the throne in 1683; was
charged with complicity in the Rye-house Plot, was found guilty
on trumped-up evidence, and beheaded (1639-1683).
Russell, William Clark,
a popular writer of nautical novels, born in New York; gained
his experience of sea life during eight years' service as a
sailor; was a journalist on the staff of the Daily Chronicle
before, in 1887, he took to writing novels, which include "John
Holdsworth," "The Wreck of the 'Grosvenor,'" &c.;
Russell, Sir William
Howard, a celebrated war correspondent, born near Dublin;
was educated at Trinity College, called to the English bar in
1850, had already acted for some years as war correspondent
for the Times before his famous letters descriptive of
the Crimean War won him a wide celebrity; subsequently acted
as correspondent during the Indian Mutiny, American Civil War,
Franco-German War, &c.; accompanied the Prince of Wales
to India in 1875; knighted in 1895; b. 1821.
of Killowen, Charles Russell, Lord, a distinguished
lawyer, born at Newry; educated at Trinity College, Dublin,
called to the English bar in 1859, entered Parliament in 1880,
became Attorney-General in 1886, receiving also a knighthood;
in 1894 was elevated to the Lord Chief-Justiceship and created
a life-peer; b. 1832.
Russia (117,562), next to the
British empire the most extensive empire in the world, embracing
one-sixth of the land-surface of the globe, including one-half
of Europe, all Northern and a part of Central Asia; on the N.
it fronts the Arctic Ocean from Sweden to the NE. extremity
of Asia; its southern limit forms an irregular line from the
NW. corner of the Black Sea to the Sea of Japan, skirting Turkey,
Persia, Afghanistan, East Turkestan, and the Chinese empire;
Behring Sea, Sea of Okhotsk, and the Sea of Japan wash its eastern
shores; Sweden, the Baltic, Germany, and Austria lie contiguous
to it in West Europe. This solid, compact mass is thinly peopled
(13 to the sq. m. over all) by some 40 different-speaking races,
including, besides the dominant Russians (themselves split into
three branches), Poles, Finns, Esthonians, Servians, Bulgarians,
Lithuanians, Kurds, Persians, Turco-Tartars, Mongols, &c.
Three-fourths of the land-surface, with one-fourth of the population,
lies in Asia, and is treated under Siberia, Turkestan, Caucasia, &c.
Russia in Europe, embracing Finland
and Poland (q. v.), is divided
from Asia by the Ural Mountains and River and Caspian Sea; forms
an irregular, somewhat elongated, square plain sloping down
to the low and dreary coast-lands of the Baltic (W.), White
Sea (N.), and Black Sea (S.); is seamed by river valleys and
diversified by marshes, vast lakes (e. g. Ladoga, Onega,
Peipus, and Ilmen), enormous forests, and in the N. and centre
by tablelands, the highest of which being the Valdai Hills (1100
ft.); the SE. plain is called the
Steppes (q. v.). The cold and warm winds which sweep
uninterrupted from N. and S. produce extremes of temperature;
the rainfall is small. Agriculture is the prevailing industry,
engaging 90 per cent. of the people, although in all not more
than 21 per cent. of the soil is cultivated;
rye is the chief article of food for the peasantry, who comprise
four-fifths of the population. The rich plains, known as the "black
lands" from their deep, loamy soil, which stretch from
the Carpathians to the Urals, are the most productive corn-lands
in Europe, and rival in fertility the "yellow lands"
of China, and like them need no manure. Timber is an important
industry in the NW., and maize and the vine are cultivated in
the extreme S.; minerals abound, and include gold, iron (widely
distributed), copper (chiefly in middle Urals), and platinum;
there are several large coal-fields and rich petroleum wells
at Baku. The fisheries, particularly those of the Caspian, are
the most productive in Europe. Immense numbers of horses and
cattle are reared, e. g. on the Steppes. Wolves, bears,
and valuable fur-bearing animals are plentiful in the N. and
other parts; the reindeer is still found, also the elk. Want
of ports on the Mediterranean and Atlantic hamper commerce,
while the great ports in the Baltic are frozen up four or five
months in the year; the southern ports are growing in importance,
and wheat, timber, flax, and wool are largely exported. There
is a vast inland trade, facilitated by the great rivers (Volga,
Don, Dnieper, Dniester, Vistula, &c.) and by excellent railway
and telegraphic communication. Among its varied races there
exists a wide variety of religions—Christianity, Mohammedanism,
Buddhism, Shamanism, &c.; but although some 130 sects exist,
the bulk of the Russians proper belong to the Greek Church.
Education is backward, more than 85 per cent. of the people
being illiterate; there are eight universities. Conscription
is enforced; the army is the largest in the world. Government
is an absolute monarchy, save in Finland
(q. v.); the ultimate legislative and executive power
is in the hands of the czar, but there is a State Council of
60 members nominated by the czar. In the 50 departments a good
deal of local self-government is enjoyed through the village
communes and their public assemblies, but the imperial power
as represented by the police and military is felt in all parts,
while governors of departments have wide and ill-defined powers
which admit of abuse. The great builders of the empire, the
beginnings of which are to be sought in the 9th century, have
been Ivan the Great, who in the 15th century drove out the Mongols
and established his capital as Moscow; Ivan the Terrible, the
first of the czars, who in the 16th century pushed into Asia
and down to the Black Sea; and
Peter the Great (q. v.).
Its restless energies are still unabated, and inspire a persistently
aggressive policy in the Far East. Within recent years its literature
has become popular in Europe through the powerful writings of
Pushkin, Turgenief, and Tolstoi.
Rustchuk (27), a town in Bulgaria,
on the Danube, 40 m. S. by W. of Bucharest; manufactures gold
and silver ware, shoes, cloth, &c.; has a number of interesting
mosques; its once important fortifications were reduced in 1877.
Rutebeuf or Rustebeuf,
a celebrated trouvère of the 13th century, of whom little
is known save that he led a Bohemian life in Paris and was unfortunate
in his marriage; his songs, satires, &c., are vigorous and
full of colour, and touch a note of seriousness at times which
one hardly anticipates.
Ruthenians, a hardy Slavonic
people, a branch of the Little Russian stock, numbering close
upon 3½ millions, dwelling in Galicia and Northern Hungary.
a Scottish divine, born at Nisbet, near Jedburgh; studied at
Edinburgh University, became professor of Humanity, but had
to resign; studied divinity, and became minister of Anworth
in 1627, and was a zealous pastor and a fervid preacher; corresponded
far and wide with pious friends by letters afterwards published
under his name, and much esteemed by pious people; became at
length professor of Divinity at St. Andrews, and represented
the Scottish Church in the Westminster Assembly in 1643; wrote
several works, for one of which he was called to account, but
had to answer a summons on his deathbed before a higher bar
Rutherglen (13), a town of
Lanarkshire, on the Clyde, 3 m. SE. of Glasgow, of which it
is practically a suburb; a handsome bridge spans the river;
has been a royal burgh since 1126, and has interesting historical
Ruthin (3), an interesting old
town of Denbighshire, on the Clwyd, 8 m. SE. of Denbigh.
Ruthven, Raid of, a conspiracy
entered into by certain Scottish nobles, headed by William,
first Earl of Gowrie, to seize the young king James VI., and
break down the influence of his worthless favourites, Lennox
and Arran; at Ruthven Castle, or Huntingtower, in Perthshire,
on 23rd August 1582, the king was captured and held for 10 months;
Arran was imprisoned, and Lennox fled, to die in France; the
conduct of the conspirators was applauded by the country, but
after the escape of the king from St. Andrews Castle the conspirators
were proclaimed guilty of treason, and Gowrie was ultimately
Ruthwell Cross, a remarkable
sandstone cross, 17¾ ft. high, found in Ruthwell parish,
9 m. SE. of Dumfries; dates back to the 7th century; bears runic
and Latin inscriptions, notably some verses of the Saxon poem, "The
Dream of the Holy Rood"; was broken down in 1642 by the
Covenanters as savouring of idolatry; found and re-erected in
Rutland (21), the smallest county
of England, bounded by Lincoln, Northampton, and Leicester;
has a pleasant undulating surface, with valleys in the E., and
extensive woods; is watered by the Welland; is largely pastoral,
and raises fine sheep; dairy produce (especially cheese) and
wheat are noted; Oakham is the capital.
Ruysdael, Jacob, a famous
Dutch landscape-painter, born and died at Haarlem; few particulars
of his life are known; his best pictures, to be seen in the
galleries of Dresden, Berlin, Paris, &c., display a fine
poetic spirit (1628-1682).
Ruyter, Michael de,
a famous Dutch admiral, born of poor parents at Flushing; from
a boy of 11 served in the merchant and naval service; commanded
a ship under Van Tromp in the war with England 1652-1654; was
ennobled in 1660 by the king of Denmark for services rendered
in the Dano-Swedish war; for two years fought against Turkish
pirates in the Mediterranean; commanded the Dutch fleet in the
second war against England, and in 1667 struck terror into London
by appearing and burning the shipping in the Thames; held his
own against England and France in the war of 1672; co-operated
with Spain against France; was routed and mortally wounded off
the coast of Sicily; a man of sterling worth (1607-1675).
Ryan, Loch, an arm of the sea
penetrating Wigtownshire in a south-easterly direction, 8 m.
long and from 1½ to 3 broad; at its landward end is
Stranraer (q. v.); forms
an excellent anchorage.
Rybinsk (20, 100 in the summer),
a busy commercial town in Russia, on the Volga, 48 m. NW. of
Yaroslav; connected by canal with St. Petersburg;
industries embrace boat-building, brewing, distilling, &c.
Ryde (11), a popular old watering-place
on the NE. coast of the Isle of Wight, 4½ m. SW. of Portsmouth;
rises in pretty wooded terraces from the sea; has a fine promenade,
park, pier, &c.
Rye (4), an interesting old port
in the SE. corner of Sussex, situated on rising ground flanked
by two streams, 63 m. SE. from London, one of the
Cinque Ports (q. v.);
the retiral of the sea has left it now 2 m. inland; has a fine
Norman and Early English church.
Rye House Plot, an abortive
conspiracy in 1683 to assassinate Charles II. of England and
his brother James, Duke of York, planned by Colonel Rumsey,
Lieutenant-Colonel Walcot, the "plotter" Ferguson,
and other reckless adherents of the Whig party. The conspirators
were to conceal themselves at a farmhouse called Rye House,
near Hertford, and to waylay the royal party returning from
Newmarket; the plot miscarried owing to the king leaving Newmarket
sooner than was expected; the chief conspirators were executed.
Rymer, Thomas, the learned
editor of the "Foedera," an invaluable collection
of historical documents dealing with England's relations with
foreign powers, born at Northallerton; was a Cambridge man and
a barrister; turned to literature and wrote much both in prose
and poetry, but to no great purpose; was Historiographer-royal;
Macaulay in characteristic fashion calls him "the worst
critic that ever lived"; but his "Foedera" is
an enduring monument to his unwearied industry (1639-1714).
Rysbrach, Michael, a
well-known sculptor in the 18th century, born at Antwerp; established
himself in London and executed busts and statues of the most
prominent men of his day, including the monument to Sir Isaac
Newton in Westminster Abbey, statue of Marlborough, busts of
Walpole, Bolingbroke, Pope, &c. (1694-1770).
Ryswick, Peace of, signed
on October 30, 1697, at the village of Ryswick, 2 m. S. of The
Hague, by England, Holland, Germany, and Spain on the one hand
and France on the other, terminating the sanguinary struggle
which had begun In 1688; it lasted till 1702.