Haarlem (58), a handsome town
in the province of N. Holland on the Spaarne, 4 m. from the
sea, and 12 m. W. of Amsterdam; has a fine 15th-century church
with a famous organ (8000 pipes), linen and other factories, &c.,
and is noted for its tulip-gardens and trade in flower-bulbs;
it is intersected by several canals as well as the rivers; there
existed at one time a lagoon of the Zuyder Zee called Haarlem
Lake, which stretched southward as far as Leyden, between
Amsterdam and Haarlem; but destructive inundations, caused by
the tidal advance in 1836, compelled the Government to set about
draining it, and this difficult engineering operation was successfully
carried through by an English company during 1839-52.
Habakkuk, a book of the Old
Testament by a Levite, whose name it bears, and who appears
to have flourished in the 7th century B.C., containing a prophecy
which belongs, both in substance and form, to the classic period
of Hebrew literature, and is written in a style which has been
described as being "for grandeur and sublimity of conception,
for gorgeousness of imagery, and for melody of language, among
the foremost productions of that literature." The spirit
of it is one: faith, namely, in the righteous ways of the Lord;
but the burden is twofold; to denounce the judgment of God on
the land for the violence and wrong that prevailed in it, as
about to be executed on it by a power still more violent and
unjust in its ways; and to comfort the generation of the righteous
with the assurance of a time when this very rod of God's wrath
shall in the pride of its power be broken in pieces, and the
Lord be revealed as seated in His Holy Temple.
Habberton, John, author
of "Helen's Babies," born in Brooklyn, New York; was
first a clerk and then a journalist; his other works include "Other
People's Children," "The Worst Boy in Town," &c.;
Habeas Corpus, an Act of
Parliament passed in the reign of Charles II. to ensure the
protection of one accused of a crime prior to conviction in
an open court of justice.
Habington, Thomas, a
Worcester gentleman of fortune, involved at one time in a conspiracy
to release Mary, Queen of Scots, from prison, and convicted
at another of concealing some of the agents in the Gunpowder
poet and historian, son of the preceding; a devoted Catholic, "who
did not run with the times"; author of "Castara,"
a collection of exquisite lyrics in homage to his wife, and
in celebration of her charms and virtues (1605-1654).
Hachette, Jean, French
mathematician; one of the founders of the École Polytechnique
Hachette, Jeanne, a French
heroine, born in Beauvais, who took part in the defence of her
native town when besieged in 1472 by Charles the Bold.
Hackländer, German novelist
and dramatist, born near Aix-la-Chapelle; his writings, which
show a genial humour, have been compared to those of Dickens
Hackney (230), an important
parish and borough of Middlesex, a suburb of London, 3 m. NE.
of St. Paul's; returns three members of Parliament.
Haco V., king of Norway from 1223
to 1263; was defeated by Alexander III. of Scotland at Largs,
and died at the Orkneys on his way home.
Haddington (3), the county
town, on the Tyne, 17 m. E. of Edinburgh; has interesting ruins
of an abbey church, called the "Lamp of Lothian,"
a cruciform pile with a central tower, a corn exchange, &c.;
was the birthplace of John Knox, Samuel Smiles, and Jane Welsh
East Lothian (37), a maritime county of Scotland, on
the E. fronting the Firth of Forth and the North Sea, N. of
Berwickshire; on the southern border lie the Lammermuir Hills;
the Tyne is the only river; considerable quantities of coal
and limestone are wrought, but agriculture is the chief industry,
64 per cent, of the land being under cultivation.
Haden, Sir Francis Seymour,
an etcher and writer on etching, born in London; was bred to
medicine, and in 1857 became F.R.C.S.; in 1843 he took up etching
as a pastime and has since pursued it with enthusiasm and conspicuous
success; he has won medals in France, America, and England for
the excellency of his workmanship, while his various writings
have largely contributed to revive interest in the art; he is
President of the Society of Painters, and in 1894 a knighthood
was conferred upon him; b. 1818.
Hades (lit. the Unseen),
the dark abode of the shades of the dead in the nether world,
the entrance into which, on the confines of the Western Ocean,
is unvisited by a single ray of the sun; originally the god
of the nether world, and a synonym of
Pluto (q. v.).
Hadith, the Mohammedan Talmud,
being a traditional account of Mahomet's sayings and doings.
Hadji, a Mohammedan who has made
his Hadj or pilgrimage to Mecca, and kissed the Black Stone
of the Caaba (q. v.); the
term is also applied to pilgrims to Jerusalem.
Hadleigh (3), an interesting
old market-town of Suffolk, on the Bret, 9½ m. W. of
Ipswich; its cloth trade dates back to 1331; Guthrum, the Danish
king, died here in 889, and Dr. Rowland Taylor suffered martyrdom
in 1555. Also a small parish of Essex, near the N. shore of
the Thames estuary, 37 m. E. of London, where in 1892 the Salvation
Army planted their farm-colony.
Hadley, James, an American
Greek scholar, and one of the American committee on the revision
of the New Testament (1821-1872).
Hadley, John, natural philosopher;
invented a 5 ft. reflecting telescope, and a quadrant which
bears his name, though the honour of the invention has been
assigned to others, Newton included (1682-1744).
Hadramaut (150), a dry and
healthy plateau in Arabia, extending along the coast from Aden
to Cape Ras-al-Hadd, nominally a dependency of Turkey.
Hadrian, Roman emperor, born
in Rome; distinguished himself under Trajan, his kinsman; was
governor of Syria, and was proclaimed emperor by the army on
Trajan's death in A.D. 117; had troubles both at home and abroad
on his accession, but these settled, he devoted the last 18
years of his reign chiefly to the administration of affairs
throughout the empire; visited Gaul in 120, whence he passed
over to Britain, where he built the great wall from the Tyne
to the Solway; he was a Greek scholar, had a knowledge of Greek
literature, encouraged industry, literature, and the arts, as
well as reformed the laws (76-138).
Haeckel, Ernst Heinrich,
an eminent German biologist, born at Potsdam; carried through
his medical studies at Berlin and Vienna; early evinced an enthusiasm
for zoology, and, after working for some time at Naples and
Messina, in 1865 became professor of Zoology at Jena; here he
spent a life of unceasing industry, varied only by expeditions
to Arabia, India, Ceylon, and different parts of Europe in the
prosecution of his scientific theories; he was the first among
German scientists to embrace and apply the evolutionary theories
of Darwin, and along these lines he has produced several works
of first-rate importance in biology; his great works on calcareous
sponges, on jelly-fishes, and corals are enriched by elaborate
plates of outstanding value; he made important contributions
to the Challenger reports, and was among the first to
outline the genealogical tree of animal life; his name is associated
with far-reaching speculations on heredity, sexual selection,
and various problems of embryology; "The Natural History
of Creation," "Treatise on Morphology," "The
Evolution of Man," are amongst his more popular works;
Häfiz, his real name Shems-Eddin-Mohammed,
the great lyric poet of Persia, born in Shiraz, where he spent
his life; he has been called the Anacreon of Persia; his poetry
is of a sensuous character, though the images he employs are
Interpreted by some in a supersensuous or mystical sense; Goethe
composed a series of lyrics in imitation;
the name Häfiz denotes a Mohammedan who knows the Korân
and the Hadith by heart (1320-1391).
Hagar, Sarah's maid, of Egyptian
birth, who became by Abraham the mother of Ishmael and of the
Hagedorn, a German poet, born
at Hamburg; was secretary to the English factory there; wrote
fables, tales, and moral poems (1708-1754).
Hagen, king of Burgundy; the murderer
of Siegfried in the "Nibelungen Lied," who is in turn
killed by Chriemhild, Siegfried's wife, with Siegfried's sword.
Hagenau (15), a town of Alsace-Lorraine,
situated in the Hagenau Forest, on the Moder, 21 m. NE. of Strasburg;
has two quaint old churches of the 12th and the 13th century
respectively; hops and wine are the chief articles of commerce;
was ceded to Germany in 1871.
Hagenbach, Karl, a German
theologian, born at Basel, and professor there; was a disciple
of Schleiermacher; wrote a church history; is best known by
his "Lehrbuch der Dogmengeschichte," or "History
of Dogmas" (1801-1874).
Haggadah, a system of professedly
traditional, mostly fanciful, amplifications of the historical
and didactic, as distinct from the legal, portions of Jewish
scripture; is a reconstructing and remodelling of both history
and dogma; for the Jews seem to have thought, though they were
bound to the letter of the Law, that any amount of licence was
allowed them in the treatment of history and dogma.
Haggai, one of the Hebrew prophets
of the Restoration (of Jerusalem and the Temple) after the Captivity,
and who, it would seem, had returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel
and Joshua. Signs of the divine displeasure having appeared
on account of the laggard spirit in which the Restoration was
prosecuted by the people, this prophet was inspired to lift
up his protest and rouse their patriotism, with the result that
his appeal took instant effect, for in four years the work was
finished and the Temple dedicated to the worship of Jehovah,
as of old, in 516 B.C.; his book is a record of the prophecies
he delivered in that connection, and the style, though prosaic,
is pure and clear.
Haggard, Rider, novelist,
born in Norfolk; after service in a civic capacity in Natal,
and in partly civil and partly military service in the Transvaal,
adopted the profession of literature; first rose into popularity
as author in 1885 by the publication of "King Solomon's
Mines," the promise of which was sustained in a measure
by a series of subsequent novels beginning with "She"
in 1887; b. 1856.
Haggis, a Scotch dish, "great
chieftain o' the puddin' race," composed of the chopped
lungs, heart, and liver of a sheep, mixed with suet and oatmeal,
seasoned with onions, pepper, salt, &c., and boiled in a
Hagiographa, the third division
of the Jewish canon of scripture, which included the books of
Job, Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Canticles, Ruth, Lamentations,
Esther, Daniel, Chronicles, Ezra, and Nehemiah.
Hague, The (166), the capital
of the Netherlands, seat of the Court and of the Government,
15 m. NW. of Rotterdam and 2 m. from the North Sea; is handsomely
laid out, in spacious squares and broad streets, with stately
buildings, statues, and winding canals, beautifully fringed
with lindens and spanned by many bridges; has a fine picture-gallery,
a royal library (200,000 vols.), archives rich in historical
documents of rare value, an ancient castle, palace, and a Gothic
church of the 14th century; industries embrace cannon-foundries,
copper and lead smelting, printing, &c.; it is connected
by tramway with Scheveningen, a fashionable watering-place on
Hahn-Hahn, Ida, a German
authoress of aristocratic birth and prejudice, who, on the dissolution
of an unhappy marriage, sought consolation in travel, and literature
of a rather sickly kind (1805-1880).
Hahnemann, Samuel, a German
physician, the founder of Homoeopathy
(q. v.), born at Meissen; established himself in practice
in Dresden on orthodox lines and enjoyed a high reputation,
but retired to revise the whole system of medicine in vogue,
of which he had begun to entertain misgivings, and by various
researches and experiments came to the conclusion that the true
principle of the healing art was similia similibus curantur, "like
things are cured by like," which he announced as such to
the medical world in 1796, and on which he proceeded to practise
first in Leipzig and finally in Paris, where he died (1755-1843).
Haidee, a beautiful Greek girl
in "Don Juan," who, falling in love with the hero
and losing him, came to a tragic end.
Haiduk or Hajduk (i.
e. cowherd), a name bestowed on a body of irregular infantry
in Hungary who kept up a guerilla warfare in the 16th century
against the Turks; in 1605 a stretch of territory on the left
bank of the Theiss was conferred upon them, together with a
measure of local government and certain other privileges; but
in 1876 their territory was incorporated in the county of Hajdu;
the name was in later times applied to the Hungarian infantry
and to noblemen's retainers.
Hailes, Lord, Sir
David Dalrymple, Scottish judge and antiquary, born
at Edinburgh; was called to the Scotch bar in 1748, and raised
to the bench in 1768; ten years later he became a justiciary
lord; he devoted his vacations to literary pursuits, and a series
of valuable historical works came from his pen, which include "Annals
of Scotland from Malcolm III. to Robert I." and "Annals
of Scotland from Robert I. to the Accession of the House of
Stuart," "A Discourse on the Gowrie Conspiracy," &c.
lies 2 m. SE. of Hertford; was founded in 1809 by the East India
Company as a training institution for their cadets, and was
in use till 1858, when the company ceased to exist; in 1862
it was converted into a public school.
Hainan (2,500), an island of
China, in the extreme S., between the Gulf of Tongking and the
China Sea, 15 m. S. of the mainland; agriculture is the staple
industry; the mountainous and wooded interior is occupied by
the aboriginal Les.
Hainault (1,082), a southern
province of Belgium bordering on France, between W. Flanders
and Namur; the N. and W. is occupied by fertile plains; the
Forest of Ardennes extends into the S., where also are the richest
coal-fields of Belgium; iron and lead are wrought also; the
chief rivers are the Scheldt, Sambre, Dender, and Haine; textiles,
porcelain, and iron goods are manufactured; Mons is the capital.
Hakim or Hakem, a Mohammedan
name for a ruler, a physician, or a wise man.
Hakim Ben Allah or
Ben Hashem, surnamed Mokanna (i. e. the Veiled
or the One-Eyed); the founder of a religious sect in Khorassan,
Persia, in the 8th century; he pretended to be God incarnate,
and wore over his face a veil to shroud, as
his followers believed, the dazzling
radiance of his countenance, but in reality to hide the loss
of an eye, incurred in earlier years when he had served as a
common soldier; the sect was after fierce fighting suppressed
by the Caliph, and Hakim is said to have flung himself into
a vessel of powerfully corrosive acid in the hope that, his
body being destroyed, a belief in his translation to heaven
might spread among his followers; the story of Hakim is told
in Moore's "Lalla Rookh."
Hakluyt, Richard, English
author; was educated at Oxford, and became chaplain to the English
embassy in Paris; wrote on historical subjects; his principal
work, published in 1589, "Principal Navigations, Voyages,
and Discoveries of the English Nation by Land and Sea,"
a work which, detailing as it does the great deeds of Englishmen,
particularly on the sea, has borne very considerable fruit in
English life and literature since (1552-1616).
Hakodate (66), one of the open
ports of Yezo in Japan, with a large harbour and large export
Hal (9), a town of Belgium, 9 m.
SW. from Brussels; noted for its 14th-century church, which
contains a black wooden image of the Virgin credited with miraculous
powers, and resorted to by pilgrims.
Halacha, the Jewish law as developed
into validity by the decisions of the Scribes, on the basis
of inferential reasoning or established custom; it was of higher
authority than the law as written, though not held valid till
sanctioned by a majority of the doctors.
Halberstadt (37), an interesting
old town in Prussian Saxony, 30 m. SW. of Magdeburg; the 13th-century
cathedral is a fine specimen of Pointed Gothic, and the Church
of Our Lady, a 12th-century structure, is in the Byzantine style;
its industries embrace gloves, cigars, machines, sugar, &c.
Halcyon Days, days of peace,
happiness, and prosperity, properly the seven days before and
the seven after the winter Solstice, days of quiet, during which
the halcyon, or kingfisher, is fabled to be breeding.
Haldane, Robert, born
in London, and James, born in Dundee, brothers; entered
the English navy, and after distinguishing themselves in it,
left the service, and devoted their time and their wealth to
evangelistic labours and the building of "tabernacles,"
as they were called, for religious worship in connection eventually
with the Baptist body; they both contributed to theological
literature in the Calvinistic interest; Robert died in 1842,
being born in 1764, and James in 1851, being born in 1766.
Hale, Sir Matthew, Lord
Chief-Justice of England, born at Alderley, Gloucestershire:
in 1629 he entered Lincoln's Inn after some years of roving
and dissipation, and eight years later was called to the bar;
as he held aloof from the strife between king and commons, his
service as advocate were in requisition by both parties, and
in 1653 he was raised to the bench by Cromwell; on the death
of the Protector he declined to receive his commission anew
from Richard Cromwell, and favoured the return of Charles; after
the Restoration he was made Chief Baron of the Exchequer and
knighted; in 1671 he was created Lord Chief-Justice; charges
of "trimming" have been made against him, but his
integrity as a lawyer has never been impugned (1609-1676).
Hales, Alexander of,
a scholastic philosopher, surnamed "Doctor Irrefragabilis,"
who flourished in the 15th century; author of "Summa Theologiæ."
Hales, John, the "Ever-memorable,"
canon of Windsor; a most scholarly man, liberal-minded and highly
cultured; was professor of Greek at Oxford; suffered great hardships
under the Puritan supremacy (1584-1656).
Hales, Stephen, scientist,
born at Beckesbourn, Kent; became a Fellow of Cambridge in 1702;
took holy orders, and in 1710 settled down in the curacy of
Teddington, Middlesex; science was his ruling passion, and his "Vegetable
Staticks" is the first work to broach a true morphology
of plants; his papers on Ventilation led to a wide-spread reform
in prison ventilation, and his method of collecting gases greatly
furthered the work of subsequent chemists (1677-1761).
François Elias, a French operatic composer, born
at Paris; became a professor at the Conservatoire; wrote a large
number of operas, of which "La Juive" and "L'Éclair"
were the best, and enjoyed a European reputation (1799-1862).
French Orientalist and traveller, born at Adrianople; his most
notable work was done in Yemen, which he crossed during 1869-70
in search of Sabæan inscriptions, no European having traversed
that land since A.D. 24; the result was a most valuable collection
of 800 inscriptions, &c.; his works are numerous, and deal
with various branches of Oriental study; b. 1827.
Haliburton, Thomas Chandler,
Nova Scotian judge and author, born at Windsor, Nova Scotia;
was called to the bar in 1820, and soon after was elected a
member of the House of Assembly; in 1840 he became Judge of
the Supreme Court, and two years later retired to England, where,
in 1869, he entered Parliament; he wrote several books bearing
on Nova Scotia and aspects of colonial life, but is best known
as the author of "Sam Slick," Yankee clockmaker, peripatetic
philosopher, wit, and dispenser of "soft sawder" (1796-1865).
Halicarnassus, a Greek
city, and the chief of Caria, in Asia Minor, on the sea-coast
opposite the island of Cos, the birthplace of Herodotus; celebrated
for the tomb of Mausolus, called the
Mausoleum (q. v.).
Halidon Hill, an eminence
in Northumberland, on the Tweed, 2 m. from Berwick, the scene
of a bloody battle in 1333 between the English and Scots, to
the defeat of the latter.
Halifax, 1, a prosperous manufacturing
town (90), in the West Riding of Yorkshire, situated amid surrounding
hills on the Hebble, 43 m. SW. of York; the staple industries
are carpet and worsted manufacturing, the carpet works being
the largest in the world; cotton, merinos, and damasks are also
woven and dyed. 2, capital (39), of Nova Scotia; the naval and
military head-quarters of the British in North America, and
the chief port in East Canada; is situated near the head of
Chebucto Bay, which forms a magnificent harbour; a citadel and
masked batteries defend the town; it is an important railway
and shipping terminus and coaling station; its gravingdock is
the largest in America; it is the seat of Dalhousie University.
Montague, Earl of, a celebrated Whig statesman, born
at Horton, Northamptonshire; a clever skit on Dryden's "Hind
and Panther," entitled "The Town and Country Mouse,"
written in collaboration with Prior after he had left Cambridge,
brought him some reputation as a wit; in 1688 he entered the
Convention Parliament, and attached himself
to William's party, when his remarkable financial ability soon
brought him to the front; in 1692 he brought forward his scheme
for a National Debt, and two years later founded the Bank of
England in accordance with the scheme of William Paterson; in
the same year he became Chancellor of the Exchequer, and in
1697 Prime Minister; in conjunction with Sir Isaac Newton, Master
of the Mint, he carried through a re-coinage, and was the first
to introduce Exchequer Bills; in 1699 he was created a Baron,
and subsequently was made the victim of a prolonged and embittered
but unsuccessful impeachment; with the accession of George I.
he came back to power as Prime Minister, and received an earldom
Saville, Marquis of, a noted statesman who played a
prominent part in the changing politics of Charles II.'s and
James II.'s reigns, and whose apparently vacillating conduct
won him the epithet of "Trimmer"; he was an orator
of brilliant powers and imbued with patriotic motives, and through
his various changes may be seen a real desire to serve the cause
of civil and religious liberty, but he was never a reliable
party man; on the abdication of James II. he, as President of
the Convention Parliament, proffered the crown to William of
Orange; he rose through successive titles to be a marquis in
1682; his writings, chief of which is "Character of a Trimmer"
(practically a defence of his own life), are marked by a pungent
wit and graceful persuasiveness (about 1630-1695).
Hall, Basil, explorer and
miscellaneous writer, born in Edinburgh, son of Sir James Hall
of Dunglass, a noted chemist and geologist; rose to be a post-captain
in the navy, and in 1816 made a voyage of discovery on the coast
of the Corea and the Great Loo Choo Islands, his account of
which forms a fascinating and highly popular book of travel;
during 1820-22 he commanded the Conway on the W. coast
of South America, and his published journals covering that period
of Spain's struggle with her colonies are of considerable historical
value; "Travels in North America in 1827-28" is an
entertaining record of travel; was also author of some tales, &c.;
he died insane (1788-1844).
Hall, Charles Francis,
Arctic explorer, born at Rochester, New Hampshire; the mystery
surrounding Franklin's fate awakened his interest in Arctic
exploration, and during 1860-62 he headed a search party, and
again in 1864-69; during the latter time he lived amongst the
Eskimo, and returned with many interesting relics of Franklin's
ill-fated expedition; in 1871 he made an unsuccessful attempt
to reach the North Pole, and died at Thank God Harbour in Greenland;
he published accounts of his expeditions (1821-1871).
Hall or Halle, Edward, English
lawyer and historian, born in London; studied law at Gray's
Inn; in 1540 he became one of the judges of the Sheriff's Court;
his fame rests on his history "The Union of the Two Noble
Families of Lancaster and Yorke," a work which sheds a
flood of light on contemporary events, and is, moreover, a noble
specimen of English prose (1499-1547).
Hall, Joseph, bishop first
of Exeter and then of Norwich, born at Ashby-de-la-Zouch; was
accused of favouring Puritanism, and incurred the enmity of
Laud; was sent to the Tower for joining 12 prelates who had
protested against certain laws passed in Parliament during their
enforced absence from the House; being released on bail, be
returned to Norwich, and was persecuted by the Puritans, who
plundered his house and spoiled the cathedral; was the author
of a set of political satires and of "Meditations,"
early instances in English literature of an interest in biography
Hall, Robert, an eminent
Baptist minister and pulpit orator, born near Leicester; began
his ministry in Bristol, and ended it there after a pastorate
in Cambridge; was an intimate friend of Sir James Mackintosh
Hall, Samuel Carter,
founder and editor of the Art Journal, born at Geneva
Barracks, co. Waterford; was for a time a gallery reporter;
succeeded Campbell, the poet, as editor of the New Monthly
Magazine, and after other journalistic work started in 1839
the well-known periodical the Art Journal, which he continued
to edit for upwards of 40 years; in 1880 he received a civil-list
pension (1800-1889); his wife, Anna Maria Fielding, was
in her day a popular and voluminous writer of novels and short
Hallam, Arthur Henry,
eldest son of the succeeding, the early friend of Tennyson,
who died suddenly at Vienna to the bitter grief of his father
and of his friend, whose "In Memoriam" is a long elegy
over his loss (1811-1838).
Hallam, Henry, English historian,
born at Windsor, of which his father was a canon; bred for the
bar; was one of the first contributors to the Edinburgh Review;
was the author of three great works, "The State of Europe
during the Middle Ages," published in 1818; "The Constitutional
History of England from the Accession of Henry VII. to the Death
of George II.," published in 1827; and the "Introduction
to the Literature of Europe in the Fifteenth, Sixteenth, and
Seventeenth Centuries," published in 1838; "was the
first," says Stopford Brooke, "to write history in
this country without prejudice" (1777-1859).
Halle (101), a flourishing city
in Prussian Saxony, on the Saale, 20 m. NW. of Leipzig; has
a splendid university attended by upwards of 1500 students,
and a library of 220,000 vols.; some fine old Gothic churches,
medical institutes, hospitals, &c.; it is is an important
railway centre, and is famed for its salt-works.
Hallé, Sir Charles,
an eminent pianist, born at Hagen, in Westphalia; in 1848 he
came to England, with a reputation already gained at Paris,
and settled down in Manchester; his fine orchestra, which from
year to year visited the important cities of the kingdom, did
a great work in popularising classical music, and educating
the public taste in its regard; in 1888 he was knighted (1819-1895).
His wife, née Wilhelmine Néruda, a violinist
of rare talent, born at Brünn, in Moravia, appeared first
in Vienna when only seven years old; in 1864 she married Normann,
a Swedish composer, and in 1885 became the wife of Sir Charles;
Halleck, Henry Wager,
an American general; distinguished himself on the side of the
North in the Civil War, and was promoted to be commander-in-chief;
was author of "Elements of Military Art and Science"
Hallel, name given to Psalms
cxiii.-cxviii. chanted by the Jews at their great annual festivals.
Haller, Albert von, a celebrated
anatomist, physiologist, botanist, physician, and poet, born
at Bern; professor of Medicine at Göttingen; author of
works in all these departments; took a keen interest in all
the movements and questions of the day, literary and political,
as well as scientific; was a voluminous author and writer (1708-1777).
Halley, Edmund, astronomer
and mathematician, born near London;
determined the rotation of the sun from the spots on its surface,
and the position of 350 stars; discovered in 1680 the great
comet called after his name, which appeared again in 1825; was
entrusted with the publication of his "Principia"
by Sir Isaac Newton; made researches on the orbits of comets,
and was appointed in 1719 astronomer-royal (1656-1742).
James Orchard, a celebrated Shakespearian scholar and
antiquary, born at Chelsea; studied at Cambridge; his love for
literary antiquities manifested itself at an early age, and
his research in ballad literature and folk-lore, &c., had
gained him election as Fellow to the Royal and Antiquarian Societies
at the early age of 19; devoting himself more particularly to
Shakespeare, he in 1848 published his famous "Outlines
of the Life of Shakespeare," which has grown in fulness
of detail with successive editions, and remains the most authoritative
account of Shakespeare's life we have; his "Dictionary
of Archaic and Provincial Words" is also a work of wide
scholarship; having succeeded in 1872 to the property of his
father-in-law, Thomas Phillipps, he added Phillipps to his own
Hall-mark, an official mark
or attestation of the genuineness of gold and silver articles.
Hallowed Fire, an expression
of Carlyle's in definition of Christianity "at its rise
and spread" as sacred, and kindling what was sacred and
divine in man's soul, and burning up all that was not.
Hallowe'en, the eve of All
Saints' Day, 31st October, which it was customary, in Scotland
particularly, to observe with ceremonies of a superstitious
character, presumed to have the power of eliciting certain interesting
secrets of fate from wizard spirits of the earth and air, allowed,
as believed, in that brief space, to rove about and be accessible
to the influence of the charms employed.
Halogens (i. e., salt
producers), name given to the elementary bodies, chlorine, bromine,
iodine, and fluorine as in composition with metals forming compounds
similar to sea-salt.
Hals, Frans, an eminent Dutch
portrait-painter, born at Antwerp; is considered to be the founder
of the Dutch school of genre-painting; his portraits
are full of life and vigour; Vandyck alone among his contemporaries
was considered his superior (1581-1666).
Hardinge Stanley Gifford, Lord, Lord Chancellor of England,
born in London; was called to the bar in 1850; he was Solicitor-General
in the last Disraeli Government; entered Parliament in 1877,
and in 1885 was raised to the peerage and made Lord-Chancellor,
a position he has held in successive Conservative Governments;
Scottish divine, known as "Holy Halyburton," born
at Dupplin, near Perth; was minister of Ceres, in Fife, and
from 1710 professor of Divinity in St. Andrews; was the author
of several widely-read religious works (1674-1712).
Ham, a son of Noah, and the Biblical
ancestor of the southern dark races of the world as known to
Ham, a town in the dep. of Somme,
France, 70 m. NE. of Paris, with a fortress, used in recent
times as a State prison, in which Louis Napoleon was confined
from 1840 to 1846.
Hamadan (30), an ancient Persian
town, at the foot of Mount Elwend, 160 m. SW. of Teheran, is
an important entrepôt of Persian trade, and has
flourishing tanneries; it is believed to stand on the site of
Ecbatana (q. v.).
Hamadryad, a wood-nymph identified
with a particular tree that was born with it and that died with
Hamah (45), the Hamath of the
Bible, an ancient city of Syria, on the Orontes, 110 m. NE.
of Damascus; manufactures silk, cotton, and woollen fabrics;
is one of the oldest cities of the world; has some trade with
the Bedouins in woollen stuffs; during the Macedonian dynasty
it was known as Epiphania; in 1812 Burckhardt discovered stones
in it with Hittite inscriptions.
Haman, an enemy of the Jews in
Persia, who persuaded the king to decree the destruction of
them against a particular day, but whose purpose was defeated
by the reversal of the sentence of doom.
Hamann, Johann Georg,
a German thinker, born at Königsberg; a man of genius,
whose ideas were appreciated by such a man as Goethe, and whose
writings deeply influenced the views of Herder (1730-1788).
Hamburg, a small German State
(623) which includes the free city of Hamburg (323; suburbs,
245), Bergedorf, and Cuxhaven; the city, the chief emporium
of German commerce, is situated on the Elbe, 75 m. E. of the
North Sea and 177 NW. of Berlin; was founded by Charlemagne
in 808, and is to-day the fifth commercial city of the world;
the old town is intersected by canals, while the new portion,
built since 1842, is spaciously laid out; the town library,
a fine building, contains 400,000 volumes; its principal manufactures
embrace cigar-making, distilling, brewing, sugar-refining, &c.
Hameln (14), a quaint old Prussian
town and fortress in the province of Hanover, situated at the
junction of the Hamel with the Weser, 25 m. SW. of Hanover city;
associated with the legend of the Pied Piper; a fine chain bridge
spans the Weser; there are prosperous iron, paper, and leather
works, breweries, &c.
Hämerkin or Hämmerlein,
the paternal name of Thomas à
Kempis (q. v.).
Hamerling, Robert, Austrian
poet, born at Kirchberg in the Forest, Lower Austria; his health
gave way while teaching at Trieste, and while for upwards of
30 years an invalid in bed, he devoted himself to poetical composition;
his fame rests chiefly on his satirical epics and lyric compositions,
among the former "The King of Iron," "The Seven
Deadly Sins," and "Cupid and Psyche," and among
the latter "Venus in Exile" (1830-1889).
Hamerton, Philip Gilbert,
English critic, particularly of art; edited the Portfolio, an
art magazine; author of a story of life in France entitled "Marmorne,"
and of a volume of essays entitled "The Intellectual Life"
Hamilcar Barca, a Carthaginian
general and one of the greatest, the father of Hannibal, commanded
in Sicily, and held his ground there against the Romans for
six years; concluded a peace with them and ended the First Punic
War; invaded Spain with a view to invade Italy by the Alps,
and after gaining a footing there fell in battle; had his son
with him, a boy of nine, and made him swear upon the altar before
he died eternal enmity to Rome; d. 229 B.C.
Hamilton (25), a town of Lanarkshire,
on the Clyde, 10 m. SE. of Glasgow; mining is the chief industry.
Also a city (49) of Canada, on Burlington Bay, at the west end
of Lake Ontario, 40 m. SW. of Toronto; is an important railway
centre, and has manufactories of iron, cotton, and woollen goods, &c.
American soldier and statesman, born in West Indies; entered
the American army, fought in the War of Independence, became
commander-in-chief, represented New York State in Congress,
contributed by his essays to the favourable reception of the
federal constitution, and under it did good service on behalf
of his country; was mortally wounded in a duel (1757-1804).
novelist and essayist, born, of Scottish parentage, in Belfast;
is remembered for her early advocacy of the higher education
of women and for her faithful pictures of lowly Scottish life; "Letters
of a Hindoo Rajah" and "Modern Philosophers"
were clever skits on the prevailing scepticism and republicanism
of the time; "The Cottagers of Glenburnie" is her
best novel (1758-1816).
Hamilton, Emma, Lady,
née Amy Lyon or "Hart," born at Ness,
Cheshire, a labourer's daughter; appeared as the Lady in the
charlatan Graham's "Temple of Health," London; became
the mother of two illegitimate children, and subsequently was
the "geliebte" of the Hon. Charles Greville and of
his uncle Sir Wm. Hamilton, whose wife she became in 1791; her
notorious and lawless intimacy with Lord Nelson began in 1793,
and in 1801 their daughter Horatia was born; although left a
widow with a goodly fortune, she fell into debt and died in
Hamilton, Patrick, a
Scottish martyr, born at the close of the 15th century, probably
in Glasgow; returning from his continental studies at Paris
and Louvain he came to St. Andrews University, where his Lutheran
sympathies involved him in trouble; he escaped to the Continent,
visited Wittenberg, the home of Luther, and then settled in
Marburg, but returned to Scotland at the close of the same year
(1527) and married; the following year he was burned at the
stake in St. Andrews for heresy; his eager and winning nature
and love of knowledge, together with his early martyrdom, have
served to invest him with a special interest.
Hamilton, William, a
minor Scottish poet, born near Uphall, Linlithgowshire; was
a contributor to Ramsay's Tea-Table Miscellany; became
involved in the second Jacobite rising and fled to France; subsequently
he was permitted to return and take possession of his father's
estate of Bangour, near Uphall; his collected poems include
the beautiful and pathetic ballad, "The Braes of Yarrow"
Hamilton, Sir William,
distinguished philosopher of the Scotch school, born in Glasgow;
studied there and in Oxford with distinction; bred for the bar,
but hardly ever practised; contributed to the Edinburgh Review,
having previously published "Discussions in Philosophy";
in 1836 he became professor of Logic and Metaphysics in Edinburgh
University, in which capacity he exercised a great influence
in the domain of philosophic speculation; his lectures were
published after his death; his system was attacked by John Stuart
Mill, and criticised in part by Dr. Hutchison Stirling, who,
while deducting materially from his repute as an original thinker,
describes his "writings as always brilliant, forcible,
clear, and, where information is concerned, both entertaining
and instructive"; was "almost the only earnest
man," Carlyle testifies, he found in Edinburgh on his visit
from Craigenputtock to the city in 1833 (1788-1856).
Hamilton, Sir William
Rowan, an eminent mathematician, born in Dublin; such
was his precocity that at 13 he was versed in thirteen languages,
and by 17 was an acknowledged master in mathematical science;
while yet an undergraduate at Trinity College, Dublin, he was
appointed in 1827 professor of Astronomy in Dublin University,
and Astronomer-Royal of Ireland; his mathematical works and
treatises, of the most original and a far-reaching character,
brought him a European reputation, and embraced his "Theory
of Systems of Rays," "A General Method in Dynamics,"
and the invention of "Quaternions"; he was knighted
in 1835 (1805-1865).
a system of teaching languages by interlinear translation.
Hammer, German Orientalist and
historian, born at Grätz; author of a "History of
the Ottoman Empire" (1774-1856).
Hammerfest (2), the most
northerly town in Europe; is situated on the barren island of
Kvalö, and is the port of the Norwegian province of Finmark;
fishing is the staple industry; during two months in summer
the sun never sets.
Hammersmith (97), a parliamentary
borough of Middlesex, on the N. side of the Thames, forms a
part of W. London.
Hammond, Henry, English
divine, born at Chertsey; suffered as an adherent of the royal
cause, being chaplain to Charles I.; author of "Paraphrase
and Annotations of the New Testament" (1605-1660).
Hampden, John, a famous
English statesman and patriot, cousin to Oliver Cromwell, born
in London; passed through Oxford and studied law at the Inner
Temple; subsequently he settled down on his father's estate,
and in 1621 entered Parliament, joining the opposition; he came
first into conflict with the king by refusing to contribute
to a general loan levied by Charles, and subsequently became
famous by his resistance to the ship-money tax; he was a member
of the Short Parliament, and played a prominent part in the
more eventful transactions of the Long Parliament; an attempt
on Charles's part to seize Hampden and four other members precipitated
the Civil War; he took an active part in organising the Parliamentary
forces, and proved himself a brave and skilful general in the
field; he fell mortally wounded while opposing Prince Rupert
in a skirmish at Chalgrove Field; historians unite in extolling
his nobility of character, statesmanship, and single-minded
Hampden, Renn Dickson,
theologian and bishop, born in Barbadoes; became a Fellow of
Oriel College, Oxford, and in 1832 delivered his celebrated
Bampton lectures on the "Scholastic Philosophy considered
in its Relation to Christian Theology," which drew upon
him the charge of heresy and produced an embittered controversy
in the Church of England; he was successively Principal, professor
of Moral Philosophy, and of Divinity at St. Mary's Hall, and
became bishop of Hereford in 1847 (1793-1868).
Hampole, Richard Rolle, "the
Hermit of Hampole," born at Thornton, Yorkshire; studied
at Oxford, and at the age of 19 turned hermit; was the author
of "The Pricke of Conscience," a lengthy poem of a
religious character (1290-1349).
Hampshire, Hants (690),
a maritime county of S. England, fronting the English Channel
between Dorset on the W. and Sussex on the E.; in the NE. are
the "rolling Downs," affording excellent sheep pasturage,
while the SW. is largely occupied by the New Forest; the Test,
Itchen, and Avon are principal rivers flowing to the S.; besides
the usual cereals, hops are raised, while Hampshire bacon and
honey are celebrated; Southampton, Portsmouth,
and Gosport are the chief trading and manufacturing towns.
Hampstead (68), a Parliamentary
borough of Middlesex, has a hilly and bright situation, 4 m.
NW. of London; is a popular place of resort with Londoners,
and contains many fine suburban residences; beyond the village
is the celebrated Heath; many literary associations are connected
with the place; the famous Kit-Cat Club of Steele and Addison's
time is now a private house on the Heath; here lived Keats,
Leigh Hunt, Coleridge, Hazlitt, &c.
Hampton (4), a village of Middlesex,
on the Thames, 15 m. SW. of London; in the vicinity is Hampton
Court Palace, a royal residence down to George II.'s time,
and which was built originally by Wolsey, who presented it to
Henry VIII.; in William III.'s time considerable alterations
were made under the guidance of Wren; there is a fine picture-gallery
and gardens; it is now occupied by persons of good family in
reduced circumstances; the Hampton Court Conference to
settle ecclesiastical differences took place here in 1604 under
the presidency of James I., and the decisions at which proved
unsatisfactory to the Puritan members of it; it was here at
the suggestion of Dr. Reynolds the authorised version of the
Bible was undertaken.
Hanau (25), a Prussian town in
Hesse-Nassau, at the junction of the Kinzig and the Main, 11
m. NE. of Frankfurt; is celebrated for its jewellery and gold
and silver work, and is otherwise a busy manufacturing town;
it is the birthplace of the brothers Grimm.
Hancock, Winfield Scott,
a noted American general, born near Philadelphia; he had already
graduated and served with distinction in the Mexican War, when,
on the outbreak of the Civil War, he received a commission as
brigadier-general of volunteers; he led a heroic charge at Fredericksburg,
and in 1864 his gallant conduct in many a hard-fought battle
was rewarded by promotion to a major-generalship in the regular
army; subsequently he held important commands in the departments
of Missouri, Dakota, &c., and in 1880 unsuccessfully opposed
Garfield for the Presidency (1824-1886).
Händel, musical composer,
born at Halle; distinguished for his musical ability from his
earliest years; was sent to Berlin to study when he was 14;
began his musical career as a performer at Hamburg in 1703;
produced his first opera in 1704; spent six years in Italy,
devoting himself to his profession the while; came, on invitation,
to England in 1710, where, being well received, he resolved
to remain, and where, year after year—as many as nearly
fifty of them—he added to his fame by his diligence as
a composer; he produced a number of operas and oratorios; among
the latter may be noted his "Saul," his "Samson,"
and "Judas Maccabæus," and pre-eminently the "Messiah,"
his masterpiece, and which fascinates with a charm that appeals
to and is appreciated by initiated and uninitiated alike (1684-1759).
Hang-chow (800), a Chinese
town, a treaty-port since the recent war with Japan; is at the
mouth of the Tsien-tang at the entrance of the Imperial Canal,
110 m. SW. of Shanghai; it is an important literary, religious,
and commercial centre; has flourishing silk factories, and is
noted for its gold and silver ware.
The, of Babylon, one of the seven wonders of the world,
had an area of four acres, formed a square, were a series of
terraces supported by pillars sloping upwards like a pyramid
and seeming to hang in air; they are ascribed to Semiramis.
Hanif, name given to a Mohammedan
or an Arab of rigidly monotheistic belief.
Hankow (750), a Chinese river-port,
at the confluence of the Han and Yangtsze Rivers; it is properly
an extension of the large towns Wu-chang and Han-yang; there
is a considerable amount of shipping; tea is the principal article
of export, and a large trade is carried on with the inland provinces.
Hanley (85), a busy manufacturing
town in the "Potteries," 18 m. N. of Stafford; coal
and iron are wrought in the neighbourhood.
Hanmer, Sir Thomas,
Speaker of the House of Commons; elected in 1713, discharged
the duties of the office with conspicuous impartiality; published
an edition of Shakespeare (1677-1746).
Hannay, James, a novelist
and critic, born in Dumfries; spent his boyhood in the navy,
on quitting which he settled in London and took to letters;
was for a time editor of the Edinburgh Courant, a Tory
paper, and subsequently consul at Barcelona, where he died;
he knew English literature and wrote English well (1827-1873).
Hannibal, the great Carthaginian
general, son of Hamilcar (q.
v.); learned the art of war under his father in Spain; subjugated
all Spain south of the Ebro by the capture of the Roman allied
city of Saguntum, which led to the outbreak of the Second Punic
War and his leading his army through hostile territory over
the Pyrenees and the Alps into Italy; defeated the Romans in
succession at the Ticinus, the Trebia, and Lake Trasimenus,
to the extirpation of the army sent against him; passed the
Apennines and descended into Apulia, where, after being harassed
by the tantalising policy of Fabius Maximus, he met the Romans
at Cannæ in 216 B.C. and inflicted on them a crushing
defeat, retiring after this into winter quarters at Capua, where
his soldiers became demoralised; he next season began to experience
a succession of reverses, which ended in the evacuation of Italy
and the transfer of the seat of war to Africa, where Hannibal
was met by Scipio on the field of Zama in 201 B.C. and defeated;
he afterwards joined Antiochus, king of Syria, who was at war
with Rome, to his defeat there also, upon which he fled to Prusias,
king of Bithynia, where, when his surrender was demanded, he
ended his life by poisoning himself (247-183 B.C.).
Hannington, James, first
bishop of Eastern Equatorial Africa, born at Hurstpierpoint,
Sussex; was ordained in 1873 after passing through Oxford, and
in 1882 undertook missionary work in Uganda, under the auspices
of the Church Missionary Society; his health breaking down when
he had gone as far as Victoria Nyanza, he returned home; but
two years later as bishop he entered upon his duties at Frere
Town, near Mombasa; in the following year he was killed by natives
when making his way to the mission station at Rubaga, in Uganda
Hanno, the name of several eminent
Carthaginians, one of whom, surnamed the Great, was a persistent
opponent of the Barcine faction, headed by Hamilcar; and another
was a navigator who made a voyage round the western coast of
Africa, of which he left an account in his "Periplus"
or "Circumnavigating Voyage."
Hanover (2,278), a Prussian
province since 1866, formerly an independent kingdom; stretches
N. from Westphalia to the German Ocean, between Holland on the
W. and Saxony on the E.; the district is well watered by the
Elbe, Weser, and Ems; in the S. are the Harz Mountains; for
the rest the land is flat, and much of
it is occupied by uncultivated moors; agriculture and cattle-rearing
are, however, the chief industries, while the minerals of the
Harz are extensively wrought; in 1714 George Ludwig, second
Elector of Hanover, succeeded Anne on the English throne as
her nearest Protestant kinsman, and till 1837 the dual rule
was maintained, Hanover meanwhile in 1814 having been made a
kingdom; in 1837 the Hanoverian crown passed to the Duke of
Cumberland, Queen Victoria, as a woman, being ineligible; in
1866 the kingdom was conquered and annexed by Prussia.
Hanover (164), the capital,
is situated on the Leine, 78 m. SE. of Bremen; it consists of
an old and a new portion; presents a handsome appearance, and
its many fine buildings include the royal library (170,000 vols.),
the Kestner Museum, several palaces and art-galleries, &c.;
it is the centre of the North German railway system, and its
many industries embrace iron-works, the manufacture of pianos,
tobacco, linen, &c.
Hansard, record of the proceedings
and debates in the British Parliament, published by the printers
Hansard, the founder of the firm being Luke Hansard, a printer
of Norwich, who came to London in 1770 as a compositor, and
succeeded as proprietor of the business in which he was a workman;
Hanseatic League, a
combination of towns in North-western Germany for the mutual
protection of their commerce against the pirates of the Baltic
and the mutual defence of their liberties against the encroachments
of neighbouring princes; it dates from 1241, and flourished
for several centuries, to the extension of their commerce far
and wide; numbered at one time 64 towns, and possessed fleets
and armies, an exchequer, and a government of their own; the
League dwindled down during the Thirty Years' War to six cities,
and finally to three, Hamburg, Lübeck, and Bremen.
a Norwegian astronomer and mathematician, born in Christiania,
where he became professor of Mathematics; is famous for his
researches and discoveries in connection with the magnetism
of the earth, and the impetus he gave to the study of it; he
prosecuted his magnetic researches as far as the E. of Siberia,
and published the results (1784-1873).
Hanswurst (i. e. Jack
Pudding), a pantomimic character in comic performances on the
German stage; a great favourite at one time with the vulgar;
distinguished for his awkwardness, his gluttonous appetite,
and his rotundity.
Hanuman, the monkey-god of the
Hindus, a friend of Râma, for whose benefit he reared
a causeway across seas to Ceylon.
Hanway, Jonas, a traveller
and philanthropist, born in Portsmouth; travelled through Russia
and Persia, and settled in London as one of the navy commissariat;
devoted himself to the reclaiming and befriending of unfortunates
of all kinds; was a man of very eccentric ways (1712-1786).
Hapsburg or Habsburg, House
of, a famous royal house which has played a leading part
in the history of Continental Europe from its foundation in
the 12th century by Albert, Count of Hapsburg, and which is
represented to-day by the Imperial family of Austria. Representatives
of this family wore the Imperial crown of the Holy Roman Empire
for centuries. It takes its name from the castle of Habsburg
or Habichtaburg, on the Aar, built by Werner, bishop of Strasburg,
in the 11th century, a castle, however, which has long since
ceased to be in the possession of the family.
Harbour Grace (7), a seaport
and the second town of Newfoundland, lies on the W. side of
Conception Bay, 84 m. NW. of St. John's; its commodious harbour
is somewhat exposed; it is the seat of a Roman Catholic bishop,
and has a cathedral and convent.
Harburg (35), a prospering Prussian
seaport in Lüneburg, on the Elbe, 5 m. S. of Hamburg; its
industries embrace gutta-percha goods, oil, chemicals, &c.;
is a favourite watering-place.
Harcourt, Sir William
Vernon, statesman, born, a clergyman's son, at Nuneham
Park, Oxfordshire; was highly distinguished at Cambridge, and
in 1854 was called to the bar; was a Q.C. in 1866, and professor
of International Law at Cambridge (1869-87); he won considerable
repute by his articles in the Saturday Review and his "Historicus"
letters to the Times, and in 1868 entered Parliament,
representing Oxford in the Liberal interest; in 1873 he became
Solicitor-General, and received a knighthood; he was a vigorous
opponent of the Disraeli Government, and on the return of the
Liberals to power in 1880 became Home Secretary; under Mr. Gladstone
in 1886, and again in 1892, he held the office of Chancellor
of the Exchequer; he staunchly supported Mr. Gladstone in his
Home Rule policy; became leader of the Opposition in the House
of Commons on Mr. Gladstone's retirement, a post which for party
reasons he resigned in 1899; b. 1827.
von. See Novalis.
Hardenberg Prince von,
a Prussian statesman, born in Hanover; after service in Hanover
and Brunswick entered that of Prussia under William II., and
became Chancellor of State under William III.; distinguished
himself by the reforms he introduced in military and civic matters
to the benefit of the country, though he was restrained a good
deal by the reactionary proclivities of the king (1750-1822).
Hardicanute, king of England
and Denmark, the son of Canute and his successor on the Danish
throne; was king of England only in part till the death of his
brother Harold, whom he survived only two years, but long enough
to alienate his subjects by the re-imposition of the Danegelt;
Harding, John, or Hardyng,
an English rhyming chronicler in the reign of Edward IV.; had
been a soldier, and fought at Agincourt (1378-1465).
Harding, Stephen, a Benedictine
monk, born in Devonshire, of noble descent, a born ascetic,
who set himself to restore his order to its primitive austerity;
retired with a few others into a dismal secluded place at Citeaux,
and became abbot; was joined there by the great St. Bernard,
his kindred, and followers, to the great aggrandisement of the
order; d. 1134.
Hardinge, Henry, Viscount,
a distinguished soldier and Governor-General of India, born
at Wrotham, Kent; joined the army in 1798, and served through
the Peninsular and Waterloo campaigns, but wounded at Ligny
he was unable to take part in the final struggle with Napoleon;
he now turned his attention to politics; was Secretary of War
under Wellington, and subsequently twice Chief Secretary for
Ireland; in 1844 he was appointed Governor-General of India,
and later distinguished himself under Gough in the first Sikh
War; a viscountship and pension followed in 1845, and seven
years later he succeeded Wellington as Commander-in-Chief of
the British army (1785-1856).
Hardouin, Jean, a French
classical scholar, born at Quimper, Brittany; early entered
the Jesuit order; was from 1683 librarian of the College of
Louis le Grand in Paris; he is chiefly remembered for his wild
assertion that the bulk of classical literature was spurious,
and the work of 13th-century monks; Virgil's "Æneid"
he declared to be an allegorical account of St. Peter's journey
to Rome, and the original language of the New Testament to be
Latin; his edition of Pliny, however, evinces real scholarship
Hardwár, a town on the
Ganges, 39 m. NE. of Saharunpur, North-West Provinces; famous
for its large annual influx of pilgrims seeking ablution in
the sacred river; a sacred festival held every twelfth year
attracts some 300,000 persons.
Hardy, Thomas, novelist,
born in Dorsetshire, with whose scenery he has made his readers
familiar; bred an architect; first earned popularity in 1874
by his "Far from the Madding Crowd," which was followed
by, among others, "The Return of the Native," "The
Woodlanders," and "Tess of the D'Urbervilles,"
the last in 1892, books which require to be read in order to
appreciate the genius of the author; b. 1840.
Hardy, Sir Thomas Duffus,
an eminent palæographer, born in Jamaica; he acquired
his skill in MS. deciphering as a clerk in the Record Office
in the Tower; in 1861 he was elected deputy-keeper of the Public
Records, and nine years later received a knighthood; his great
learning is displayed in his editions of various "Rolls"
for the Record Commission, in his "Descriptive Catalogue
of MSS.," &c. (1804-1878).
Hardy, Sir Thomas
Masterman, Bart., a brave naval officer, whose name
is associated with the closing scene of Nelson's life, born
at Portisham, in Dorsetshire; as a commander in the battle of
the Nile he greatly distinguished himself, and gained his post-commission
to Nelson's flagship, the Vanguard; at Trafalgar he commanded
the Victory, and subsequently brought Nelson's body to
England; he received a baronetcy, and saw further service, eventually
attaining to the rank of vice-admiral (1769-1839).
Hare, Julius Charles,
archdeacon of Lewes, born at Vicenza; took orders in the Church,
and in 1832 became, in succession to his uncle, rector of Hurstmonceaux,
in Sussex, the advowson of which was in his family, in which
rectory he laboured till his death; he was of the school of
Maurice; wrote "The Mission of the Comforter," and
with his brother Augustus "Guesses at Truth"; had
John Sterling as his curate for a short time, and edited his
remains as well as wrote his Life, the latter in so exclusively
ecclesiastical a reference as to dissatisfy Carlyle, his joint-trustee,
and provoke him, as in duty bound, to write another which should
exhibit their common friend in the more interesting light of
a man earnestly struggling with the great burning problems of
the time, calling for some wise solution by all of us, church
and no church (1795-1855).
Harem, the apartment or suite
of apartments in a Mohammedan's house for the female inmates
and their attendants, and the name given to the collective body
Harfleur, a village in France
with a strong fortress, 4 m. S. of Havre, taken by Henry V.
in 1415, and retaken afterwards by both French and English,
becoming finally French in 1450.
Hargraves, Edmund, discoverer
of the gold-field in Australia, born at Gosport, Devon; had
been to California, concluded that as the geological formation
was the same in Australia where he had come from, he would find
gold there too and found it in New South Wales in 1851, for
which the Government gave him £10,000 (1818-1890).
Hargreaves, James, inventor
of the spinning-jenny, born at Standhill, near Blackburn; was
a poor and illiterate weaver when in 1760 he, in conjunction
with Robert Peel, brought out a carding-machine; in 1766 he
invented the spinning-jenny, a machine which has since revolutionised
the cotton-weaving industry, but which at the time evoked the
angry resentment of the hand-weaver; he was driven from his
native town and settled in Nottingham, where he started a spinning-mill;
he failed to get his machine patented, and died in comparative
Hari-Kari, called also a "happy
despatch," a form of suicide, now obsolete, permitted to
offenders of high rank to escape the indignity of a public execution;
the nature of it may be gathered from the name, "a gash
in the belly."
German novelist, born at Breslau; bred for law, but abandoned
it for literature; wrote two romances, "Walladmor"
and "Schloss Avalon," under the pseudonym of "Walter
Scott," which imposed upon some; he afterwards assumed
the name of Wilibald Alexis, a name by which he was long honourably
Harington, Sir John,
courtier and miscellaneous writer, translated by desire of Queen
Elizabeth Ariosto's "Orlando Furioso" (1561-1612).
Hariri, Arabic philologist and
poet of the 11th century, born at Bassorah; celebrated far and
wide as the author of "Makameat," a collection of
tales in verse, the central figure in which is one Abu Seid,
a clever and amusing production, and evincing a unique mastery
Harlaw, Battle of, a
battle fought at Harlaw, 18 m. NW. of Aberdeen, on 24th July
1411, which decided the supremacy of the Lowland Scots over
Harlech, an old Welsh town in
Merionethshire, facing the sea, 10 m. N. of Barmouth; its grim
old castle by the shore was a Lancastrian fortress during the
Wars of the Roses, and its capture by the Yorkists in 1468 was
the occasion of the well-known song, "The March of the
Men of Harlech."
Harlequin, a character in
a Christmas pantomime, in love with Columbine, presumed to be
invisible, and deft at tricks to frustrate those of the clown,
who is his rival lover.
Harley, Robert, Earl of Oxford,
a celebrated English politician, born of good family; entered
Parliament shortly after the Revolution (1688) as a Whig, but
after a period of vacillation threw in his lot with Tories and
in 1701 became Speaker of the House; in 1704 he was associated
with St. John (Bolingbroke) in the Cabinet as Secretary of State,
and set about undermining the influence of Godolphin and Marlborough;
he became Chancellor of the Exchequer and head of the Government;
was created Earl of Oxford and Lord High Treasurer; from this
point his power began to wane; was displaced by Bolingbroke
at last in 1715; was impeached for intriguing with the Jacobites
and sent to the Tower; two years later he was released, and
the remainder of his life was spent in the pursuit of letters
and in the building up of his famous collection of MSS., now
deposited in the British Museum (1661-1724).
Harmattan, a hot withering
wind blowing over the coast of Guinea to the Atlantic from the
interior of Africa, more or less from December to February.
Harmodius, an Athenian who
in 514 B.C. conspired with Aristogeiton,
his friend, against Hipparchus and his brother Hippias, the
tyrant, but being betrayed were put to death; they figured in
the traditions of Athens as political martyrs, and as such were
honoured with statues.
Harnack, Adolf, a German theologian,
born at Dorpat; professor successively at Giessen, Marburg,
and Berlin; has written on the history of dogma in the Christian
Church, on Gnosticism, early Christian literature, and the Apostles'
Creed, on the latter offensively to the orthodox; b.
Harold I., king of England from
1035 to 1040, younger son of Cnut; the kingdom was practically
divided between him and his brother Harthacnut; but the latter
remaining in Denmark to protect his possessions there, England
passed into Harold's hands.
Harold II., the last of the
Saxon kings of England, held the crown for a few months in 1066,
was the second son of the great
Earl Godwin (q. v.); in 1053 he succeeded his father
in the earldom of the West Saxons, and during the later years
of Edward's feeble rule was virtual administrator of the kingdom;
on his accession to the throne his title was immediately challenged
by his brother Tostig, and William, Duke of Normandy; having
crushed his brother's invasion at Stamford Bridge, he immediately
hurried S. to meet the forces of William at Hastings. Norman
strategy won the day, and Harold fell in the battle pierced
through the eye by an arrow; historians unite in ascribing to
him every kingly quality—a noble presence, sagacity, and
a brave yet gentle nature.
Harold I. of Norway,
surnamed Haarfager (fair-haired), by him the petty kingdoms
of Norway were all conquered and knit into one compact realm;
the story goes that he undertook this work to win the hand of
his lady-love, and that he swore an oath neither to cut nor
comb his hair till his task was done; d. 930.
("Aaron the Orthodox or Just"), the most renowned
of the Abbaside caliphs; succeeded to the caliphate in 786 on
the death of his elder brother, El Hádi, and had for
grand-vizier the Barmacide Yâhyá, to whom with
his four sons he committed the administration of affairs, he
the while making his court a centre of attraction to wise men,
scholars, and artists, so that under him Bagdad became the capital
of the civilised world; his glory was tarnished by one foul
blot towards the end of his reign, and that was the massacre
out of jealousy of the Barmacide family, members of which had
contributed so much to his fame, an act which he had soon occasion
to repent, for it was followed by an insurrection which cost
him his life; the halo that invests his memory otherwise was,
however, more fabulous than real, and history shows him at his
best to have been avaricious, resentful, and cruel.
Harpies, fabulous ravenous creatures,
living in filth and defiling everything they touch, with the
head and breast of a woman, the wings and claws of a bird, and
a face pale with hunger, the personification of whirlwinds and
storms, conceived of as merely ravening, wasting powers.
Harrington, James, political
writer; author of a political romance entitled "The Commonwealth
of Oceana," in which he argued that all secure government
must be based on property, and for a democracy on this basis
Harris, Howel, a noted Welsh
Methodist, born at Trevecca, Brecon; embracing Calvinism, he
at the age of 21 became an itinerant preacher, confining himself
chiefly to Wales; in 1752 he took up his abode at Trevecca,
where he erected a large house to accommodate those who sought
his ministrations (1714-1773).
Harris, Joel Chandler,
American writer, born in Georgia, U.S.; author of "Uncle
Remus," his chief work a study of negro folk-lore, followed
by interesting sketches and stories; b. 1848.
Harris, Luke, founder of
the "Brotherhood of the New Life," born in Buckinghamshire,
a spiritualistic Socialist; his system founded on
v.) on the one hand and a form of communism on the other,
with a scriptural Christianity spiritualised as backbone; the
destiny of man he regards as angelhood, or a state of existence
like that of God, in which the unity of sex, or fatherhood and
motherhood, meet in one; the late Laurence Oliphant and the
late John Pulsford were among his disciples; b. 1823.
Harrisburg (50), capital
of Pennsylvania, is beautifully situated on the Susquehanna,
106 m. NW. of Philadelphia; the industries include extensive
iron and steel works and a flourishing lumber trade.
President of the United States and grandson of William Henry
Harrison, a former President, born at North Bend, Ohio; started
as a lawyer in Indianapolis, became an important functionary
in the court of Indiana, and subsequently proved himself a brave
and efficient commander during the Civil War; engaging actively
in politics, he in 1880 became a United States Senator; as the
nominee of the Protectionist and Republican party he won the
Presidency against Cleveland, but at the election of 1892 the
positions were reversed; in 1893 he became a professor in San
Francisco; b. 1833.
barrister, born in London, professor of Jurisprudence in the
Inns of Court; author of articles contributed to Reviews and
Essays, and of Lectures on a variety of current questions, historical,
social, and religious, from the standpoint of the positivism
of Auguste Comte, with his somewhat vague "Religion of
Humanity" is the author of "Order and Progress,"
the "Choice of Books," &c.; b. 1831.
Harrison, John, a celebrated
mechanician, born at Foulby, Yorkshire; was the first to invent
a chronometer which, by its ingenious apparatus for compensating
the disturbing effects caused by variations of climate, enabled
mariners to determine longitude to within a distance of 18 m.;
by this invention he won a prize of £20,000 offered by
Government; amongst other things he invented the compensating
gridiron pendulum, still in use (1693-1776).
Harrison, William, a
noted historical writer, born in London; graduated at Cambridge,
and after serving as chaplain to Lord Cobham, received the rectorship
of Radwinter, in Essex; subsequently he became canon of Windsor;
his fame rests on two celebrated historical works, "Description
of England," an invaluable picture of social life and institutions
in Elizabethan times, and "Description of Britain,"
written for Holinshed's "Chronicle" (1534-1593).
Harrogate or Harrowgate
(14), a popular watering-place, prettily situated amid forest
and moorland, in the West Riding of Yorkshire, 20 m. NW. of
York; it enjoys a wide repute for its sulphurous, saline, and
Harrow (6), a town of Middlesex,
built on an eminence 200 ft. high, 12 m. from St. Paul's, London;
its church, St. Mary's, founded by Lanfranc, is a Gothic structure
of great architectural interest. Harrow School, a celebrated
public school, was founded in 1571 for the free education of
30 poor boys of the parish, but subsequently
opened its doors to "foreigners,"
and now numbers upwards of 500 pupils.
Harry, Blind, a famous Scottish
minstrel who flourished in the 15th century; the few particulars
of his life which have come down to us represent him as a blind
and vagrant poet, living by reciting poems "before princes
and peers"; to him is attributed the celebrated poem, "The
Life of that Noble Champion of Scotland, Sir William Wallace,
Knight," completed about 1488, a spirited, if partly apocryphal,
account of Wallace, running to 11,861 lines in length.
Hart, Solomon Alexander,
born at Plymouth; served as an engraver's apprentice in London;
studied at the Royal Academy, and excelled in miniature painting;
he became celebrated as a painter of historical scenes and characters,
and in 1854 was appointed professor of Painting in the Royal
Academy, and subsequently librarian; his works include "Henry
I. receiving intelligence of the Death of his Son," "Milton
visiting Galileo in Prison," "Wolsey and Buckingham," "Lady
Jane Grey in the Tower," &c. (1806-1881).
Harte, Bret, American humourist,
born at Albany, New York; went to California at 15; tried various
occupations, mining, school-mastering, printing, and literary
sketching, when he got on the staff of a newspaper, and became
eventually first editor of the Overland Monthly, in the
columns of which he established his reputation as a humourist
by the publication of the "Heathen Chinee" and other
humorous productions, such as "The Luck of Roaring Camp";
he wields a prolific pen, and all he writes is of his own original
coinage; b. 1839.
Hartford (80), the capital
of Connecticut, U.S., on the Connecticut, 50 m. from its mouth
and 112 m. NE. of New York; is handsomely laid out, and contains
an imposing white marble capitol, Episcopalian and Congregational
colleges, hospitals, libraries, &c.; is an important depôt
for the manufacture of firearms, iron-ware, tobacco, &c.,
and is an important banking and insurance centre.
Hartlepool (65), a seaport
of Durham, situated on a tongue of land which forms the Bay
of Hartlepool, 4 m. N. of the Tees estuary; the chief industries
are shipbuilding, cement works, and a shipping trade, chiefly
in coal and iron. West Hartlepool (43), lies on the opposite
and south side of the bay, 1 m. distant, but practically forming
one town with Hartlepool, and carries on a similar trade, but
on a somewhat larger scale; the extensive docks, stretching
between the two towns, cover an area of 300 acres.
Hartley, David, an English
philosopher and physician; wrote "Observations on Man,
his Frame, his Duty, and his Expectations"; ascribed sensation
to vibration in the nerves, and applied the doctrine of the
association of ideas to mental phenomena (1705-1757).
Hartmann, a German philosopher,
born at Berlin; established his fame by a work entitled the "Philosophy
of the Unconscious," which rapidly passed through nine
editions; he has since written on pessimism, the moral and the
religious consciousness, the philosophy of the beautiful, and
spiritualism; he is the founder of a new school of philosophy,
which professes to be a synthesis of that of Hegel and that
of Schopenhauer, and to aim at the reconciliation of philosophic
results with scientific; b. 1842.
Hartmann, Moritz, a German
poet; had a keen sympathy with the liberal political ideas that
prevailed in 1848, and which his poems contributed to foster,
and on account of which he got into trouble (1821-1872).
Hartzenbusch, Juan Eugenio,
Spanish dramatist, born at Madrid, of German extraction; was
educated under the Jesuits, but abandoned his intention of joining
the Church, took to literature, and was given a post in the
National Library at Madrid; his dramas are fresh and vigorous,
and enjoy a wide popularity; he rose to be Director of the National
Library, and in 1852 was President of the Theatrical Council
Harus`pices, among the Romans,
soothsayers who affected to foretell future events by the inspection
of the entrails of animals offered in sacrifice, as well as
by study of abnormal phenomena.
the oldest and premier educational institution in the United
States, is located at Cambridge, Massachusetts, 3 m. W. of Boston;
it is named after the Rev. John Harvard, a graduate of Cambridge,
who by the bequest of his library and small fortune helped to
launch the institution in 1638; it was originally intended for
the training of youths for the Puritan ministry, but it has
during the present century been extended into a university of
the first rank, under emancipation from all sectarian control;
it has a student roll of about 3000, is splendidly equipped,
and now richly endowed.
Harvest-Moon, the full
moon which in our latitude, at the autumnal equinox, rises for
an evening or two about the same time.
Harvey, Sir George,
a Scotch artist, born at St. Ninians, Stirling; was one of the
original associates of the Royal Scottish Academy, of which
he at length became president; among his paintings are the "Covenanters'
Preaching," "The Curlers," and "John Bunyan
in Jail" (1805-1880).
Harvey, William, a celebrated
English physician, born at Folkestone, in Kent; graduated at
Cambridge, and in 1602 received his medical diploma at Padua;
settling in London, he in a few years became physician to St.
Bartholomew's Hospital, and subsequently lecturer at the College
of Physicians; in 1628 he announced in a published treatise
his discovery of the circulation of the blood; for many years
he was Court physician, and attended Charles I. at the battle
of Edgehill (1578-1657).
Harwich (8), a seaport and market
town of Essex; is situated on a headland on the S. side of the
conjoined estuaries of the Stour and the Orwell, 5 m. N. of
the Naze and 65 m. NE. of London; it is an important packet
station for Holland, has a good harbour and docks, with an increasing
Harz Mountains, a mountain
range of N. Germany, stretching for 57 m. between the Weser
and the Elbe to the S. of Brunswick; it forms a picturesque
and diversified highland, is a favourite resort of tourists,
and rises to its greatest elevation in the far-famed
Brocken (q. v.);
the scene of the Walpurgisnacht in "Faust"; silver,
iron, and other metals are found in considerable quantities,
and, with the extensive forests, give rise to a prosperous mining
and timber industry.
Hasdrubal, the name of several
distinguished Carthaginian generals, of whom the most noted
were (1), the son of Hamilcar Barca
(q. v.) and brother of Hannibal
(q. v.); he played a prominent part in the Second Punic
War, conquered Cn. Scipio in Spain (212 B.C.), and subsequently
commanded the Carthaginian army in Italy; he fell at the battle
of the Metaurus in 207 B.C.: (2) the brother-in-law of Hamilcar
Barca, whom he succeeded in 228 B.C. as administrator of the
new empire in the Iberian peninsula; he pushed the western frontiers
back to the Tagus, and by his strong
yet conciliatory government firmly established the Carthaginian
power; he was assassinated in 221 B.C.
Hase, Karl August, an
eminent German theologian, born at Steinbach, Saxony, professor
at Jena; author of a "Text-book of Evangelical Dogma,"
a "Life of Christ," a "Church History," &c.,
was equally opposed to orthodoxy and rationalism, and sought
to reconcile the creed of the Church with the conclusions of
Hashish, an intoxicant made
from Indian hemp, having different effects on different individuals
according to the dose and to the constitution of the individual.
Haslingden (18), a busy market-town
of Lancashire, 19 m. NW. of Manchester; has flourishing cotton,
silk, and woollen factories, and in the vicinity are coal-mines,
Hassan Pasha, a Turkish
grand-vizier of African birth; twice reduced the beys of Egypt;
commanded, at the age of 85, the Turkish forces against Russia
in 1788, but being defeated, was dismissed and put to death
Hasselt (13); a Belgian town,
capital of the province of Limburg, 47 m. NE. of Brussels; distilling,
and the manufacture of lace, linen, and tobacco are the staple
Hastings (61), a popular holiday
and health resort in Sussex; occupies a fine situation on the
coast, with lofty cliffs behind, 33 m. E. of Brighton; has a
splendid esplanade 3 m. long, parks, public gardens, &c.,
and ruins of a castle.
Hastings, Battle Of,
fought on 14th October 1066, on Senlac Hill, 6 m. NW. of Hastings
(where now stands the little town of Battle), between William,
Duke of Normandy and Harold II., King of England; victory rested
with the Normans, and Harold was slain on the field.
Francis Rawdon-Hastings, Marquis of, Governor-General
of India; entering the army in 1771, he saw active service in
the American War and in Holland; succeeded his father in the
earldom of Moira; was in 1813 appointed to the Governor-Generalship
of India; he was instrumental in extending the Company's territories,
and pacifying the warlike Goorkhas, for which, in 1816, he was
created Marquis of Hastings; latterly he held the Governorship
of Malta (1754-1826).
Hastings, Warren, first
Governor-General of India, born at Churchill, Oxfordshire; early
left an orphan, he was maintained at Westminster School by his
uncle, and at 17 received a clerkship in the East India Company;
for 14 years his life was occupied in mercantile and political
work, at the close of which time he returned to England; in
1769 he was back in India as a member of the Madras Council;
married the divorced wife of Baron Imhoff, and in 1772 was appointed
President of the Council in Bengal; under the new arrangement
for the governing of the provinces, Hastings was raised to the
position of Governor-General in 1773; despite jealousies and
misrepresentations both among his colleagues in India and the
home authorities, he steadily, and with untiring energy, extended
and brought into orderly government the British dominions; in
1785 he voluntarily resigned, and on his return he was impeached
before the House of Lords for oppression of the natives, and
for conniving at the plunder of the Begums or dowager-princesses
of Oudh; the trial brought forth the greatest orators of the
day, Burke, Fox, and Sheridan leading the impeachment, which,
after dragging on for nearly eight years, resulted in the acquittal
of Hastings on all the charges; his fortune having been consumed
by the enormous expenses of the trial, he was awarded a handsome
pension by the Company, and thereafter lived in honoured retirement
Hatch, Edwin, theologian,
born at Derby; graduated at Oxford, and was for some years professor
of Classics in Trinity College, Toronto; in 1867 was appointed
Vice-Principal of St. Mary Hall, Oxford; Rector of Purleigh,
Essex, in 1883; reader in Ecclesiastical History at Oxford;
he held the Grinfield, Bampton, and Hibbert lectureships at
different times, and established a reputation, both abroad and
at home, for wide and accurate scholarship;
Harnack (q. v.) translated
his learned lectures on "The Organisation of the Early
Christian Churches"; and "The Growth of Church Institutions"
displayed his rare gift of combining profound scholarship with
popular presentation (1835-1889).
Hatfield, or Bishop's Hatfield
(4), a market-town of Hertfordshire, 18 m. NW. of London; its
parish church dates from the 13th century, and in the vicinity
stands Hatfield House, a noble architectural pile of James I.'s
time, the seat of the Marquis of Salisbury.
Hatherley, Baron, barrister,
elected to represent Oxford in Parliament; in 1847 was Solicitor-General,
in 1853 raised to the bench, and in 1868 made Lord Chancellor;
retired in 1872 from failing sight (1801-1881).
Hathras (39), an important commercial
town in the NW. Provinces, India, 97 m. SE. of Delhi; exports
large quantities of sugar, grain, cotton, &c., and is famed
for its beautiful carved stone-and-wood-work.
Hats and Caps, the name
of two political factions in Sweden in the middle of the 18th
century, the former favouring France and the latter Russia.
Hatteras, Cape, a low sandy
headland of a small island separated from the mainland of N.
Carolina, U.S., by Pimlico Sound; it is a storm-swept and treacherous
point, and is marked by a powerful light, 190 ft. high.
Hatti-Sheriff, a name
given to an edict of the Sultan which is irrevocable, though
many a one of them has proved a dead letter.
Hatto, archbishop of Mainz, of
whom tradition alleges that he was assailed in his palace by
an army of mice, to escape whose ravages he retired to a tower
on the Rhine, whither the mice followed him and ate him up,
a judgment due, as is alleged, to his having, during a great
famine in 970, gathered the poor into a barn and burnt them
to death, as "like mice, good only for devouring corn,"
Hauberk, a coat or tunic of
mail made of interwoven steel rings and extending below the
Hauch, Hans Carsten,
Danish poet and novelist, born at Frederikshald, in Norway;
in 1846 he became professor of Northern Literature at Kiel,
and four years later of Æsthetics at Copenhagen; his historical
tragedies, lyrics, tales, and romances are instinct with true
poetic feeling, and are widely popular in Denmark (1790-1872).
Hauff, Wilhelm, a German
prose writer, born in Stuttgart, who died young; wrote "Memoirs
of Satan" and "The Man in the Moon," and a number
of charmingly told "Tales," which have made his name
famous among ourselves (1802-1827).
Haug, a German Orientalist, professor
of Sanskrit at Poona, and afterwards at Münich; devoted
himself to the exposition of the Zendavesta (1827-1876).
Hauser, Kaspar, a young
man of about 16 who mysteriously appeared in Nürnberg one
day in 1828, was found to be as helpless and
ignorant as a baby, and held a letter
in his hand giving an account of his history. The mystery of
his case interested Lord Stanhope, who charged himself with
the care of him, but he was enticed out of the house he was
boarded in one day, returned mortally wounded, and died soon
Haussa or Houssa, a subject
people of Central Soudan, whose language has become the common
speech of some 15 millions of people between the Mediterranean
and the Gulf of Guinea. The language is allied to the Hamitic
tongues, and is written in modified Arabic characters.
Haussman, George Eugène,
a celebrated Préfect of the Seine, who, while holding
that position (1853-70), carried through extensive architectural
improvements in Paris, which transformed it into one of the
handsomest cities of Europe; the enormous cost entailed brought
about his dismissal, but not before he had received many distinctions,
and been ennobled by Napoleon III.; in 1881 he was elected to
the Chamber of Deputies (1809-1891).
Haüy, René Just,
known as the Abbé Haüy, a French mineralogist, born
at St. Just; propounded the theory of crystallisation founded
on geometrical principles; absorbed in study, was caught napping
during the Revolution; got consequently into trouble, but was
extricated out of it by his friend and pupil, Geoffrey St.-Hilaire;
was appointed professor of Mineralogy by Napoleon (1743-1823).
Havana (200), fortified capital
of the island of Cuba, in the West Indies; has a spacious and
securely sheltered harbour, an old Spanish cathedral, a university,
botanical garden, and several fine theatres; the town is ill
laid out, badly drained, and subject to yellow fever; the staple
industries are the raising of tobacco and sugar, and the manufacture
Havel, an important tributary
of the Lower Elbe, which it joins a few miles from Wittenberg;
it rises in Mecklenburg, and takes a circuitous course past
Potsdam of 180 m.
Havelock, Sir Henry,
British general, born at Bishop Wearmouth; entered the army
in 1815, and embarked in the service for India in 1823; served
in the Afghan and Sikh Wars, as also in Persia; on the outbreak
of the Mutiny he was in 1857 sent to the relief of Cawnpore
and Lucknow, the latter of which places he entered on 25th Sept.,
where, being beleagured, he entrenched himself in the Residency,
and held his own until November, when Sir Colin Campbell came
to his relief, but his health had been undermined from his anxieties,
and he died on the 22nd of that month; for his services on this
occasion a baronetcy and a pension of £1000 was conferred
on him, but it was too late, and the honour with the pension
was transferred to his son; he was a Christian soldier, and
a commander of the Puritan type (1795-1857).
Haverfordwest (6), seaport
and capital of Pembroke, Wales, prettily situated on the Cleddan,
10 m. NE. of Milford; has a 14th-century castle and a ruined
priory; the chief industry is paper-making.
Havergal, Frances Ridley,
a hymn-writer, born at Astley, where her father, known as a
musical composer, was rector; was authoress of "Ministry
of Song," and collections which have been highly popular
Haversian Canals, canals
in the bones to convey the vessels that nourish them.
Havre, Le (116), the second
commercial port in France, on the N. side of the Seine estuary,
143 m. NW. of Paris, in the dep. of Seine-Inférieure;
has a fine harbour, docks, &c., but shipping is incommoded
by the shifting sandbanks of the estuary, and railway facilities
are poor; it is an important centre of emigration, and its industries
embrace shipbuilding, iron-works, flour-mills, &c.
Hawaiian Islands (named
by Cook the Sandwich Islands) (90), a group of volcanic islands,
12 in number, situated in the North Pacific; total area somewhat
larger than Yorkshire. Of the five inhabited islands Hawaii
is the largest; it contains the famous volcano, Kilauea, whose
crater is one of the world's wonders, being 9 m. in circumference,
and filled with a glowing lake of molten lava which ebbs and
flows like an ocean tide. The island of Maui has the largest
crater on the earth. The climate of the group is excellent,
and vegetation (including forests) is abundant; sugar and rice
are the chief crops. Honolulu (on Oahu), with a splendid harbour,
is the capital. The islands are now under the jurisdiction of
the United States.
Hawarden, a town 7 m. W. of
Chester, near which is Hawarden Castle, where Mr. Gladstone
resided and died.
Haweis, Hugh Reginald,
English churchman, born at Egham, Surrey, incumbent of St. James's,
Marylebone; was present in Italy during the revolution there,
and at several of the battles; is popular as a preacher and
lecturer, and has written a number of works on the times, on
music, Christ and Christianity, &c.; b. 1840.
Hawes, Stephen, an English
poet; held a post In the household of Henry VII.; author of
an allegorical poem on the right education of a knight, entitled "The
Pastime of Pleasure"; d. d. 1503.
Hawick (19), a prosperous and
ancient town of Roxburghshire, at the confluence of the Teviot
and Slitrig, 52 m. SE. of Edinburgh; is a flourishing centre
of the tweed, yarn, and hosiery trade, and has besides dye-works,
Hawk-eye State, Iowa,
U.S., so called from the name of an Indian chief once a terror
in those parts.
Hawke, Lord, an English admiral,
born in London; entered the navy at an early age in 1747; defeated
a French fleet off Finisterre and captured six ships of the
line in 1759; defeated Admiral Conflans off Belleisle; was made
a peer in 1776; d. 1781.
Hawker, Robert Stephen,
a Cornish clergyman and poet; was vicar for 40 years of Morwenstow,
a parish on the N. Cornwall coast; author of "Cornish Ballads";
was a humane man, of eccentric ways, and passionately fond of
animals; was the author of several works besides his ballads,
in particular "Echoes from Old Cornwall" and "Footprints
of Former Men in Far Cornwall" (1805-1875).
Hawkesworth, John, a
miscellaneous writer; wrote a book of "Voyages," an
account of the first voyage of Captain Cook; was a friend of
Johnson's, and associated with him in literary work (1715-1773).
Hawkins, Sir John, an
English navigator and admiral, born at Plymouth; was rear-admiral
of the fleet sent against the Armada and contributed to its
defeat; has the unenviable distinction of having been the first
Englishman to traffic in slaves, which he carried off from Africa
and imported into the West Indies (1530-1595).
Hawkins, Sir John,
retired attorney, born in London; wrote a "History of Music,"
and edited Walton's "Complete Angler" with notes (1719-1789).
Hawkwood, Sir John,
an English captain, born in Essex; embracing
the profession of arms, served with distinction at Crécy
and Poitiers, and was in consequence knighted by Edward III.;
afterwards fought as free-lance with his White Company in the
wars of Italy, and finally in the service of Florence, where
he spent his last days and died in 1393. For an account of his
character, military ability, and manner of warfare, see Ruskin's "Fors
Haworth (3), a village of Yorkshire,
situated on a rising moorland in the W. Biding, 2 m. SW. of
Keighley, memorable as the lifelong home of the Brontës,
and their final resting-place.
American novelist, born at Salem, Massachusetts; his early ambition
was to be a literary man, and "Twice-told Tales" was
the first production by which he won distinction, after the
publication of which he spent some months at
Brook Farm (q. v.), leaving
which he married and took up house at Concord; from 1848 to
1850 he held a State appointment, and in his leisure hours wrote
his "Scarlet Letter," which appeared in the latter
year, and established his fame as a master of literature; this
was followed by "The House of the Seven Gables," "The
Snow Image," "The Blithedale Romance," and by-and-by "The
Marble Faun," and "Our Old Home" (1804-1864).
Haydn, Joseph, German composer,
born at Rohrau, in Austria, of poor parents; early evinced a
musical talent, and became at the age of eight a cathedral chorister;
came into notice first as a street musician; soon became a popular
music-master in Vienna, and, under the patronage of the Esterhazys,
kapellmeister to Prince Nicolaus, a passionate lover of music;
he produced operas, symphonies, and oratorios, &c.; he is
at his best in quartettes and symphonies, and in "The Creation"
and "The Seasons"; he was a man of a happy disposition,
and his character appears in his music; he was known at length
as Father Haydn (1732-1809).
Haydon, Benjamin Robert,
an English historical painter, born at Plymouth; studied at
the Royal Academy, and in 1807 exhibited "Joseph and Mary
resting on the Road to Egypt"; two years later occurred
his memorable split with the Royal Academy over a supposed slight
to his picture, "Dentatus"; "Christ's Entry into
Jerusalem" brought him £1700 by exhibition, and his "Judgment
of Solomon," considered his finest work, sold for 700 guineas;
despite large sums obtained for "The Mock Election," "The
Reform Banquet," &c., he was continually in debt, and
his high-strung, sensitive temperament, smarting under imaginary
slights and weary of unrealised ambitions, led him to commit
suicide by shooting himself in his studio; he was an artist
of great but unequal genius; he was fascinated with the Elgin
Marbles, and the admiration he expressed for them contributed
to persuade the Government to purchase them (1786-1846).
Hayes, Isaac Israel,
Arctic explorer, born in Pennsylvania; after graduating in medicine,
joined the Kane expedition in search of Franklin in 1853, and
subsequently made two other voyages to the Arctic regions, accounts
of which are given in his "An Arctic Boat-journey," "The
Land of Desolation," &c.; subsequently he served as
a surgeon during the Civil War, and sat in the New York Assembly
Hayes, Rutherford Birchard,
President of the United States, born at Delaware, Ohio; graduated
at Kenyon College, Ohio; studied law at Harvard, and started
practice at Cincinnati; he served with distinction through the
Civil War, entered Congress in 1865, and was thrice governor
of Ohio; in 1876 he was elected President in the Republican
interest after a protracted and bitterly disputed election;
he did much to pacify the South, reform the civil service, advance
education, and to bring about resumption of specie payments,
measures which greatly restored the prosperity of the country
Hay-Fever, a sort of catarrh,
accompanied with paroxysms of sneezing, irritation in the eyes,
pains in the head, &c., most frequent in early summer.
Hayley, William, poet,
the friend and biographer of Cowper; wrote "Triumphs of
Temper," a poem (1745-1820).
Haym, Rudolf, professor of
Philosophy at Halle; wrote biographies of Hegel, W. von Humboldt,
and Schopenhauer; b. 1821.
Haynau, Julius Jakob,
Baron von, a notorious Austrian general, born at Cassel,
Germany; entered the army in 1801, and while holding a command
during the Italian campaigns of 1848-49, crushed the revolt
at Brescia with such brutal ferocity as to gain him the name
of the "Hyæna of Brescia"; he was for a time
dictator of Hungary, but his murderous cruelty towards the subjugate
people became a European scandal and led to his removal; in
London he was mobbed and narrowly escaped with his life (1786-1853).
Hayti (Hispaniola or Santo Domingo),
next to Cuba the largest of the W. Indian Islands, in the group
of the Greater Antilles, lies midway between Cuba on the W.
and Porto Rico on the E.; its area, somewhat larger than Scotland,
is apportioned between the negro Republic of Hayti in the E.
and the mulatto Dominican Republic in the W.; the island is
mountainous, and forests of valuable timber abound; a warm,
moist climate favours rice, cotton, &c., and minerals are
plentiful; but during this century, under native government,
the island has been retrogressive; agriculture and mining are
practically at a standstill, while the natives seem incapable
of self-government; the language spoken is a corrupt French;
Port-au-Prince and San Domingo are the chief towns; discovered
in 1492 by Columbus, the island was soon denuded of its aboriginals,
then peopled by imported negroes, joined latterly by French
buccaneers; in 1697 the island was ceded to France, but in 1791,
under Toussaint l'Ouverture
(q. v.), the blacks, after a bloody revolution, swept
the island clear of Europeans; population of island somewhat
over a million.
Hayward, Abraham, English
essayist; bred to law, but took to literature; executed a prose
translation of "Faust," Pt. I. (1802-1884).
Hazlitt, William, critic
and essayist, born in Maidstone, of Irish descent; began life
as an artist, but abandoned art for letters, and contributed
to the reviews; wrote on the English poets and dramatists, the "Characters
of Shakespeare's Plays," "The Spirit of the Age,"
a "Life of Napoleon," &c.; criticism was his
forte, and he ranks among the foremost devoted to that
art; his life was not well regulated, his health gave way, and
he died in poverty (1778-1830).
Head, Sir Edmund Walker,
Bart., writer on art, born near Maidstone, Kent, succeeded
to the baronetcy in 1838; became lieutenant-governor of New
Brunswick in 1847, and governor-general of Canada in 1854; wrote "Handbook
of Spanish Painting," also "French Art," and
some poems (1805-1868).
Head, Sir Francis Bond,
soldier and author; governor of Upper Canada; suppressed an
insurrection; wrote a "Life of Bruce the African
Traveller," "Bubbles from the Brunnen of Nassau," "A
Faggot of French Sticks," &c. (1793-1875).
Head-Hunters, name given
to the Dyaks of Borneo, from their habit of preserving in the
way of trophy the heads of those whom they slay in battle, as
the Red Indians did the scalps.
Headrigg, Cuddie (i.
e. Cuthbert), a ploughman in "Old Mortality."
Healy, Timothy Michael,
Irish Nationalist, born at Bantry, Cork; came into prominence
during the Land League agitation in 1880, and in the same year
was returned to Parliament; was called to the Irish bar in 1884,
and has since been active in promoting the interests of the
Home Rule movement; in 1890 he was one of the leaders in the
revolt against Parnell; b. 1855.
Hearne, Thomas, a noted
English antiquary, born in White Waltham, Berks; graduated at
Oxford in 1699, and subsequently became second keeper of the
Bodleian Library; his compilations and editions of old English
texts, e. g. Camden's "Annals," Robert of Gloucester's "Chronicle,"
display wide and ingenious scholarship; he figures in Pope's "Dunciad"
Heart of Midlothian,
the old Tolbooth or jail of Edinburgh, the capital of Midlothian,
which gives name to one of Scott's best novels.
Heathenism, as defined by
Carlyle, "plurality of gods, mere sensuous representation
of the Mystery of Life, and for chief recognised element therein
Physical Force, as contrasted with Christianism, or Faith in
an Invisible, not as real only, but as the only reality; Time,
through every meanest moment of it, resting on Eternity; Pagan
empire of Force displaced by a nobler supremacy, that of Holiness."
Heathfield, George Augustus Eliott,
Lord, a gallant general, the defender of Gibraltar,
son of Sir Gilbert Eliott, born at Stobs, in Roxburghshire;
saw service first in the war of the Austrian Succession, fighting
at Dettingen and Fontenoy; as a colonel he fought with English
troops in alliance with Frederick the Great against Austria;
for his heroic defence of Gibraltar (1779-1783) against the
combined forces of France and Spain he was raised to the peerage
as Baron of Gibraltar (1717-1790).
Heaven, in Christian theology
the place of the immediate Divine presence, where God manifests
Himself without veil, and His saints enjoy that presence and
know as they are known. In Scripture it denotes, (1) the atmosphere,
(2) the starry region, (3) a state of bliss, (4) as defined,
the divine presence, and (5) God Himself.
the Jews, an offering for the support of divine service, so
called as, when offered, lifted up in presence of the people.
Hebbel, Friedrich, lyrist
and dramatist, born at Weselburen, Ditmarsh; settled in Vienna
in 1846; "Die Nibelungen" is his best play, others
are "Judith," "Maria Magdalena," &c.;
his dramas are vigorous and original, but ill-proportioned,
and in the passions they depict abnormal; his works are collected
in 12 vols. (1813-1863).
Hebe, goddess of eternal youth,
daughter of Zeus and Hera; was the cup-bearer of the gods; was
superseded by Ganymedes, and became the wife of Hercules after
his admission among the immortals.
Heber, Reginald, bishop
of Calcutta, born in Cheshire, author of a prize poem entitled "Palestine"
and a volume of "Hymns," several of them famous; died
at his post in Trichinopoly; left a narrative of a "Journey
through India" (1783-1826).
Hébert, Jacques René,
commonly called Per Duchesne as editor of a journal of that
name, a violent revolutionary organ; took part in the September
Massacres; brutally insulted the queen at her trial, to the
disgust of Robespierre; was arrested by his colleagues, whom
he dared to oppose, and guillotined, his widow found weeping,
following him to his doom (1756-1794).
Hebrew, a Semitic language, the
ancient language of the Jews, and that in which the Old Testament
is written, the words of which, as indeed of others of the same
stock, are derived from triliteral roots, and the verb in which
has no present tense, only a past and a future, convertible,
moreover, into one another.
Hebrew Poetry is of two
kinds, either lyric or gnomic, i. e. subjectively emotional
or sententiously didactic, the former belonging to the active
or stirring, and the latter to the reflective or quiet, periods
of Hebrew history, and whether expressed in lyric or gnome rises
in the conscience and terminates in action; for Hebrew thought
needs to go no higher, since therein it finds and affirms God;
and it seeks to go no farther, for therein it compasses all
being, and requires no epic and no drama to work out its destiny.
However individualistic in feature, as working through the conscience,
it yet relates itself to the whole moral world, and however
it may express itself, it beats in accord with the pulse of
eternity. The lyric expression of the Hebrew temper we find
in the Psalms and the Lamentations of Jeremiah, and the gnomic
in the books of Proverbs and Ecclesiastes, while the book of
Job, which is only dramatic in form, is partly lyric and partly
Hebrew Prophecy had throughout
regard for the Jews as a nation and to see that it fulfilled
its destiny as such in the world. This purpose we see carried
out by five steps or stages. It taught, first, by the
Nebiim (q. v.), that the
nation must regard itself as one nation; secondly, by Elijah,
that it must have Jehovah alone for its God; thirdly, by Amos,
that as a nation it was not necessarily God's chosen; fourthly,
by Isaiah, that it existed for the preservation of a holy seed;
and finally, that it ceased to exist when it was felt that religion
primarily concerned the individual and was wholly an affair
of the conscience. Thus does Hebrew prophecy terminate when
it leads up to Christianity, the first requirement of which
is a regeneration of the heart (John iii. 3), and the great
promise of which is the outpouring of a spirit that "will
guide into all truth" (John xvi. 13).
Hebrews, Epistle to the,
an epistle of the New Testament of uncertain authorship addressed
to Christians of Jewish descent, who were strongly tempted,
by the persecution they were subjected to at the hands of their
Jewish brethren, to renounce the cross of Christ, which it was
feared they would too readily do, and so to their own ruin crucify
the Son of God afresh, there being only this alternative for
them, either crucifixion with Christ or crucifixion
of Christ, and death of all their hopes founded on Him.
Hebrides, or Western Islands,
a general name for the islands on the west coast of Scotland
(save the islands of the Firth of Clyde), about 500 in number,
of which 100 are inhabited; they belong to the counties of Ross,
Inverness, and Argyll, and are divided by the Little Minch and
the Minch into the Outer Hebrides, of which the chief are Lewis,
Harris, North and South Uist, Benbecula, &c.; and the Inner
Hebrides, including Skye, Rum, Mull, Iona, Staffa, &c.;
they have wild and rocky coasts, but are picturesque and
verdurous, and are much frequented by
tourists; the climate is mild and moist; cattle and sheep rearing
and fishing are the chief industries.
Hebron, an ancient town and city
of refuge, originally called Kirjath-arba, i. e. four
cities, only 20 m. S. of Jerusalem; it is a poor place now,
but still abounds in orchards and vineyards.
Hecatæus of Miletus,
styled the "logographer," who flourished about 500
B.C.; visited many countries, and wrote two books, "The
Tour of the World" and "Genealogies or Histories,"
the former containing descriptions of the places he visited,
and the latter an account of the poetical fables and traditions
of the Greeks.
Hecate, in the Greek mythology
a mysterious divinity of the Titan brood and held in honour
by all the gods, identified with Phoebe in heaven, Artemis on
earth, and Persephone in Hades, as being invested with authority
in all three regions; came to be regarded exclusively as an
infernal deity, having under her command and at her beck all
manner of demons and phantom spirits.
Hecker, Friedrich Karl
Franz, a German revolutionary, born at Eichtersheim,
Baden; practised as an advocate in Mannheim, and in 1842 became
an active democrat and Socialist; frustrated in an attempt during
the '48 Revolution to create a republican assembly, he headed
a revolutionary attack upon Baden, was defeated, and subsequently
settled in the United States, where he took to farming; took
part in the Civil War at the head of a regiment of Germans,
and became a commander of a brigade (1811-1881).
Hecker, Justus Friedrich
Karl, author of a great work on the "Epidemics
of the Middle Ages"; was a professor of Medicine at Berlin
Heckmondwike (10), a market-town
in Yorkshire, 8 m. NE. of Huddersfield; is the principal seat
of the carpet and blanket manufactures in the West Riding.
Hecla or Hekla, the loftiest
of 20 active volcanoes in Iceland (5102 ft.); is an isolated
peak with five craters, 68 m. E. of Reykjavik; its most violent
outbreak in recent times continued from 1845 to 1846; its last
eruption was in March 1878.
Hectic Fever, a fever connected
with consumption, and showing itself by a bright pink flush
on the cheeks.
Hector, the chief hero of Troy
in the war with the Greeks, the son of Priam and Hecuba; fought
with the bravest of the enemy and finally slew Patroclus, the
friend of Achilles (q. v.),
which roused the latter from his long lethargy to challenge
him to fight; Achilles chased him three times round the city,
pierced him with his spear, and dragged his dead body after
his chariot round Ilium; his body was at the command of Zeus
delivered up to Priam and buried with great pomp within the
Hecuba, the wife of Priam, king
of Troy; distinguished both as a wife and a mother; on the fall
of the city she fell into the hands of the Greeks, and, according
to one tradition, was made a slave, and, according to another,
threw herself in despair into the sea.
Hedonism, the doctrine of the
Cyrenaics that pleasure is the end of life, and the measure
of virtue, or the summum bonum.
Heem, Jan Davidsz van,
a famous Dutch painter, born at Utrecht; had a prosperous and
uneventful career in Antwerp, where in 1635 he became a member
of the Guild of Painters; he is considered the greatest of the "still
life" painters; his pictures, masterpieces of colouring
and chiaroscuro, have a great monetary value, and are to be
found in the famous galleries of Amsterdam, Vienna, Berlin,
St. Petersburg, &c. (1606-1684).
Heeren, Ludwig, a German
historian; professor of History at Göttingen; wrote on
ancient and modern history, specially the ancient and its antiquities;
eminent in both (1760-1842).
Hefele, Karl Joseph von,
a Catholic Church historian, born at Unterkochen, in Würtemberg;
in 1840 became professor of Church History and Christian Archæology
in the Catholic Theological Faculty in Tübingen University,
and in 1869 Bishop of Rottenburg; was for some time zealously
opposed to the doctrine of the Papal infallibility, but subsequently
acquiesced, putting, however, his own construction on it; his
best-known works are the "History of the Christian Councils"
and "Contributions to Church History" (1809-1893).
Hegel, Georg Wilhelm
Friedrich, German philosopher, the greatest of all,
born in Stuttgart; studied first at Tübingen, with a view
to theology; as a student attracted no particular attention,
was outstript by Schelling; did domestic tutoring for a time;
qualified at Jena for an academic career; adhered to and collaborated
with Schelling in philosophy; first announced himself in 1807
by his work, "Phenomenology of the Spirit"; became
rector of the Academy at Nürnberg, where in 1812-16 he
composed his "Logic"; was in 1816 appointed professor
of Philosophy at Heidelberg, whence he was removed to Berlin
in 1818, where, his philosophy being now matured, he began to
apply it with intense earnestness to every subject of human
interest; he was the last of a line of thinkers beginning with
Kant, with whom, however, he affiliated directly, and in his
idealism philosophy first reached the goal which it was till
then with hesitating steps only stretching forward to; his works
fill 22 goodly sized volumes, and his system may be grouped
under three heads, the "Science of Logic," the "Philosophy
of Nature," and the "Philosophy of Spirit" (1770-1831).
Hegelianism, the philosophy
of Hegel, which resolves being into thought, and thought into
the unity of the logical moments of simple apprehension, judgment,
and reason, all purely spiritual acts, whereby being in itself,
or seyn, becomes other than itself, or daseyn,
and returns into itself, or für sich seyn, the universal
being first by separating from itself particularised, and then
by return into itself individualised, the whole being what Hegel
characterises as Der Process des Geistes, "The Process
of the Spirit." Something like this is what Dr. Stirling
calls "The Secret of Hegel," and an open secret it
is, for he finds it pervading the whole system; "open where
you will in Hegel," he says, "you find him always
engaged in saying pretty well the same thing"; always identity
by otherness passing into selfness, or making that for
itself which is at first in itself;—a philosophy
which is anticipated by the doctrine of St. Paul, which represents
God as the One from whom are all things as Father, and
through whom are all things as Son, and to whom
are all things as Spirit, the One who is thus All; it is also
involved in the doctrine of Christ when He says God is Spirit,
or the Living One who lives, and manifests Himself in life,
for Himself, from Himself, and through Himself, who, so to say,
thus concretes Himself throughout the universe.
Hege`sias, a Cyrenaic philosopher,
who held that life was full of evils, that it was in vain to
seek after pleasure, and that all a wise man could do was to
fortify himself as best he could against pain.
Hegesippus, a Church historian
of the 2nd century, a convert from Judaism; only fragments of
his "Memoirs of Ecclesiastical Affairs" remain.
Heidelberg (35), a celebrated
German city, in Baden, situated amid beautiful surroundings,
on the Neckar, 13 m. SE. of Mannheim; has many interesting buildings,
including ruins of a splendid 13th-century castle, but is chiefly
celebrated for its flourishing university (student roll, 800;
professors, 100; library, 500,000), whose professoriate has
included many of the most distinguished German scholars; it
was long the centre of Calvinism; its chief trade is in books,
tobacco, wine, and beer.
Heijn, or Heyn, Peter Petersen,
a famous Dutch admiral, born at Delftshaven; from being a cabin-boy
rose to be commander of the Dutch fleet; off the east coast
of S. America he twice defeated the Spanish fleet, securing
an immense booty, and in 1628 captured a flotilla of Spanish
galleons with silver and jewels equal to 16,000,000 Dutch guilders;
fell in an action off Dunkirk (1577-1629).
Heilbronn (30), a quaint old
town of Würtemberg, on the Neckar, 23 m. N. of Stuttgart;
has a fine 11th-century Gothic church, and the Thief's Tower
(Diebsthurm); is associated with the captivity of
Goetz von Berlichingen
(q. v.); it is now a busy commercial centre, and manufactures
silverware, paper, beet-sugar, chemicals, &c.
Heilsbronn, a Bavarian market-town,
16 m. SW. of Nüremberg; is celebrated for its Cistercian
monastery, now suppressed, but whose church still contains monuments
and art relics of great historic interest.
Heine, Heinrich, a German
lyric poet, born at Düsseldorf, of Jewish parents; was
bred to law, but devoted himself to literature, and mingled
with literary people, and associated in particular with the
Varnhagen von Ense circle; first became notable by the publication
of his "Reisebilder" and his "Buch der Lieder,"
the appearance of which created a wide-spread enthusiasm in
Germany in 1825 he abandoned the Jewish faith and professed
the Christian, but the creed he adopted was that of a sceptic,
and he indulged in a cynicism that outraged all propriety, and
even common decency; in 1830 he quitted Germany and settled
in Paris, and there a few years afterwards married a rich lady,
who alleviated the sufferings of his last years; an attack of
paralysis in 1847 left him only one eye, and in the following
year he lost the other, but under these privations and much
bodily pain he bore up with a singular fortitude, and continued
his literary labours to the last; in his songs he was at his
best, and by these alone it is believed he will be chiefly remembered
Gottlieb, a celebrated German jurist, born at Eisenberg;
was successively professor of Philosophy and subsequently of
Law at several universities of Germany; he wrote several learned
works in law treated from a philosophical standpoint; mention
may be made of his "Historia Juris Civilis Romani"
and "Elementa Juris Naturæ Gentium" (1681-1741).
Heinsius, Anthony, a
noted Dutch statesman, born at Delft; became Grand Pensionary
of Holland; was the intimate friend and correspondent of William
III. of England, who left the guidance of Dutch affairs largely
in his hands (1641-1720).
Heir Apparent, one whose
right of succession is sure if he survive the present holder.
Heir Presumptive, one
whose right of succession is sure if not barred by the birth
of one nearer.
Hejaz, El, the holy land of
the Moslems, a district of Arabia Felix, and so called by containing
the sacred cities of Mecca and Medina.
Hejira or Hejra (Arabic, "going
away"), a word applied to Mahomet's flight from Mecca to
Medina in A.D. 622; Calif Omar, 17 years later, adopted this
date as the starting-point of a new Mohammedan calendar.
Hel or Hela, in Scandinavian
mythology an inexorable divinity, the death-goddess who presides
over the icy realm of the dead; her maw was insatiable and her
Heldenbuch, a collection
of German heroic poems relating heroic deeds and events connected
with the inroads of the barbarians on the empire.
Helder, The (25), a strongly
fortified and flourishing seaport in North Holland, on the Marsdiep,
at the N. end of the North Holland Canal, 51 m. NW. of Amsterdam;
is an important naval centre, and has an excellent harbour.
Helen, the daughter of Zeus and
Leda, and the wife of Menelaus, king of Sparta; the most beautiful
of women, who was carried off to Troy by Paris, to revenge whose
abduction the princes of Greece, who had pledged themselves
to protect her, made war on Troy, a war which lasted ten years.
Helena, St., the mother of
Constantine the Great; is said to have visited Jerusalem and
discovered the Holy Sepulchre and the cross on which Christ
was crucified; d. 328, at the age of 80. Festival, Aug.
18. There are several other saints of the same name.
Helensburgh (8), a pleasantly
situated watering-place in Dumbarton, on the Firth of Clyde,
at the entrance of the Gareloch, 4 m. N. of Greenock.
Helenus, a son of Priam and
Hecuba, celebrated for his prophetic foresight; is said to have
deserted his countrymen and joined the Greeks.
Heliand, an old Saxon poem of
the 9th century, of great philological value, but of no great
literary merit; deals with the life and work of Christ; of the
two extant MSS. one is in the British Museum.
Helicon, a mountain in Boeotia,
Greece, sacred to Apollo and the Muses; famous for the fountains
on its slopes dedicated to the latter.
Heligoland (2, but rising
to 14 in summer), an islet of the North Sea, 35 m. from the
mouths of the Elbe and the Weser; German since 1890; consists
of the Oberland, a plateau, with some 400 houses, and
the Unterland on the shore, 206 ft. beneath, with a group
of 70 dwellings. In the summer it is crowded with visitors,
bathing being the chief attraction; fishing is the staple industry
of the native Frisians.
Heliodorus, the most noted
and earliest of the Greek romancists, born at Emesa, Syria;
flourished in the second half of the 3rd century A.D.; his romance "Æthiopica"
is a love tale of great beauty and told with naïve simplicity;
has had considerable influence over subsequent romance writers,
e. g. Tasso.
Helioga`balus, a Roman
emperor; invested, while yet a youth, with the Imperial purple
by the army in 218; ruled with a show of moderation at first,
but soon gave way to every manner of excess; was after four
years put to death by the Prætorian Guard, and his body
thrown into the Tiber.
Heliography, a method of
signalling from distant points by means of the sun's rays flashed
from mirrors; messages can in this manner be transmitted a distance
of 190 m.; it has been found of great practical value in military
Heliopolis (i. e.
City of the Sun), in Egyptian On, one of the oldest and
most sacred cities of Egypt; was situated about 10 m. N. of
Cairo, on the eastmost branch of the
Nile; it was the centre of Egyptian learning; Solon and Plato
are said to have studied there, and Potiphar was one of its
chief priests; the famous obelisk Pharaoh's Needle stands
near; and Cleopatra's Needle, now on the Thames Embankment,
was originally of this city. Also the name of Baalbec.
Helios, the god of the sun, mistakenly
identified with Apollo, but of an older dynasty, was the brother
of Selene (q. v.) and
Eos (q. v.); a god of the brood
of the Titans (q. v.), and
the source of light to both gods and men; he rises from the
bosom of Okeanos (q. v.)
in the morning, and loses himself in his dark abyss every evening.
Heliotrope or Bloodstone,
a variety of quartz (chalcedony or jasper) of a deep green colour,
with bright red spots. The finest specimens, which come from
South Asia, are of fairly translucent chalcedony; those of jasper
are opaque; they are used as seals, ring-stones, &c.
Hell Fire, the infinite terror
to a true man, the infinite misery which he never fails to realise
must befall him if he come short in his loyalty to truth and
Hell Gate or Hurl Gate,
a narrow pass in the East River, between the city of New York
and Long Island; at one time its hidden shoals and swift narrow
current were dangerous to ships, but extensive blasting operations,
completed in 1885, have greatly widened and cleared the pass.
Hellas, the name of the abode
of the ancient Greeks, and of greater extent than Greece proper.
Helle, a maiden who, with her
brother Phrixus, fled on the golden-fleeced ram to escape from
the cruelty of her step-dame Ino, and fell into the strait called
the Hellespont after her, in which she was drowned. See
Hellenists, originally Jews
who would fain have seen Jewish thought and life more or less
transformed in spirit as well as fashion after a Greek pattern;
eventually those who by contact with Greek civilisation became
Grecianised, and were open to learn as much from the civilisation
of the Greeks as was consistent with the maintenance in their
integrity of the principles of their own religion.
Heller, Stephen, a distinguished
pianist and composer, born at Pesth; made his début
at nine, and by 17 had won a reputation throughout the great
cities of Europe; in 1838 he settled in Paris, and gave himself
to teaching and composition; he ranks beside Chopin as a master
of technique; his works are almost entirely pianoforte pieces
Helmholtz, Hermann von,
an eminent German scientist, born at Potsdam, Brandenburg; was
first an army doctor, and in 1849 became professor of Physiology
in Königsberg, and subsequently in Bonn and Heidelberg;
in 1871 he became professor of Physics in Berlin; was ennobled,
and in 1887 nominated head of the Charlottenburg Institute;
to physiology he made contributions of great value on the various
sense-organs, and to physics on the conservation of energy;
but his most original work was done in connection with acoustics
in its relation to optics; his published works include "Theory
of Sound Sensations'" and "Sensations of Tone as a
Physiological Basis for the Theory of Music" (1821-1894).
Helmont, Jean Baptist
van, a celebrated German chemist, the father of chemistry,
born at Brussels; his early years were divided between the study
of medicine and the practice of a religious mysticism; the works
of Paracelsus stimulated his interest in chemistry and physics,
and having married a noble Brabant lady, he settled down on
the family estate near Vilvorde, where he devoted himself to
scientific research; mixed up a good deal of mysticism and alchemy
with his scientific discoveries, and made a special study of
gases; he was the first to prove the indestructibility of matter
in chemical changes by utilising the balance in analysis; he
invented the word gas, first used the melting-point of ice and
the boiling-point of water as limits of a thermometric scale,
and his physiological speculations led him to regard the stomach
as the seat of the soul! (1577-1644).
Heloïse, niece of Canon
Fulbert, born at Paris; celebrated for her amour with
Abelard (q. v.); became
prioress of the convent of Argenteuil and abbess of the Paraclete,
where she founded a new convent and lived a pious life (1101-1164).
a romance by Rousseau.
Helots, slaves who formed the
lowest grade of the population of Sparta, were descendants of
the original inhabitants of Laconia, or prisoners of war; they
were slaves belonging to the State, from the State alone could
they receive manumission; they were employed as tillers of the
ground, waited at meals, filled various menial offices for private
individuals, and were treated with the utmost harshness; were
whipped annually to remind them of their servile position; slaughtered
when their numbers increased too much, and were forced to exhibit
themselves under intoxication as a warning to the Spartan youth.
Helps, Sir Arthur, essayist
and historian, born in Surrey; for a time held official posts
in connection with the government of the day, and finally that
of Clerk to the Privy Council, in which capacity he was brought
into connection with the Queen, which led to his being appointed
editor of the "Principal Speeches and Addresses of the
late Prince Consort" and Her Majesty's "Leaves from
a Journal of our Life in the Highlands"; he is the author
of "Friends in Council," published one series in 1847
and a second in 1859, which dealt with a variety of subjects,
and was, along with "Companions of my Solitude," very
popular; he did also plays and romances as well as historical
Helsingfors (77), a strongly
fortified seaport and capital of Finland, is in a commanding
position placed on a rocky peninsula in the Gulf of Finland,
191 m. W. of St. Petersburg; the numerous islands and islets
at the entrance of the harbour are strongly fortified; the town
is handsomely laid out, and has a flourishing university (student
roll, 1703), and does a good Baltic trade.
van der, one of the greatest of the Dutch portrait-painters,
born at Haarlem, but spent his life in Amsterdam; he enjoyed
a great reputation in his day, and many of his pictures are
to be found in European galleries; his "Muster of the Burgher
Guard" was considered by Sir Joshua Reynolds to be "the
first picture of portraits in the world" (1613-1670).
Helvellyn, one of the Cumberland
mountains, 3118 ft. high, rises at the side of Ulleswater, midway
between Keswick and Ambleside.
Helvetii, a Celtic people mentioned
by Cæsar as occupying territory in Central Europe now
embraced in Switzerland; they suffered tremendous slaughter
at the hands of Cæsar when endeavouring to make their
way to a wider territory in Southern Gaul.
Helvétius, a French
philosophe, born in Paris, of Swiss origin; author of a book
entitled "De l'Esprit," which was condemned by the
Parlement of Paris for views advocated in it that were considered
derogatory to the dignity of man, and
which exposed him to much bitter hostility, especially at
the hands of the priests; man he reduced to a mere animal, made
self-love the only motive of his actions, and the satisfaction
of our sensuous desires the principle of morals, notwithstanding
which he was a man of estimable character and of kindly disposition
Hemans, Felicia Dorothea,
née Browne, poetess, born in Liverpool; her marriage
was an unhappy one, and after the birth of five children ended
in permanent separation; she was the authoress of a number of
works, a complete edition of which occupies 7 vols., the best
of her productions being lyrics; and she enjoyed the friendship
of Wordsworth, Scott, and other literary celebrities of the
Hénault, French historian,
born in Paris, president of the Parlement of Paris; was author
of "Abrégé Chronologique de l'Histoire de
Hemel Hempstead (10),
a busy market-town in Herts, 23 m. NW. of London; noted for
its straw-plaiting, and has paper-mills, foundries, &c.
Hems or Homs (35), a noted
Syrian city known to the Romans as Emesa, on the Orontes, 63
m. NE. of Tripoli; here stood in ancient times a famous temple
of the Sun, one of whose priests,
Heliogabalus (q. v.),
became Roman emperor (218); the Crusaders captured it from the
Saracens in 1098; it does a good trade in oil, cotton, silk, &c.
Hemsterhuis, Dutch philologist,
born at Gröningen; was professor of Greek at Leyden; one
of the greatest Grecians of his day; had for pupils Ruhnken
and Valckenaer, and edited a number of classical works (1685-1766).
a celebrated Scotch divine; became professor of Rhetoric and
Philosophy in St. Andrews, and subsequently held the living
of Leuchars, in Fife; he actively espoused the cause of the
Covenanters, and became a prominent leader in negotiations with
the king; in 1643 he drafted the "Solemn League and Covenant"
which passed into force, and he was one of Scotland's representatives
to the Assembly of Divines at Westminster (1583-1646).
Henderson, Thomas, astronomer,
born at Dundee, astronomer first at the Cape and then Astronomer-royal
for Scotland, calculated the distance of the nearest fixed star
[Greek: alpha] Centauri and found it nearly 19 billions of miles
from the sun.
Hengist and Horsa, two
Saxon brothers who came over to assist Vortigern against the
Picts, and were rewarded by a gift of Thanet, though they were
afterwards defeated by Vortigern and the latter slain.
Hengstenberg, a German
theologian, born in Westphalia; was editor of the Evangelische
Kirchenzeitung, and the valiant unwearied assailant of Rationalism
in its treatment of the Scriptures and the old orthodox faith;
his principal works bear on Old Testament literature, such as
its Christology and the Psalms, as well as on the New, such
as St. John's Gospel and the Apocalypse (1802-1869).
Henley, William Ernest,
poet and critic, author of a "Book of Verses" and "Song
of the Sword," in which he reveals superior powers as a
poet, and of a volume entitled "Views and Reviews,"
in which he evinces discriminative criticism of the highest
order; he has edited, along with T. F. Henderson, in a workmanlike
style, the "Centenary Edition of the Poetry of Burns,"
accompanied it with a "Life of the Poet," and a characterisation
somewhat damping to the prevailing enthusiasm in connection
with the poet; b. 1849.
a borough of Oxfordshire, on the Thames, near the Chiltern Hills,
36 m. W. of London; the river is spanned here by a fine five-arch
bridge, and the annual amateur regatta is a noted social event;
malting and brewing are the chief industries.
Henotheism, a polytheism
which assigns to one god of the pantheon superiority over the
Henrietta Maria, wife
of Charles I., born at the Louvre; daughter of Henry IV. of
France and of Marie de Medicis; a beautiful and able woman,
much beloved, and deservedly so, by her husband, but from her
bigotry as a Roman Catholic disliked and distrusted by the nation,
not without good reason; by her imprudent conduct she embroiled
matters more seriously than they were; menaced with impeachment
by the Commons, had to flee the country; returned, indeed, with
a supply of money and ammunition "purchased by crown jewels,"
but in 1644 was obliged to seek refuge again in France; revisited
the country for a short time after the Restoration, and died
near Paris at her retreat there (1609-1669).
Henrietta Maria, daughter
of Charles I., and wife of the Duke of Orleans, brother of Louis
XIV., born at Exeter; she had an itch for political intrigue
like her mother, and was successful in persuading her brother,
Charles II., into league with France by signing the treaty of
Dover; on her return to France she died suddenly, by poison
it is believed (1644-1670).
Henriot, a French revolutionary,
born at Nanterre; was generalissimo of the National Guard of
Paris during the Reign of Terror; marched with his sansculotte
following into the Convention one day and escorted 29 of the
Girondists to the guillotine; became the satellite of Robespierre,
whom he defended at the last, but could not deliver; arrested
himself in a state of intoxication, was dragged out of a drain,
and despatched by the guillotine (1761-1794).
Henry I., king of England from
1100 to 1135, youngest son of William the Conqueror, born at
Selby, in Yorkshire; usurped the crown from his elder but irresolute
brother Robert, an act which was confirmed by the Church and
the mass of the people, Robert, after a weak resistance, being
pensioned off; the epithets Beauclerc and the Lion of Justice,
which were bestowed on him, so far accurately describe him as
he appeared to his people; his attainments were scholarly for
his times, and his reign was distinguished by the strong and
organised administration of justice, although morally his life
was a depraved one; after seizing Normandy from his brother
Robert, whom he imprisoned for life, he governed his kingdom
with a firm hand; the turbulent Norman nobles were subdued,
while the administration of the law was greatly improved by
the institution of the Curia Regis (the King's Court)
and of itinerant judges; trade took a start, and the religious
life of the nation was deepened through the advent of the Cistercian
monks and the influence of Anselm; he was married to Eadgyth
(changed to Matilda), daughter of Malcolm of Scotland (1068-1135).
Henry II., king of England from
1154 to 1189, first of the Plantagenet line; was the son of
Matilda, daughter of Henry I., and her second husband Geoffrey
Plantagenet, Count of Anjou, born at Le Mans; when he came to
the throne as Stephen's successor he was already in possession,
mainly through his marriage with Eleanor, the divorced wife
of Louis VII., of more than half of France; he set himself with
all the vigour of his energetic nature to reform the abuses
which had become rampant under Stephen, and Thomas à
Becket was his zealous Chancellor; the Great
Council was frequently summoned to deliberate on national affairs;
the Curia Regis was strengthened, the itinerant judgeships
revived, while the oppression and immorality of the nobles was
sternly suppressed by the demolition of the "adulterine
castles"; a blow was aimed at the privileges and licentiousness
of the clergy by the Constitutions of Clarendon, but their enactment
brought about a rupture between the king and Becket, now Archbishop
of Canterbury, which subsequently ended in the murder of Becket;
in 1171 Ireland was invaded and annexed, and three years later
William the Lion of Scotland was forced to declare his kingdom
a fief to the English throne; some time previously the Welsh
princes had done him homage; the last years of his reign were
embittered by quarrels and strife with his ungrateful sons;
he was a man of many kingly qualities, perhaps the best, taken
all in all, that England ever had, and his reign marks an epoch
in the development of constitutional law and liberty (1133-1189).
Henry III., king of England
from 1216 to 1272, eldest son of King John; succeeded to the
throne at the age of nine; during his minority the kingdom was
wisely and faithfully served by the Earl of Pembroke and Hubert
de Burgh; when he came to years he proved himself a weak ruler,
and, according to Stubbs, his administration was "one long
series of impolitic and unprincipled acts"; with the elevation
of Peter des Roches, a native of Anjou, to the post of chief
adviser, French interlopers soon became predominant at the Court,
and the recipients of large estates and pensions, an injustice
further stimulated by the king's marriage with Eleanor of Provence;
justice was prostituted, England humiliated under a feeble foreign
policy, and the country finally roused by infamous exactions;
Simon de Montfort, the king's own brother-in-law, became the
leader of the people and the champion of constitutional rights;
by the Provisions of Oxford, forced upon the king by Parliament
assembled at Oxford (1258), a wider and more frequent Parliamentary
representation was given to the people, and the king's power
limited by a permanent council of 15; as an issue of the Barons'
War, which resulted in the defeat and capture of the king at
Lewes (1264), these provisions were still further strengthened
by the Mise of Lewes, and from this time may be dated the birth
of representative government in England as it now exists; in
1265 was summoned the first Parliament as at present constituted,
of peers temporal and spiritual, and representatives from counties,
cities, and boroughs; internal dissensions ceased with the victory
of Prince Edward over the barons at Eastham (1265), the popular
leader De Montfort perished on the field (1206-1272).
Henry IV., king of England from
1399 to 1418, first of the Lancastrian kings, son of John of
Gaunt, and grandchild of Edward III., born at Bolingbroke, in
Lincolnshire; Richard II.'s misrule and despotism had damped
the loyalty of his people, and when Henry came to England to
maintain his ducal rights he had little difficulty in deposing
Richard, and, with the consent of Parliament, in assuming the
crown; this act of usurpation—for Richard's true heir
was Roger Mortimer, a descendant of an older branch of the family—had
two important results; it made Henry more obsequious to the
Parliamentary power which had placed him on the throne, and
it was the occasion of the bloody Wars of the Roses that were
to devastate the kingdom during the reigns of Henry VI. and
Edward IV.; Henry's own reign was a troubled one; wars were
successfully undertaken against the Welsh under Owen Glendower
and against the Scotch; while rebellion was raised by the Percies
in unsuccessful attempts to win the crown for Mortimer; the
only law of importance passed was the statute for burning heretics,
the first passed in England for the suppression of religious
Henry V., king of England from
1413 to 1422, son of preceding, born at Monmouth; during the
wars of his father's reign he gave evidence of his abilities
as a soldier, distinguishing himself specially by his conquest
of Wales; on his accession to the throne he renewed the claims
put forward by Edward III. to the French crown, and with the
support of his people embarked on his great struggle to win
the kingdom of France; in 1415 he gained the glorious victory
of Agincourt, strengthened his position by confirmed military
successes, and by marrying Catherine, daughter of the French
king, and by the treaty of Troyes got himself appointed regent
of France and successor to the throne; he was idolised by his
people as the perfect pattern of a warrior king, but he had
neither the gifts of statesmanship nor the foresight of Edward
I., to whom he is compared, and the English dominion which he
established in France was too unsubstantial to endure (1388-1422).
Henry VI., king of England from
1422 to 1461, son of preceding, born at Windsor; was a child
of nine months when his father died, and in the same year was
acknowledged king over the N. and E. of France; the Dukes of
Bedford and Gloucester became regents respectively over the
English and French kingdoms; war was resumed with France, and
for thirty years the weary struggle continued, by the end of
which time England, despite some early successes, had been stripped
of her French possessions, mainly owing to the enthusiasm awakened
by the heroic and ill-fated Jeanne
d'Arc (q. v.); the growing discontent of the people
is indicated by Jack Cade's rebellion (1540), and five years
later began the famous Wars of the Roses; six battles were fought
between the rival houses, and four times victory rested with
the Yorkists; after the final victory of the Yorkists at Towton
(1461), Henry fled to Scotland and Edward was proclaimed king;
Henry was a man of weak intellect, gentle, and of studious nature,
and was ill mated in his ambitious and warlike queen, Margaret
of Anjou; a futile struggle was made to win his kingdom back,
but the hopes of the Lancastrians perished at Tewkesbury; the
king was captured and confined in the Tower, where, there is
little doubt, he was murdered (1421-1471).
Henry VII., king of England
from 1485 to 1509, son of Edmund Tudor, Earl of Richmond, first
of the Tudor monarchs, born at Pembroke Castle; after defeating
and slaying Richard III. on Bosworth Field he assumed the crown,
and by his marriage with Elizabeth of York, daughter of Edward
IV., united the claims of the rival roses; his firm and prudent
rule established quiet and order in the country; the pretensions
of the pretenders Lambert Simnel and Perkin Warbeck were promptly
crushed; a peaceful relationship was established with France,
and the Scotch were conciliated by the marriage of his daughter
Margaret to their king, James IV.; increased prosperity followed,
maritime enterprise was encouraged, but the kingly power grew
at the expense of the constitutional authority of Parliament;
resort was had to benevolences and other unconstitutional methods
of raising funds, and in his latter years the king's exactions
became tyrannical; Henry was not a man
of fine kingly qualities, but he accomplished much for his country,
and is best described in Gardiner's words, "his contemporaries
needed a chief-constable to keep order, and he gave them what
they needed" (1456-1509).
Henry VIII., king of England
from 1509 to 1547, son of preceding, born at Greenwich; was
welcomed to the throne with great enthusiasm, and still further
established himself in public favour by his gallant exploits
at the Battle of Spurs and at the sieges of Tournay and Terouenne
in the war of the Holy Alliance against France; in his absence
an invasion of James IV. of Scotland was repulsed and the Scottish
army crushed at Flodden (1513); during the first half of the
reign public affairs were mainly conducted by the king's favourite
minister, Wolsey, whose policy it was to hold the balance of
power between Spain and France; but he fell into public disfavour
by the heavy burden of taxation which he little by little laid
upon the people; Henry, who in 1521 had been named "Defender
of the Faith" by the Pope for his published defence of
the sacraments against the attacks of Luther, was now moving
for a divorce from his first wife Catherine of Arragon; a breach
with the Pope ensued, Wolsey was deposed for his double-dealing
in the matter, and Henry, having defiantly married Anne Boleyn,
put an end to the papal jurisdiction in England to secure himself
against appeals to the Papal Court, and got himself acknowledged
Supreme Head of the Church of England; the suppression of the
monasteries soon followed, and their estates were confiscated
(1536-1540); in 1536 the movement of the Reformation was continued
by the drawing up of Ten Articles and by an authorised
translation of the Bible; but the passing of the Six Articles
three years later, declaring in favour of the real presence
of Christ in the Eucharist, clerical celibacy, private masses,
auricular confession, &c., was an attempt to stay the rapid
spread of Protestant doctrines; in 1541 Henry was declared King
of Ireland, and in the two following years successful wars were
waged with Scotland and France; the importance of the reign
lies in the coincidence of it with the rise and culmination
of the Reformation, a movement brought about in the first instance
by no higher motive than the king's desire for a divorce as
well as for absolute power; but for which a favourable reception
had been prepared beforehand by the spread of the new learning
and that free spirit of inquiry that was beginning to take possession
of men's minds; historians for the greater part agree in representing
Henry as a man of versatile powers, considerable intellectual
force, but headstrong, selfish, and cruel in the gratification
of his desires; he was six times married; Catherine and Anne
of Clèves were divorced, Anne Boleyn and Catherine Howard
executed, Jane Seymour died in childbirth, and Catherine Parr
survived him; he left behind to succeed him on the throne Mary,
daughter of Catherine, Elizabeth, daughter of Anne Boleyn, and
Edward, son of Jane Seymour (1491-1547).
Henry III., an illustrious
Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, son of Conrad II.; in 1026
he became king of the Germans, succeeded to the dukedoms of
Bavaria and Suabia, and in 1039 assumed the imperial crown;
under his strong and wise government, dissensions, papal and
otherwise, were put down, the territory of the empire extended,
and many churches and monastic schools established (1017-1056).
Henry IV., Emperor of the
Holy Roman Empire, son of preceding; his reign is memorable
as witnessing the first open claim on the part of the Papal
power to have dominion over the crowned heads of Europe; Henry's
attempt to depose Gregory VII. was boldly met by a declaration
of excommunication; Henry was forced to do penance and to receive
his crown afresh from the Pope; but the struggle broke out anew;
Clement III. was put up in opposition, and the contest raged
with varying success till the deposition of Henry by his ungrateful
Henry IV., king of France
from 1594 till 1610, surnamed "The Great" and "The
Good"; during his reign the great struggle between the
Huguenots and the Catholics continued with unabated fury; Henry
saved his life in the massacre of St. Bartholomew's Day by renouncing
his early Calvinism, but was imprisoned; four years later he
was again at the head of the Huguenot army and defeating the
Bourbon claimant for the throne, was crowned king, but not before
waiving his Protestant principles to conciliate the people;
in 1598 he issued the famous Edict of Nantes, giving freedom
of worship to the Huguenots; during his administration the nation
was consolidated, new roads and a growing trade knit the towns
together; financial reforms of great importance were carried
out by his celebrated minister,
Duc de Sully (q. v.); Henry was assassinated by instigation
of the Jesuits (1553-1610).
Henry of Huntingdon,
a noted English chronicler of the 12th century, who became archdeacon
of Huntingdon, and wrote a Latin history of England down to
the death of Stephen in 1154.
Henry the Navigator,
son of John I., king of Portugal, born at Oporto; an able, enterprising
man, animated with a zeal for maritime discovery, and who at
his own expense sent out voyagers who discovered the Madeira
Islands and explored the coast of Africa as far as Cape Blanco;
is said to have been the first to employ the compass for purposes
of navigation; his mother was daughter of John of Gaunt (1391-1460).
Henry, Matthew, a Nonconformist
divine; was minister at Hackney, London; was the author of a
commentary long in repute among pious evangelical people, and
to some extent still, as a practical and devotional guide in
the study of the Scriptures (1662-1714).
Henry, Patrick, American
statesman and orator, born in Virginia; having been in business
he took to law, and rose into fame by his eloquent pleadings
in the cause of the people; played a conspicuous part in the
agitation for independence, especially by his oratory, which
was of a quality to move large audiences; he was a member of
the first Congress in 1774 (1736-1799).
Henryson, Robert, an
early Scottish poet, flourished in the 15th century; most of
his life was spent as a schoolmaster in Dunfermline; his chief
works, which are full of pathos, humour, and a fine descriptive
power, include "Testament of Cresseid," a continuation
of Chaucer's tale, "Robene and Makyne," the earliest
Scottish pastoral, a metrical version of some of "Æsop's
Fables," and the story of "Orpheus and Eurydice."
Hephæstos, called Vulcan
by the Romans, the Greek god of fire, or of labour in the element
of fire, the son of Zeus and Hera, represented as ill-shapen,
lame, and ungainly, so much so as to be an object of ridicule
to the rest of the pantheon, but he was indispensable to the
dynasty, and to none more than his father and mother, who were
often unkind to him; he had his smithy in Olympus in the vicinity
of the gods, and the marvellous creations of his art were shaped
on an anvil, the hammer of which was
plied by 20 bellows that worked at his bidding; in later traditions
he had his workshop elsewhere, and the Cyclops for his servants,
employed in manufacturing thunderbolts for Zeus; he was wedded
to Aphrodité, whom he caught playing false with Ares,
and whom he trapped along with him in a net a spectacle to all
the upper deities.
Heptad, a term in chemistry to
denote an atom that is the equivalent of seven atoms of hydrogen,
from hepta, seven.
the seven kingdoms of Kent, Sussex, Wessex, Essex, Northumberland,
East Anglia, and Mercia, the chief of those established by the
Saxons during the 6th century in Great Britain.
Heptateuch, a name given
to the first seven books of the Bible.
Hera, called Juno by the Romans,
daughter of Cronos and Rhea, and sister and wife of Zeus; was
the queen of heaven, and treated with the same reverence as
her husband, but being inferior in power was bound to obey him
equally with the rest, or suffer if she did not; she was jealous
of Zeus in his amours with mortals, and persecuted all his children
by mortal mothers, Hercules among the chief.
Heracles, i. e. the
chosen of Hera, to be tried by her. See
presumed descendants of Hercules, who at one time invaded and
took possession of the Peloponnesus.
Heraclitus, a Greek philosopher,
born at Ephesus, who flourished about the year 480 B.C.; was
the first to note how everything throughout the universe is
in constant flux, and nothing permanent but in transition from
being to nothing and from nothing to being, from life to death
and from death to life, that nothing is, that everything becomes,
that the truth of being is becoming, that no one, nothing, is
exempt from this law, the law symbolised by the fable of the
Phoenix in the fire (q. v.).
Heraclius, Emperor of the
East from 610 to 642, born in Cappadocia; raised to the throne
of the East on account of the services he rendered the citizens
of Constantinople in getting rid of a tyrant; waged war against
the hostile Persians, defeated Chosroës, and compelled
a peace, but was unable to withstand the arms of the Moslem
Herat (50), the chief town of
the province of Herat, in W. Afghanistan, on the Hari-Rud, 300
m. W. of Cabul; its central position has given it a great commercial
and military importance; it has manufactures of leather and
wool, and as a place of great strategical value, since the advance
of Russia in Asia is strongly fortified by a British citadel
Hérault (462), a maritime
dep. of S. France fronting the Gulf of Lyons; in the N. are
the Cévennes Mountains, but wide plains fringed on the
sea border with large lagoons occupy the S.; the climate, except
on the marshy coast, is dry and healthy; its former importance
as a wine-growing district has greatly diminished, but olives
and almonds are cultivated, sheep and silkworms bred; coal is
the most important mineral; salt is obtained in large quantities
from the salt marshes, and fishing is an important industry.
Herbart, German philosopher,
born at Oldenburg; Kant's successor at Königsberg, professor
also at Göttingen twice over; founded his philosophy like
Kant on the criticism of subjective experience, but arrived
at different results, and arrayed itself against the whole post-Kantian
philosophy of Germany; it is described by
Schwegler "as an extension
of the monadology of Leibnitz, full of ingenuity but devoid
of inward fertility, or any germ of movement"; he failed
to see, as Dr. Stirling points out, that "Philosophy is
possible only on the supposition of a single principle that
possesses within itself the capability of transition into all
existent variety and varieties" (1776-1841).
Herbert, Edward, Lord,
of Cherbury, diplomatist, soldier, and scholar, born at Montgomery
Castle, in Wales; served as a soldier under Maurice of Orange;
was twice ambassador in France, but chiefly devoted to philosophical
speculation; was the first of the deistical writers of England,
though his deism was dogmatic not critical, positive not sceptical,
as that of the subsequent English deists is (1581-1648).
Herbert, George, poet,
brother of the preceding, born in Montgomery Castle; failing
in preferment at Court, took holy orders and became rector of
Bemerton, Wiltshire, a post he lived only two years to hold;
was the author of a Christian poem entitled "The Temple";
held in high regard by people of the devout and reverently contemplative
spirit of the author; his memory is embalmed in a Life of him
by Izaak Walton (1593-1632).
Herbert, Sidney (Lord
Herbert of Lea), politician, born at Richmond; entered the House
of Commons in 1832 as a Tory, and was in turn Secretary to the
Admiralty and War Secretary under Peel; during the Aberdeen
ministry he, as War Secretary, incurred much popular disfavour
for the mismanagement of the Crimean War, but under Palmerston
he effected many beneficial reforms while at the head of the
War Office; he was elevated to the House of Lords in 1860 (1810-1861).
Herculaneum, a city of ancient
Italy, overwhelmed in A.D. 79 along with Pompeii and Stabiæ
by an eruption of Vesuvius, at the north-western base of which
it was situated, 5 m. E. of Naples; so completely was it buried
by the ashes and lava that its site was completely obliterated,
and in time two villages sprang up on the new surface, 40 to
100 ft. below which lay the buried city; relics were discovered
while deepening a well in 1706, and since then a considerable
portion of the town has been excavated, pictures, statues, &c.,
of the greatest value having been brought to light.
Hercules, the typical hero
of the Greeks, son of Zeus and Alkmene, and the tried therefore
of Hera, who persecuted him from his cradle, sending two serpents
to devour him as he lay there, but which he strangled with his
arms; grown into manhood, and distinguished for his stature
and strength, was doomed by the artifice of Hera to a series
of perilous adventures before he could claim his rights as a
son of his father; these are known as the "Twelve Labours
of Hercules": the first the throttling of the Nemean lion;
the second, the killing of the Lernean hydra; the third, the
hunt and capture of the hind of Diana, with its hoofs of brass;
the fourth, the taking alive of the boar of Erymanthus; the
fifth, the cleansing of the stables of Augeas; the sixth, the
destruction of the Stymphalian birds; the seventh, the capture
of the Cretan bull; the eighth, the capture of the mares of
Diomedes of Thrace; the ninth, the seizure of the girdle of
the queen of the Amazons; the tenth, the killing of Geryon and
capture of his oxen; the eleventh, fetching of the golden apples
from the garden of the Hesperides; the twelfth, dragging Cerberus
to the light of day. These were the twelve, but in addition,
he strangled the giant Antæus, slew the robber Cacus,
delivered Hesione, unchained Prometheus
from the rocks of Caucasus, and smote the centaur Nessus, the
last proving the cause of his death. See
Hercules, The Choice of,
the choice of a life of virtue offered to him by Athene, in
preference to a life of pleasure offered by Aphrodité,
in his youth.
Hercules, The Pillars of,
two mountains on the opposite sides of the Strait of Gibraltar,
originally one, but fabled to have been separated by Hercules,
Calpë on the Spanish coast and Abyla on the African.
Hercynian Forest, a
forest of Central Germany, extending at one time from the Rhine
to the Carpathian Mountains, described by Cæsar as nine
days journey in breadth and sixty in length, is now the district
of the Harz Mountains.
Herder, an eminent German thinker,
born at Mohrungen, in East Prussia; studied philosophy under
Kant, but gave himself up chiefly to literature; became acquainted
at Strasburg with Goethe, who was five years his junior, and
exercised a great influence over him in his youth; in after
years was invited by him to Weimar, where he became court preacher
and consistorial councillor, and where he died; wrote the "Spirit
of Hebrew Poetry," "Ideas towards a Philosophy of
the History of Humanity," and "Poems" (1744-1803).
Hereford (20), the county town
of Herefordshire, on the Wye, 144 m. NW. of London; has some
fine old buildings, including a noble cathedral begun in 1079,
ruins of a castle, &c.; it was made the seat of a bishopric
in 676; it is noted for its roses and agricultural produce.
Herefordshire (116), an
inland county of West England, lying on the Welsh border between
Shropshire and Monmouthshire; it is a pretty agricultural county,
through the centre of which runs the Wye; in the E. are the
Malvern Hills and in the SW. the Black Mountains (2631 ft);
the rich red soil produces fine wheat, hops, and apples; there
is some trade in timber, some stone and marble quarrying, and
the cattle are noted; its history is associated with many stirring
historical events, and in various parts are antiquities of considerable
Herennius, a Samnite general,
who defeated the Romans at the Caudine Forks, and made them
pass under the yoke, 321 B.C.
Hereward the Wake, a
Saxon hero, a yeoman, who made a gallant effort to rally his
countrymen against the Norman Conqueror; he made his final stand
on the Isle of Ely, Cambridgeshire (1070-71), cut his way through
the besieging army, and escaped to the Fens; subsequently it
is supposed he became reconciled to William and held estates.
Herford (16), a Prussian town
in Westphalia, 59 m. SW. of Hanover; manufactures textiles,
Hergest, The Red Book of,
an important volume of Welsh writings in MS., preserved at Oxford;
it dates from the 14th century; was compiled at Hergest Court,
and is the most valuable Welsh MS. extant.
Heriot, George, founder
of Heriot's Hospital, a splendid educational establishment in
his native city, Edinburgh; was a prosperous goldsmith there;
did work for Anne of Denmark, consort of James VI. of Scotland;
in 1603 removed with the court to London and combining banking
with his other business, he amassed a great fortune, and, dying
childless, left his property to found and endow the educational
institution referred to, and which still bears his name; in
1837 the accumulated surplus funds were utilised in establishing
10 free schools in Edinburgh, which, however, were closed in
1885, and the original Hospital reconstructed as a secondary
and technical school, while a portion of the funds was used
in subsidising the Heriot-Watt College and in founding bursaries
Héristal (12), a town
of Belgium, on the Meuse, practically a NE. suburb of Liège;
the inhabitants are largely employed in coal-mining and in flourishing
iron-works; the ruins of a castle, the birthplace of Pépin
d'Héristal, still remains.
Herkomer, Hubert, artist,
born at Waal, Bavaria; his father removing to England in 1857,
young Hubert became a distinguished student of the Southampton
School of Art; he has been a prolific artist, and many of his
portraits have become celebrated; the "Last Muster"
(1875) is reckoned his finest work; he has been twice Slade
professor at Oxford, and in 1890 was elected R.A.; the School
of Art at Bushey was founded by him, and he has displayed his
versatility of talent in carving, engraving, and writing, as
well as in painting; b. 1849.
Hermandad, Santa (i.
e. Holy Brotherhood), an association of the principal cities
of Spain leagued together at first against the pillagings and
robberies of the nobles, and eventually against all forms of
violence and lawlessness in the State.
Hermann and Dorothea,
the title of an idyll by Goethe.
Hermannstadt (22), an old
historic town of Hungary, formerly capital of Transylvania;
overlooks the Zibin; 60 m. SE. of Klausenburg; is the seat of
a Greek archbishop and of a "Saxon" university. Amongst
its notable buildings is the Bruckenthal Palace, with valuable
art, library, and antiquarian collections; has various manufactures.
Hermas, one of the Apostolic
Fathers of the Church; wrote a work in Greek called the "Shepherd
of Hermas," extant in Latin, and treating of Christian
Hermes, the Mercury of the Romans;
in the Greek mythology the herald of the gods and the god of
eloquence and of all kinds of cunning and dexterity in word
and action; invented the lyre, the alphabet, numbers, astronomy,
music, the cultivation of the olive, &c.; was the son of
Zeus and Maia; wore on embassy a winged cap, winged sandals,
and carried a herald's wand as symbol of his office.
or the Thrice-greatest, an Egyptian or Egyptian god to whose
teachings or inspirations the Neo-Platonists ascribed the great
body of their peculiar doctrines, and whom they regarded as
an incarnation or impersonation of the Logos.
Hermi`one, the beautiful daughter
of Menelaus and Helen; married to Pyrrhus, son of Achilles,
but carried off by Orestes, her first love.
Hermodeus, a son of Odin and
messenger of the Norse gods.
Hernia, the name given to the
protrusion of an internal organ, specially a part of the intestines.
Hero, a priestess of Venus at Sestos,
in Thrace, beloved by Leander of Abydos, on the opposite shore,
who swam the Hellespont every night to visit her, but was drowned
one stormy evening, whereupon at sight of his dead body on the
beach she threw herself into the sea.
Hero, a mathematician, born at
Alexandria in the first half of the 2nd century; celebrated
for his experiments on condensed air, and his anticipation of
the pressure of steam.
Hero, a name given by the Greeks
to human beings of such superhuman faculties as to be regarded
the offspring of some god, and applied in modern times to men
of an intellect and force of character
of such transcendent nature as to inspire ordinary mortals with
something like religious regard.
Herod, the name of a family of
Idumæan origin but Jewish creed, who rose into power in
Judea shortly prior to the dissolution of the Jewish nationality;
the chief members of which were Herod The Great, king
of the Jews by favour of the Romans, who made away with all
his rivals, caused his own children to be strangled on suspicion
of their conspiring against him, and died a painful death; who
massacred the Innocents about Bethlehem, and whose death took
place 4 B.C., the true date of the Nativity of Christ: and
Herod Antipas, his son, tetrarch of Galilee, who beheaded
John the Baptist, and to whom Christ was remitted by Pilate
for examination, and who died in exile at Lyons.
Herodians, a party in Judea
who from motives of self-interest supported the dynasty of the
Herodotus, the oldest historian
of Greece, and the "Father of History," born at Halicarnassus,
in Caria, between 490 and 480 B.C.; travelled over Asia Minor,
Egypt, and Syria as far as Babylon, and in his old age recorded
with due fidelity the fruits of his observations and inquiries,
the main object of his work being to relate the successive stages
of the strife between the free civilisation of Greece and the
despotic barbarism of Persia for the sovereignty of the world,
an interest in which Alexander the Great drew sword in the century
following (484-408 B.C.).
Herophilus, a celebrated
Greek physician who lived into the 3rd century B.C., born at
Chalcedon, and settled at Alexandria, where he devoted himself
specially to anatomy and helped to found the medical school
in that city; his zeal is said to have led him to dissect criminals
alive; some of his writings are yet extant.
Herrera, Antonio, Spanish
historian, born at Cuellar; under Philip II. he became historiographer
of the Indies and Castile; he was a voluminous writer, and his "Description
of the Indies," "History of the World in the Reign
of Philip II.," from their fairness and accuracy are reckoned
authoritative works on Spanish history (1549-1625).
Herrera, Fernando de,
Spanish poet, born at Seville, and took orders; in his lifetime
his lyrics enjoyed a wide popularity, and won for him the epithet "divine";
his "Battle of Lepanto" is a spirited ode, and many
of his other works, including a prose history of the "War
in Cyprus," are still read (1534-1597).
a distinguished Spanish painter, founder of the Seville school,
born at Seville; his finest paintings include "The Last
Judgment" and a "Holy Family," both in churches
at Seville; others are in the Louvre, Paris; they exhibit boldness
of execution with faultless technique (1576-1656). He is known
as El viejo, "the elder," to distinguish him
from Francisco Herrera, his son, also a noted painter
Herrick, Robert, a Caroline
poet, born in London, of good family; was incumbent of Dean
Prior in Devonshire; author of the "Hesperides," published
in 1648, a collection of "gay and charming" pieces, "in
which," says Stopford Brooke, "Horace and Tibullus
seem to mingle their peculiar art, which never misses its aim
nor fails in exquisite execution" (1591-1674).
Herrnhut, a small Saxon town,
50 m. E. of Dresden; gave name to a colony of Moravian Brethren
who took refuge there in 1792, and were protected by Count Zinzendorf.
Herschel, Sir John,
astronomer, only son of Sir William; prosecuted with great diligence
and success the same researches as his father; spent four years
at the Cape, and added much to our knowledge of the stars and
meteorology; contributed a "Preliminary Discourse on the
Study of Natural Philosophy" to Lardner's "Cyclopædia,"
and an excellent "Treatise on Astronomy," afterwards
sister of the succeeding; was his assistant, and made important
observations of her own, which were published; retired after
her brother's death to Hanover, where she died (1750-1848).
Herschel, Sir William,
a distinguished astronomer, born at Hanover; son of a musician,
and bred to the profession; came to England at the end of the
Seven Years' War, and obtained sundry appointments as an organist;
gave his leisure time to the study of astronomy and survey of
the heavens; discovered the planet Uranus in 1781, which he
called Georgium sidus in honour of George III., discovered
also the two innermost belts of Saturn, as well as drew up a
catalogue of 5000 heavenly bodies or clusters of them (1738-1822).
Hertford (7), the county town
of Hertfordshire, on the Lea, 26 m. N. of London; some few remains
of its famous 10th-century castle still exist, and there are
several charity schools, a castle built in James I.'s time,
and a branch of Christ's Hospital (London); the chief trade
is in corn, malt, and flour; in the vicinity is
Haileybury College (q.
Hertfordshire or Herts
(220), an inland county of England, occupying a central position
between Buckingham and Bedford on the W. and Essex on the E.;
the surface is undulating and much covered with wood; the Lea
and the Colne are the chief rivers; large crops of barley, wheat,
and hay are raised; straw-plaiting and the manufacture of paper,
silk, and chemicals are carried on extensively, while Ware is
the centre of the English malting trade;
St. Albans (q. v.) is
the largest town.
Hertha, the Scandinavian Cybele,
and worshipped with kindred ceremonies.
Hertz, Henrik, Danish poet,
born in Copenhagen of Jewish parents; graduated in law at Copenhagen,
and produced his first work, a comedy, in 1827; "Letters
of a Ghost," a satire, followed three years later, and
had a wide vogue; his best-known work is "King René's
Daughter," which has been translated into English for the
fourth time by Sir Theodore Martin; he is considered one of
the greatest of modern Danish lyrists and dramatists (1798-1870).
Hervey, James, clergyman
and poet, born at Hardingstone, near Northampton; graduated
at Oxford; became curate and subsequently the zealous incumbent
of two livings near Northampton; was the author of "Meditations
among the Tombs"; was held in great popular favour during
his lifetime (1714-1758).
Bittenfeld, Karl Eberhard, a Prussian general; came
to the front during the war of liberation, and in 1864 as general
captured the Isle of Alsen, and two years later operated with
great success at the head of the army in Saxony and Bohemia;
during the Franco-German War he became governor of the Rhine
provinces and a field-marshal (1796-1884).
Herz, Henri, pianist and composer,
born in Vienna, the son of a Jew; his compositions attained
a wide popularity in Europe, and as a pianist he was received
with great favour in England and America; he was decorated with
the Legion of Honour, and from 1842 to
1874 was professor at the Paris Conservatoire; b. 1806.
Herzen, Alexander, a
Russian political writer and revolutionary, born at Moscow;
expelled from Russia in 1842; settled in England, and published
works forbidden in Russia (1812-1870).
Hesiod, one of the earliest Greek
poets, born in Boeotia, lived in the 8th century B.C., chiefly
at Orchomenos, probably of humble birth; of the works ascribed
to him the principal were the "Works and Days" the "Theogony,"
and the "Shield of Hercules"; his poems treat of the
quiet pursuits of ordinary life, the origin of the world, the
gods and heroes, while those of Homer are occupied with the
restless and active enterprises of the heroic age.
Hesperides, maidens of high
degree appointed to guard the golden apples presented to Hera
by Gaia on her marriage with Zeus, assisted in their office
by the dragon Ladon; the apples were stolen by Hercules, but
were afterwards restored by Athene.
Hesperus, the personification
of the evening star and an object of worship.
Hesse or Hesse-Darmstadt
(993), a grand-duchy of the German empire, lies partly in, and
partly on the border of, SW. Prussia; consists of two large
portions, divided by a strip of Hesse-Nassau, and 11 enclaves;
half the land is under cultivation, and the greater part of
what remains is covered with forest; its many rivers belong
mostly to the Rhine system; corn is raised in large quantities,
iron and manganese are found, and there are flourishing manufactures
of leather, upholstery, tobacco, &c.; the legislative power
is vested in two chambers; Mainz is the largest town, and Darmstadt
Hesse-Cassel (745), a government
district in Hesse-Nassau
(q. v.); as an electorate it sided with Austria in 1866,
which brought about its incorporation with Prussia.
Hesse-Nassau (1,664), a
province in the SW. of Germany, between the Rhine on the W.
and Bavaria and Saxony on the E.; was formed in 1868 out of
the electorate of Hesse-Cassel, duchy of Nassau, &c.; the
country is hilly, abounds in minerals, which are extensively
worked, but agriculture and cattle-rearing are the chief industries;
the medicinal springs of Homburg, Wiesbaden, &c., are celebrated;
Cassel is noted for its gold and silver ware; damasks and other
textiles are produced at Fulda, and at Hanau are flourishing
iron-works; Marburg has a fine university.
Hestia, called Vesta by the Romans,
the Greek goddess of the hearth, or rather the fire that burns
in it, the guardian of domestic life, conceived of as a most
Hesychasts, a religious sect
of the 14th century belonging to the Greek Church; consisted
chiefly of a community of monks who dwelt at Mount Athos; they
professed a kind of Quietism
(q. v.), and were noted for their practice of sitting
for hours daily with their eyes fixed upon the navel (regarding
the stomach as the seat of the soul); in this position they
professed to see a divine light beaming out upon them, and to
enjoy therein a specially intimate communion with God. See
Hesychius, a Greek grammarian
of the 5th century, born at Alexandria; produced a Greek lexicon
of great philological value.
(i. e. State-Councillor Grasshopper), a loose, zigzag
figure in "Sartor," a mend and blind admirer of Teufelsdröckh's,
an incarnation of distraction distracted, and all the counsellor
the "editor" had to advise him and encourage him in
his work; a victim to "timidity" and preyed on by
an uncomfortable sense of mere "physical cold," such
as the majority of the State counsellors of the day were.
Hexateuch, the name given
to the first six books of the Bible.
Hexham (6), an interesting old
town in Northumberland, prettily situated on the Tyne, 24 m.
W. of Newcastle; has a fine cruciform abbey church, portions
of which belong to the 12th century, and beautiful remains of
a 7th-century monastery; the staple industries are glove and
hat making; the river is spanned by a stone bridge of nine arches.
Heylin, Peter, English divine,
born at Burford; graduated at Oxford, and in 1629 became chaplain-in-ordinary
to Charles I.; was a zealous champion of the Church of England;
forfeited his livings and property during the Puritan ascendency,
but was reinstated at the Restoration; he wrote a "Defence
of the Church of England," "Life of Bishop Laud," &c.
Heyne, Christian Gottlob,
a German classical scholar, born at Chemnitz, son of a poor
weaver, and reared all along almost on the verge of destitution;
became eminent by his heroic devotion to scholarship, both as
a translator and editor of classical works, his edition of "Virgil"
the chief in the latter department; Carlyle almost ranks him
among his heroes, and ascribes superlative merit to his book
on Virgil (1729-1812).
Heyse, Paul Johann,
German poet and novelist, born at Berlin; in 1854 he settled
at Münich, where he enjoyed the patronage of King Max of
Bavaria; he has been a voluminous writer of popular novelettes,
novels, dramas, and narrative poems, besides which he has executed
translations of Leopardi, Giusti, and other Italian authors;
Heywood (23), a town of Lancashire,
9 m. N. of Manchester; owes its rapid growth to the neighbouring
coal-fields and the development of the cotton industry; has
also flourishing iron and brass foundries, woollen factories, &c.
Heywood, John, a dramatic
poet, a favourite with Henry VIII. and his court; wrote farces,
the characters of which were drawn from real life, presumably
not hard to identify at the time (1479-1565).
Hezekiah, a king of Judah;
reigned from 725 to 697 B.C.; distinguished for his zeal in
the celebration of the worship of Jehovah and for his weakness
in making a parade of his wealth; reigned in the golden age
of Hebrew prophecy, Isaiah and Micah being his contemporaries.
Hiawatha, the subject of a
poem of Longfellow's; a personage reverenced by the North American
Indians as the founder among them of the arts of peace, as well
as the clearer of the forests.
Hibbert Lectures, unsectarian
lectures instituted by the trustees of Robert Hibbert, a West
India merchant, devoted to the discussion of unsolved problems
Hibernia, the classical name
for Ireland, which to the ancient world was in the main a
Hicks, Elias, an American
preacher of the Quaker connection, who adopted Unitarian views
and caused a split in the body (1748-1830).
Sir Michael Edward, Conservative politician, born in
London; educated at Eton and Oxford, and in 1864 entered Parliament;
took office as Under-Secretary for Home Affairs under Disraeli,
and in 1874 became Secretary for Ireland; four years later he
was Lord Carnarvon's successor at the Colonial Office, Chancellor
of the Exchequer and Leader of the House
of Commons in 1885, Secretary for Ireland in 1886, President
of the Board of Trade in 1888, and in 1895, on the formation
of a Coalition Ministry, again became Chancellor of the Exchequer;
Hierapolis, 1, an ancient
city of Syria Cyrrhestica, now in ruins, situated between Antioch
and Mesopotamia, 14 m. W. of the Euphrates; had considerable
commercial importance, and was famous for its great temple of
Astarte. 2, A city of ancient Phrygia, 5 m. N. of Laodicea;
the birthplace of Epictetus, and where Paul founded a church;
was celebrated for its hot springs.
Hiero I., tyrant of Syracuse;
broke the naval power of Etruria by victory over the Etruscan
fleet near Cannæ, 474 B.C.; was an enlightened patron
of men of letters, many of whom he entertained at his court, Æschylus,
Pindar, and Simonides among the number; d. 467 B.C.
Hiero II., king of Syracuse,
for near half a century the steadfast friend and ally of the
Romans; unlike his namesake he was averse to display, and was
accustomed to appear in public in the garb of a common citizen;
he ruled his country well; d. 216 B.C. at the age of
Higden, Ralph, author of
the "Polychronicon"; was a Benedictine monk, who spent
his long life in St. Werburgh's monastery, Chester; the work
with which his name is associated is an account of the world
down to the end of Edward III.'s reign, but the chronicle of
the last 50 years is supposed to have been written by other
hands; Caxton published a translation made by John Trevisa;
d. about 1307.
Higgins, Matthew James,
essayist, wrote under the nom de plume of "Jacob
Omnium," born at Benown, Ireland; was educated at Eton
and Oxford, and spent many years in European travel; his numerous
papers, which appeared in the leading magazines and newspapers,
were principally directed against social abuses, and are characterised
by a humour and pungent irony not unlike his friend Thackeray's
Higginson, Thomas Wentworth,
an American author and abolitionist, born at Cambridge, Massachusetts;
graduated at Harvard, and took orders, but resigned in 1858
to devote himself to politics in the anti-slavery interest;
during the Civil War he commanded the first regiment of freed
slaves; subsequently he resumed literary work, and in 1880 became
a member of the Massachusetts Legislature; he wrote a "History
of the United States," "Army Life in a Black Regiment," &c.;
High Church, that section
of the Episcopal Church in England who attach supreme importance
to the administration of word and sacrament by clergy duly ordained,
and regarded by them as such, the sole divinely appointed media
of divine grace.
High Places, elevated spots
on which altars were erected for worship in the rude belief
that, as they were nearer heaven than the plains and valleys,
they were more favourable places for prayer. The practice of
worship on these spots, though from the first forbidden, became
frequent among the Jews, and was with difficulty abolished,
though denounced time after time by the prophets as an affront
High Seas, as understood in
international law means the entire sea or ocean area which lies
beyond a three-mile belt of coast water. This coastal strip
is called the mare clausum, and the rights of fishing, &c.,
in it are reserved to the country upon which it borders.
Highgate, a noted suburb of
London, 5 m. N. of the General Post-Office; the burial-place
of Coleridge, George Eliot, and Faraday. Dick Whittington's
Stone is at the foot of Highgate Hill.
Hilarion, St., founder of
monachism in Palestine; was a convert of St. Anthony, and of
great repute for sanctity (291-372). Festival, Oct. 21.
Hilary, St., bishop of Poitiers,
of which he was a native; distinguished himself by his zeal
against the Arians; his writings valuable in connection with
that controversy; d. 367. Festival, Jan. 13.
Hildesheim (33), a town in
Hanover, Prussia, on the Innerste, 24 m. SE. of Hanover; is
a quaint old town, and has several ancient churches, notably
a noble cathedral of the 11th century, with famous bronze gates;
trades in corn, linen, &c.
Hill, Rev. Rowland, a
popular but eccentric preacher, born in Hawkeston, the son of
a baronet, came under the influence of Whitfield and the Methodist
movement, and while yet an undergraduate became an itinerant
preacher; he took orders in 1774; but continued his open-air
preaching till 1783, when he established himself in London,
starting an unlicensed place of worship, although still remaining
a communicant of the Church of England; he originated the first
Sunday School in London, and was the author of several religious
works, including a volume of hymns (1744-1833).
Hill, Sir Rowland, originator
of the penny postage, born at Kidderminster; commenced life
as a teacher and educationist; interested himself in the colonisation
of South Australia, and held a post in connection with it; published
in 1837 his pamphlet, "Post-Office Reforms," and saw
his scheme of uniform postage rate adopted three years after,
though not till 1354 did he become secretary to the Postmaster-General
or have full power and opportunity to carry his views out (1795-1879).
Hill, Viscount, British
general, born in Shropshire; entered the army at fifteen, served
under Sir John Moore, and under the Duke of Wellington in the
Peninsula and at Waterloo, where he commanded a division; succeeded
Wellington in 1828 as commander-in-chief (1772-1842).
Hillel, an eminent and influential
Jewish Rabbi, born in Babylon about 112 B.C.; devoted his life
to the study of the Jewish law, formed a digest of it, and founded
a school; was a good and wise man and teacher; died at a great
age, 120 years old it is said.
Himalayas ("the abode
of snow"), a stupendous mountain chain stretching 1500
m. along the northern frontier of India, and dividing that country
from Thibet; forty-five of its peaks attain a greater height
than those of any other mountain system in the world; Mount
Everest, the loftiest, reaches 29,002 ft.; the best-known pass
is the Karakoram Pass (18,550 ft.), leading into Eastern
Turkestan; there are few lakes, but amid the snowy heights rise
the rivers Ganges, Indus, Brahmaputra, &c.; gold, iron,
copper, and lead are wrought.
Hinckley (10), a nicely built
town of Leicestershire, 13 m. W. of Leicester; has an interesting
old parish church of Edward III.'s time; does a good trade in
hosiery, baskets, boots, &c.
Hinc`mar, a famous Frankish
churchman; was appointed archbishop of Rheims, in which capacity
he maintained an independent attitude towards the Papal See,
and distinguished himself as a champion of ecclesiastical liberty
Hind, John Russell,
an eminent astronomer, born at Nottingham; at 17 he obtained
a post in the Greenwich Observatory;
subsequently became observer in Mr. Bishop's private observatory,
Regent's Park, where his untiring assiduity was rewarded by
the discovery of several new movable stars and 10 minor planets;
he received various honours from societies; was President of
the Royal Astronomical Society, and in 1852 was pensioned by
Government; his works include "The Comets," "The
Solar System," &c. (1823-1895).
Hindley (19), a busy manufacturing
town in Lancashire, 3 m. SE. of Wigan; the staple industry is
the manufacture of cotton; in the vicinity are large coal-mines.
Hindu Kush, a lofty mountain
range stretching 365 m. from the western extremity of the Himalayas,
from which it is cut off by the valley of the Indus into Afghanistan,
which it divides from Turkestan; it attains an elevation of
23,000 ft.; is crossed by several passes, and is rich in minerals,
especially iron; the tribes that inhabit it are chiefly Shins
Hinduism, the name given to
certain forms of religion among the Hindus, the characteristics
of which are the worship of divinities exalted above the rest,
and the highly concrete and intensely personal conception of
these, which comes out in sundry accounts respecting them of
a biographical nature which divinities are identified either
with Çiva or Vishnu, and their religions called Çivaite
or Vishnuite, while their respective followers are styled Çaivas
Hindustan, a name sometimes
loosely applied to the entire Indian peninsula, but which, strictly
speaking, embraces only the country of the upper valley of the
Ganges, divided into NW. Provinces, Oude, and Behar; the language
spoken is Hindi, a pure Sanskritic tongue, on which Hindustani
is based, but with large Persian and Arabic admixtures.
Hindustani, the official
and common language of India.
Hinton, James, aurist and
metaphysician, born at Reading; after taking his degree was
for some time at sea and in Jamaica, but in 1850 established
himself in London; specialising in ear-diseases he rose to the
top of his profession, becoming lecturer at Guy's Hospital;
his leisure was earnestly devoted to philosophy, and gave fruit
in "Man and his Dwelling-Place," "The Mystery
of Pain," "Philosophy and Religion," &c.
Hiouen-Thsang, a Chinese
Buddhist, who in the 7th century traversed India collecting
books bearing upon the creed and law of Buddhism, and spent
his time after his return in translating them.
Hipparchus, ancient astronomer,
born at Nicæa; flourished in the 2nd century B.C.; discovered
among other things the precession of the equinoxes, determined
the place of the equinox, and catalogued 1000 fixed stars.
Hippias, tyrant of Athens, son
of Pisistratus; expelled from Athens, applied to the Persians
to reinstate him, and kindled the first Persian War with Greece;
fell at Marathon, 490 B.C.
Hippocrates, the father
of medicine, born at Cos, 460 B.C.; was a contemporary of Socrates
and Plato; was of wide-spread renown as a physician; settled
in Thessaly and died at Larissa advanced in years; no fewer
than 60 writings are ascribed to him, but only a few are genuine.
Hippocrene (lit. the
fountain of the horse), a fountain on Mount Helicon, in Boeotia,
sacred to the Muses, and said to have been caused by
Pegasus (q. v.) striking
the spot with his hoof.
Hippodami`a, in the legendary
lore of Greece, was the beautiful daughter of Oenomaus, king
of Pisa, in Elis, and the pleiad Sterope; the oracle had foretold
death to Oenomaus on the occasion of his daughter's marriage,
to prevent which the king had made it a condition that each
suitor should run a chariot race with him, and that, if defeated,
should be put to death; many had perished in the attempt to
beat the king, till Pelops, by bribing Oenomaus's charioteer,
won the race; the king in a frenzy killed himself, and the kingdom
and the fair Hippodamia passed to Pelops.
Hippolytë, queen of the
Amazons, slain by Hercules in order to obtain and carry off
her magic girdle.
Hippolytus, St., bishop
of Portus, near Rome; lived in the 3rd century B.C.; a lost
work of his, "A Refutation of all the Heresies," was
discovered at Mount Athos in 1842, his authorship of which Bunsen
vindicated in "Hippolytus and his Age."
Hispania, the ancient name
of Spain and Portugal among the Latins.
Hissar, 1, a district (776) in
the Punjab, India; for the most part sandy, yet in rainy years
produces good crops of rice, barley, &c., and is noted for
its white cattle; the capital (14), bearing the same name, is
situated on the Western Jumna Canal, 102 m. W. of Delhi. 2,
Also a district in Central Asia, a dependency of the Khan of
Bokhara lying N. of the Oxus River, and separated from Bokhara
by a branch of the Thian Shan Mountains; has a fertile soil,
and exports corn, sheep, &c., to Bokhara.
Histology, the science of
tissues, vegetable and animal.
Hitchcock, Edward, American
geologist, born in Massachusetts; reported on the geology of
his native State, and on the agricultural schools of Europe;
wrote "Elementary Geology" and the "Religion
of Geology" (1793-1864).
Hitchin (9), a very old and
still prosperous town of Hertfordshire, on the Hiz, 14 m. NW.
of Hertford; does a flourishing trade in corn, malt, and flour;
brewing and straw-plaiting are important industries, and it
has long been noted for its lavender and lavender water.
Hitopadesa (i. e.
good instruction), a celebrated Sanskrit collection of fables,
which in the substance of them have passed into all the civilised
literatures of the world.
Hittites, one of the original
tribes of Canaan, and one of the most powerful, whose dominion
extended at one time as far as the border of Egypt on the one
hand, and Mesopotamia on the other, and northward beyond the
Taurus Mountains, traces of which have been discovered over
all Asia Minor, while they were strong enough to engage in war
with the Egyptians; they had two capitals, Kadesh on the Orontes,
and Carchemish on the Euphrates.
Hitzig, Ferdinand, a
German Orientalist and biblical scholar, born in Baden; devoted
himself to Old Testament studies; was professor of Theology
first at Zurich and then at Heidelberg; his principal works
bore on Old Testament exegesis (1807-1875).
Hoadly, Benjamin, an
English prelate, born in Kent; was a keen controversialist;
argued stoutly in defence of civil and religious liberty, and
was an opponent of the pretensions of the High Church party
Hoang-ho ("Yellow River"),
one of the chief rivers of China, rises in the plain of Odontala,
south of the Kuen-lun Mountains, and sweeps with impetuous current
in a more or less north-easterly direction, discharging into
the Gulf of Pechili after a course of 3000 m.; it is for the
most part quite unnavigable, and its
frequent floods are a constant menace to the districts through
which it flows.
Hobart (25), capital of Tasmania,
is situated on the estuary of the Derwent, at the base of Mount
Wellington; is handsomely laid out in the form of a square;
is the seat of government, and has many fine public buildings;
has a splendid natural harbour; the manufacture of flour, jam,
leather, besides brewing, shipbuilding, and iron-founding, are
its chief industries; it has extensive suburbs, and is a favourite
Hobart Pasha, Turkish admiral;
was a son of the Duke of Buckingham; distinguished himself in
the British navy before he entered the Turkish service; had
during the Russo-Turkish war in 1877 to withdraw from the service
of the Queen, and shortly afterwards died (1822-1886).
a famous Dutch landscape painter, born at Amsterdam; lived chiefly
in his native town, and died in poverty; his fine, subdued pictures
of woodland life and scenery are ranked amongst the masterpieces
of Dutch landscape painting, and are the valued possessions
of the National Galleries in London, Berlin, Vienna, &c.
Hobbes, Thomas, an English
philosopher, psychologist, and moralist, born at Malmesbury;
was educated at Oxford; connected all his days with the Cavendish
family, with members of which he travelled on the Continent,
and was on friendly terms with Charles II., Bacon, Descartes, &c.;
translated Thucydides, wrote a number of works, "De Cive"
among others, and the "Leviathan," all more or less
leading up to the doctrine that the absolute sovereign power
in all matters of right and wrong is vested in the State as
the achieved fact of the emancipation of the race from savagery
Hobhouse, John Cam, English
politician, a friend of Byron; represented Nottingham and Norwich
in Parliament in the Liberal interest, and held several ministerial
Ho`boken (59), a city of New
Jersey, on the Hudson River, adjoining Jersey City and opposite
New York; is an important railway terminus and shipping-port;
does a large trade in coal, lead-pencils, iron-casting, &c.
Hobson, a Cambridge stabler who
let out horses on hire, the choice always limited to the one
next the door, the one that had been longest in, hence Hobson's
Hoccleve or Occleve, Thomas,
an early English poet; had an appointment in the Exchequer Office
in Henry V.'s time; his chief work is the "Government of
Princes," but his poems have more linguistic than poetic
interest; has left us an interesting portrait of his contemporary,
Hoche, La, French general, born
near Versailles; rose from the ranks to the command of the army
of the Moselle; drove the Austrians out of Alsace, and suppressed
the rising in and pacified La Vendée; while yet a sergeant
bore a hand conspicuously at the overturn of the Bastille (17681797).
Hochkirch, a village in Saxony
where Frederick the Great was defeated by the Austrian Marshal
Daun in 1758.
Hodge. Charles, an American
theologian, born at Philadelphia; graduated at Princeton, and
in 1822 became professor in the Theological Seminary in Princeton,
a post he held till the close of his life; besides founding
and editing the Princeton Review, was the author of various
commentaries, but is best known by his "Systematic Theology,"
which is still a standard text-book (1797-1878).
Hodgkinson, Eaton, a
distinguished engineer, born at Anderton, near Norwich; was
professor of Engineering in University College, London; became
a leading authority on bridge construction, and carried through
elaborate experiments testing the strength of iron girders;
co-operated in planning the Britannia Tubular Bridge (1789-1861).
Hodgson, Brian Houghton,
Orientalist, born near Macclesfield; served in the East India
Company, and was Resident in Nepal for more than 20 years; was
a voluminous writer on Eastern ethnology, languages, and zoology,
and his valuable collection of MSS. remains the chief source
of our knowledge of northern Buddhism (1800-1895).
Hodson, Major William,
a noted leader during the Indian Mutiny; joined the Indian Army
in 1845, fought through the first Sikh War, and subsequently
held a civil post in the Punjab; on the outbreak of the Mutiny
he became head of the Intelligence Department, and won celebrity
as the daring but wild leader of an irregular cavalry regiment
known as Hodson's Horse; he took part in the sieges of Delhi,
and at Lucknow captured the Mogul Emperor; shot down with his
own hand the young princes, and a few months later fell himself
while storming a palace in the city (1821-1858).
Hof (25), a town of Bavaria, on
the Saale, 40 m. NE. of Baireuth; has flourishing textile factories,
breweries, and iron-works; is associated with the early struggles
of Jean Paul Richter.
Hofer, Andreas, Tyrolese
patriot; was leader of the Tyrolese against the Bavarians and
the French, and the emancipator thrice over of his country,
but was eventually betrayed by his enemies into the hands of
the French, condemned by court-martial at Mantua, and shot;
his family were indemnified afterwards by the Emperor of Austria,
and his son ennobled (1767-1810).
Hoffmann, August Heinrich,
poet and philologist, born at Fallersleben; studied literature
and philology under the influence of the Grimms, and in 1835
was appointed professor of the German Language at Breslau, a
post he forfeited seven years later by publishing "Lays"
of somewhat radical tendencies; he led an unsettled life till
1860, when he became librarian to the Duke of Ratibor; his writings
include "German Social Songs of the 16th and 17th Centuries," "German
Philology," an "Autobiography" in six vols.,
lyrics, &c. (1798-1874).
Theodore Wilhelm, a celebrated German writer, whose
versatility displayed itself in numerous tales, sketches, art-criticisms, &c.,
all bearing the impress of a strong, if wayward, intellect;
born at Königsberg, was trained to the law, and entered
the State service; his position at Warsaw was lost to him on
the entry of the French troops in 1806, and for some years he
supported himself by musical criticism in Leipzig, and as Director
of a Dresden Opera Company; in 1816 he was again in government
service at Berlin, where he continued till his death; his writings
are strongly characteristic of the romanticism of his time,
while he himself was a witty, restless leader of Bohemian life
Hogarth, William, a famous
English painter, caricaturist, and engraver, born in London;
served his time as a silversmith's apprentice; studied painting,
and began to support himself by engraving and etching; unsuccessful
in his attempts at portrait-painting, he at length found his
true vocation in depicting the follies and vices of his age; "A
Harlot's Progress," a series of six pictures engraved by
himself, appeared in 1731, and was soon followed by others of
a like nature, including "A Rake's Progress," "Strolling
Actresses dressing in a Barn," "Marriage à
la Mode," "Idleness and Industry"; he also produced
some indifferent historical paintings; in 1757 he was appointed
sergeant-painter to the king; in his own department Hogarth
has never been equalled, and in the opinion of Sir Joshua Reynolds,
never will be; the deep moral purpose of his best pictures,
made known throughout the country by abundant prints, must have
helped not a little to reform the manners of his time (1697-1764).
Hogg, James, a Scottish poet,
born in Ettrick; had little or no schooling; was bred a shepherd;
took to rhyming; fell in with Sir Walter Scott, whom he assisted
with his "Border Minstrelsy"; rented a farm, and first
came into notice by the publication of his poem, the "Queen's
Wake"; he wrote in prose as well as poetry, with humour
as well as no little graphic power; "was," says Carlyle, "a
little red-skinned stiff sack of a body, with two little blue
or grey eyes that sparkled, if not with thought, yet with animation;
was a real product of nature" (1782-1835).
Hohenlinden, a village in
Upper Bavaria, 20 m. E. of Münich; celebrated as the scene
of a victory by the French under Moreau over the Austrians under
Archduke John on 3rd December 1800.
the third dynasty of the Romish kaisers, which held the imperial
throne from 1138 to 1254, commencing with Frederick I., or Barbarossa,
and ending with Conrad IV., five in all; derived their name
from a castle on the Hohenstauffen Berg, by the left bank of
the Danube, 30 m. below Stuttgart.
the family which in 1415 became Electors of Brandenburg, kings
of Prussia, and are now at length emperors of Germany; derived
their name from an old castle so called near the springs of
the Danube, a little way north from Constance and its lake.
Holbach, Baron von, a French
philosophe born in Heidelsheim, in the Palatinate, of wealthy
parents; lived from youth all his days in Paris, kept a good
table, and entertained all the "Encyclopédie"
notabilities at his board; wrote "Système de la
Nature," and was a materialist in philosophy and an atheist
in religion, but a kind-hearted man (1723-1789).
Holbein, Hans, a German
painter, born at Augsburg, trained by his father; attracted
the attention of Erasmus, who took a great interest in him,
and persuaded him to go to England, and introduced him to Sir
Thomas More, who in turn introduced him to Henry VIII.; here
under Henry's patronage he remained, executing numerous portraits
of his courtiers, till his death of the plague; his "Last
Supper" and "Dance of Death" are well known (1497-1554).
Holberg, Ludwig, Baron,
an eminent Danish author, born at Bergen, in Norway; graduated
at Copenhagen, where, after travel, he became professor of Metaphysics;
subsequently he held in turn the chairs of Eloquence and of
History; he was an author of great versatility, excelling as
a writer of satires, comedies, and as historian of Church and
State; his autobiography is an interesting work, and many of
his plays and other works are among the accepted classics of
Danish literature (1684-1754).
Holcroft, Thomas, journalist
and political novelist, born in London; began life as an actor;
wrote "Road to Ruin"; was charged with treason, but
acquitted; left "Memoirs" (1744-1809).
Holden, Sir Isaac, inventor,
born at Hurlet, Renfrewshire; worked in a cotton-mill in Paisley,
but betook himself to teaching, and in 1829, while a teacher
of chemistry in Reading, discovered the principle of the lucifer
match; turning to wool-combing as a means of livelihood, he
became established near Paris, where he carried out elaborate
experiments, which resulted in improvements in wool-combing
machinery that brought him fame and fortune; in 1859 he transferred
his works to the vicinity of Bradford; entered Parliament in
1865, and was created a baronet in 1893 (1807-1897).
English chronicler of the Elizabethan age; his "Chronicle,"
published in two vols. in 1577, supplied Shakespeare with materials
for some of his historical plays; d. 1580.
Holl, Frank, artist, born
in Kentish Town; was highly distinguished as an art student,
and at 23 won the travelling studentship of the Academy; came
into notice first as a genre-painter, exhibiting pictures
of a pathetic nature, such as "Want—the Pawnbroker's
Shop," "Newgate—Committed for Trial," "Ordered
to the Front," &c.; subsequently he won a wide celebrity
as a portrait-painter, producing portraits of the Prince of
Wales, Mr. Gladstone, and other distinguished personages (1845-1888).
Holland (4,795), officially
known as the Netherlands, a small maritime country of Western
Europe, bordered on its N. and W. by the German Ocean, and having
Prussia on its E. and Belgium to the S.; its area, somewhat
less than one-fourth the size of England and Wales, comprises,
besides the mainland, two island groups, one in the N. and one
in the S.; its flat surface in great part lies below the level
of the sea, and where there are no natural sandhills is protected
from inundation by enormous dykes, 365 ft. thick, forming excellent
carriage-ways along the coast; much of the soil has been reclaimed
by draining lakes and by pushing back the sea walls, the size
of the country having been increased by one-half since 1833;
canals traverse the country in all directions, and form with
the shallow lakes and the great rivers a complete system of
waterways. The climate is for the most part similar to that
of England, but greater extremes of heat and cold are experienced.
Farming is the staple industry, although a considerable portion
of the land is still unfit for cultivation; butter and cheese
are the most valuable products, and are largely exported; the
fisheries, coast and deep sea, are also of much importance;
manufactures are retarded by the want of coal, but the wind
is made to supply the motive power, by means of windmills, to
flourishing textile factories (cotton, woollen, and silk), gin
distilleries, pottery works, margarine and cocoa factories, &c.
Holland no longer is the premier shipping country of Europe,
a position it held in the 17th century, but it still maintains
a busy carrying trade with all parts of the world, especially
with its many rich colonies in the East and West Indies, which
comprise an area 64 times larger than Holland itself. The government
is a limited monarchy; the executive power is vested in the
crown and the legislation in the States-General, an assembly
consisting of two chambers, the one elected (for four years)
by direct suffrage, the other (for nine years) by provincial
councils. Primary education is free, but not compulsory. Religion
is not established, but about two-thirds of the people are Protestants,
the remainder Roman Catholics. The birth of Holland as an independent
European power took place in the 16th century, when, after an
heroic and protracted struggle, it freed
itself from the yoke of Spain, then the most powerful nation
in the world.
Henry Richard Fox Vassall-Holland, Baron, statesman,
born in Wilts; succeeded to the title in 1774; entered on a
public career as a Whig under the patronage of his uncle Charles
James Fox; held office under Grenville, Grey, and Melbourne;
was imbued with a fine humanitarian spirit, and fought ably
against the slave-trade and the corn-laws; his cultured literary
taste is revealed in his writings, which embrace Spanish translations,
lives of Guillen de Castro and Lope de Vega, Memoirs, &c.
Holland, Sir Henry,
physician and author, born at Knutsford, Cheshire; graduated
at Edinburgh in 1811; spent some years in Eastern Europe, and
finally settled in London; he rose to be physician-in-ordinary
to the Prince Consort and the Queen, and in 1853 was created
a baronet; wrote various essays on various branches of medicine,
physiology, psychology, besides "Recollections of Past
Holland, North (819), one
of the eleven provinces of Holland; comprises the peninsula
lying between the Zuider Zee and the German Ocean. South
Holland, also a province, faces the German Ocean between
Zealand and North Holland. These provinces form the most important
part of the Netherlands, raise the best farm produce and cattle,
and in their great ports Amsterdam, and Rotterdam, the bulk
of the trade of Holland is carried on.
Holles, Denzil, statesman,
and one of the "five members," the son of the Earl
of Clare, born at Houghton, Northamptonshire; entering Parliament
in 1624, he joined the opposition against the king, and actively
resisted the imposition of tonnage and poundage, for which he
was heavily fined and imprisoned; subsequently he was one of
the five members whom Charles attempted to arrest in 1642 on
a charge of high-treason; his opposition to the maintenance
of a standing Puritan army involved him in trouble, and he fled
the country; after Cromwell's death he returned, was prominent
in promoting the Restoration, received a peerage, and for some
years was engaged in public duties, still remaining a staunch
upholder of the rights of Parliament (1559-1680).
Holloway (48), a northern district
of London, in Islington parish.
Holmes, Oliver Wendell,
a celebrated American author, born the son of a Congregational
minister, at Cambridge, Massachusetts, and graduated in arts
and medicine at Harvard; became professor of Anatomy and Physiology
at Dartmouth College, but resigned and settled in Boston as
a general practitioner; in 1847 he was elected to the chair
of Anatomy in Harvard, a position he held till his resignation
in 1882; a successful professor, it is as an essayist, novelist,
and poet that he is remembered; the appearance of "The
Autocrat at the Breakfast-Table," with its quaint humour,
fresh thought, and charming egotism took literary America by
storm; the "Professor" and the "Poet at the Breakfast-Table"
followed in after years, and remain his most widely popular
works; "Elsie Venner," a novel dealing with the problem
of heredity, "The Guardian Angel," "Songs of
Many Seasons," "Memoirs of Motley and of Emerson,"
are some of his many works, all of which have the impress of
his bright, engaging personality (1809-1894).
Holofernes, the Assyrian
general whom the Jewish Judith, entering his camp as it invested
her native place, slew with her own hand, and bore his head
as a trophy back to the town.
Holstein (560), which with
Sleswick forms the Prussian province of
v.), was till 1866 a duchy of Denmark, but in that year
was annexed by Prussia.
Holt, Frank, artist, born
in London; was distinguished as an artist from his early youth;
produced a succession of works of eminent merit, and attained
the highest excellence as a painter of portraits, to which department
he devoted the last years of his life (1815-1888).
Holt, Sir John, English
lawyer, born at Thame, Oxfordshire; called to the bar in 1663;
was a prominent counsel in the State trials of his age, and
rose to be Lord Chief-Justice of the King's Bench under William
III., an office whose duties he discharged with unflinching
integrity and fairness (1642-1710).
Holtzmann, Adolf, an
eminent German philologist, born at Carlsruhe; gave himself
to the study of theology and then of philology at various universities,
and in 1852 became professor of the German Language and Literature
at Heidelberg; author of various learned treatises on philology
and kindred subjects (1810-1870).
Holy Alliance, an alliance
of the sovereigns of Russia, Austria, and Prussia on the fall
of Napoleon, professedly for conservative ends, but really for
the suppression of political liberty and the maintenance of
Holy Coat of Trèves,
a seamless coat alleged to have been deposited there by the
Empress Helena, and to have been the one worn by Christ.
Holy Fair, a rural celebration
of the Communion once common in Scotland, attended not only
by the people of the parish, but by large numbers of strangers
from far and near; described by Burns.
Holy Island or Lindisfarne,
an islet of Northumberland, 9½ m. SE. of Berwick; is
separated from the mainland by a stretch of sand bare at low
water, and some 3 m. broad; has interesting ruins of a Benedictine
priory church where St. Cuthbert
(q. v.) once ministered; there is a small village and
fine old castle.
Holy Office, name given to
the Inquisition (q. v.).
Holy Wars, name given to the
Crusades (q. v.).
Holy Week, the week before
Easter, so called as consecrated to the commemoration of the
Passion of Christ in view of His death on the Cross.
Holyhead (9), an important
little seaport of Anglesey, North Wales, on the N. side of an
island of the same name, 25 m. W. of Bangor; is the chief mail-packet
station for Ireland, and has excellent harbourage, &c.
Holyhead Island (9),
a rocky islet forming a part of Anglesey, from which it is separated
by a narrow strait, dry at low water, and crossed by an arched
Holyoake, George Jacob,
an active propagandist of advanced social theories, born at
Birmingham; has lived a busy life as an agitator, lecturing
and writing; he espoused the cause of Garibaldi, edited the
Reasoner; was the last man to be imprisoned in England
on a charge of atheism (1841); was a zealous supporter of co-operation
and all movements making for the betterment of the social condition
of the working-classes; his numerous works embrace a valuable "History
of Co-operation in England," "The Limits of Atheism," "Sixty
Years of an Agitator's Life," &c.; b. 1817.
Holyoke (45), a city of Massachusetts,
8 m. N. of Springfield, on the Connecticut, whose rapid current
supplies the water-power for the many large paper-mills, cotton
and woollen factories.
Holyrood, an abbey founded
at Edinburgh in 1128 by David I., and dedicated in honour of
the Holy Cross, a casket of gold shaped like a cross brought
to the country by St. Margaret in 1070; a palace was afterwards
attached, which became the chief seat of the Scottish sovereigns
of the Stuart dynasty; the parks around were at one time a sanctuary
Holywell (3), a market-town
of Flintshire, has an elevated situation, 15 m. NW. of Chester;
the principal industry is the smelting of lead, iron, copper,
and zinc ores obtained from the surrounding mines; the famous
well of St. Winifred (whence the name of the town) is over-built
by a fine Perpendicular chapel.
Homburg (9), a fashionable watering-place
in Hesse-Nassau, Prussia, beautifully situated at the base of
the Taunus Mountains, 8 m. NW. of Frankfort-on-the-Main; has
fine chalybeate and saline springs.
Home, defined by Ruskin as "the
place of Peace; the shelter not only from all injury, but from
all terror, doubt, and division. In so far as it is not this,
it is not home; so far as the anxieties of the outer world penetrate
into it, and the inconsistently-minded, unknown, unloved, or
hostile society, the outer world, is allowed by either husband
or wife to cross the threshold, it ceases to be home; it is
then only a part of the outer world which you have roofed over
and lighted a fire in."
Home, Daniel Dunglas,
a noted spiritualist, born near Edinburgh; became widely known
as a "medium," was presented at Courts and to the
Pope; was expelled from the Catholic Church for spiritualistic
practices, and latterly became involved in a lawsuit with a
Mrs. Lyon, who had bestowed upon him £60,000 and forced
him to return it; he is supposed to have suggested to Browning
his well-known poem "Sludge—the Medium"; wrote
several books (1833-1886).
Home, John, Scotch divine and
dramatist, born at Leith; graduated at Edinburgh, and entered
the Church in 1745; became minister at Athelstaneford, near
Haddington, where he wrote the tragedies "Agis" and "Douglas";
the latter established his fame, but brought him into disgrace
with the Presbytery, and he withdrew to England, becoming secretary
to the Earl of Bute; his plays were produced by Garrick, and
displaced the stiff and artificial tragedies of Addison, Johnson, &c.;
besides his dramatic works and poems he published a "History
of the Rebellion of 1745" (1722-1808).
Home Rule, a form of local
self-government, a name applied to an administration of the
kind projected by Mr. Gladstone for Ireland.
Homer, the great epic poet of
Greece, and the greatest of all time; author of the "Iliad"
and the "Odyssey," and for the honour of being the
place of whose birth seven Greek cities contended; is said,
when old and blind, to have wandered from city to city rehearsing
his verses, and to have lived 900 years before Christ, some
time after the reign of Solomon; it is only modern criticism
that has called in question his existence, and has ventured
to argue that the poems ascribed to him are a mere congeries
of compositions of the early fabulous age of Greece, but the
unity of the plan and the simplicity of the style of the poems
go to condemn this theory in the regard of most Homeric scholars.
Homildon Hill, in Northumberland,
1 m. NE. of Wooler; the scene of Hotspur's famous victory over
the Scots under Earl Douglas, December 14, 1402.
Homoeopathy, a method of
treating diseases advocated by Hahnemann
(q. v.) which professes to cure a disease by administering
in small quantities medicines that would produce it in a healthy
Homoiousia, name given to
the Semi-Arian doctrine that the Son is of like substance
with the Father, in opposition to the orthodox doctrine called
Homoousia that He is of the same substance.
Homologoumena, name given
to the books of the New Testament accepted as canonical.
Honduras (435), a maritime
republic of Central America, whose northern seaboard fronts
the Gulf of Honduras in the Caribbean Sea, between Nicaragua
on the S. and SE. and Guatemala on the W., less than four-fifths
the size of England; the coast lands are low and swampy, but
the interior consists chiefly of elevated tableland diversified
by broad rich valleys; the Cordilleras traverse the country
in a NW. direction, and form the watershed of many streams;
fever prevails along the low, hot coast, but the highlands are
cool and healthful; large numbers of cattle are raised, and
fruits, india-rubber, indigo, &c., are exported, but agriculture
is backward; its mineral wealth is very great; silver ore is
abundant, and other minerals, such as gold, iron, copper, but
the enterprise is wanting to the carrying out of mining on a
proper scale; Honduras broke away from Spain in 1821, and became
an independent State in 1839; the Government is vested in a
President and six ministers, and the legislative power in a
Congress of 37 members; the population is, with the exception
of a few thousands, composed of blacks; Tegucigalpa (12) is
Hone, William, miscellaneous
writer and political satirist, born at Bath; threw up his position
as a law clerk in London and started a print and book shop;
became a busy contributor to newspapers, and involved himself
in serious trouble by the freedom of his political parodies
and satires; of his many squibs, satires, &c., mention maybe
made of "The Political House that Jack Built," "The
Queen's Matrimonial Ladder," "The Political Showman,"
all illustrated by G. Cruikshank
(q. v.) (1780-1842).
Honeycomb, Will, a jaunty
member of the "Spectator Club."
Honfleur (9), a seaport of
France, situated on the estuary of the Seine, opposite Havre;
has a good harbour; exports dairy produce, cattle, &c.;
has sugar refineries, tanworks, &c.
Hong-Kong (222), an island
lying off the mouth of the Canton River, South China; was ceded
to Britain in 1842; is hilly and unproductive, but is well watered
and tolerably healthy; it owes its great importance as a commercial
centre to its favourable position, its magnificent harbour,
and to its having been made a free port and the head-quarters
of the European banks; opium is the chief import, silk and tea
the principal exports; Victoria, a handsome city on the N. side,
is the capital, seat of the British governor, &c.
Honiton (3), an ancient market-town
of Devonshire, close to the Otter, 17 m. NE. of Exeter; is famed
for its pillow-lace, an industry introduced by some Flemish
refugees in the 16th century.
Honolulu (20), capital of the
Hawaiian Islands (q.
v.), situated on an arid strip of land on the S. side of
Oahu; is nicely laid out after the manner of a European town;
and has the only good harbour in the archipelago.
Honorius, the name of four
Popes: H. I., the most famous, Pope from 626 to 638;
H. II., Pope from 1124 to 1130;
H. III., Pope from 1216 to 1227; and H. IV., Pope
from 1286 to 1287.
Honorius, Flavius, emperor
of the West, born at Constantinople, son of Theodosius the Great,
a weak ruler, and only able to resist the invasion of the Goths
so long as Stilicho, his minister, lived, for after the murder
of the latter by treachery matters with him went from bad to
worse, and he saw some of his finest provinces snatched from
his grasp (384-423).
Hontheim, a German Catholic
theologian, born at Trèves; distinguished for his bold
assertion and subsequent retractation of a doctrine called Febronianism,
from the nom de plume Febronius which he assumed, tending
to the disparagement of the Papal authority in the Church (1701-1790).
Honthorst, Gerard van,
a Flemish painter, born at Utrecht, painted night and torchlight
scenes; "Christ before Pilate" his best-known work
Honved`, name given in Hungary
to the landwehr, or originally to any distinguished national
patriot or party.
Hood, Samuel, Viscount,
a distinguished admiral, born at Thorncombe; entered the navy
in 1740, and rising rapidly in his profession evinced high qualities
as a leader; in 1782 he brilliantly outmanoeuvred De Grasse
in the West Indies, and under Rodney played a conspicuous part
in the destruction of the French fleet at the battle of Dominica,
for which he was rewarded with an Irish peerage; he defeated
Fox in the celebrated Westminster election, became a Lord of
the Admiralty, and as commander of the Mediterranean fleet during
the revolutionary wars, captured the French fleet at Toulon
and reduced Corsica; in 1796 he was created a viscount (1724-1816).
Hood, Thomas, poet and humourist,
born in London; gave up business and engraving, to which he
first applied himself, for letters, and commencing as a journalist,
immortalised himself by the "Song of the Shirt" and
his "Dream of Eugene Aram"; edited the "Comic
Annual," and wrote "Whims and Oddities," in all
of which he displayed both wit and pathos (1798-1845).
Hooghly or Hûgli,
1, the most important and most westerly of the several branches
into which the Ganges divides on approaching the sea, breaks
away from the main channel near Santipur, and flowing in a southerly
direction past Calcutta, reaches the Bay of Bengal after a course
of 145 m.; navigation is rendered hazardous by the accumulating
and shifting silt; the "bore" rushes up with great
rapidity, and attains a height of 7 ft. 2, A city (33) on the
western bank of the river, 25 m. N. of Calcutta; is capital
of a district, and has a college for English and Asiatic literature.
Hook, Theodore, comic dramatist,
born in London; wrote a number of farces sparkling with wit
and highly popular; appointed to be Accountant-General of the
Mauritius, came to grief for peculation by a subordinate under
his administration; solaced and supported himself after his
acquittal by writing novels (1788-1841).
Hooke, Robert, natural philosopher,
born at Freshwater, Isle of Wight; was associated with Boyle
in the construction of the air-pump, and in 1665 became professor
of Geometry in Gresham College, London; was a man of remarkable
inventiveness, and quick to deduce natural laws from meagre
premises; thus he in some important points anticipated Newton's
theory of gravitation, and foresaw the application of steam
to machinery; he discovered amongst other things the balance-spring
of watches, the anchor-escapement of clocks, the simplest theory
of the arch, and made important improvements on the telescope,
microscope, and quadrant (1635-1703).
Hooker, Richard, English
Church theologian and ecclesiastical writer, born in Exeter;
famous as the author of "Ecclesiastical Polity," in
defence of the Church against the Puritans, characterised by
Stopford Brooke as "a stately work, and the first monument
of splendid literary prose that we possess"; of this work
Pope Clement VIII. said, "There are such seeds of eternity
in it as will continue till the last fire shall devour all learning";
the author is distinguished by the surname of "The Judicious"
for his calm wisdom; he was not judicious, it would seem, in
the choice of a wife, who was a shrew and a scold (1554-1600).
Hooker, Sir William,
botanist, born at Norwich; was professor of Botany in Glasgow
from 1820 to 1841, after which he held the post of Director
of Kew Gardens; his writings in botany are numerous (1785-1865).
Hoolee, in India, the name of
a saturnalian festival in honour of
Krishna (q. v.).
Hooper, John, bred for the
Church; was converted to Protestantism, and had to leave the
country; returned on the accession of Edward VI. and was made
Bishop of Gloucester; was committed to prison in the reign of
Mary, condemned as a heretic, and burned at the stake in Gloucester
Hoosac Mountain, in the
Green Mountain Range in Massachusetts, is noted for its railway
tunnel, nearly 5 m. in length, and the longest in America.
Hope, Antony, nom de plume
of A. H. Hawkins, novelist, born in London, educated at Oxford;
called to the bar; author of "Men of Mark," "Prisoner
of Zenda," &c.; b. 1863.
Hope, Thomas, traveller and
virtuoso, author of "Anastasius, or the Memoirs of a Modern
Greek," which Byron was proud to have fathered on him,
and of a posthumous essay on the "Origin and Prospects
of Man," was famous as having suggested to Carlyle one
of the most significant things he ever wrote, while he pronounced
it perhaps the absurdest book written in our century by a thinking
man. See Carlyle's Miscellaneous
Hôpital, Michel de l',
Chancellor of France; stoutly resisted the persecution of the
Protestants, and secured for them a measure of toleration, but
his enemies were too strong for him; he was driven from power
in 1568, and went into retirement; was spared during the massacre
of St. Bartholomew, but it broke his heart, and he survived
it only a few days (1505-1572).
Hopkins, Samuel, an American
divine, born at Waterbury, Connecticut; was pastor at Newport;
was a Calvinist in theology, but of a special type, as he denied
imputation and insisted on disinterested benevolence as the
mark of a Christian; gave name to a party, Hopkinsians, as they
were called, who held the same views (1721-1803).
Horatius Flaccus or
Horace, Roman poet, born at Venusium, in Apulia; was
educated at Rome and in Athens, and when there in his twenty-first
year joined Marcus Brutus, became a military tribune, and fought
at Philippi, after which he submitted to the conqueror and returned
to Rome to find his estate forfeited; for a time afterwards
he had to be content with a frugal life, but by-and-by he attracted
the notice of Virgil, and he introduced him to Mæcenas,
who took him into his friendship and bestowed on him a small
farm, to which he retired and on which
he lived in comfort for the rest of his life; his works, all
in verse, consist of odes, satires, and epistles, and reveal
an easy-going man of the world, of great practical sagacity
and wise remark; they abound in happy phrases and quotable passages
Horn, Cape, the most southern
point of America, is a lofty, precipitous, and barren promontory
of Hermit Island, in the Fuegian Archipelago.
Horn Gate, the gate of dreams
which come true, as distinct from the Ivory Gate, through which
the visions seen are shadowy and unreal.
Hornbook, was a sheet of vellum
or paper used in early times for teaching the rudiments of education,
on which were inscribed the alphabet in black or Roman letters,
some monosyllables, the Lord's Prayer, and the Roman numerals;
this sheet was covered with a slice of transparent horn, and
was still in use in George II.'s reign.
a celebrated astronomer, born at Toxteth, near Liverpool; passed
through Cambridge, took orders, and received the curacy of Hoole,
Lancashire; was devoted to astronomy, and was the first to observe
the transit of Venus, of which he gave an account in his treatise "Venus
in Sole Visa" (1619-1641).
Horse-power, the unit of
work of a steam-engine, being the power to raise 33,000 lbs.
one foot in one minute.
Horsham (9), a market-town of
Sussex, 26 m. NW. of Brighton; has a fine specimen of an Early
English church, and does a thriving trade in brewing, tanning,
Horsley, Samuel, English
prelate, born in London; celebrated as the champion of orthodoxy
against the attacks of Priestley
(q. v.), in which he showed great learning but much bitterness,
which, however, brought him church preferment; was in succession
bishop of St. Davids, Rochester, and St. Asaph (1733-1806).
Hosea, a Hebrew prophet, a native
of the northern kingdom of Israel, and a contemporary of Isaiah,
the burden of whose prophecy is, Israel has by her idolatries
and immoralities forsaken the Lord, and the Lord has forsaken
Israel, in whom alone her salvation is to be found.
Hoshangabad (17), capital
of a district of the same name in the Central Provinces, India,
situated on the Nerbudda River, 40 m. SE. of Bhopal; is a military
station, and has a considerable trade in cotton, grain, &c.
Hoshiarpur (22), a town in
the Punjab, at the base of the Siwalik Hills, 90 m. E. of Lahore;
is capital of a district, and is the seat of an American mission.
Hospitallers, the name
given to several religious brotherhoods or orders of knights
under vow to provide and care for the sick and wounded, originally
in connection with pilgrimages and expeditions to Jerusalem.
Hospodar, a title once borne
by the kings of Poland and the governors of Moldavia and Wallachia.
Hostilius, Tullus, the
third king of Rome from 670 to 638 B.C.; showed more zeal for
conquest than for the worship of the gods, who in the end smote
him and his whole house with fire.
Hottentots, a name somewhat
indiscriminately applied to the first known inhabitants of Cape
Colony, who, however, comprised two main tribes, the Khoikhoi
and the Bushmen, in many respects dissimilar, but speaking languages
characterised alike by harsh and clicking sounds, a circumstance
which induced the early Dutch settlers to call them Hottentots,
which means practically "jabberers"; the great majority
are semi-civilised now, and servile imitators of their conquerors.
an eminent French sculptor, born of humble parentage at Versailles;
at 20 he won the prix de Rome, and for 10 years studied
with enthusiasm the early masters at Rome, where he produced
his great statue of St. Bruno; he was elected in turn a member
of the Academy and of the Institute, Paris, and in 1805 became
professor at the École des Beaux-Arts; he was unrivalled
in portraiture, and executed statues of Rousseau, Voltaire,
Diderot, Mirabeau, Washington, Napoleon, and others (1741-1828).
Richard Monckton Milnes, Lord, poet and patron of letters,
born of good family at Fryston Hall, Pontefract; graduated at
Cambridge; entered Parliament as a Conservative, but subsequently
went over to the other side, and in 1863 was raised to the peerage
by Palmerston; was a man of varied interests, a traveller, leader
of society, philanthropist, and above all the friend and patron
of authors; his works include various volumes of poetry, "Life
of Keats," "Monographs, Personal and Social," &c.
Hounslow (13), a town of Middlesex,
10 m. SW. of London; railways have done away with its importance
as a posting town; in the vicinity are gunpowder mills, barracks,
and the famous Hounslow Heath.
Houri, a beautiful maiden who,
according to the Mohammedan faith, awaits the advent of a pious
Moslem in Paradise.
Houston, Samuel, President
of the Texan Republic, born in Virginia; was adopted by a Cherokee
Indian, and rose from the rank of a common soldier to be governor
of Tennessee in 1827; as commander-in-chief in Texas he crushed
the Mexicans, won the independence of Texas, and became the
first President of the new republic in 1836; subsequently represented
Texas in the United States Senate; was elected governor and
deposed in 1861 for opposing secession (1793-1863).
Houyhn`hnms, an imaginary
race of horses in "Gulliver's Travels" endowed with
Hoveden, Roger of, chronicler,
born at Howden, Yorkshire; held an appointment in Henry II.'s
household; was engaged in various missions to the monastic houses,
and in 1189 became an itinerant justice; his well-known Chronicle
begins where Bede's ends, 732, and continues down to 1201.
Howard, Catherine, fifth
wife of Henry VIII., granddaughter of the Duke of Norfolk; was
married to Henry in 1540 after his divorce from Anne of Clèves;
two years later she was found guilty of immoral conduct prior
to her marriage, and was executed (1520-1542).
Howard, John, a noted philanthropist,
born at Hackney, Middlesex; was left in easy circumstances at
his father's death; a bitter experience as a French prisoner
of war and observations made whilst acting as sheriff of Bedfordshire
roused him to attempt some reform of the abuses and misery of
prison life; he made a tour of the county jails of England,
and the mass of information which he laid before the House of
Commons in 1774 brought about the first prison reforms; he continued
his visitations from year to year to every part of the United
Kingdom and to every quarter of the Continent; during 1785-87
he made a tour of inspection through the principal lazarettos
of Europe, visited plague-smitten cities, and voluntarily underwent
the rigours of the quarantine system; he died at the Crimea
whilst on a journey to the East; he published at various times
accounts of his Journeys; his deep piety, cool sense,
and single-hearted devotedness to his
one great object won him universal respect throughout Europe
Howe, John, a Puritan divine,
born at Loughborough; was educated at Oxford and Cambridge,
took orders, and became the outspoken and universally respected
chaplain to Cromwell; after the Restoration he was ejected from
the Church by the Act of Uniformity; subsequently he was in
turn domestic chaplain to Lord Massarene in Ireland, and pastor
of a Dissenting congregation in London; for some years he settled
in Utrecht, but in 1687 returned to England after the Declaration
for Liberty of Conscience, and became a leader of the Dissenters;
he published a number of works which display a powerful, philosophic,
and earnest mind; his "The Good Man the Living Temple of
God" remains a masterpiece of Puritan theology; he was
a man of exceptional strength of character, and it was said
that he could awe Cromwell into silence and Tillotson into tears
Howe, Richard, Earl,
admiral, born in London, son of an Irish viscount; first saw
service under Anson against the Spaniards; distinguished himself
during the Seven Years' War; in 1783 became First Lord of the
Admiralty, and was created an earl; during the French War in
1793 he commanded the Channel Fleet, and gained "the glorious
first of June" victory off Ushant (1726-1799).
Howell, James, an English
writer, whose "Familiar Letters" have won a permanent
place in English literature, born in Abernant, Carmarthenshire;
travelled for many years on the Continent in a business capacity;
entered Parliament in 1627; was for some years a Royalist spy,
and suffered imprisonment at the Fleet; at the Restoration he
was created Historiographer-Royal; his works are numerous, but
his fame rests upon his entertaining "Instructions for
Foreigne Travell" and his graceful and witty "Familiar
Howells, William Dean,
a popular American novelist, the son of a Swedenborgian journalist,
born at Martin's Ferry, Ohio; adopted journalism as a profession,
produced a popular Life of Lincoln, and from 1861 to 1865 was
Consul at Venice; resuming journalism he became a contributor
to the best American papers and magazines, and was for a number
of years editor of the Atlantic Monthly; an excellent
journalist, poet, and critic, it is yet as a novelist—witty,
graceful, and acute—that he is best known; "A Chance
Acquaintance," "A Foregone Conclusion," "A
Modern Instance," "An Indian Summer" are among
his more popular works; b. 1837.
Howitt, William, a miscellaneous
writer, who, with his equally talented wife, Mary Howitt
(1799-1888) (née Botham), did much to popularise
the rural life of England, born, a Quaker's son, at Heanor,
Derbyshire; served his time as a carpenter, but soon drifted
into literature, married in 1821, and made many tours in England
and other lands for literary purposes; was a voluminous writer,
pouring out histories, accounts of travel, tales, and poems;
amongst these are "Rural Life in England," "Visits
to Remarkable Places," "Homes and Haunts of the Poets," &c.
(1792-1879). His wife, besides collaborating with him in such
works as "Stories of English Life," "Ruined Abbeys
of Great Britain," wrote poems, tales, &c., and was
the first to translate the fairy-tales of Hans Andersen.
Howrah or Haura (130),
a flourishing manufacturing town on the Hooghly, opposite Calcutta,
with which it is connected by a floating bridge.
Hoy, a steep, rocky islet in the
Orkney group, about 1 m. SW. of Mainland or Pomona, remarkable
for its huge cliffs.
Hoylake (3), a rising watering-place
in Cheshire, at the seaward end of Wirral Peninsula, 8 m. W.
of Birkenhead; noted for its golf-links.
Hoyle, Edmond, the inventor
of whist, lived in London; wrote on games and taught whist;
his "Short Treatise on Whist" appeared in 1742 (1672-1769).
Duke of Normandy (q. v.)
Huancaveli`ca (104), a
dep. of Peru, lies within the region of the Cordilleras, has
rich silver and quicksilver mines; the capital (4), bearing
the same name, is a mining town 150 m. SE. of Lima.
Hub of the Universe,
a name humorously given by Wendell Holmes to Boston, or rather
the State House of the city.
Huber, Francis, naturalist,
born at Geneva; made a special study of the habits of bees,
and recorded the results in his "Observations sur les Abeilles"
Hubert, St., bishop of Liège
and Maestricht, the patron-saint of huntsmen; was converted
when hunting on Good Friday by a milk-white stag appearing in
the forest of Ardennes with a crucifix between its horns; generally
represented in art as a hunter kneeling to a crucifix borne
by a stag (656-728).
Hubert de Burgh, Earl
of Kent, chief justiciary of England under King John and Henry
III.; had charge of Prince Arthur, but refused to put him to
death; was present at Runnymede at the signing of Magna Charta;
Huc, a French missionary, born at
Toulouse; visited China and Thibet, and wrote an account of
his experiences on his return (1813-1860).
Huddersfield (96), a busy
manufacturing town in the West Riding of Yorkshire, is favourably
situated in a coal district on the Colne, 26 m. NE. of Manchester;
is substantially built, and is the northern centre of the "fancy
trade" and woollen goods; cotton, silk, and machine factories
and iron-founding are also carried on on a large scale.
Hudibras, a satire by Samuel
Butler on the Puritans, published in 1663, born of the reaction
that set in after the Restoration.
Hudson, in New York State, one
of the most picturesque of North American rivers, rises amid
the Adirondack Mountains, and from Glen's Fall flows S. to New
York Bay, having a course of 350 m.; is navigable for steamboats
as far as Albany, 145 m. from its mouth. It has valuable fisheries.
Hudson, George, the Railway
King, originally a linen-draper in York, the great speculator
in the construction and extension of railways, in connection
with which he made a huge fortune; acquired civic honours, and
was nearly having a statue raised to his honour, but certain
frauds being exposed he fell into disgrace and embarrassment,
and died in London; he was elected thrice over Lord Mayor of
York, and represented Sunderland in Parliament from 1845 to
Hudson, Henry, English navigator;
made three unsuccessful efforts to discover a north-east passage,
then turned his course north-westward, and discovered in 1610
the river, strait, and bay which bear his name; his sailors
in his last expedition in 1611 mutinying, set him and eight
others adrift in an open boat, and though an expedition was
sent in quest of him, he was nowhere to be found.
Hudson Bay, an inland sea
in North America, 400 m. long and 100 m. wide, communicating
with the Atlantic; discovered by Hudson in 1610.
Hudson Bay Company,
a joint-stock company founded in 1760 to obtain furs and skins
from North America, under charter granted by Charles II., the
possessions of which were in 1869 incorporated in the Dominion
Hué (30), capital of the
French protectorate Annam, on the Hué, 10 m. above its
mouth, is strongly fortified with walls and a citadel.
Huelva (19), a thriving seaport
in Spain, 68 m. SW. of Seville, between the mouths of the Odiel
and Tinto; fisheries and the exportation of copper, manganese,
quicksilver, and wine are the chief industries.
Huerta, Garcia de la,
a Spanish poet, was royal librarian in Madrid; wrote tragedy
of "Raguel," thought of very highly (1729-1797).
Huesca (13), an interesting old
Spanish town, 58 m. NE. of Saragossa; has picturesque old churches,
a university, and a palace; manufactures linen and leather.
Huet, Pierre Daniel,
a learned French prelate, born at Caen; a pupil of Descartes;
associated with Bossuet as scholar, and editor of Origen (1630-1721).
Hug, Leonhard, a Catholic
theologian and biblical scholar, author of an "Introduction
to the New Testament" (1765-1846).
Hugh Capet, the first of the
Capetian dynasty of France, son of Hugh Capet, Count of Paris;
proclaimed king in 987; his reign was a troubled one by the
revolt of the very party that had raised him to the throne,
and who refused to own his supremacy; Adelbert, a count of Périgueux,
had usurped the titles of Count of Poitiers and of Tours, and
the king, sending a messenger to ask "Who made you count?"
got for answer the counter-challenge "Who made you king?"
Hughenden, a parish in Buckinghamshire,
in the Chiltern district, 2 m. N. of High Wycombe; is interesting
as the seat of Hughenden Manor, for many years the residence
of Benjamin Disraeli, Earl of Beaconsfield.
Hughes, Thomas, author
of "Tom Brown's School-days," born at Uffington, Berks;
was at Rugby in Dr. Arnold's time, graduated at Oxford, and
was called to the bar in 1848; his famous story of Rugby school
life, "Tom Brown's School-days," was published in
1856, and was followed by "Tom Brown at Oxford" and
other stories and biographies; he entered Parliament in 1865,
and in 1882 became a County Court Judge; throughout his life
he was keenly interested in social questions and the betterment
of the working-classes (1832-1896).
a famous French poet and novelist, born at Besançon;
as a boy he accompanied his father, a general in Joseph Bonaparte's
army, through the campaigns in Italy and Spain; at 14 he produced
a tragedy, and six years later appeared his "Odes et Ballades";
in 1827 was published his famous tragedy "Cromwell,"
which placed him at the head of the Romanticists, and in "Hernani"
(1830) the departure from the old classic novels was more emphatically
asserted; his superabundant genius continued to pour forth a
quick succession of dramas, novels, essays, and poems, in which
he revealed himself one of the most potent masters of the French
language; he was admitted to the French Academy, and in 1845
was created a peer; he engaged in politics first as a Royalist
and next as a Democrat, fled to Brussels after the coup d'état;
subsequently he established himself in Jersey and then in Guernsey,
where he wrote his great novels "Les Misérables," "Les
Travailleurs de la Mer," etc.; he returned to France in
1870, engaged in politics again, became a senator, and continued
to produce works with undiminished energy; his writings were
in the first instance a protest against the self-restraint and
coldness of the old classic models, but were as truly a faithful
expression of his own intense and assertive egoism, and are
characteristic of his school in their exaggerated sentiment
and pervading self-consciousness (1802-1885).
Huguenots, a name formerly
given to the Protestants of France, presumed to be a corruption
of the German word eingenossen, i. e. sworn confederates,
the history of whom and their struggles and persecutions fills
a large chapter in the history of France, a cause which was
espoused at the first by many of the nobles and the best families
in the country, but all along in disfavour at Court.
Hull, or Kingston-Upon-Hull
(260), a flourishing river-port in the E. Riding of Yorkshire,
at the junction of the Hull with the Humber, 42 m. SE. of York;
is an old town, and has many interesting churches, statues,
and public buildings; is the third port of the kingdom; has
immense docks, is the principal outlet for the woollen and cotton
goods of the Midlands, and does a great trade with the Baltic
and Germany; has flourishing shipbuilding yards, rope and canvas
factories, sugar refineries, oil-mills, etc., and is an important
centre of the east coast fisheries.
Hullah, John, professor of
music, born in Worcester; did much to popularise music in England
Hulsean Lectures, fruits
of a lectureship tenable for one year, founded by Rev. John
Hulse, of St. John's College, in 1789; delivered annually to
the number of four, bearing on revealed religion.
Humanist, one who at the Revival
of Letters upheld the claims of classical learning in opposition
to the supporters of the scholastic philosophy.
Humanitarians, a name
given to those who maintain the simple humanity of Christ to
the denial of his divinity; also to those who view human nature
as sufficient for itself apart from all supernatural guidance
Humbert I., king of Italy,
son of Victor Emmanuel, whom he succeeded in 1878; took while
crown prince an active part in the movement for Italian unity,
and distinguished himself by his bravery; b. 1844.
Friedrich Heinrich Alex., Baron von, great traveller
and naturalist, born in Berlin; devoted all his life to the
study of nature in all its departments, travelling all over
the Continent, and in 1800, with
Aimé Bonpland (q.
v.) for companion, visiting S. America, traversing the Orinoco,
and surveying and mapping out in the course of five years Venezuela,
Columbia, Ecuador, Peru, and Mexico, the results of which he
published in his "Travels"; his chief work is the "Kosmos,"
or an account of the visible universe, in 4 vols., originally
delivered as lectures in Paris in the winter of 1827-28; he
was a friend of Goethe, who held him in the highest esteem (1769-1859).
Humboldt, Karl Wilhelm
von, an eminent statesman and philologist, born at Potsdam,
elder brother of the preceding; represented Prussia at Rome
and Vienna, but devoted himself chiefly to literary and scientific
pursuits; wrote on politics and æsthetics as well as philology,
and corresponded with nearly all the literary grandees of Germany
Hume, David, philosopher and
historian, born in Edinburgh, the younger son of a Berwickshire
laird; after trial of law and mercantile life gave himself up
to study and speculation; spent much
of his life in France, and fraternised with the sceptical philosophers
and encyclopedists there; his chief works, "Treatise on
Human Nature" (1739), "Essays" (1741-42), "Principles
of Morals" (1751), and "History of England" (1754-61);
his philosophy was sceptical to the last degree, but from the
excess of it provoked a reaction in Germany, headed by Kant,
which has yielded positive results; he found in life no connecting
principle, no purpose, and had come to regard it as a restless
aimless, heaving up and down, swaying to and fro on a waste
ocean of blind sensations, without rational plot or counterplot,
God or devil, and had arrived at an absolutely non-possumus
stage, which, however, as hinted, was followed by a speedy and
steady rebound, in speculation at all events; Hume's history
has been characterised by Stopford Brooke as clear in narrative
and pure in style, but cold and out of sympathy with his subject,
as well as inaccurate; personally, he was a guileless and kindly
Hume, Joseph, a politician,
born in Montrose; studied medicine, and served as a surgeon
under the East India Company in India, made his fortune, and
came home; adopted the political principles of Bentham and entered
Parliament, of which he continued a prominent member till his
death; he was an ardent reformer, and lived to see many of the
measures he advocated crowned with success (1777-1855).
Humour, distinct from wit, and
defined as "a warm, tender, fellow-feeling with all that
exists," as "the sport of sensibility and, as it were,
the playful, teasing fondness of a mother for a child"
... as "a sort of inverse sublimity exalting into our affections
what is below us,... warm and all-embracing as the sun."
Hundred Days, the name given
to the period between Napoleon's return from Elba and his abdication,
from Mar. 10 to June 28, 1815, after Waterloo.
Hundyades John Corvinus,
a Hungarian captain of the 14th century, a formidable foe of
Hungary (18,556), the eastern
part of Austro-Hungary, including Hungary proper, Transylvania,
Croatia, and Slavonia, and, except in military and diplomatic
matters and customs dues, with a considerable amount of self-government
independent of Austria, differing from it, as it does, in race,
language, and many other respects, to such a degree as gives
rise to much dissension, and every now and then threatens disruption.
Huns, The, a horde of barbarians
of Mongolian origin who invaded Europe from the shores of the
Caspian Sea in two wars, the first in the 4th century, which
at length subsided, and the second in the 5th century, ultimately
under Atilla, which, in the main body of them at all events,
was driven back and even dispersed; they have been described
as a race with broad shoulders, flat noses, small black eyes
buried in the head, and without beards.
Hunt, Holman, painter, born
in London; became a pupil of Rossetti, and "his greatest
disciple," and joined the Pre-Raphaelite movement; he began
with "worldly subjects," but soon quitted these "virtually
for ever" under Rossetti's influence, and "rose into
the spiritual passion which first expressed itself in his 'Light
of the World,'" with this difference, as Ruskin points
out, between him and his "forerunner," that whereas
Rossetti treated the story of the New Testament as a mere thing
of beauty, with Hunt, "when once his mind entirely fastened
on it, it became ... not merely a Reality, not merely the greatest
of Realities, but the only Reality"; in this religious
realistic spirit, as Ruskin further remarks, all Hunt's great
work is done, and he notices how in all subjects which fall
short of the religious element, "his power also is shortened,
and he does those things worst which are easiest to other men";
his principal works in this spirit are "The Scape-Goat," "The
Finding of Christ in the Temple," "The Shadow of Death,"
and the "Triumph of the Innocents," to which we may
add "The Strayed Sheep," remarkable as well for its
vivid sunshine, "producing," says Ruskin, "the
same impressions on the mind as are caused by the light itself";
Hunt, Leigh, essayist and
poet; was of the Cockney school, a friend of Keats and Shelley;
edited the Examiner, a Radical organ; was a busy man
but a thriftless, and always in financial embarrassment, though
latterly he had a fair pension; lived near Carlyle, who at one
time saw a good deal of him, his household, and its disorderliness,
an eyesore to Carlyle, a "poetical tinkerdom"
he called it, in which, however, he received his visitors "in
the spirit of a king, apologising for nothing"; Carlyle
soon tired of him, though he was always ready to help him when
in need (1784-1859).
Hunter, John, anatomist and
surgeon, born near East Kilbride, Lanarkshire; started practice
as a surgeon in London, became surgeon to St. George's Hospital,
and at length surgeon to the king; is distinguished for his
operations in the cure of aneurism; he built a museum, in which
he collected an immense number of specimens illustrative of
subjects of medical study, which, after his death, was purchased
by Government (1728-1793).
Hunter, Sir William,
Indian statistician, in the Indian Civil Service, and at the
head of the Statistical Department; has written several statistical
accounts, the "Gazetteer of India," and other elaborate
works on India; with Lives of the Earl of Mayo and the Marquis
of Dalhousie; b. 1862.
Huntingdon (4), the county
town of Huntingdonshire, stands on the left bank of the Ouse
59 m. N. of London; has breweries, brick-works, and nurseries,
and was the birthplace of Oliver Cromwell.
Huntingdon, Countess of,
a leader among the Whitfield Methodists, and foundress of a
college for the "Connexion" at Cheshunt (1707-1791).
an undulating county NE. of the Fen district, laid out for most
part in pasture and dairy land; many Roman remains are to be
found scattered about in it.
Hurd, Richard, English bishop
in succession of Lichfield and Worcester; was both a religious
writer and a critic; was the author of "Letters on Chivalry
and Romance," "Dissertations on Poetry," and "Commentaries
on Horace's Ars Poetica," the last much admired by Gibbon
Huron, a lake in N. America, 263
m. long and 70 m. broad, the second largest on the average of
the five on the Lawrence basin, interspersed with numerous islands.
Hurons, The, a tribe of Red
Indians of the Iroquois family.
an English statesman and financier; distinguished for his services
when in office in the relaxation of restrictions on trade (1770-1830).
Huss, John, a Bohemian church reformer;
was a disciple of Wyclif, and did much to propagate his teaching,
in consequence of which he was summoned in 1414 to answer for
himself before the Council of Constance; went under safe-conduct
from the emperor; "they laid him instantly in a stone dungeon,
three feet wide, six feet high, seven feet long; burnt the true
voice of him out of this world; choked it in smoke and fire"
moral philosopher, born in Ulster, son of a Presbyterian minister;
educated in Glasgow; became professor in the university there
and founder of the Scotch school of philosophy, who, according
to Dr. Stirling, has not received the honour in that regard
which is his due (1094-1747).
Hutchinson, Anne, a religious
fanatic, born in England, settled in New England, U.S.; expelled
from the colony for Antinomian heresy, took refuge in Rhode
Island, and was with her family butchered by the Indians (1590-1643).
one of the Puritan leaders, and a prominent actor in the Puritan
revolt, to the extent of signing the death-warrant of the king,
but broke partnership as a republican with Cromwell when he
assumed sovereign power, and sullenly refused to be reconciled
to the Protector, though he begged him towards his end beseechingly
as his old comrade in arms (1616-1664).
Hutchinson, John, a theological
faddist, born in Yorkshire; in his "Thoughts concerning
Religion," derived all religion and philosophy from the
Bible, but directly, as he insisted, from the original Hebrew,
in which view he had a following of a few intelligent people
Hutten, Ulrich von,
a zealous humanist and reformer, born in the castle of Steckelberg,
in Hesse, of an ancient and noble family; allied himself as
a scholar with Erasmus, and then with Luther as a man; entered
heart and soul into the Reformation of the latter to a rupture
with the former, and by his writings, which included invectives
against the clergy and appeals to the nation, did much, amid
many perils, to advance the cause of German emancipation from
the thraldom of the Church (1488-1523).
Hutton, Charles, a mathematician,
born in Newcastle; became professor at the Royal Military Academy,
Woolwich; wrote on mathematics and physics (1737-1825).
Hutton, James, celebrated
geologist, born in Edinburgh; bred to medicine, but devoted
himself to agriculture and chemistry, which led on to geology;
was the author of the Plutonic theory of the earth, which ascribes
the inequalities and other phenomena in the crust of it to the
agency of the heat at the centre (1726-1797).
Huxley, Thomas Henry,
eminent scientist in the department of natural history, born
at Ealing, Middlesex; was professor of Natural History in the
Royal School of Mines; distinguished by his studies and discoveries
in different sections of the animal kingdom, in morphology and
palæontology; was a zealous advocate of evolution, in
particular the views of Darwin, and a champion of science against
the orthodoxy of the Church; he was a man of eminent literary
ability as well as scientific, and of the greatest in that regard
among scientific men (1825-1895).
a Dutch geometrician, physicist, and astronomer, born at The
Hague; published the first scientific work on the calculation
of probabilities, improved the telescope, broached the undulatory
theory of light, discovered the fourth satellite of Saturn,
invented the pendulum clock, and stands as a physicist midway
between Galileo and Newton (1629-1093).
Hydaspes, the ancient name
of the Jhelum, the northernmost tributary of the Indus.
Hyder Ali, a Mohammedan ruler
of Mysore; raised himself to be commander-in-chief of the army;
organised it on the French model; unseated the rajah; conquered
Calicut, Bednor, and Kananur; waged war successfully against
the English and the Mahrattas, and left his kingdom to his son
Tippoo Saib (q. v.)
Hyderabad (370), the capital
of the Nizam's dominions in the Deccan, is 6 m. in circumference,
strongly protected all round by a belt of rocky desert, and
a centre of Mohammedanism in India. Also the capital of Sind
(58), near the apex of the delta of the Indus; manufactures
silks, pottery, and lacquered ware, and is strongly fortified.
Hydra, The Lernean, a monstrous
reptile inhabiting a marsh, with a number of heads, that grew
on again as often as they were chopped off, and the destruction
of which was one of the twelve labours of Hercules, an act which
symbolises the toil expended in draining the fens of the world
for man's habitation.
Hygeia, in the Greek mythology
the Goddess of Health, and daughter of Æsculapius; is
represented as a virgin in a long robe, with a cup in her hand
and a serpent drinking out of it.
Hymen, in the Greek mythology
the God of Marriage, son of Apollo, and one of the Muses, represented
as a boy with wings; originally a nuptial song sung at the departure
of the bride from her parental home.
Hymer, a frost Jötun, whose
cows are icebergs; splits rocks with the glance of his eye.
Hymettus, a mountain in Attica,
famous for its honey and marble.
Hypatia, a far-famed lady teacher
of Greek philosophy in Alexandria, distinguished for her beauty
and purity of life, who, one day in 415, on her return home
from her lecture-room, was massacred in the streets of the city,
at the instance, of both Jews and Christians, as a propagator
Hyperboreans, a people
blooming in youth and health, fabled by the Greeks to dwell
in the extreme northern parts of the world under favour of Apollo.
Hypermnestra, the only
one of the Danaides (q. v.)
who spared the life of her husband in spite of her father's
Hypnotism, the process of
inducing sleep by wearying out the optic nerve of the eyes,
by making the patient fix them upon a certain spot for a time,
generally situated where it is a little wearisome for the eyes
to find it. The fatigue thus induced spreads from the ocular
muscles to the system, causing deep sleep.
Hyrcania, an ancient province
of Persia, on the E. and SE. of the Caspian Sea, celebrated
for the savage animals that inhabited its forests, as well as
the savagery of its inhabitants.
Hyrcanus, John, the son
of Simon Maccabeus, king of Judea, as well as High-Priest of
the Jews from 135 to 105 B.C.; achieved the independence of
his country from the Syrian yoke, extended the borders of it,
and compelled the Edomites to accept the Jewish faith at the
point of the sword; in the strife then rampant between the
Sadducees (q. v.) and
the Pharisees (q. v.)
he sided with the former.