Mab, Queen, the fairies' midwife
that brings dreams to the birth, to be distinguished from Titania,
Mabillon, Jean, a French
Benedictine and eminent scholar; wrote a history of his order
and edited St. Bernard's works (1632-1707).
Mably, Gabriel Bonnet De,
French author, was born at Grenoble, brother of Condillac; educated
at Lyons, and became secretary to Cardinal Tencin, but most
of his life was spent in study, and he died in Paris; his "Romans
and the French" is not complimentary to his countrymen;
he was a great admirer of the ancients (1709-1785).
Mabusa, Jan, real name Gossaert,
Flemish artist, born at Mabuse, lived and died at Antwerp; his
work is not great but careful, his figures catch the stiffness
of his favourite architectural backgrounds; his early period
is strongly national, but a visit to Italy with Philip of Burgundy
brought him under southern influences and contributed to intensify
his colour (1470-1532).
Macadam, John Loudon,
Scottish engineer, born at Ayr; inventor of the system of road-making
which bears his name; he made his fortune as a merchant in New
York, but spent it in road-making (1756-1836).
Macaire, Robert, a noted
criminal and assassin that figures in French plays; was convicted
of a murder in trial by combat with a witness in the shape of
the dog of the murdered man.
Macao, small island at the mouth
of the Canton River, 100 m. S. of Canton, forming with Colovane
and Taipa since 1557 a Portuguese station (50, mostly Chinese);
is a very healthy port, though very hot; formerly it was a centre
of the Coolie trade, abolished in 1873, but its anchorage is
bad, and since the rise of Hong-Kong its commerce has suffered
severely; chief import opium, export tea; it is the head-quarters
of French missions in China.
Macarius, St., a hermit of
the Thebaïd, where he spent 60 years of a life of solitude
and austerity (300-390). Festival, January 13.
Macaroni, a fine wheaten paste
made into long thin tubes, and manufactured in Italy and the
S. of France.
Macassar, southern portion
and chief town (20) at SW. corner of Celebes; exports coffee,
spices, timber, and "Macassar" oil.
Babington, Lord, essayist and historian, born at Rothley
Temple, Leicestershire, son of Zachary Macaulay the philanthropist,
and so of Scottish descent; graduated at Cambridge 1822, proving
a brilliant debater in the Union, and became Fellow of Trinity
1824; called to the bar 1826, he preferred to follow literature,
having already gained a footing by some poems in Knight's
Quarterly and by his essay on "Milton" in the
Edinburgh Review (1825); in 1830 he entered Parliament
for a pocket-borough, took an honourable part in the Reform
debates, and in the new Parliament sat for Leeds; his family
were now in straitened circumstances, and to be able to help
them he went out to India as legal adviser to the Supreme Council;
to his credit chiefly belongs the Indian Penal Code; returning
in 1838, he represented Edinburgh in the Commons with five years'
interval till 1856; the "Lays of Ancient Rome" appeared
in 1842, his collected "Essays" in 1843, two years
later he ceased writing for the Edinburgh; he was now
working hard at his "History," of which the first
two volumes attained a quite unprecedented success in 1848;
next year he was chosen Lord Rector of Glasgow University; 1855
saw the third and fourth volumes of his "History";
in 1857 he was made a peer, and many other honours were showered
upon him; with a tendency to too much declamation in style,
a point of view not free from bias, and a lack of depth and
modesty in his thinking, he yet attained a remarkable amount
and variety of knowledge, great intellectual energy, and unrivalled
lucidity in narration (1800-1859).
Macbeth, a thane of the north
of Scotland who, by assassination of King Duncan, became king;
reigned 17 years, but his right was disputed by Malcolm, Duncan's
son, and he was defeated by him and fell at Lumphanan, December
Maccabees, a body of Jewish
patriots, followers of Judas Maccabæus, who in 2nd century
B.C. and in the interest of the Jewish faith withstood the oppression
of Syria and held their own for a goodly number of years against
not only the foreign yoke that oppressed them, but against the
Hellenising corruption of their faith at home.
Maccabees, Books Of,
two books of the Apocrypha which give, the first, an account
of the heroic struggle which the Maccabees maintained from 175
to 135 B.C. against the kings of Syria, and the second, of an
intercalary period of Jewish history from 175 to 160 B.C., much
of it of legendary unreliable matter; besides these two a third
and a fourth of a still more apocryphal character are extant.
M'Carthy, Justin, writer
and politician, began life as a journalist; is the author of
a "History of Our Own Times" and a "History of
the Four Georges," as well as a number of novels; represents
North Longford in Parliament; b. 1830.
M'Cheyne, Robert Murray,
the subject of a well-known memoir by Andrew Bonar, was born
in Edinburgh, educated at the university there, and was minister
of St. Peter's, Dundee, from 1836 till his death; he is esteemed
a saint by pious evangelical people, by whom the memoirs of
him are much prized (1813-1843).
M'Clellan, American general,
born in Philadelphia; served in the Mexican War, and in the
War of Secession, eventually as commander-in-chief; was author
of military engineering works (1826-1882).
Macclesfield (36), Cheshire
manufacturing town on the Bollin, 15 m. S. of Manchester; has
a 13th-century church, and a grammar-school founded by Edward
VI.; its staple industry is silk manufactures; there are breweries,
and mining and quarrying near.
MacClintock, Arctic navigator,
born at Dundalk; sent out by Lady Franklin to discover the fate
of Sir John and his crew; wrote an account of the voyage (1819-1891).
M'Clure, Arctic navigator, born
in Wexford; went out in search of Franklin, and discovered the
North-West Passage in 1850 (1807-1873).
M'Crie, Thomas, a Scotch
seceder, born in Dunse; was minister in Edinburgh; author of
the "Life of John Knox," published in 1812; defended
the Covenanters against Scott; he was a man of dignified military
a Scottish landscape-painter, born in Glasgow; was distinguished
for his Highland landscapes (1806-1867).
M'Culloch, John Ramsey,
political economist, born in Isle of Whithorn; contributed to
the Scotsman and Edinburgh Review; wrote "Principles
of Political Economy," and edited Dictionaries of Commerce
and Geography (1789-1864).
MacCunn, Hamish, Scottish
composer, born at Greenock; entered the Royal College of Music
in 1883, and became junior professor of Harmony at the Royal
Academy; his fertility in melody and mastery of the orchestra
are devoted to music of strong national characteristics, as
his overture "Land of the Mountain and the Flood,"
and his choral work "The Lay of the Last Minstrel"
show; b. 1868.
Macdonald, marshal of France,
born at Sancerre, of Scotch descent, entered the army at the
time of the Revolution as a lieutenant, and rapidly rose in
rank; served with distinction under Napoleon, especially at
Wagram, when he was made Duke of Taranto; supported the Bourbons
on their restoration (1765-1840).
Macdonald, Sir Claude M.,
British Minister at Peking; served in the army in Egypt in 1882
and 1884, as a diplomatist in Zanzibar in 1887, and on the coast
of Africa as commissioner in 1888; was sent to Peking in 1896;
Macdonald, Flora, a devoted
Jacobite who, at the risk of her own life, screened Prince Charles
Edward after his defeat at Culloden from his pursuers, and saw
him safe off to France, for which she was afterwards confined
for a short time in the Tower (1722-1790).
Macdonald, George, novelist,
born in Huntly; trained for the ministry, but devoted himself
to literature; is the author, among other works, of "Robert
Falconer," "David Elginbrod," and "Alec
Forbes"; his interests are religious, and his views liberal,
particularly on religious matters; b., 1824.
Mace, The, the symbol of authority
in the House of Commons; is placed on the table when the House
is sitting, and is under the table as a rule when the Speaker
is not in the chair.
Macedonia, an ancient kingdom
lying between Thrace and Illyria, the Balkans and the Ægean;
mostly mountainous, but with some fertile plains; watered by
the Strymon, Axius, and Heliacmon Rivers; was noted for its
gold and silver, its oil and wine. Founded seven centuries B.C.,
the monarchy was raised to dignity and power by Archelaus in
the 5th century. Philip II. (359 B.C.) established it yet more
firmly; and his son, Alexander the Great, extended its sway
over half the world. His empire broke up after his death, and
the Romans conquered it in 168 B.C. Ægæ and Pella
were its ancient capitals, Philippi, Thessalonica, and Amphipolis
among its towns. After many vicissitudes during the Middle Ages
it is now a province of Turkey.
Macedonians, a sect in the
early Church who taught that the Holy Ghost was inferior to
the Father and the Son, so called from Macedonius, bishop of
Constantinople, their leader.
Macfarren, Sir George
Alexander, musical author and composer, born in London;
studied at the Royal Academy, and became professor there in
1834; in many operatic works he aimed at restoring old English
musical characteristics, and wrote also cantatas "Lenore," "May-Day," &c.,
and oratorios, of which "John the Baptist" (1873)
was the first; but his chief merit lies in his writings on theory
statesman and historian, born in Florence, of an ancient family;
was secretary of the Florentine Republic from 1498 to 1512,
and during that time conducted its diplomatic affairs with a
skill which led to his being sent on a number of foreign embassies;
he was opposed to the restoration of the Medici family, and
on the return of it to power was subjected to imprisonment and
torture as a conspirator, but was at last set at liberty; he
spent the remainder of his life chiefly in literary labours,
producing among other works a treatise on government, entitled "The
Prince," the principles of which have established for him
a notoriety wide as the civilised world (1469-1530).
Machiavellism, the doctrine
taught by Machiavelli in "The Prince," that to preserve
the integrity of a State the ruler should not feel himself bound
by any scruple such as may suggest itself by considerations
of justice and humanity; the State he regards as too precious
an institution to endanger by scruples of that sort.
M'Ivor, Flora, the heroine
in Scott's "Waverley."
Mack, Karl, Austrian general,
born in Franconia; notorious for his military incapacity and
defeats; confronted by Napoleon at Ulm in 1805, he surrendered
with 28,000 men without striking a blow; for this he was tried
by court-martial, and sentenced to death, which was commuted
to imprisonment for life, from which he was released at the
end of a year (1752-1826).
Mackay, Charles, journalist,
novelist, and critic; wrote an autobiography entitled, "Forty
Years' Recollections of Life, Literature, and Public Affairs";
was the father of Eric Mackay, author of "Love-Letters
of a Violinist" (1814-1889).
Alexander Campbell, composer, born at Edinburgh; studied
in Germany and at the Royal Academy; was teacher and conductor
in his native city from 1865 to 1878, lived thereafter in Italy;
was made Principal of the Royal Academy of Music in 1887, and
knighted in 1895; his opera "Colomba" (1883) first
brought him fame; among his works, which are of every kind,
his oratorio, "The Rose of Sharon" (1884), is reckoned
best; b. 1847.
Mackenzie, Sir George,
eminent Scottish lawyer, born in Dundee; became King's Advocate
for Scotland; wrote on law and on other subjects in a style
which commended itself to such a critic as Dryden, though by
his severe treatment of the Covenanters he earned in Scotland
the opprobrious title of the "bluidy Mackenzie" (1636-1691).
Mackenzie, Henry, novelist,
born in Edinburgh; bred to law; author of "The Man of Feeling," "The
Man of the World," and "Julia de Roubigné,"
written in a sentimental style; held the office of Controller
of Taxes in Scotland by favour of Pitt (1745-1831).
Mackenzie River, a river
in N. America, rises in the Rocky Mountains; is fed by mighty
streams in its course, and falls into the Arctic Ocean after
a course of over 2000 m. in length.
M'Kinley, William, American
statesman, of Scottish parentage; served in the Civil War; born
at Niles, Ohio; entered Congress in 1877; made his mark as a
zealous Protectionist; passed in 1890 a tariff measure named
after him; was elected to Presidency as the champion of a sound
currency in opposition to Mr. Bryan in November 1896; b.
Mackintosh, Sir James,
philosopher and politician, born in Inverness-shire; took his
degree in medicine, but went to the London bar; was a Whig in
politics; wrote "Vindiciæ Gallicæ" in
reply to Burke's philippic; defended Peltier, Bonaparte's enemy,
in a magnificent style, and contributed a masterly preliminary "Dissertation
on Ethics" to the "Encyclopædia Britannica"
Maclaren, Ian (nom de
plume of Rev. John Watson), born in Essex, of Scottish parents;
studied in Edinburgh; was minister of the Free Church in Logiealmond
and in Glasgow, and translated to Sefton
Park Presbyterian Church, Liverpool, In 1880; wrote a series
of idylls entitled "Beside the Bonnie Brier Bush,"
and a second series entitled "The Days of Auld Lang Syne";
both had a large circulation, and a number of other works, religious
as well as fictitious; b. 1850.
Maclaurin, Colin, mathematician,
born in Kilmoden, Argyllshire; was professor of Mathematics
in Aberdeen and in Edinburgh; wrote a "Treatise on Fluxions,"
in defence of Newton against Berkeley, and an "Account
of Newton's Discoveries"; did much to give an impetus to
mathematical study in Scotland (1698-1746).
Macleod, Norman, liberal
Scottish clergyman, born at Campbeltown, son of the manse; a
genial, warm-hearted man; an earnest, powerful, and vigorous
preacher, and a humorous writer; a visit to India in connection
with missions shortened his days (1817-1872).
Maclise, Daniel, painter,
born at Cork, of Scottish extraction; among his oil-paintings
are "Mokanna Unveiling," "All Hallow Eve," "Bohemian
Gipsies," and the "Banquet Scene in Macbeth,"
his last work being a series of cartoons painted in fresco for
the palace of Westminster illustrative of the glories of England
Macmahon, Duke of Magenta,
marshal of France, born at Sully, of Irish descent, second President
of the third French republic from 1873 to 1879; distinguished
himself in Algeria and at the Crimea, and took part in the Franco-German
War to his defeat and capture (1808-1893).
Macpherson, James, a
Gaelic scholar, born in Ruthven, Inverness-shire; identified
with the publication of the poems of Ossian, the originals of
which he professed to have discovered in the course of a tour
through the Highlands, and about the authenticity of which there
has been much debate, though they were the making of his fortune;
he was buried in Westminster Abbey at his own request and expense
Macramé Lace, a coarse
lace made of twine, used to decorate furniture generally.
Macready, William Charles,
English tragedian, born in London; he began his career as an
actor in Birmingham in the character of Romeo, and was enthusiastically
received on his first appearance in London; was distinguished
for his impersonation of Shakespeare's characters, but suffered
a good deal from professional rivalries; leased in succession
Covent Garden and Drury Lane theatres with pecuniary loss, and
when he took farewell of the stage he was entertained at a banquet,
attended by a host of friends eminent in both art and literature
Macrometer, an optical instrument
to determine the size or distance of inaccessible objects.
MacTurk, Captain Hector, "the
man of peace" in "St. Ronan's Well."
Madagascar (3,500), largest
island in the world but two, in the Indian Ocean, 300 m. off
the Mozambique coast, SE. Africa; is nearly three times the
size of Great Britain, a plateau in the centre, with low, fertile,
wooded ground round about; has many extinct volcanoes and active
hot springs; the highest peak is Ankàratra (9000 ft.),
in the centre; the NW. coast has some good harbours; there are
300 m. of lagoons on the E.; the biggest lake is Alaotra, and
the rivers flow mostly W.; the climate is hot, with copious
rains, except in the S.; rice, coffee, sugar, and vanilla are
cultivated; many kinds of valuable timber grow in the forests,
and these, with cattle, hides, and india-rubber, constitute
the exports; gold, iron, copper, lead, and sulphur are found,
and the natives are skilled in working metals; the Malagasys
possess civilised institutions; slavery was abolished in 1879;
a quarter of the population is Christian; the heathen section,
though untruthful and immoral, are affectionate, courageous,
and loyal; Antanànarìvo (100), the capital, is
situated in the interior, and has many fine buildings; chief
ports, Tamatave on the E. and Majunga on the NW. coasts; the
island has been under French protection since 1890, and is a
French colony since 1896.
Madeira (140), the chief of
a group of small volcanic islands with precipitous coasts, in
the Atlantic, 400 m. off Morocco; has peaks 6000 ft. high and
deep picturesque ravines; the island is a favourite resort for
consumptives; the climate is very mild and equable, the rainfall
moderate, and the soil fertile; crops of cereals and potatoes
are raised; oranges, lemons, grapes, figs, and bananas abound;
Madeira wine is famous, and the chief export; Funchal (21) is
the capital, with an exposed harbour and some good buildings;
the islands form a province of Portugal.
Madeira River (i. e.
river of the wood), formed by the junction of the Mamoré
and Beni on the borders of Bolivia and Brazil, flows 900 m.
NE., and joins the Amazon, as an affluent its longest and largest,
and forms a magnificent navigable waterway.
Madeleine, Church of the,
one of the principal and wealthiest churches in Paris, erected
in the style of a Greek temple, and the building of which, began
in 1764, was not finished till 1842, both the interior and exterior
of which has been adorned by the most distinguished artists.
Madge Wildfire, a pretty
but giddy girl in the "Heart of Midlothian," whom
seduction and the murder of her child drove crazy.
Madison, James, American
statesman and President, born at Port Conway, Virginia, educated
at Princeton; devoted himself to politics in 1776; he took part
in framing the Virginia constitution, and subsequently secured
religious liberty in the State; with Jay and Hamilton he collaborated
to establish the federation of the States and to frame the Federal
Constitution; the "three-fifths" rule, which won the
adhesion of the slave-holding States, was his suggestion; elected
to the first Congress, he attached himself to Jefferson's party,
and was Secretary of State during Jefferson's Presidency, 1801-1809;
he succeeded his former leader and held office for two terms,
during which the war of 1812-14 with England was waged; his
public life closed with his term of office, 1817 (1751-1836).
Madman of the North,
Charles XII. of Sweden, so called from his temerity and impetuosity.
Madoc, a Welshman who, according
to Welsh tradition, discovered America 300 years before Columbus,
after staying in which for a time he returned, gave an account
of what he had seen and experienced, and went back, but was
never heard of more; his story has been amplified by Southey
in an epic.
Madonna is the name given to
pictures of the Virgin with the infant Christ, and more generally
to all sacred pictures in which the Virgin is a prominent figure;
the Virgin has been a favourite subject of art from the earliest
times, the first representation of her being, according to legend,
by St. Luke; different countries and schools have depicted their
Madonnas, each in its own characteristic style; the greatest
of all are the Sistine and Della Sedia of Raphael.
Madras (35,630), one of the three
Indian Presidencies, occupies the S. and E. of the peninsula,
and is one-half as large again as Great Britain; the chief mountains
are the Ghâts, from which flow SE. the Godavari, Kistna,
and Kavari Rivers, which, by means of
extensive irrigation works, fertilise the plains; climate is
various; on the W. coast very hot and with a rainfall from June
to October of 120 inches, producing luxurious vegetation; on
the E. the heat is also great, but the rainfall, which comes
chiefly between October and December, is only 40 inches; in
the hill country, e. g. Ootacamund, the government summer
quarters, it is genial and temperate all the year, and but for
the monsoons the finest in the world; rice is everywhere the
chief crop; cotton is grown in the E., tobacco in the Godavari
region, tea, coffee, and cinchona on the hills, and sugar-cane
in different districts; gold is found in Mysore (native State),
and diamonds in the Karnul; iron abounds, but without coal;
the teak forests are of great value; cotton, gunny-bags, sugar,
and tiles are the chief manufactures; English settlements date
from 1611; the population, chiefly Hindu, includes 2 million
Mohammedans and ¾ million Christians; the chief towns
are Rujumahendri (28), Vizugapatam (34), Trichinopoli (91),
of cheroot fame, and Mangalore (41), on the W. coast, and the
capital Madras (453), on the E., Coromandel, coast, a
straggling city, hot but healthy, with an open roadstead, pier,
and harbour exposed to cyclones, a university, examining body
only, colleges of science, medicine, art, and agriculture, and
a large museum; the chief exports are coffee, tea, cotton, and
Madrid (522), since 1561 the
capital of Spain, on the Manzanares, a mere mountain torrent,
on an arid plateau in New Castile, the centre of the peninsula;
is an insanitary city, and liable to great extremes of temperature;
it is regularly built, sometimes picturesque, with great open
spaces, such as the Prado, 3 m. long; fine buildings and handsome
streets. It contains the royal palace, parliament and law-court
houses, a university, magnificent picture-gallery, many charitable
institutions, and a bull-ring. The book-publishing, tapestry
weaving, and tobacco industries are the most important. It is
a growing and prosperous city.
Madrigal, a short lyric containing
some pleasant thought or sweet sentiment daintily expressed;
applied also to vocal music of a similar character.
Madvig, Johan Nicolai,
Danish scholar and politician, born at Svaneke, Bornholm; studied
at Copenhagen, where he became professor of Latin in 1829; his
studies of the Latin prose authors brought him world-wide fame,
and his Latin Grammar (1841) and Greek Syntax (1846) were invaluable
contributions to scholarship; he entered parliament, was repeatedly
its president, and was Liberal Minister of Education and Religion
1848 to 1851; he died blind (1804-1886).
Mæander, a river in Phrygia,
flowing through the Plain of Troy, and noted for its numerous
Mæcenas, a wealthy Roman
statesman, celebrated for his patronage of letters; was the
friend and adviser of Augustus Cæsar, and the patron of
Virgil and Horace; claimed descent from the ancient Etruscan
kings; left the most of his property to Augustus; d.
Mænades, the priestesses
of Bacchus, who at the celebration of his festivals gave way
to expressions of frenzied enthusiasm, as if they were under
the spell of some demonic power.
Mæonides, a name given
to Homer, either as the son of Mæon, or as born, according
to one tradition, in Mæonia.
Maestricht (33), capital
of Dutch Limburg, on the Maes, 57 m. E. of Brussels; has manufactures
of glass, earthenware, and carpets; near it are the vast subterranean
quarries of the Pietersberg, opened by the Romans.
Belgian dramatist, born at Ghent; earned his fame by "La
Princesse Maleine," produced in Paris 1890, and followed
by "L'Intruse," "Les Aveugles," and several
other plays; his essays show religious sympathies; b.
Mafeking, a station in NE.
of British Bechuanaland, on the Transvaal frontier, on the railway
from Cape Town.
Maffia, a Sicilian secret society
which aims at boycotting the law-courts, superseding the law,
and ruling the island; its chief weapon is the boycott; violence
is only resorted to for vengeance; funds are raised by blackmail;
popular support enables it to control elections, avoid legal
proceedings, and influence industrial questions. The Italian
government try in vain to put it down.
Magdala, an Abyssinian hill
fortress on a lofty plateau 300 m. S. of Massowah; captured
by Lord Napier, who had been sent in 1868 to rescue certain
British subjects held prisoners there, and which he succeeded
Magdalene, Mary, a Galilæan,
belonging to Magdala, on the Sea of Galilee, who followed Christ,
stood by the cross, prepared spices for His sepulchre, to whom
He first appeared after His resurrection, and who is supposed
by some recent critics to be the sole voucher for His rising
Magdeburg (202), on the Elbe,
75 m. SW. of Berlin, is the capital of Prussian Saxony, one
of the most important fortresses, the chief sugar market of
Germany, and the seat of large iron manufactures; it has also
distilleries and cotton mills, and is a busy railway centre;
it is a place of ancient date and historical interest.
Portuguese navigator; served his country first in the East Indies
and Morocco, but dissatisfied with King Manuel's treatment of
him, offered himself to Spain; under Charles V.'s patronage
he and Ruy Falero set out to reach the Moluccas by the west
in 1519; he reached the Philippines, and died in battle in Matan;
on this voyage he discovered the Magellan Strait, 375
m. long and 15 m. wide, between the South American mainland
and Tierra del Fuego; he gave name to the Pacific from the calm
he exceptionally, it appears, experienced on entering it (1470-1521).
two masses of stars and nebulæ seen in the southern hemisphere,
not far from the South Pole.
a celebrated French physiologist, born at Bordeaux; was the
author of several works on physiology, made important discoveries
in connection with the animal system, and was an unscrupulous
Magenta (6), Italian town, 15
m. W. of Milan, where Macmahon defeated a superior Austrian
force in 1859.
Maggiore, Lago (i. e.
the Greater Lake), a large lake in the N. of Italy, partly in
Switzerland, 37 m. in length, and 8 m. in greatest breadth,
the river Ticino flowing through it. The
Borromean Islands (q.
v.) occupy a western arm of the lake.
Magi, a priestly caste in the East,
constituting the "learned" class, as the Druids in
the West: the custodiers of religion and the rites connected
therewith, and who gave themselves up to the study of sciences
of a recondite character, but with a human interest, such as
astrology and magic, and who were held in great reverence by,
and exercised a great influence over, the people.
Magi, the Three, the "wise
men from the East" mentioned in Matt. ii.—Melchior,
an old man, who brought gold, the emblem of royalty; Gaspar,
a youth, who brought frankincense, the
emblem of divinity; Balthazar, a Moor, who brought myrrh, the
emblem of humanity—and who were eventually regarded as
the patron saints of travellers.
Magic, the pretended art to which
extraordinary and marvellous effects are ascribed, of evoking
and subjecting to the human will supernatural powers, and of
producing by means of them apparitions, incantations, cures, &c.,
and the practice of which we find prevailing in all superstitious
ages of the world and among superstitious people. See
Maginn, William, a witty,
generous-hearted Irishman, born in Cork; a man of versatile
ability, who contributed largely to Blackwood, and became
editor of Fraser's Magazine, in the conduct of which
latter he gathered round him as contributors a number of the
most eminent literary men; the stories and verses he wrote gave
signs of something like genius (1793-1842).
Magliabecchi, an inordinate
bookworm, born in Florence; became librarian of the Grand-Duke;
his book-knowledge was as unbounded as his avidity for knowledge;
his memory was extraordinary; he carried in his head the page
of a passage in a book as well as the passage itself in the
ipsissima verba, (1633-1714).
Magna Charta, "the
great charter," extorted from King John by the barons of
England at Runnymede on June 5, 1215, that guaranteed certain
rights and privileges to the subjects of the realm, which were
pronounced inviolable, and that established the supremacy of
the law over the will of the monarch.
Magna Græca, the ancient
name of the southern part of Italy, so called in early times
as it was extensively colonised by Greeks.
Magnet, the name given to loadstone
as first discovered in Magnesia, a town in Asia Minor; also
to a piece of iron, nickel, or cobalt having similar properties,
notably the power of setting itself in a definite direction;
also a coil of wire carrying an electric current, because such
a coil really possesses the properties characteristic of an
power in a magnet of imparting its qualities to certain other
Magnetism, the branch of science
devoted to the study of the properties of magnets, and of electric
currents in their magnetic relations; sometimes also used to
denote the subtle influence supposed to lie at the root of all
magnetic phenomena, of the true nature of which nothing is known.
See Animal Magnetism.
Magnificat, The, a musical
composition embracing the song of the Virgin Mary in Luke I.
46-55, so called from the first word of the song in the Vulgate;
it belongs to, and forms part of, the evening service.
Magnussen, Finn, a Scandinavian
scholar and archæologist, born in Iceland; became professor
of Literature at Copenhagen in 1815; distinguished for his translation
and exposition of the "Elder Edda" (1781-1847).
Magyars, a people of Mongolian
origin from the highlands of Central Asia that migrated westward
and settled in Hungary and Transylvania, where they now form
the dominant race.
one of the two great epic poems of ancient India, a work of
slow growth, extending through ages, and of an essentially encyclopædic
character; one of the main sources of our knowledge of the ancient
Indian religions and their mythologies; it is said to consist
of upwards of 100,000 verses.
Mahâdêva, the great
god of the Hindus; an appellation of
Siva (q. v.), as Mahâdêvi is of Durgâ,
Mahánadé, a great
Indian river which, after flowing eastward for over 500 m.,
the last 300 of which are navigable, falls into the Bay of Bengal
near Cape Palmyras; its volume in flood is enormous, and renders
it invaluable for irrigation.
Mahatma, one who, according
to the Theosophists, has passed through the complete cycle of
incarnation, has thereby attained perfection of being, and acquired
the rank of high priesthood and miraculous powers in the spirit
world, one, it would seem, of "the spirits of just men
Mahdi (i. e. religious
leader), a name given to any Mohammedan fanatic who arises in
the interest of the Mohammedan faith, summons the Moslems to
war, and leads them to repel the infidel; a kind of Mohammed
Messiah armed with the sword for the conquest of the world to
Mahdi, Mohammed Ahmed,
a Mohammedan fanatic, born in Dongola, and who, at the head
of an army of dervishes, raised his standard for the revival
of Islam in the Soudan; he was unsuccessfully opposed by the
Egyptians, and Khartoum, occupied by them, fell into his hands,
to the sacrifice of General Gordon, just as the British relief
army under Lord Wolseley approached its walls in 1885, a few
months after which he died at Omdurman.
Mahdism, a hope cherished by
devout Moslems of a Mahdi to come who will lead them on to victory
against the infidel and to the conquest of the world.
Mahmud II., Sultan of Turkey;
crushed a rebellion on his accession by putting his brother
to death, on whose behalf the janissaries had risen, as they
afterwards did to their annihilation at his hands by wholesale
massacre; by the victory of Navarino in 1827 he lost his hold
of Greece, which declared its independence, and was near losing
his suzerainty in Egypt when he died; his reign was an eventful
Mahon, Lord, Earl Stanhope,
statesman and historian; wrote "History of the War of the
Succession in Spain," "History of the Reign of Queen
Anne," and "History of England from the Peace of Utrecht
to the Peace of Versailles" (1805-1875).
Mahony, Francis, an Irish
priest, born in Cork, who took to journalism, and is known by
his nom de plume of Father Prout; contributed to Fraser's
Magazine, and was foreign correspondent to the Daily
News and the Globe; was famous for his elegant translations
Mahoun, a contemptuous name for
Mahomet, transferred in Scotland to the devil, who was called
Mahrattas, a warlike Hindu
race in Central India, occupying a territory watered by the
Nerbudda, Godavari, and Kistna, who at one time kept up a struggle
for the supremacy of India with the British, but were finally
subdued in 1843.
Maï, Angelo, cardinal,
distinguished scholar and editor; became librarian of the Vatican;
was distinguished for deciphering
palimpsests (q. v.),
and thus disclosing lost classical works or fragments of them;
he edited a number of unedited MSS. which he found in the Vatican,
and in particular the Vatican codex of the Bible (1782-1854).
Maia, the daughter of Atlas, the
eldest of the seven Pleiades
(q. v.), and the mother by Zeus of Hermes or Mercury.
Maid Marian, a man dressed
as a woman who grimaced and performed antics in the morris dances.
Maid of Norway, daughter
of Eric II., king of Norway, and through
her mother heiress to the Scottish crown; died on her passage
to Scotland in 1240.
Maid of Orleans, Joan
of Arc, so called from her defence of Orleans against the English.
Maiden, The, a sort of guillotine
that appears to have been in use in Scotland during the 15th
and 16th centuries, of which there is one in the Antiquarian
Maidment, James, antiquary
and collector, born in London; passed through Edinburgh University
to the Scotch bar, and was chief authority on genealogical cases;
his hobby was the collection of literary rarities, and he published
editions of ancient literary remains; he died at Edinburgh (1794-1879).
Maidstone (32), county town
of Kent, on the Medway, 30 m. SE. of London; has several fine
old churches and historical buildings, a grammar school and
a school of art and music, numerous paper-mills, and breweries,
and does a large trade in hops; Woollett the engraver and Hazlitt
the essayist were born here.
Maimon, Solomon, philosopher,
born, of Jewish parents, in a village of Minsk; came to Berlin,
where he studied, lived an eccentric, vagabond life, dependent
mostly on his friends; made the acquaintance of Kant and Goethe,
and attempted and published an eclectic system of philosophy
in 1790, being Kant's system supplemented from Spinoza, Leibnitz,
and Locke, and even Hume; his last patron was Count Kalkreuth,
at whose house in Siegersdorf he died (1754-1800).
Maimonides, Moses, a
Jewish rabbi, born at Cordova, whom the Jews regarded as their
Plato, and called the "Lamp of Israel" and the "Eagle
of the doctors"; was a man of immense learning, and was
physician to the Sultan of Egypt; in his relation to the Jews
he ranks next to Moses, and taught them to interpret their religion
in the light of reason; he wrote a "Commentary on the Mishna
and the Second Law," but his chief work is the "Moreh
Nebochim," or "Guide to the Perplexed" (1135-1204).
Maine (662), the most north-easterly
State in the American Union, lies between Quebec and New Hampshire
on the W. and New Brunswick and the Atlantic on the E., and
is a little larger than Ireland, a picturesque State with high
mountains in the W., Katahdin (5000 ft), many large lakes like
Moosehead, numerous rivers, and a much indented rocky coast;
the climate is severe but healthy, the soil only in some places
fertile, the rainfall is abundant; dense forests cover the north;
hay, potatoes, apples, and sweet corn are chief crops; cotton,
woollen, leather manufactures, lumber working, and fruit canning
are principal industries; the fisheries are valuable; timber,
building stone, cattle, wool, and in winter ice are exported;
early Dutch, English, and French settlements were unsuccessful
till 1630; from 1651 Maine was part of Massachusetts, till made
a separate State in 1820; the population is English-Puritan
and French-Canadian in origin; education is advancing; the State's
Liquor Law of 1851 was among the first of the kind: the capital
is Augusta (11); Portland (36) is the largest city and chief
seaport; Lewiston (22) has cotton manufactures.
Maine, Sir Henry, English
jurist, legal member of the Council in India, and professor
of Jurisprudence at Oxford; wrote on "Ancient Law,"
and important works on ancient institutions generally; regarded
the social system as a development of the patriarchal system
Maintenance, Cap of,
an ermine-lined, crimson velvet cap, the wearing of which was
a distinction granted first to dukes but subsequently to various
d'Aubigné, Marquise de, born in the prison of
Niort, where her father was incarcerated as a Protestant; though
well inoculated with Protestant principles she turned a Catholic,
married the poet Scarron in 1652, became a widow in 1660; was
entrusted with the education of the children of Louis XIV. and
Madame de Montespan; supplanted the latter in the king's affections,
and was secretly married to him in 1684; she exercised a great
influence over him, not always for good, and on his death in
1715 retired into the Convent of St. Cyr, which she had herself
founded for young ladies of noble birth but in humble circumstances
Mainz or Mayence (72),
in Hesse-Darmstadt, on the Rhine, opposite the mouth of the
Main, is an important German fortress and one of the oldest
cities in Germany; it has a magnificent cathedral, restored
in 1878, and is a stronghold of Catholicism; a large transit
trade is done, and the making of furniture, leather goods, and
machinery are important industries; Gutenberg was a native.
Maistre, Count, Joseph
de, a keen and extreme Ultramontanist, born at Chambéry,
of a noble French family; accompanied the king of Sardinia in
his retreat while the French occupied Savoy in 1792; was ambassador
at St. Petersburg from 1803 to 1817, when he was recalled to
the home government at Turin; wrote numerous works, the chief "Du
Pape" and "Soirées de St. Petersbourg"
Maitland, William, Scottish
politician and reformer, the Secretary Lethington of Queen Mary's
reign; played a prominent part in the various movements of his
time, but gained the confidence of no party; he adhered to the
party of Moray as against the extreme measures of Knox, and
proved a highly astute ambassador at the English Court; he connived
at Rizzio's murder, but regained Mary's favour, and when she
fled to England he, though joining with the new government,
acted in her interest and formed a party to restore her to power;
he and Kirkcaldy of Grange were forced to surrender, however,
at Edinburgh in 1573, and Maitland afterwards died in Leith
Majolica, a kind of enamelled
pottery imported into Italy from Majorca, known also as faience
from its manufacture at Faenza, and applied also to vessels
made of coloured clay in imitation.
Majorca (234), the largest of
the Balearic Isles, is 130 m. NE. of Cape San Antonio, in Spain;
mountains in the N. rise to 5000 ft., their slopes covered with
olives, oranges, and vines; the plains are extremely fertile,
and the climate mild and equable; manufactures of cotton, silk,
and shoes are the industries; the capital, Palma (61),
is on the S. coast, at the head of a large bay of the same name.
Majuscule, a capital letter
found in old Latin MSS. in and before the 6th century.
Ahmed el-, greatest Arabic historian of Egypt, born
at Cairo; studied philosophy and theology, and in 1385 won the
green turban; occupied several political and ecclesiastical
offices; went to Damascus in 1408, but returning to Cairo devoted
himself to history, and published among other works an important "History
of Egypt and Cairo" (1364-1442).
Malabar (2,653), a district
in the W. of Madras, sloping from the Ghâts down to the
Indian Ocean, very rainy, covered with
vast forests of teak; produces rice, coffee, and pepper.
Malacca is a name given to the
whole Malay Peninsula, that remarkable tongue of land 44 to
210 m. wide, stretching 800 m. SE. from Burma between the Strait
of Malacca and the Gulf of Siam; mountain ranges 7000 ft. high
from the backbone; along the coast are deep mangrove swamps;
the plains between yield rice, sugar-cane, cotton, and tobacco;
there are forests of teak, camphor, ebony, and sandal-wood,
and the richest tin mines in the world; the climate is unhealthy;
the northern portion is Siamese, the southern constitutes the
British Straits Settlements, of which one, on the W. coast,
is specifically called Malacca (92); it exports tin and
tapioca; the capital, Malacca (20), 120 m. NW. of Singapore,
was the scene of Francis Xavier's labours.
Malachi, a prophetic book of
the Old Testament, the author of which is otherwise unknown,
as the name, which means the "Messenger of Jehovah,"
occurs nowhere else in the Bible, and it is a question whether
the name is that of a person or a mere appellative; the prophecy
it contains appears to have been uttered 420 B.C., and refers
to abuses which came to a head between the first and second
visits of Nehemiah to Jerusalem; it lacks the old prophetic
fire, and gives the impression that the prophetic office is
Malachy, St., archbishop of
Armagh in the 12th century; was a friend of St. Bernard's, who
wrote his Life and in whose arms he died at Clairvaux; was renowned
for his sanctity as well as learning; a book of prophecies ascribed
to him bearing on the Roman pontiffs is a forgery.
Maladetta, Mount (i.
e. the accursed), the name of the highest summit of the
Pyrenees, 11,168 ft. high, in NE. of Zaragoza.
Malaga (132), Spanish seaport,
65 m. NE. of Gibraltar, an ancient Phoenician town, is now an
important but declining centre of commerce; it exports olive-oil,
wine, raisins, lead, &c., and manufactures cotton, linen,
machinery, fine-art pottery, &c.; its magnificent climate
makes it an excellent health resort.
Malagrowther, an old courtier
in the "Fortunes of Nigel" soured by misfortune, and
who would have every one be as discontented as himself.
Malaise, an uneasy feeling which
often precedes a serious attack of some disease.
Malaprop, Mrs., a character
in Sheridan's "Rivals," noted for her blunders in
the use of fine or learned words, as in the use of "allegory"
Mälar Lake, large and
beautiful Swedish lake, stretching 80 m. westward from Stockholm;
its shores are deeply indented with bays, and the surrounding
hills as well as the thousand islands it contains are well wooded.
Malay Archipelago or
Indian Archipelago is that group of many hundred islands
stretching from the Malay Peninsula SE. to Australia between
the North Pacific and the Indian Ocean, of which Borneo, Sumatra,
Java, and Celebes are the largest.
Malays, a branch of the human
family now classed among the Mongols, and which inhabit the
Malay Peninsula, the islands of the Indian Archipelago, as well
as Madagascar, and many of the islands in the Pacific; they
are of a dark-brown or tawny complexion, short of stature, have
flat faces, black coarse hair, and high cheek-bones; there are
three classes of them, distinguished from each other in character
and habits of life; the more civilised of them are Mohammedans.
Malcolm, Sir John, Indian
soldier and statesman, born in Dumfriesshire; went as cadet
to the Madras army in 1785, and for over 30 years was an important
figure in Eastern affairs; he was ambassador to Persia 1800,
governor of Mysore 1803, again in Persia as plenipotentiary
in 1807 and 1810, political agent in the Deccan 1817, and governor
of Bombay 1827-30; he distinguished himself also in several
wars; wrote "A History of Persia" and other historical
works, and returning to England entered Parliament in 1831,
opposed to the Reform Bill; two years later he died in London
Malcolm Canmore, son
of Duncan, whom Macbeth slew, succeeded his father in 1040 as
king of Cumbria and Lothian, and in 1057, on Macbeth's death,
became king of all Scotland; till 1066 his reign was peaceful,
but thereafter it was one long conflict with the Normans in
England; raids and counter-raids succeeded each other till,
in 1091, Malcolm was forced to do homage to William Rufus; next
year he lost his possessions S. of the Solway, and in 1093 he
was slain in battle at Alnwick; the influence of his second
wife, the saintly Margaret, did much to promote the civilisation
of Scotland and to bring the Scottish Church into harmony with
the rest of Christendom.
Maldive Islands (20),
a chain of several hundred tiny coral islands in the Indian
Ocean stretching 550 m. southward from a point 300 m. SW. of
Cape Comorin, 200 of which are inhabited; Malé is the
residence of the sultan, who is a tributary of the governor
of Ceylon; the natives are akin to the Singhalese, and occupy
themselves gathering cowries, cocoa-nuts, and tortoise-shell
Malebolge, the name given
to the eighth circle in Dante's "Inferno," as consisting
of "evil pits," which the name means, 10 in number,
for those guilty of frauds: contains (1) seducers, (2) flatterers,
(3) simonists, (4) soothsayers, (5) bribers and receivers of
bribes, (6) hypocrites, (7) robbers, (8) evil advisers, (9)
slanderers, (10) forgers.
a French metaphysician, born in Paris; determined to embrace
a monastic life, entered the congregation of the Oratory at
the age of 22, and devoted himself to theological study, till
the treatise of Descartes on "Man" falling into his
hands, he gave himself up to philosophy; his famous work "De
la Recherche de la Vérité" was published
in 1673, the main object of which was to bridge over the gulf
which separates mind from matter by the establishment of the
thesis that the mind immediately perceives God, and sees all
things in God, who in Himself includes the presumed irreconcilable
de, French statesman, born in Paris; a good and upright
man; was twice over called to be one of Louis XVI.'s advisers,
but his advice was not taken and he retired; defended Louis
at his trial; pled for him "with eloquent want of eloquence,
in broken sentences, in embarrassment and sobs," and was
guillotined for it; he had been censor of the press, and to
his liberal-minded censorship the world owes the publication
of the "Encyclopédie" (1721-1794).
de, a French lyric poet and miscellaneous writer of
great industry, born at Caen, is, from his correct though affected
style, regarded as one of the reformers of the French language
Malignants, the advisers
of Charles I., chief among whom were Strafford and Laud; were
so called by the Parliamentarians, who blamed them for the evils
of the country; the name was afterwards applied to the whole
Malines or Mechlin (52),
a Belgian city on the Dyle, 14 m. S.
of Antwerp; has lost its old commercial activity, and is now
the quiet ecclesiastical capital; masterpieces of Van Dyck and
Rubens adorn its churches.
Malingering, a name given
in the army to the crime of feigning illness to evade duty or
obtain a discharge.
Mallet, David, originally
Malloch, Scottish littérateur, born in Crieff;
wrote several plays, and is remembered for his ballad entitled "William
and Margaret"; he was a friend of Thomson, and divided
with him the honour of the authorship of "Rule Britannia,"
the merit of which, however, is more in the music than in the
poetry, about which they contested (1702-1765).
Mallock, William Hurrell,
author, born in Devonshire, educated at Oxford; published "The
New Republic," 1876, a masterly satire on prominent contemporaries,
which none of his subsequent work has excelled; b. 1849.
Malmaison, a historical château
10 m. W. of Paris; belonged originally to Richelieu; saw the
last days of Joséphine, whose favourite residence it
was, and was the scene of the repulse of Ducrot's sortie in
Malmesbury, William of,
an English chronicler of the 12th century; his chief work "Gesta
Regum Anglorum" and "Gesta Pontificum Anglorum,"
followed by his "Historia Novella."
Malmö (50), important seaport
and third town of Sweden, opposite Copenhagen; ships farm produce,
cement, and timber; imports machinery, textile fabrics, and
coffee; has cigar and sugar factories, and some shipbuilding.
Malone, Edmund, a Shakespearian
critic and editor, born in Dublin, was a stickler for literary
accuracy and honesty (1741-1812).
Malory, Sir Thomas,
flourished in the 15th century; was the author of "Morte
d'Arthur," being a translation in prose of a labyrinthine
selection of Arthurian legends, which was finished in the ninth
year of Edward IV., and printed fifteen years after by Caxton "with
Italian anatomist and professor of Medicine; noted for his discovery
of the corpuscles of the kidney and the spleen, named after
Malström, or Maelström,
a dangerous whirlpool off the coast of Norway, caused by the
rushing of the currents of the ocean in a channel between two
of the Loffoden Islands, and intensified at times by contrary
winds, to the destruction often of particularly small craft
caught in the eddies of it, and sometimes of whales attempting
to pass through it.
Malta (with Gozo) (177), a small
British island in the Mediterranean, 80 m. S. of Sicily; is
a strongly fortified and a most important naval station, head-quarters
of the British Mediterranean fleet, and coaling-station for
naval and mercantile marine; with a history of great interest,
Malta was annexed to Britain in 1814. The island is treeless,
and with few streams, but fertile, and has many wells. Wheat,
potatoes, and fruit are largely cultivated, and filigree work
and cotton manufactured. The people are industrious and thrifty;
population is the densest in Europe. The Roman Catholic Church
is very powerful. There is a university at Valetta, and since
1887 Malta has been self-governing.
Maltebrun, Conrad, geographer,
born in Denmark; studied in Copenhagen, but banished for his
revolutionary sympathies; settled in Paris; was the author of
several geographical works, his "Geographic Universelle"
the chief (1775-1826).
Malthus, Thomas R., an
English economist, born near Dorking, in Surrey; is famous as
the author of an "Essay on the Principle of Population,"
of which the first edition appeared in 1798, and the final,
greatly enlarged, in 1803; the publication provoked much hostile
criticism, as it propounded a doctrine which was disastrous
to the accepted theory of perfectibility, and which aimed at
showing how the progress of the race was held in check by the
limited supply of the means of subsistence, a doctrine that
admittedly anticipated that struggle for life on a larger scale
which the Darwinian hypothesis requires for its "survival
of the fittest" (1766-1834).
Malvern, Great (6), a watering-place
in Worcestershire, on the side of the Malvern Hills, with a
clear and bracing air, a plentiful supply of water, and much
frequented by invalids.
Mambrino, a Moorish king, celebrated
in the romances of chivalry, who possessed a helmet of pure
gold which rendered the wearer of it invulnerable, the possession
of which was the ambition of all the paladins of Charlemagne,
and which was carried off by Rinaldo, who slew the original
owner; Cervantes makes his hero persuade himself that he has
found it in a barber's brass basin.
Mamelukes, originally slaves
from the regions of the Caucasus, captured in war or bought
in the market-place, who became the bodyguard of the Sultan
in Egypt, and by-and-by his master to the extent of ruling the
country and supplying a long line of Sultans of their own election
from themselves, many of them enlightened rulers, governing
the country well, but their supremacy was crushed by the Sultan
of Turkey in 1517; after this, however, they retained much of
their power, and they offered a brilliant resistance to Bonaparte
at the battle of the Pyramids in 1798, who defeated them; but
recovering their power after his withdrawal and proving troublesome,
they were by two treacherous massacres annihilated in 1811 by
Mehemet Ali, who became Viceroy of Egypt under the Porte.
Mammon, the Syrian god of riches,
which has given name to the modern passion for material wealth,
specially conceived of as an abnegation of Christianity, the
profession of which is in flat antagonism to it.
Mammoth, an extinct species
of elephant of enormous size found fossilised in Northern Europe
and Asia in deposits alongside of human remains, and yielding
a supply of fossil ivory.
Mammoth Cave, a cave in
Kentucky, U.S., about 10 m., the largest in the world, and rising
at one point to 300 ft. in height, with numerous side branches
leading into grottoes traversed by rivers, which here and there
collect into lakes; name also of another of smaller dimensions
Man, Isle Of (56), a small
island in the Irish Sea, 35 m. W. of Cumberland and about the
same distance E. of Co. Down; from its equable climate and picturesque
scenery is a favourite holiday resort; it has important lead
mines at Laxey and Foxdale; fishing and cattle-grazing are profitable
industries; the people are Keltic, with a language and government
of their own; the island is a bishopric, with the title Sodor
Man of Destiny, name given
to Napoleon Bonaparte as reflecting his own belief, for he was
Man of Feeling, the title
of a novel by Henry Mackenzie, frequently applied to himself
as well as his hero.
Man of Ross, John Kyrle, a
public-spirited gentleman, immortalised by Pope from the name
of his parish in Hereford. See Kyrle.
Man of Sin, name given in 2
Thess. ii. 3 to the incarnation at the height of its pride of
the spirit of Antichrist, synchronous with the day of its fall.
a Jewish rabbi, born at Lisbon; settled at Amsterdam; wrote
several works in the interest of Judaism (1604-1659).
Manby, Captain, a militia
officer, born in Norfolk; was inventor of the apparatus for
saving shipwrecked persons, and by means of which he saved the
lives of nearly a thousand persons himself (1765-1854).
Mancha, La, an ancient province
of Spain, afterwards included in New Castile, the greater part
of which is occupied by Ciudad-Real; it is memorable as the
scene of Don Quixote's adventures.
Manche, La, the French name
for the English Channel, so called from its resemblance to a
sleeve, which the word in French means.
Manchester (505), on the
Irwell, in the SE. of Lancashire, 30 m. E. of Liverpool, the
centre of the English cotton manufacturing district, with many
other textile and related industries, is an ancient, rich, and
prosperous city; it has many fine buildings, including a Gothic
Town Hall and Assize Court-House by Waterhouse; there is a picture-gallery,
philosophic and other institutions, and technical school; Owens
College is the nucleus of Victoria University; the substitution
of steam for hand power began here about 1750; the industrial
struggles in the beginning of the 19th century were severe,
and included the famous "Peterloo massacre"; the Anti-Corn-Law
League originated in Manchester, and Manchester has given its
name to a school of Liberal politicians identified with the
advocacy of peace abroad, free trade, no government interference
with industry, and laissez-faire principles at home;
the Bridgewater Canal 1762, the railway 1830, and the Ship Canal
to the mouth of the Mersey 1894, mark steps in the city's progress;
since 1888 Manchester with Salford (198), on the opposite bank
of the Irwell, have formed a county.
Montagu, Earl of, English statesman and general, eldest
son of the first earl; sided with the Parliament in the Civil
War, and commanded in the army, but was censured by Cromwell
for his slackness at Newbury, which he afterwards resented by
opposing the policy of the Protector; he contributed to the
restoration of Charles II., and was in consequence made Lord
Manchuria (21,000), a Chinese
province lying between Mongolia and Corea, with the Amur River
on the N. and the Yellow Sea on the S., is five times the size
of England and Wales; the northern, central, and eastern parts
are mountainous; the Sungari is the largest river; the soil
is fertile, producing large crops of millet, maize, hemp, &c.,
but the climate in winter is severe; pine forests abound; the
country is rich in gold, silver, coal, and iron, but they are
little wrought; beans, silk, skins and furs are exported; the
imports include textiles, metals, paper, and opium; the Manchus
are the aristocracy of the province; Chinese settlers are industrious
and prosperous; the chief towns are Moukden (250) in the S.,
Kirin (75) on the Sungari, and New-Chwang (60) on the Liao River,
a treaty-port since 1858; Russian influence predominates in
the province since 1890.
Mandæans, a community
found working as skilled artisans in the Persian province of
Khuzistan, and in Basra on the Euphrates; are a religious sect;
called also Sabians, and holding tenets gathered from Christian,
Jewish, and heathen sources, resembling those of the ancient
Gnostics; their priesthood admits women; their chief rite is
baptism, and hence their old name, Christians of St. John the
Mandalay (189), capital of
Upper Burma, on the Irawadi, in the centre of the country, 360
m. N. of Rangoon; was seized by the British in 1885. The Aracan
Pagoda, with a brazen image of the Buddha, attracts many pilgrims,
and Buddhist monasteries cluster outside the town. There are
silk-weaving, gold, silver, ivory, and wood work, gong-casting
and sword-making industries. Great fires raged in it in 1886
Mandarin, the name given by
foreigners, derived from the Portuguese, signifying to "command,"
to Chinese official functionaries, of which there are some nine
orders, distinguished by the buttons on their caps, and they
are appointed chiefly for their possession of the requisite
qualifications for the office they aspire to.
Mandeville, Bernard de,
a cynical writer, born at Dordrecht, Holland; bred to medicine;
came to London to practise; wrote in racy English the "Fable
of the Bees," intended to show, as Stopford Brooke says,
how the "vices of society are the foundation of civilisation,"
or as Professor Saintsbury says, how "vice makes some bees
happy, and virtue makes them miserable"; the latter calls
him "The Diogenes of English Philosophy"; he affirmed
that "private vices are public benefits," and reduced
virtue into a form of selfishness; his satire is directed against
the ethics of Shaftesbury
(q. v.) (1670-1733).
Mandeville, Sir John,
English adventurer, named of St. Albans, who from his own account
travelled over thirty years in the East, and wrote a narrative
of the marvels he experienced in a book of voyages and travels
published in 1356; the authorship of this book has been questioned,
but on this point there is no doubt that, as Professor Saintsbury
says, "it is the first book of belles-lottres in English
Mandingoes, a negro race
in Senegambia, and farther inland around the Quorra; are numerous
and powerful, and arranged in separate nationalities so to speak.
Manes, the general name given
by the Romans to the departed spirits of good men, who are conceived
of as dwelling in the nether world, and as now and again ascending
to the upper.
Manes, Mani, or Manichæans,
the founder of the Manichæans
(q. v.), a native of Persia, and who died A.D. 274.
Manetho, an Egyptian priest
and historian, of the 3rd century B.C.; wrote a history of Egypt
in Greek, derived from study of sacred monumental inscriptions,
which is extant only in fragments.
Manfred, king of the Two Sicilies,
son of the Emperor Frederick II., who had to struggle for his
birthright with three Popes, Innocent IV., Alexander IV., and
Urban IV., the last of whom having excommunicated him, as his
predecessors had done, and bestowed his dominions on Charles
of Anjou, in conflict with whom at Benevento he fell, and who
denied him Christian burial, though his nobles pled with him
to grant it (1231-1266).
Manfred, Count, hero of
a poem of Byron's; sold himself to the Prince of Darkness; lived
in solitude on the Alps, estranged from all sympathy with others,
and was carried off in the end by the master whom he had served.
Manhattan, a long island at
the mouth of the Hudson, on which a great part of New York stands.
Manichæism, the creed
which ascribes the created universe to two antagonistic principles,
the one essentially good—God, spirit,
light; the other essentially evil—the devil, matter, darkness;
and this name is applied to every system founded on the like
dualism. Mani, the founder of it, appears to have borrowed his
system in great part from Zoroaster.
Manila (270), capital of the
Philippine Islands; at the head of a great bay on the W. coast
of Luzon; is hot, but not unhealthy; suffers severely from storms
and earthquakes, and is largely built of wood. It has a cathedral,
university, and observatory. Its only industry is cigar-making,
but the exports include also manila hemp, sugar, and coffee.
The population, chiefly Tagals, includes 25,000 Chinese, many
Spaniards and Europeans. In the Spanish-American War of 1898
Admiral Dewey captured the city.
Manin, Daniel, an illustrious
Italian patriot, born at Venice, of Jewish birth; bred for the
bar, and practised at it; became President of the Venetian Republic
in 1848, and was one of the most distinguished opponents of
the domination of Austria; died at Paris, a teacher of Italian
Manito`ba (193), a partially
developed inland province of Canada, somewhat larger than England
and Wales; is square in shape, with the United States on its
S. border, Assiniboia on the W., Saskatchewan and Keewatin on
the N., and Ontario on the E.; a level prairie and arable country,
scantily wooded but well watered, having three large lakes,
Winnipeg, Winnipegosis, and Manitoba, and three large rivers,
Assiniboine, Souris, and Red River. The climate is dry and healthy,
though subject to great extremes of temperature; comparatively
little snow falls; the soil is very fertile; mixed farming,
dairy, cattle, and sheep farming are carried on successfully.
Land is cheap, and the government still makes free grants of
160-acre lots. There is no mineral wealth; coal is found in
the S.; fishing is pursued on the lakes and rivers. Constituted
a province in 1870, Manitoba was the scene of the Riel rebellion,
quelled that same year. The government is vested in a lieutenant-governor,
an executive council, and a single chamber of 40 members. In
the Dominion Government the province is represented by four
members of Senate and five members of the Commons. The capital
is Winnipeg (26), the seat of a university and of extensive
flour-mills. The other chief towns are Brandon (4), a market
town, and Portage-la-Prairie (4), with a brewery, flour, and
Manitou, among the North American
Indians an animal revealed to the head of a tribe as the guardian
spirit of it, and an object of sacred regard. See
a Roman hero who, in 390 B.C., saved Rome from an attack of
the Gauls, and who was afterwards for treason thrown down the
Mann, Horace, American educationist,
born in Massachusetts; was devoted to the cause of education
as well as that of anti-slavery (1790-1859).
Manna, the food with which the
Israelites were miraculously fed in the wilderness, a term which
means "What is this?" being the expression of surprise
of the Israelites on first seeing it.
Mannheim (79), on the right
bank of the Rhine, 55 m. above Mainz; the chief commercial centre
of Baden; has manufactures of tobacco, india-rubber, and iron
goods, and a growing river trade. An old historical city, it
was formerly capital of the Rhenish Palatinate, and a resort
of Protestant refugees.
Manning, Henry Edward,
cardinal, born in Hertfordshire; Fellow of Merton, Oxford, and
a leader in the Tractarian Movement there; became rector in
Sussex; married, and became Archdeacon of Chichester; his wife
being dead, and dissatisfied with the state of matters in the
Church of England, in 1851 joined the Church of Rome, became
Archbishop of Westminster in 1865, and Cardinal in 1875; took
interest in social matters as well as the Catholic propaganda;
a too candid "Life" has been written of him since
his decease, which has created much controversy (1808-1892).
Mans, Le (53), capital of French
department of Sarthe, on the river Sarthe, 170 m. SW. of Paris;
has a magnificent cathedral; is an important railway centre,
and has textile and hosiery factories. It was the scene of a
great French defeat in January 1871.
Mansard, the name of two French
architects, born in Paris—François, who
constructed the Bank of France (1598-1666), and Jules Hardoun,
his grand-nephew, architect of the dome of the Invalides and
of the palace and chapel of Versailles (1645-1708).
Mansel, Henry Longueville,
dean of St. Paul's, born in Northamptonshire; wrote admirably
on philosophical and religious subjects, and was a doughty adversary
in controversy both with Mill and Maurice; he was a follower
in philosophy of Sir William
Hamilton (q. v.) (1820-1871).
Mansfield (16), market-town
of Notts, 14 m. N. of Nottingham, in the centre of a mining
district, with iron and lace-thread manufactures.
Murray, Earl of, Lord Chief-Justice of England, born
in Perth, called to the bar in 1730; distinguished himself as
a lawyer, entered Parliament in 1743, and became Solicitor-General,
accepted the chief-justiceship in 1756; was impartial as a judge,
but unpopular; raised to the peerage in 1776, and resigned his
judgeship in 1789 (1704-1793).
Oxford, a theological college established there for the education
of students intended for the Nonconformist ministry, though
open to other classes; the buildings were opened in 1889.
Mansion House, the official
residence of the Lord Mayor of London, erected in 1739 at a
cost of £42,638, with a banqueting-room capable of accommodating
Mantegna, Andrea, an
Italian painter and engraver, born at Padua; his works were
numerous, did atlas pieces and frescoes, his greatest "The
Triumph of Cæsar"; he was a man of versatile genius,
was sculptor and poet as well as painter, and his influence
on Italian art was great (1430-1504).
Mantell, Gideon, an eminent
English geologist and palæontologist, born at Lewes, in
Sussex; wrote "The Wonders of Geology," "Thoughts
on a Pebble," &c.; he was a voluminous author, and
distinguished for his study of fossils (1790-1852).
Manteuffel, Baron von,
field-marshal of Germany, born in Dresden; entered the Prussian
army in 1827, rose rapidly, and took part in all the wars from
1866 to 1872, and was appointed viceroy at the close of the
last in Alsace-Lorraine, a rather unhappy appointment, as it
Mantra, the name given to hymns
from the Veda, the repetition of which are supposed to have
the effect of a charm.
Mantua (28), the strongest fortress
in Italy, in SE. Lombardy, on two islands in the river Mincio,
83 m. E. of Milan, is a somewhat gloomy and unhealthy town,
with many heavy mediæval buildings; there are saltpetre
refineries, weaving and tanning industries.
Virgil was born here in 70 B.C. The town was Austrian in the
18th century, but ceded to Italy 1866.
Mantuan Swan, a name given
to the Roman poet Virgil, from his having been a native of Mantua,
in N. Italy.
Manu, Code of, one of the
sacred books of the Hindus, in which is expounded the doctrine
of Brahminism, inculcating "sound, solid, and practical
morality," and containing evidence of the progress of civilisation
among the Aryans from their first establishment in the valley
of the Ganges. Manu, the alleged author, appears to have been
a primitive mythological personage, conceived of as the ancestor
and legislator of the human race, and as having manifested himself
through long ages in a series of incarnations.
Italian poet and novelist, born at Milan; began a sceptic, but
became a devout Catholic; wrote a volume of hymns, entitled "Inni
Sacri," and a tragedy, "Adelchi," his masterpiece,
and admired by Goethe, as also a prose fiction, "I Promessi
Sposi," which spread his name over Europe; in 1860 was
made a senator of the kingdom of Italy, and was visited by Garibaldi
in 1862; he was no less distinguished as a man than as an author
Maoris, the natives of New Zealand,
a Polynesian race numbering 40,000, who probably displaced an
aboriginal; are distinguished for their bravery; are governed
by chiefs, and speak a rich sonorous language; they are the
most vigorous and energetic of all the South Sea islanders.
Mar, a district in S. Aberdeenshire,
between the Don and the Dee, has given a title to many earls;
one was regent of Scotland in 1572, another, nicknamed "Bobbing
Joan," led the Jacobite rising of 1715; on the death without
issue of the earl in 1866 the question of succession was at
issue; the Committee of Privileges granted it to his cousin,
the Earl of Kellie, thereafter Mar and Kellie, and a Bill in
Parliament awarding it to his nephew, who is thus Earl of Mar.
Marabouts, a sect of religious
devotees of a priestly order much venerated in North Africa,
believed to possess supernatural power, particularly in curing
diseases, and exercising at times considerable political influence;
their supernatural power appears to come to them by inheritance.
Maracaybo (34), a Venezuelan
town and fortress on the W. shore of the outlet of Lake Maracaybo;
has handsome streets and buildings, and exports coffee and valuable
woods; the lake of Maracaybo is a large fresh-water lake in
the W. of Venezuela, connected with the Gulf of Maracaybo by
a wide strait, across which stretches an effective bar.
Maranatha (lit. the
Lord cometh to judge), a form of anathema in use among the Jews.
Marañon, one of the head-waters
of the Amazon, rising in Lake Lauricocha, Peru, and flowing
N. and E. till it joins the Ucayali and forms the Amazon; the
name is sometimes given to the whole river.
Marat, Jean Paul, a fanatical
democrat, born in Neuchâtel, his father an Italian, his
mother a Genevese; studied and practised medicine, came to Paris
as horse-leech to Count d'Artois; became infected with the revolutionary
fever, and had one fixed idea: "Give me," he said, "two
hundred Naples bravoes, armed each with a good dirk, and a muff
on his left arm by way of shield, and with them I will traverse
France and accomplish the Revolution," that is, by wholesale
massacre of the aristocrats; he had more than once to flee for
his life, and one time found shelter in the sewers of Paris,
contracting thereby a loathsome skin disease; he was assassinated
one evening as he sat in his bath by
Charlotte Corday (q.
v.), but his body was buried with honours in the Pantheon
by a patriot people, "that of Mirabeau flung out to make
room for him," to be some few months after himself cast
out with execration (1743-1793).
Marathon, a village, 22 m.
NE. of Athens, on the sea border of a plain where the Greeks
under Miltiades on a world-famous occasion defeated the Persians
under Darius in 480 B.C.; the plain on which the battle was
fought extends between mountains on the W. and the sea on the
Marburg (13), quaint university
town of Hesse-Nassau, on the Lahn, 40 m. NE. of Limburg; has
many old buildings; its Gothic church contains St. Elizabeth's
tomb; Luther and Zwingli held a conference in the castle, 1529;
William Tyndale and Patrick Hamilton were students at its university,
which has now 97 teachers, 1000 students, and a fine library.
Marceau, French general, born
at Chartres; distinguished himself in the Republican army in
La Vendée and Fleurus, and was killed at Altenkirchen
when covering a retreat of the French army (1760-1796).
an Italian musical composer; composed music for an Italian version
of the Psalms (1686-1739).
Marcellus, Claudius, Roman
general; in a war with the Gauls killed their chief Viridomarus
with his own hands, whose spoils he dedicated as spolia opima
(q. v.) to Jupiter; took Syracuse, which long baffled
him through the skill of Archimedes, and fell fighting against
Hannibal 208 B.C.; he was five times consul though but of plebeian
Marcellus, Marcus, son
of Octavia, the sister of Augustus, who had named him his heir;
his decease at 20 was mourned as a public calamity, and inspired
Virgil to pen his well-known lament over his death in the sixth
book of the "Æneid."
Marcet, Mrs. Jane, authoress,
born at Geneva; married a Swiss doctor settled in London; wrote
elementary text-books on chemistry (from which Faraday gained
his first knowledge), political economy, natural philosophy, &c.,
under the title "Conversations," and her best work, "Stories
for very Little Children" (1769-1858).
March, the third month of our
year; was before 1752 reckoned first month as in the Roman calendar,
the legal year beginning on the 25th; it is proverbially dusty
and stormy, and is the season of the spring equinox; it was
dedicated to the Roman god Mars, whence the name.
Marchand, Major, a French
emissary in Africa; was sent in 1890 to explore the sources
of the Niger and other districts, and was afterwards appointed
to push on to the Nile, where he arrived in 1898, hoisting the
French flag by the way, and finally at Fashoda, from which he
was recalled; with extreme disgust he was obliged to retire
and find his way back to France; b. 1863.
Marcion, a heretic of the 2nd
century, born at Sinope, in Pontus, who, convinced that the
traditional records of Christianity had been tampered with,
sought to restore Christianity to its original purity, taking
his stand on the words of Christ and the interpretation of St.
Paul as the only true apostle; he held that an ascetic life
was of the essence of Christianity, and he had a following called
Marcus Aurelius. See
Maremma, a malarial coast district
of Italy, N. of the Campagna, stretching from Orbitello to Guardistallo,
with few villages or roads. Part of it
was improved by draining and planting (1824-44), and the inhabitants
come down from the neighbouring Apennine slopes in summer to
cultivate it; healthier in winter, it affords good pasturage.
Marengo, a village of N. Italy,
SE. of Alessandria, where Napoleon defeated the Austrians on
14th June 1800.
Mareotis, Lake, a lagune
in the N. of Egypt, 40 m. long by 18 m. broad, separated from
the Mediterranean by a tongue of land on which part of Alexandria
Margaret, queen of Denmark,
Norway, and Sweden, was the daughter of Waldemar IV. of Denmark,
whose crown, on his death in 1375, she received in trust for
her son Olaf; her husband, Hacon VIII. of Norway, died in 1380,
and left her queen; Olaf died 1387, when she named her grand-nephew,
Eric of Pomerania, her heir; the Swedes deposed their king next
year, and offered Margaret the throne; she accepted it, put
down all resistance, and ultimately brought about the Union
of Calmar (1397), which provided for the perpetual union of
the three crowns; her energy and force of character won for
her the title of "Semiramis of the North" (1353-1412).
Margaret, a simple, innocent
girl in Goethe's "Faust," who is the victim of a tragic
fatality; Faust meets her as she comes from church, falls in
love with her, and seduces her; she slays the infant born, is
convicted and condemned to death, and loses her reason; Faust
would fain save her, but he is hurried away by Mephistopheles,
and she is left to her fate.
Margaret, St., the type of
female innocence, represented as a beautiful young maiden bearing
the palm and crown of a martyr and attended by a dragon; is
patron saint against the pains of childbirth. Festival, July
Margaret, St., queen of
Scotland, wife of Malcolm Canmore, and sister of Edgar Atheling,
born in Hungary; brought up at the court of Edward the Confessor;
after the conquest sought refuge in Scotland, and winning the
heart of the Scotch king, was married to him at Dunfermline;
was a woman of beautiful character and great piety, and did
much to civilise the country by her devotion and example; she
died in Edinburgh Castle, and was in 1250 canonised by Innocent
IV.; Lanfranc had been her spiritual instructor (1047-1093).
Margaret of Angoulême,
queen of Navarre, Sister of Francis I., married in 1527 Henri
d'Albret, king of Navarre, by whom she became the mother of
Jeanne d'Albret (q. v.);
protected the Protestants, and encouraged learning and the arts;
she left a collection of novels, under the name of "Heptameron,"
and a number of interesting letters, as well as some poems (1492-1549).
Margaret of Anjou, queen
of Henry VI. of England, and daughter of the good King René
of Anjou; was distinguished for the courage she displayed during
the Wars of the Roses, though, after a struggle of nearly twenty
years, she was defeated at Tewkesbury and committed to the Tower,
from which, after four years of incarceration, she was afterwards
released by ransom (1429-1482).
Margaret of Valois,
third daughter of Henry II. of France and Catherine de' Medicis;
married Henry IV., by whom she was divorced for her immoral
Margate (18), seaport and watering-place,
3 m. W. of the North Foreland, Kent, is with its firm sands,
bathing facilities, and various attractions a favourite resort
of London holiday-makers. Its church-tower, 135 ft., is a prominent
landmark. There are large almshouses and orphanages, and other
charitable institutions; J. M. W. Turner was at school here.
Marheinecke, a German theologian,
born at Hildesheim; professor successively at Erlangen, Heidelberg,
and Berlin; was a Hegelian in philosophy; his chief works, a "System
of Catholicism" and a "History of the German Reformation"
Maria Louisa, empress of
France, daughter of Francis I., Emperor of Austria; was married
to Napoleon in 1810 after the divorce of Joséphine, and
bore him a son, who was called King of Rome; after Napoleon's
death she became the wife of Count von Neipperg (1791-1847).
Maria Theresa, empress
of Austria, daughter of the Emperor Charles VI., a queenly woman;
was in 1736 married to Francis of Lorraine; ascended the throne
in 1740 on the death of her father, associating her husband
with her in the government under the title of Francis I.; no
sooner had she done so than, despite the
Pragmatic Sanction (q.
v.), which assured her of her dominions in their integrity,
she was assailed by claimants one for this and one for another
portion of them, in particular by Frederick the Great, who by
force of arms wrenched Silesia from her and kept it fast; the
war thus occasioned is known as the war of the Austrian Succession,
which lasted seven years, and was concluded by the Peace of
Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748; this peace, however, was soon broken,
and Maria, backed by France and counselled by Kaunitz, renewed
hostilities in the hope of compelling Frederick to restore what
he had taken; all in vain, for the end of this war, known as
the Seven Years' War, was to leave Frederick still in possession
of the territory which he had sliced from her empire as in the
former; in the interim of these wars Maria devoted her attention
to the welfare of her subjects, who were conspicuously loyal
to her, and before the end of her reign she saw what she had
lost made up to her in a measure by the partition of Poland,
in which she took part (1717-1780).
Mariamne, the wife of Herod
the Great, whom he put to death on suspicion of her unfaithfulness.
Mariana, Juan, Spanish historian
and political philosopher, born at Talavera; joined the Jesuits
in 1554, and taught in their colleges in Rome, Sicily, and Paris;
returning to Toledo he gave himself to literature; his "History
of Spain" appeared in 1592 and 1605, theological writings
incurred persecution, and his greatest work, "De Rege et
Regis Institutione," in which he defended the right of
the people to cast out a tyrant, was condemned by the general
of his order (1536-1624).
Marie Antoinette, queen
of France, fourth daughter of Maria Theresa; was married in
1770 to the dauphin of France, who in 1774 succeeded to the
throne as Louis XVI.; was a beautiful woman, but indiscreet
in her behaviour; had made herself unpopular and impotent for
good when the Revolution broke out; when matters became serious
the queenliness of her nature revealed itself, but it was in
haughty defiance of the million-headed monster that was bellowing
at her feet; the heroism she showed at this crisis the general
mass of the people could not appreciate, though it won the homage
of such men as Mirabeau and Barnave; all she wanted was a wise
adviser, for she had courage to follow any course which she
could be persuaded to see was right; in Mirabeau she had one
who could have guided her, but by his death in 1791 she was
left to herself, and the course she took was fatal to all the
interests she had at heart; fatality followed fatality: first
she saw her husband hurried off to the guillotine, and
then she followed herself; hers, if any,
was the most tragic of fates, and any one who has read that
heart-moving apostrophe to her by Carlyle on the way to her
doom must know and feel that it was her fate; she and her husband
suffered as the representatives of the misgovernment of France
for centuries before they were born, and were left a burden
on their shoulders which they could not bear and under which
they were crushed to death (1756-1793).
Marie de France, a poetess
and fabulist of Henry III.'s time; her fables are translations
into French from an English version of old Greek tales; a greater
work was her "Laïs," consisting of 12 or 14 beautiful
narratives in French verse.
Marie de' Medici, daughter
of the Grand-Duke of Tuscany, born at Florence; was married
to Henry IV. of France in 1600, with whom she lived unhappily
till his murder in 1610; she was then regent for seven years;
in 1617 her son assumed power as Louis XIII.; she was for two
years banished from the court, and on her return so intrigued
as to bring about her imprisonment in 1631; though a lover of
art she was neither good wife nor good queen, and escaping from
confinement she died in destitution at Cologne (1573-1642).
Marienbad, a high-lying Bohemian
watering-place, 18 m. S. of Carlsbad; it is much frequented
for its saline springs.
Pasha, François Auguste Ferdinand, Egyptologist,
born at Boulogne; became professor in the college there in 1841,
entered the Egyptian department of the Louvre in 1849, and next
year set out for Egypt; eight years later he was made keeper
of the monuments to the Egyptian government, and in 1879 was
made a pasha; he died at Cairo; he made many valuable discoveries
and excavations, among which were the burial-place of the Apis
bulls, the Sphinx monument, and many temples (1821-1881).
Mario, Giuseppe, a celebrated
tenor, born in Cagliari; acquired a large fortune as a professional
singer, but lost it through unsuccessful speculations; in the
circumstances a concert was given in London for his benefit
which realised £1000; he was a handsome man and of charming
Mariotte, Edme, a French
physicist, born at Dijon; discoverer of the law named after
him, that the volume of a gas is inversely as the pressure;
called also Boyle's; it bears the name of Mariotte's law on
the Continent, and Boyle's in England (1620-1684).
Marius, Caius, a celebrated Roman
general, born near Arpinum, uncle by marriage to Julius Cæsar
and head of the popular party, and the rival of Sulla; conquered
the Teutons and the Cimbri in Gaul, and made a triumphal entry
into Rome; having obtained command of the war against Mithridates,
Sulla marched upon the city and drove his rival beyond the walls;
having fled the city, he was discovered hiding in a marsh, cast
into prison, and condemned to die; to the slave sent to execute
the sentence he drew himself haughtily up and exclaimed, "Caitiff,
dare you slay Caius Marius?" and the executioner fled in
terror of his life and left his sword behind him; Marius was
allowed to escape; finding his way to Africa, he took up his
quarters at Carthage, but the Roman prætor ordered him
off; "Go tell the prætor," he said to the messenger
sent, "you saw Caius Marius sitting a fugitive on the ruins
of Carthage"; upon this he took courage and returned to
Rome, and along with Cinna made the streets of the city run
with the blood of the partisans of Sulla; died suddenly (156-88
Marivaux, a French dramatist
and novelist, born in Paris; was a man of subtle wit, and his
writings reveal it as well as an affectation of style named
Marivaudage after him; his fame rests on his novels rather
than his dramas (1688-1763).
Mark, Gospel according
to, is mainly a narrative of the doings of Christ and
of the events of His life in their historical sequence; moves
on at an even pace, abounds in graphic touches, and adds minute
traits as if by an eye-witness; it represents Christ as the
Son of man, but manifesting Himself by such signs and wonders
as to show that He was also the Son of God; it is written for
Gentile Christians and not for Jewish, and hence little stress
is laid on Old Testament fulfilments or reference made to those
antagonisms to Christianity which had a merely Jewish root.
Mark, John, the author of the
second Gospel, the son of Mary, Barnabas' sister, who ministered
to Christ, and whose house in Jerusalem was a place of resort
for the disciples of Christ after the resurrection; accompanied
Paul and his uncle on their first missionary journey, afterwards
accompanied Peter, who calls him "my son," and to
him it is thought he is indebted for his Gospel narrative; he
is regarded as the founder of the Coptic Church, and his body
is said to have been buried in Venice, of which he is the patron
saint, and the cathedral of which is named St. Mark's after
him; he is represented in Christian art as a man in the prime
of life accompanied by a winged lion, with his Gospel in his
left hand and a pen in his right.
Mark Antony. See
Mark Twain. See
Markham, Clements Robert,
traveller and author, born near York, son of a clergyman; served
in the navy from 1844 to 1851, taking part in the Franklin search
expedition; 1852-1854 he spent exploring Peru; he introduced
the cinchona plant to India 1860, became secretary to the Royal
Geographical Society 1863, served as geographer to the Abyssinian
Expedition of 1867-68, and was then put at the head of the Geographical
department of the India Office; among many books of travels
may be named "The Threshold of the Unknown Region"
1874, and among biographies "Columbus," 1892; b.
Marlborough (9), on the
Kennet, 38 m. E. of Bristol, a Wiltshire market-town, with sack
and rope making, brewing, and tanning industries; has an old
Norman church, the remains of an old royal residence, and a
college, chiefly for sons of clergymen, founded in 1845.
John Churchill, Duke of, soldier and statesman, born
in Devonshire; joined the Guards as ensign, and served in Tangiers
in 1667; sent in command of a company to help Louis XIV. in
his Dutch wars, his courage and ability won him a colonelcy;
he married Sarah Jennings in 1678, and seven years later became
Baron Churchill on James II.'s succession; as general he was
employed in putting down Monmouth's rebellion; he seceded to
William of Orange in 1688, and received from him the earldom
of Marlborough; he was in disfavour from 1694 till the outbreak
of the Spanish Succession War, in which he gained his great
renown; beginning by driving the Spaniards from the Netherlands
in 1702, he won a series of important victories—Blenheim
1704, Ramillies 1706, Oudenard 1708, and Malplaquet 1709, contributed
to enhance the military glory of England; Queen Anne loaded
him with honours; large sums of money, Woodstock estate, Blenheim
Palace, and a dukedom were bestowed on him; his wife was the
Queen's closest friend, and the duke
and duchess virtually governed the country, till in 1711 the
Queen threw off their influence, and charges of misappropriation
of funds forced him into retirement; he was restored to many
of his offices by George I. in 1714, but for the last six years
of his life he sank into imbecility; one of England's greatest
generals, he was also one of her meanest men (1650-1722).
English dramatist and poet, precursor of Shakespeare; son of
a shoemaker at Canterbury; besides a love poem entitled "Hero
and Leander," he was the author of seven plays, "Tamburlaine,"
in two parts, "Doctor Faustus," "The Jew of Malta," "Edward
the Second," "The Massacre of Paris," and "Dido,"
the first four being romantic plays, the fifth a chronicle play,
and the last two offering no particular talent; he dealt solely
in tragedy, and was too devoid of humour to attempt comedy; "In
Marlowe," says Prof. Saintsbury, "two things never
fail him long—a strange, not by any means impotent, reach
after the infinite, and the command of magnificent verse";
his life was a short one (1564-1593).
Marmont, Duke of Ragusa and
marshal of France, served under Napoleon, and distinguished
himself on many a battlefield; received the title of duke for
his successful defence of Ragusa against the Russians; was present
at Wagram, Lützen, Bautzen, and Dresden, but came to terms
with the allies after the taking of Paris, which led to Napoleon's
abdication in 1814; obliged to flee on Napoleon's return, he
came back to France and gave his support to the Bourbons; left
Marmontel, Jean François,
French writer, born at Bort; author of "Les Incas," "Bélesaire,"
and "Contes Moraux;" "was," says Ruskin, "a
peasant's son, who made his way into Parisian society by gentleness,
wit, and a dainty and candid literary power; he became one of
the humblest yet honestest, placed scholars at the court of
Louis XV., and wrote pretty, yet wise, sentimental stories in
finished French, the sayings and thoughts in them, in their
fine tremulous way, perfect like the blossoming heads of grass
in May" (1723-1799).
Marmora, Sea of, 175 m.
long and 50 broad, lies between Europe and Asia Minor, opening
into the Ægean through the Dardanelles and into the Baltic
through the Bosphorus; the Gulf of Ismid indents the eastern
coasts; Marmora, the largest island, has marble and alabaster
Marne (435) and Haute-Marne
(244), contiguous departments in the N.E. of France, in the
upper basin of the Marne River; in both cereals, potatoes, and
wine are the chief products, the best champagne coming from
the N. In the former, capital Châlons-sur-Marne, building
stone is quarried; there are metal works and tanneries; in the
latter, capital Chaumont, are valuable iron mines and manufactures
of cutlery and gloves.
Marochetti, Baron, Italian
sculptor, born in Turin; after working in Paris, came to this
country in 1848, and executed several public statues, one of
the Queen among others (1805-1867).
Maronites, a sect of Syrian
Christians, numbering 200,000, dwelling on the eastern slopes
of Lebanon, where they settled in the 7th century, and who joined
the Roman Catholic Church in 1445, while they retain much of
their primitive character; they maintained a long sanguinary
rivalry with their neighbours the Druses
Maroons, the name given to wild
negro bands in Jamaica and Guiana; those in Jamaica left behind
by the Spaniards on the conquest of the island by the English,
1655, escaped to the hills, and continued unsubdued till 1795;
in Guiana they still maintain independent communities. To
maroon a seaman is to leave him alone on an uninhabited
island, or adrift in a boat.
Marot, Clement, French
poet, born at Cahors; was valet-de-chambre of Margaret of Valois;
was a man of ready wit and a satirical writer, the exercise
of which often brought him into trouble; his poems, which consist
of elegies, epistles, rondeaux, madrigals, and ballads, have
left their impress on both the language and the literature of
a series of clever but scurrilous tracts published under the
name of Martin Marprelate, but which are the work of different
writers in the time of Elizabeth against prelacy, and which
gave rise to great excitement and some inquisition as to their
Letter of Marque.
Marquesas Islands (5),
a group of 13 small volcanic mountainous islands in the S. Pacific,
3600 m. W. of Peru, under French protection since 1842, are
peopled by a handsome but savage race, which is rapidly dying
out; Chinese immigrants grow cotton; the more southerly were
discovered by Mendaña in 1595, the more northerly by
Ingraham, an American, in 1791.
a theological controversy which arose in Scotland in the 18th
century over the teaching of a book entitled "The Marrow
of Modern Divinity," and which led to a secession from
the Established Church on the part of the "Marrow men,"
as the supporters of the doctrine of the book were called. It
contained an assertion of the evangelical doctrine of free grace,
which was condemned by the Assembly, and for maintaining which
the "Marrow men," headed by the Erskines, were deposed
in 1733, to the formation of the Secession Church.
novelist, born at Westminster; after service in the royal navy,
which he entered in 1806, and in which he attained the rank
of commandant, he retired in 1830, and commenced a series of
novels; "Frank Mildmay," the first, proving a success,
he resolved to devote the rest of his life to literature; his
novels were numerous, all of interest for their character sketches
and adventures, and "Peter Simple" and "Midshipman
Easy" are reckoned the best; it was by recourse to Marryat's
stories of sea life that Carlyle solaced himself after the burning
of the MS. volume of his "French Revolution," and
that he put himself in tune to repair the loss (1792-1848).
Mars, the exterior planet of the
Solar system, nearest the earth, of one-half its diameter, with
a mean distance from the sun of 141,000,000 m., round which
it takes 686 days to revolve, in a somewhat centric orbit, and
24½ hours to revolve on its own axis, which inclines
to its equator at an angle of 29°; examination of it shows
that there is four times as much land as water in it; it is
accompanied by two moons, an outer making a revolution round
it in 30 hours 18 minutes, and an inner in 7 hours and 38 minutes;
they are the smallest heavenly bodies known to science.
Mars, the Roman god of war, the
reputed father of Romulus, and the recognised protector of the
Roman State, identified at length with the Greek Ares.
Marseillaise, The, the
hymn or march of the French republicans, composed, both words
and music, at Strasburg by Rouget de Lisle one night in April
1792, and singing which the 600 volunteers from Marseilles entered
Paris on the 30th July thereafter. "Luckiest musicial composition,"
says Carlyle, "ever promulgated. The sound of which will
make the blood tingle in men's veins,
and whole armies and assemblages will sing it, with eyes
weeping and burning, with hearts defiant of death, despot, and
Marseilles (321), third city
and first seaport of France, on the shore of the Gulf of Lyons,
27 m. E. of the mouth of the Rhône; has extensive dock
accommodation; does great trade in wheat, oil, wine, sugar,
textiles, and coal, and manufactures soap, soda, macaroni, and
iron; there is a cathedral, picture-gallery, museum, and library,
schools of science and art; founded by colonists from Asia Minor
in 600 B.C., it was a Greek city till 300 B.C.; after the days
of Rome it had many vicissitudes, falling finally to France
in 1575, and losing its privilege as a free port in 1660; always
a Radical city, it proclaimed the Commune in 1871; a cholera
plague devastated it in 1885; six years later great sanitary
improvements were begun; Thiers and Puget were born here.
Marshal Forwards, a
name given to Blücher (q.
v.) for the celerity of his movements and the dash of his
Marshall, John, an American
judge; served in the army during the first years of the American
War; afterwards entered the legal profession and became Chief-Justice
of the United States; was an authority on constitutional law
Marston, John, English dramatist,
so called, was more of a poet than a dramatist, and his dramas
are remembered chiefly for the poetic passages they contain;
his masterpiece is a comedy entitled "What You Will"
Marston, John Westland,
dramatist, born at Boston, Lincolnshire; wrote several dramas, "Strathmore"
and "Marie de Méranie" among the number (1819-1890).
Marston, Philip Bourke,
poet, son of preceding; wrote three volumes of verse, admired
by Rossetti and Swinburne; was blind from boyhood (1850-1887).
Marston Moor, 7 m. W. of
York; here Cromwell and Fairfax defeated the Royalists under
Prince Rupert, July 2, 1644, and so won the north of England
for the Parliament.
Marsyas, a Phrygian peasant,
who, having found a flute which Athena had thrown away because
playing on it disfigured her face, and which, as still inspired
by the breath of the goddess, yielded sweet tones when he put
his lips to it, one day challenged Apollo to a contest, the
condition being that the vanquished should pay whatever penalty
the victor might impose on him; Apollo played on the lyre and
the boor on the flute, when the Muses, who were umpires, assigned
the palm to the former; upon this Apollo caught his rival up,
bound him to a tree, and flayed him alive for his temerity.
Martello Towers, round
towers of strong build, erected as a defence at one time off
the low shores of Sussex and Kent; they are of Italian origin;
there is one off the harbour of Leith.
Martens, Frederick de,
German diplomatist and publicist, born at Hamburg; author of
a "Précis du Droit des Gens" (1756-1821).
Martensen, Hans Lassen,
bishop of Copenhagen, a distinguished theologian; author of "Meister
Eckhart," a study of mediæval mysticism, "Christliche
Dogmatic" and "Christliche Ethic"; was a Hegelian
of a conservative type (1808-1884).
Martha, St., the sister of
Mary and Lazarus, the patron saint of good housewives, is represented,
in homely costume, with a bunch of keys at her girdle, and a
pot in her hand. Festival, July 20.
Martial, a Latin poet, born
at Bilbilis, in Spain; went to Rome, stayed there, favoured
of the emperors Titus and Domitian, for 35 years, and then returned
to his native city, where he wrote his Epigrammata, a collection
of short poems over 1500 in number, divided into 14 books, books
xiii. and xiv. being entitled respectively Xenia and Apophoreta;
these epigrams are distinguished for their wit, diction, and
indecency, but are valuable for the light they shed on the manners
of Rome at the period (43-104).
Martial Law, law administered
by military force, to which civilians are amenable during an
insurrection or riot.
Martin, the name of five Popes:
M. I., St., Pope from 649 to 655; M. II., Pope
from 882 to 884; M. III., Pope from 942 to 946; M.
IV., Pope from 1281 to 1285; M. V., Pope from 1417
to 1431, distinguished for having condemned Huss to be burned.
Martin, Aimé, a French
writer, born at Lyons, repaired to Paris, became the pupil and
friend of Bernardin de St. Pierre; collected his works and married
his widow; his letters to Sophia on "Natural History," &c.,
highly popular (1781-1844).
Martin, Henri, celebrated
French historian, born at Saint-Quentin; devoted his life to
the study of the history of France; wrote an account of it,
entitled "Histoire de France," a magnificent work
in 19 volumes; brought the history down to 1789, and received
from the Institute 20,000 francs as a prize (1810-1885).
Martin, John, English painter,
born near Hexham; was an artist of an ardent temperament and
extraordinary imaginative power; his paintings, the first "Sadak
in Search of the Waters of Oblivion," characterised as "sublime"
and "gorgeous," were 16 in number, and made a great
impression when produced; engravings of some of them are familiar,
such as the "Fall of Babylon" and "Belshazzar's
Martin, Lady. See
Martin, St., bishop of Tours,
was in early life a soldier, and meeting with a naked beggar
one cold day in winter divided his military cloak in two, and
gave him the half of it; was conspicuous both as a monk and
bishop for his compassion on the poor; seated at a banquet on
one occasion between the king and queen, hobnobbed with a poor
beggar looking on, and extended his goblet of wine to him; he
is the patron saint of topers; d. 397. Festival, November
Martin, Sarah, a philanthropist,
born at Great Yarmouth; lived by dressmaking, and devoted much
of her time among criminals in the jails (1791-1843).
Martin, Sir Theodore,
man of letters, born in Edinburgh; acquired his first fame under
the pseudonym of Bon Gaultier; is author of the "Life of
the late Prince Consort"; wrote along with Aytouna "Book
of Ballads," and translated the Odes of Horace, Dante's "Vita
Nuova" and Goethe's "Faust"; b. 1816.
English authoress, born at Norwich; a lady with little or no
genius but with considerable intellectual ability, and not without
an honest zeal for the "progress of the species";
she was what is called an "advanced" thinker, and
was a disciple of Auguste Comte; wrote a number of stories bearing
on social questions, and had that courage of her opinions which
commanded respect; it was she who persuaded Carlyle to try lecturing
when his finances were low, and she had a real pride at the
success of the scheme (1802-1876).
Martineau, James, rationalistic
theologian, born in Norwich, brother of the preceding; began
life as an engineer, took to theology,
and became a Unitarian minister; was at first a follower of
Bentham and then a disciple of Kant; at one time a materialist
he became a theist, and a most zealous advocate of theistic
beliefs from the Unitarian standpoint; he is a thinker of great
power, and has done much both to elevate and liberate the philosophy
of religion; his views are liberal as well as profound, and
he is extensively known as the author of the "Endeavours
after the Christian Life" and "Hours of Thought on
Sacred Things"; b. 1805.
Martinique (176, of which
a few are white), a West Indian French possession, one of the
Lesser Antilles; has a much-indented precipitous coast; a mountain
range in the centre is densely wooded; the plains are fertile,
and produce sugar, coffee, and cotton, which with fruit are
the exports; the climate is hot and not salubrious; the island
has been French, with three short intervals, since 1635.
Martyn, Henry, a Christian
missionary, born at Truro, in Cornwall; was a Fellow of St.
John's College, Cambridge; went to India as a chaplain, settled
in various stations and in Persia; translated the New Testament
into Hindi and Persian, as well as the Prayer-book; fell into
broken health; did more than he was able for, caught fever and
Marvell, Andrew, poet
and politician, born at Worcester; was first a lyric poet, and
in politics much of a Royalist, at last a violent politician
on the Puritan side, having become connected with Milton and
Cromwell; he wrote a tract "On the Growth of Popery and
Arbitrary Government in England" after the Restoration,
which brought him into trouble; being a favourite with the king,
the king sought to bribe him, but he could not be caught; he
died suddenly, and an unfounded rumour was circulated that he
had been poisoned (1621-1678).
Marx, Karl, a German Socialist,
born at Trèves, of Jewish descent; was at first a student
of philosophy and a disciple of Hegel, but soon abandoned philosophy
for social economy on a democratic basis and in a materialistic
interest, early adopted socialistic opinions, for his zeal in
which he was driven from Germany, France, and finally Belgium,
to settle in London, where he spent the last 30 years of his
life; founded the "International"
(q. v.), and wrote a work "Das Kapital," which
has become the text-book of Socialism, a remarkable book, and
one that has materially promoted the cause it advocates (1818-1866).
Mary, the Virgin. Of her
we know nothing for certain except what is contained in the
Gospel history, and that almost exclusively in her relation
to her Son, in connection with whom, and as His mother, she
has become an object of worship in the Roman Catholic and Greek
Mary I., queen of England, was
born at Greenwich, daughter of Henry VIII. and Catharine of
Aragon; at first the king's favourite, on her mother's divorce
she was treated with aversion; during her brother Edward VI.'s
reign she lived in retirement, clinging to her Catholic faith;
on her accession in 1553 a Protestant plot to put Lady Jane
Grey on the throne failed; she began cautiously to restore Catholicism,
imprisoning Reformers and reinstating the old bishops; on her
choosing Philip of Spain for her husband a revolt broke out
under Sir Thomas Wyatt, and though easily put down was the occasion
for the execution of Lady Jane Grey and the imprisonment of
Elizabeth; after her marriage in 1554 the religious reaction
gained strength, submission was made to Rome, and a persecution
began in which 300 persons, including Latimer, Ridley, and Cranmer,
perished in three years; ill-health, Philip's cruelty, and her
childlessness drove her to melancholy; a war with France led
to the loss of Calais in 1558, and she died broken-hearted,
a virtuous and pious, but bigoted and relentless woman (1516-1558).
Mary II., queen of England, daughter
of the Duke of York (afterwards James II.) and Anne Hyde; was
married to her cousin William of Orange in 1677, ascended the
English throne along with him on her father's abdication in
1688, and till her death was his much loved, good, and gentle
queen; Greenwich Hospital for disabled sailors, which she built,
is her memorial (1662-1694).
Mary, Queen of Scots,
daughter of James V. and Mary of Lorraine, born at Linlithgow,
became by her father's death queen ere she was a week old; her
early childhood was spent on an island in the Lake of Menteith;
she was sent to France in 1548, brought up at court with the
royal princes, and married to the dauphin in 1558, who for a
year, 1559-60, was King Francis II.; on his death she had to
leave France; she returned to assume the government in Scotland,
now in the throes of the Reformation; refraining from interference
with the Protestant movement she retained her own Catholic faith,
but chose Protestant advisers; out of many proposed alliances
she elected, against all advice, to be married to her cousin
Darnley 1565, and easily quelled the insurrection that broke
out under Moray; Darnley, granted the title king, tried to force
her to settle the succession in the event of her dying childless
on him and his heirs; deeming her favourite Rizzio to stand
in the way, he plotted with the Protestant Lords to have him
murdered, and Mary was reduced to agree to his demands; the
murder was done; the queen was for a time a prisoner in Holyrood,
but she succeeded in detaching Darnley, and the scheme fell
through; her only son, afterwards James VI., was born three
months later in 1566; the murder of Darnley took place in February
1567, being accomplished by Hepburn, Earl of Bothwell, almost
certainly with Mary's connivance; her marriage with Bothwell
in May alienated the nobles; they rose, took the queen prisoner
at Carberry, carried her to Edinburgh, then to Loch Leven, where
they forced her to abdicate in July; next year, escaping, she
fled to England, and was there for many years a prisoner; Catholic
plots were formed to liberate her and put her in place of Elizabeth
on the English throne (she was next in order of succession,
being great-granddaughter of Henry VII.); at last she was accused
of complicity in Babbington's conspiracy, tried, found guilty,
and executed in Fotheringhay Castle, February 8, 1587; faithful
to her religion to the end; she was a woman of great beauty
and charm, courage and ability, warm affection and generous
Maryland (1,042), a State of
the American Union, occupying the basin of the Potomac and of
Chesapeake Bay, with Pennsylvania on the N., Delaware on the
E., and the Virginias on the W. and S.; has a much indented
coast-line affording great facilities for navigation; the soil
is throughout fertile; on the level coast plains tobacco and
fruit, chiefly peaches, are grown; in the undulating central
land wheat; the mountains in the W. are well wooded with pine;
there are coal-mines in the W., copper and chrome in the midland,
and extensive marble quarries; the shad and herring fisheries
are valuable; the manufactures of clothing stuffs, flour, tobacco,
and beer are extensive; the climate of Maryland is temperate
and genial; education is free, and advanced; the John Hopkins
University is in Baltimore; there is a State
college in every county, and schools
for blind, deaf, and feeble-minded children; colonisation began
in 1634, and a policy of religious toleration and peace with
the Indians led to prosperity; the State was active in the War
of Independence, and remained with the North in the Civil War;
the capital is Annapolis (8), but the largest city is Baltimore
(434), a great wheat-shipping port and centre of industry; Cumberland
(13) has brick and cement works, and Hagerstown (10) has machine,
farm implement, and furniture factories.
Masaccio, an Italian painter,
born in Florence; went when very young to Rome, where he painted
in the church of St. Clement a series of frescoes, his greatest
work being the frescoes in the Brancacci chapel of the Carmine
church; he was a great master of perspective and colour (1402-1443).
Masai, a warlike tribe in Africa,
between the coast of Zanzibar and Victoria Nyanza, of the race
of the Gallas, men of powerful physique, though far from prepossessing
in appearance; when their warlike spirit and prowess are spent
they settle down to cattle-breeding.
Masaniello, a fisherman of
Amalfi, who headed a revolt against the Spanish viceroy in Naples,
which proved successful, but turned his head and led to his
Mashonaland, a plateau 4000
ft. high crossed by the Umvukwe Mountains, lying to the NE.
of Matabeleland and S. of the Zambesi River, of which its streams
are tributaries; is a fertile country, and being traversed continually
by cold SE. winds is healthy and bracing; the natives, of Bantu
stock, are peaceful and industrious, growing rice, maize, tobacco,
and cotton, which they also weave, and working with skill in
iron; they live in dread of the fierce Matabele tribes; the
country is very rich in iron, copper, and gold, and has traces
of ancient scientific gold-mining; it has been under British
protection since 1888.
Mask, Iron. See
Maskelyne, Nevil, astronomer-royal,
born in London; determined the method of finding longitude at
sea, and the density of the earth by experiments at Schiehallion,
and commenced the "National Almanack," and produced
the first volume of "Astronomical Observations at Greenwich"
Mason, Sir Josiah, Birmingham
manufacturer and philanthropist, born at Kidderminster; made
his fortune by split rings, steel pens, electro-plating; founded
an orphanage at Erdington at the cost of nearly £300,000,
and the college at Birmingham which bears his name (1795-1881).
Mason, William, a minor
poet, a friend of poet Gray; the author of two tragedies, "Elfrida"
and "Caractacus" (1724-1797).
Mason and Dixon's Line,
so called after English engineers who surveyed it 1764-67; is
the boundary separating Maryland from Pennsylvania and Delaware;
during the Civil War it was inaccurately regarded as dividing
the slave-holding from the free States, Maryland and Delaware
both recognising slavery.
Camille Charles, French Egyptologist, born at Paris;
made extensive explorations and important discoveries in Egypt;
has written, among works bearing on Egypt, "Histoire Ancienne
des Peuples d'Orient"; b. 1846.
a New England State of the American Union, lies on the Atlantic
seaboard between New Hampshire and Vermont on the N. and Rhode
Island and Connecticut on the S., with New York on its western
border; has a long irregular coast-line and an uneven surface,
rising to the Green Mountains in the W.; the scenery is of great
beauty, but the soil is in many places poor, the farms raising
chiefly hay and dairy produce; the winters are severe; Massachusetts
is the third manufacturing State of the Union; its industries
include cotton, woollen, worsted, clothing, leather and leather
goods, iron and iron goods; school education throughout the
State is free and of a high standard; there are several universities
and colleges, including Harvard, Boston, Williams, and Amherst;
founded in 1620 by the Pilgrim Fathers, Massachusetts had many
hardships in early days, and was long the scene of religious
intolerance and persecution; the War of Independence began at
Bunker's Hill and Lexington in 1776; the capital and chief seaport
is Boston (448); Worcester (85) has machinery factories, Springfield
(44) paper, and Lowell (78) cotton mills; Concord was for long
a literary centre.
Massage, in medicine a process
of kneading, stroking, and rubbing, with the fingers and palms
of the hands, applied to the body as a whole or to locally affected
parts, to allay pain, promote circulation, and restore nervous
and vital energy; it was practised in very early times in China
and India; was known to the Greeks and Romans, and was revived
by Dr. Mezger of Amsterdam in 1853.
Massagetæ, a Scythian
people on the NE. of the Caspian Sea, who used to kill and eat
the aged among them, in an expedition against whom, it is said,
Cyrus the Great lost his life.
Massena, Duc de Rivoli, Prince
of Essling, one of the most illustrious marshals of France,
born at Nice; he distinguished himself at Rivoli in 1796, at
Zurich in 1799, at the siege of Genoa in 1800, at Eckmühl
and at Wagram in 1809, and was named by Napoleon L'enfant
chéri de la Victoire, i. e. the favoured child
of victory; he was recalled from the Peninsula by Napoleon for
failing to expel Wellington, and it appears he never forgot
the affront (1758-1817).
Massey, Gerald, English
democratic poet, born in Hertfordshire; wrote "Poems and
Charms," "Voices of Freedom and Lyrics of Love";
has written for the reviews, and taken a great interest in spiritualism;
Massillon, Jean Baptiste,
celebrated French pulpit orator, born at Hières, in Provence;
entered the congregation of the Oratory, and became so celebrated
for his eloquence that he was called to Paris, where he gathered
round him hearers in crowds; Bourdaloue, when he heard him,
said, "He must increase, but I must decrease," and
Louis XIV. said to him, "When I hear others preach I go
away much pleased with them, but when I hear you I feel displeased
with myself"; he was made bishop of Clermont, and next
year preached before Louis XV., now king, his famous "Petit
Carême," a series of ten sermons for Lent; he was
a devoted bishop, and the idol of his flock; his style was perfect,
and his eloquence was winning, and went home to the heart (1663-1742).
Massinger, Philip, English
dramatist; little is known of his personal history except that
he studied at Oxford without taking a degree, that he lived
in London, and was buried as "a stranger" in St. Saviour's,
Southwark; of his 37 plays only 18 remain, and of these the
most famous is the comedy entitled "New Way to Pay Old
Debts," the chief character in which is Sir Giles Overreach,
and the representation of which still holds its place on the
Masson, David, man of letters,
born in Aberdeen; elected literature as his profession in preference
to theology, with the study of which he commenced; joined the
staff of the Messrs. Chambers; settled in London, and became
professor of English Literature in University College, from
the chair of which he removed to the corresponding one in Edinburgh
in 1865; edited Macmillan's Magazine from 1859 to 1868;
his great work, the "Life of Milton," in 6 vols.,
a thorough book, and of great historical value; has written
on "British Novelists and their Styles," "Life
of Drummond of Hawthornden," &c.; became in 1893 Historiographer-Royal
of Scotland; b. 1822.
Masso`rah, a body of Biblical
references, chiefly handed down by tradition, and calculated
to be of great service in verifying the original text of the
the vowel points and accents in Hebrew; invented by the Massorites,
or authors of the Massorah.
Master Humphrey, a character
in Dickens's "Old Curiosity Shop."
Master of Sentences,
Peter Lombard (q. v.).
Mastodon, one of an extinct
species of mammals akin to the elephant.
Masulipatam (38), chief
seaport in the district of Kistna, Madras Presidency, India,
215 m. N. of Madras, with a large coasting trade.
Matabeleland, a country
stretching northward from the Transvaal, 180 m. by 150 m., towards
the Zambesi River; formerly occupied by peaceful Mashona and
Makalaka tribes, but conquered by the Matabele in 1840, and
since held by them. They are warlike, and have no industries.
The women grow mealies, the men make continual forays on their
neighbours. Gold exists in various parts, and the country was
declared British territory in 1890. It is developed by the British
South African Company, whose chief stations are Buluwayo in
the SW. and Fort Salisbury in the NE.
Matanza (50), a fortified town
in Cuba, 32 m. E. of Havana.
Materialism, the theory
which, denying the independent existence of spirit, resolves
everything within the sphere of being into matter, or into the
operation and the effect of the operation of forces latent in
it, or into the negative and positive interaction of mere material
forces, to the exclusion of intelligent purpose and design.
Mather, Cotton, an American
divine, born in Boston; notorious for his belief in witchcraft,
and for the persecution he provoked against those charged with
it by his zeal in spreading the delusion (1663-1728).
Mathew, Theobald, or
Father Mathew, apostle of temperance, born in Tipperary;
studied for the Catholic priesthood, but joined the Capuchin
Minorites; was in 1814 ordained a priest, and located in Cork,
where at sight of the cruel effects of drunkenness on the mass
of the people his heart was moved, and he resolved on a crusade
against it to stamp it out; he started on this enterprise in
1827, but it took a year and a half before his mission bore
any fruit, and then it was accompanied with marvellous success
wherever he went, even as far as the New World itself (1790-1856).
Mathews, Charles, comedian,
born in London; abandoned his father's trade of bookseller for
the stage in 1794; appeared in Dublin and York, and from 1803
till 1818 played in Drury Lane, Covent Garden, and the Lyceum;
the rest of his life he spent as a single-handed entertainer,
charming countless audiences in Britain and America with his
good singing and incomparable mimicry; he died at Plymouth (1776-1835).
Mathews, Charles James,
light comedian, son of the preceding; married Madame Vestris;
was a charming actor, acted with a great grace and delicacy
of feeling (1803-1878).
Matlock, a watering-place in
Derbyshire, on a slope overlooking the Derwent, 15 m. NW. of
Matilda, the "Great Countess"
of Tuscany, celebrated for her zeal on behalf of the Popes against
the Emperor Henry IV., and for the donation of her possessions
to the Church, which gave rise to a contest after her death
Matilda or Maud, daughter
of Henry I. of England and wife of the Emperor Henry V., on
whose decease she was married to Geoffrey Plantagenet of Anjou
and became mother of Henry II.; on the death of her father succeeded
to the English throne, but was supplanted by Stephen, whom she
defeated and who finally defeated her (1103-1167).
Matadore, the athlete who kills
the bull in a bull-fight.
Matsys, Quentin, a Flemish
painter, originally a blacksmith, did altar-pieces and genre
Mattathias, a Jewish priest,
the father of the Maccabees, who in 170 B.C., when asked by
a Syrian embassy to offer sacrifice to the Syrian gods, not
only refused to do so, but slew with his own hand the Jew that
stepped forward to do it for him, and then fell upon the embassy
that required the act; upon which he rushed with his five sons
into the wilderness of Judea and called upon all to follow him
who had any regard for the Lord; this was the first step in
the war of the Maccabees, the immediate issue of which was to
the Jew the achievement of an independence which he had not
enjoyed for 400 years.
Matterhorn, a sharp Alpine
peak 14,700 ft., on the Swiss-Italian border, difficult of ascent;
first scaled by Whymper 1865.
Matthew, a publican, by the
Sea of Tiberias, who being called became a disciple and eventually
an apostle of Christ; generally represented in Christian art
as an old man with a large flowing beard, often occupied in
writing his gospel, with an angel standing by.
Matthew, Gospel according
to, written not later than 62 A.D., is the earliest
record we possess of the ministry and teaching of Christ, and
is believed to have been originally a mere collection of His
sayings and parables; was written in Aramaic, the spoken language
of the Jews at the period, of which the version we have in Greek
is a translation, as some think by Matthew himself; its aim
is to show that Jesus of Nazareth is the Messiah promised in
the Old Testament, in a form, however, which led to His rejection
by the Jews, and their consequent rejection by Him, to the proclamation
of His gospel among the Gentiles (chap. xxviii. 19, 20).
conqueror and patron of learning, born at Klausenburg; was elected
King of Hungary 1458; though arbitrary in his measures, he promoted
commerce, dispensed justice, fostered culture, and observed
sound finance; he founded the University of Buda-Pesth, an observatory,
and great library, but his reign was full of wars; for nine
years he fought the Turks and took from them Bosnia, Moldavia,
and Wallachia; from 1470 till 1478 the struggle was with Bohemia,
from which he wrested Moravia, Silesia, and Lusatia; then followed
war with Frederick III., the capture of Vienna 1485, and a large
part of Austria 1487; he made Vienna his capital, and died there
Maturin, Charles Robert,
novelist, a poor curate in Dublin, where
he died; wrote "The Fatal Revenge" and other extravagant
tales, and produced one successful tragedy, "Bertram,"
Maudsley, Henry, specialist
in mental diseases, born near Giggleswick; was educated at University
College, London, and graduated M.D. 1857; after being physician
in Manchester Asylum, he returned to London 1862, and was professor
of Medical Jurisprudence at his own college 1869-79; he is the
author of several works on mental pathology; b. 1835.
Thursday before Good Friday, on which day it was customary for
high people to wash the feet of a number of poor people, and
on which Royal alms are bestowed by the Royal Almoner to the
Maupassant, Guy de,
a clever French romancer, born at Fécamp; served in the
Franco-German War, and afterwards gave himself to letters, producing
novels, stories, lyrics, and plays; died insane (1850-1893).
Maupeou, chancellor of France,
whose ministry was signalised by the banishment of the Parlement
of Paris, and the institution of Conseils du roi; the
Parlement Maupeou became a laughing-stock under Louis XV., and
Louis XVI. recalled the old Parlement on his accession (1714-1792).
Louis Moreau de, French mathematician and astronomer,
born at St. Malo; went to Lapland to measure a degree of longitude,
to ascertain the figure of the earth; wrote a book "On
the Figure of the Earth"; was invited to Berlin by Frederick
the Great, and made President of the Academy of Science there;
was satirised by Voltaire much to the annoyance of the king,
who patronised him and prided himself in the institution of
which he was the head (1698-1759).
Maur, St., a disciple of St.
Benedict in the 6th century; the congregation of Saint-Maur,
founded in 1613, was a perfect nursery of scholarly men, known
Maurepas, French statesman,
born at Versailles; was minister of France under Louis XV. and
again under Louis XVI., an easy-going, careless minister, "adjusted
his cloak well to the wind, if so be he might have pleased all
Maurice, Frederick Denison,
a liberal theologian and social reformer, born at Normanstone,
near Lowestoft, the son of a Unitarian minister; started as
a literary man, and for a time edited the Athenæum,
and took orders in the English Church in 1834; was chaplain
to Guy's Hospital and afterwards to Lincoln's Inn, and incumbent
of Vere Street Chapel; held professorships in Literature, in
Theology, and Moral Philosophy; was a disciple of Coleridge
and a Broad Churchman, who "promoted the charities of his
faith, and parried its discussion"; one of the originators
of Christian Socialism along with Kingsley, and the founder
of the Working-Man's College; his writings were numerous though
somewhat vague in their teachings, and had many admirers (1805-1872).
Maurice of Nassau, Prince
of Orange; one of the most famous generals of modern times,
son of William the Silent, on whose assassination he was elected
Stadtholder, and became by his prowess the liberator of the
United Provinces from the yoke of Spain; his name is stained
by his treatment of Barneveldt, who saw and opposed his selfish
Maurists, a congregation of
reformed Benedictines, with head-quarters in Paris, disbanded
in 1792; were through the 17th and 18th centuries noted for
their services to learning; they published many historical and
ecclesiastical works, including a "History of the Literature
of France," and boasted in their number Montfauçon,
Mabillon, and other scholars. See Maur,
Mauritania, was the old name
of the African country W. of the Muluya River and N. of the
Atlas Mountains, from which supplies of corn and timber were
Mauritius, or Isle of France
(372), a volcanic island in the Indian Ocean, 550 m. E. of Madagascar,
as large as Caithness, with mountains 3000 feet high, a tableland
in the centre, and many short streams; the climate is cool in
winter, hot in the rainy season, and subject to cyclones; formerly
well wooded, the forests have been cut down to make room for
sugar, coffee, maize, and rice plantations; sugar is the main
export; the population is very mixed; African and Eastern races
predominate; descendants of French settlers and Europeans number
110,000; discovered by the Portuguese in 1510, they abandoned
it 90 years later; the Dutch held it for 112 years, and abandoned
it in turn; occupied by the French in 1721, it was captured
by Britain in 1810, and is now, with some other islands, a crown
colony, under a governor and council. Port Louis (62),
on the NW., is the capital, and a British naval coaling station.
Maury, Abbé, born in
Vaucluse, son of a shoemaker; came to Paris, and became celebrated
as a preacher; "skilfulest vamper of old rotten leather
to make it look like new," was made member of the Constituent
Assembly, "fought Jesuistico-rhetorically, with toughest
lungs and heart, for throne, specially for altar and tithes";
his efforts, though fruitless for throne, gained in the end
the "red cardinal plush," and Count d'Artois and he
embraced each other "with a kiss" (1740-1817).
Maury, Matthew Fontaine,
American hydrographer, born in Virginia; entered the United
States navy in 1825, became lieutenant in 1837, studied the
Gulf Stream, oceanic currents, and great circle sailing, and
in 1856 published his "Physical Geography of the Sea";
took the side of the Confederates in the Civil War, and was
afterwards appointed professor in the Military College at Lexington,
in Virginia (1806-1873).
Mausole`um, a building more
or less elaborate, used as a tomb. See
Mausolus, a king of Caria,
husband of Artemisia, who in 353 raised a monument to his memory,
called the Mausoleum, and reckoned one of the Seven Wonders
of the world.
Max Müller, Friedrich,
philologist, born at Dessau, son of a German poet, Wilhelm Müller;
educated at Leipzig; studied at Paris, and came to England in
1846; was appointed Taylorian Professor at Oxford in 1854, and
in 1868 professor of Comparative Philology there, a science
to which he has made large contributions; besides editing the "Rig-Veda,"
he has published "Lectures on the Science of Language"
and "Chips from a German Workshop," dealing therein
not merely with the origin of languages, but that of the early
religious and social systems of the East; b. 1823.
Maxim, Hiram S., American
inventor, born at Tangerville, Maine, U.S.; showed early a decided
mechanical talent, and is best known in connection with the
invention of the gun named after him, but among his other inventions
are the smokeless powder, the incandescent lamp carbons, and
search-lights; b. 1840.
Maxim Gun, an automatic machine-gun
invented by Hiram S. Maxim, an American, in 1884, capable of
discharging 620 rifle cartridges per
minute; the first shot is fired by hand, and the recoil is utilised
to reload and fire the next, and so on. A cylinder of water
keeps the barrel from heating.
Joseph, archduke of Austria, younger brother of Francis
Joseph, born at Schönbrunn; became emperor of Mexico; issued
an edict threatening death to any Mexican who took up arms against
the empire, roused the Liberal party against him, and was at
the head of 8000 men defeated at Querétaro, taken prisoner,
tried by court-martial, and shot (1832-1867).
Maximilian I., emperor of
Germany, son of Frederick III., acquired Burgundy and Flanders
by marriage, which involved him in a war with France; became
emperor on the death of his father in 1493; became by marriage
Duke of Milan, and brought Spain under the power of his dynasty
by the marriage of his son Philip to the daughter of Ferdinand
and Isabella; it was he who assembled the Diet of Augsburg at
which Luther made appeal to the Pope (1459-1519).
Maxwell, James Clerk,
eminent physicist, born in Edinburgh, son of John Clerk Maxwell
of Middlebie; attained the rank of senior wrangler at Cambridge;
became professor in Aberdeen in 1856, in London in 1860, and
of Experimental Physics in Cambridge in 1871; in this year appeared
the first of his works, "The Theory of Heat," which
was followed by "Electricity and Magnetism" and "Matter
and Motion," the second being his greatest; he was as sincere
a Christian as he was a zealous scientist (1831-1879).
Maxwell, Sir William
Stirling, of Keir, Perthshire, a man of refined scholarship;
travelled in Italy and Spain; wrote on subjects connected with
the history and the artists of Spain (1818-1878).
May, the fifth month of the year,
so called from a Sanskrit word signifying to grow, as being
the shooting or growing month.
May, Isle Of, island at the
mouth of the Firth of Forth, 5½ m. SE. of Crail on the
Fife coast; has a lighthouse with an electric light, flashing
out at intervals to a distance of 22 nautical miles.
May, Sir Thomas Erskine,
English barrister; became Clerk of the House of Commons in 1871;
wrote a parliamentary text-book, "Democracy in Europe,"
and a "Constitutional History of England since the Accession
of George III.," in continuation of the works of Hallam
and Stubbs (1815-1886).
Mayer, Julius Robert von,
German physicist, born in Heilbronn; made a special study of
the phenomena of heat, established the numerical relation between
heat and work, and propounded the theory of the production and
maintenance of the sun's temperature; he had a controversy as
to the priority of his discoveries with Joule, who claimed to
have anticipated them (1814-1878).
Mayhew, Henry, littérateur
and first editor of Punch, born in London, and articled
to his father, a solicitor; chose journalism as a profession,
and in conjunction with Gilbert à Beckett started
The Thief in 1832, the first of the "Bits" type
of papers; he joined the first Punch staff in 1841, in
which year his farce "The Wandering Minstrel" was
produced; collaborating with his brother Augustus, he wrote "Whom
to Marry" and many other novels between 1847 and 1855,
thereafter works on various subjects; his principal book, "London
Labour and the London Poor," appeared in 1851 (1812-1887).
Maynooth, village in co. Kildare,
15 m. W. of Dublin; is the seat of a Roman Catholic seminary
founded by the Irish Parliament in 1795 on the abolition of
the French colleges during the Revolution; an annual grant of £9000
was made, increased to £26,000 in 1846, but commuted in
1869 for a sum of £1,100,000, when State connection ceased;
the college trains 500 students for the priesthood.
Mayo (245), maritime county in
Counaught, west of Ireland, between Sligo and Galway; has many
indentations, the largest Broadhaven, Blacksod, and Clew Bays,
and islands Achil and Clare, with a remarkable peninsula The
Mullet; mountainous in the W., the E. is more level, and has
Lough Conn and the Moy River; much of the county is barren and
bog, but crops of cereals and potatoes are raised; cattle are
reared on pasture lands; there are valuable slate quarries and
manganese mines; Castlebar (4), in the centre, is the county
town; Westport (4), on Clew Bay, has some shipping.
Southwark Bourke, Earl of, statesman, born and educated
in Dublin; entered Parliament 1847, and was Chief Secretary
for Ireland in Conservative Governments 1852, 1858, and 1866,
opposing Gladstone's Irish Church resolutions; in 1868 he succeeded
Lord Lawrence as Viceroy of India, in which office he proved
himself a prudent statesman, a sound financier, and a just and
wise administrator; he was murdered by a fanatic in the Andaman
Islands, and universally mourned (1822-1872).
Mazarin, Jules, cardinal,
born at Piscina, Abruzzi; having been sent by the Pope one of
an embassy to France, he gained the favour of Richelieu, who
recommended him to Louis XIII. as his successor, and whose successor,
being naturalised as a Frenchman, he became in 1642, an office
which he retained under the queen-regent on Louis' death; he
brought the Thirty Years' War to an end by the peace of Westphalia,
crushed the revolt of the Fronde
(q. v.), and imposed on Spain the treaty of the Pyrenees;
at first a popular minister, he began to lose favour when cabals
were formed against him, and he was dismissed, but he contrived
to allay the storm, regained his power, and held it till his
death; he died immensely rich, and bequeathed his library, which
was a large one, to the College Mazarin (1602-1661).
Mazarin Bible, the first
book printed by movable metal types, a copy of which is in the
Mazarin library, and bears the date 1456.
Mazeppa, Ivan, hetman of
the Cossacks, born in Podolia; became page to John Casimir,
king of Poland; was taken by a Polish nobleman, who surprised
him with his wife, and tied by him to the back of a wild horse,
which galloped off with him to the Ukraine, where it had been
bred, and where some peasants released him half-dead; life among
those people suited his taste, he stayed among them, became
secretary to their hetman, and finally hetman himself; he won
the confidence of Peter the Great, who made him a prince under
his suzerainty, but in an evil hour he allied himself with Charles
XII. of Sweden, and lost it; fled to Bender on the defeat of
the Swedish king at Pultowa in 1709 (1644-1709).
Mazurka, a lively Polish dance,
danced by four or eight couples, and much practised in the N.
of Germany as well as in Poland.
Mazzini, Joseph, Italian
patriot, born at Genoa; consecrated his life to political revolution
and the regeneration of his country on a democratic basis by
political agitation; was arrested by the Sardinian government
in 1831 and expelled from Italy; organised at Marseilles the
secret society of Young Italy, whose motto was "God and
the People"; driven from Marseilles to Switzerland and
from Switzerland to London, he never ceased to agitate and conspire
for this object; on the outbreak of the Revolution in 1848 at
Paris he hastened thither to join the
movement, which had spread into Italy, and where in 1849 he
was installed one of a triumvirate in Rome and conducted the
defence of the city against the arms of France, but refusing
to join in the capitulation he returned to London, where he
still continued to agitate till, his health failing, he retired
to Geneva and died (1805-1872).
Mead, a brisk liquor made by fermenting
honey, and used in civilised and barbarous Europe from very
Meade, George Gordon,
American general, born at Cadiz, son of an American merchant;
he passed through West Point and joined the engineers; he served
in the Mexican War, became captain and major, and was employed
surveying and lighthouse building till the Civil War; in it,
first in command of volunteers and afterwards as general in
the regular army, he distinguished himself chiefly by frustrating
Lee in 1863; after the war he continued in the service till
his death at Philadelphia (1815-1872).
Meath (77), a county in Leinster,
Ireland, touching the Irish Sea between Louth and Dublin, is
watered by the Boyne River and its tributary the Blackwater;
the surface is undulating, the soil fertile; some oats and potatoes
are grown, but most of the county is under pasture; there is
a little linen and coarse woollen industry; the chief towns
are Navan (4), Kells (2), and the county town Trim (1).
Meaux (13), on the Marne, 28 m.
NE. of Paris, a well-built town, with Gothic cathedral; has
a large corn and provision trade, and some copper and cotton
industries; Bossuet was bishop here, and it contains his grave.
Mecca, the birthplace of Mahomet,
the Holy City and Keblah of the Moslems, the capital of Hedjaz
and the true capital of Arabia; in the midst of sandy valleys,
and 60 m. distant from Jeddah, its port; a city to which every
true Mussulman must make a pilgrimage once in his life; has
a population which varies from 30,000 to 60,000. See
the lever, inclined plane, wheel and axle, screw, pulley, and
wedge, the elementary contrivances of which all machines are
associations of working-men which aim at providing a general
education for artisans, and particularly instruction in the
fundamental principles of their own trades; are managed by committees
of their own election, usually have a reading-room and library,
and provide classes and lectures; Dr. Birkbeck started a journeymen's
class in Glasgow 1800, and in 1824 in London organised the first
(578), a German grand-duchy, on the shores of the Baltic, between
Schleswig-Holstein and Pomerania; is mostly a level, fertile
plain, with numerous small rivers and many lakes; agriculture
is the chief industry; merino sheep are renowned; there are
iron-founding, sugar-refining, and tanning works, and amber
is found on the coasts; social institutions are very backward;
still largely feudal; serfdom was abolished in 1824 only.
Schwerin (34), on Lake Schwerin, is the capital. Rostock
(44), has a university; is a busy Baltic port, from which grain,
wool, and cattle are shipped; has important wool and cattle
fairs, shipbuilding, and other industries. Mecklenburg-Strelitz
(98), adjacent to the foregoing on the SE., presents similar
characteristics, and is united to it in government; the capital
is Neustrelitz (9).
Medea, a famous sorceress of Greek
legend, daughter of Æëtes, king of Colchis, by whose
aid Jason (q. v.) accomplished
the object of his expedition, and acquired the Golden Fleece,
and who accompanied him back to Greece as his wife; by her art
she restored the youth of Eson, the father of her husband, but
the latter having abandoned her she avenged herself on him by
putting the children she had by him to death; the art she possessed
was that of making old people young again by first chopping
them in pieces and then boiling them in a caldron.
Media, a country on the SW. of
the Caspian Sea, originally a province of the Assyrian empire,
from which it revolted; was after 150 years of independence
annexed to Persia by Cyrus, of which it had formed the NW. portion.
Mediævalism, a tendency
in literature and art to conform in spirit or otherwise to mediæval
Jurisprudence or Forensic Medicine, is the branch of
medical study which bears on legal questions, the detection
of crime or the determination of civil rights.
Medici, an illustrious family
who attained sovereign power in Florence in the 15th century,
the most celebrated members of which were: Cosmo de,
surnamed the "Father of his Country," was exiled for
ten years but recalled, and had afterwards a peaceful and prosperous
reign; was a student of philosophy, and much interested in literature
(1389-1464). Lorenzo de, the Magnificent, did much to
demoralise Florence, but patronised literature and the arts
(1448-1492). Other celebrated members of the family were
Popes Leo X.,
Clement VII., and
Catherine and Mary de Medici (q.
Medicine-Man, one among
the American Indians who professes to cure diseases or exorcise
evil spirits by magic.
Medina (lit. the city)
(76), called also Medina-en-Nabi, 210 m. N. of Mecca, the City
of the Prophet, as the place in which he found refuge after
his "flight" from Mecca in 632; it was here he from
that date lived, where he died, and where his tomb is, in a
beautiful and rich mosque called El Haram (i. e. the
inviolate), erected on the site of the prophet's house. See
so called by the ancients as lying in the presumed middle of
the earth surrounded by Europe, Asia, and Africa; the largest
enclosed sea in the world; its communication with the Atlantic
is Gibraltar Strait, 9 m. wide; it communicates with the Black
Sea through the Dardanelles, and in 1869 a canal through the
isthmus of Suez connected it with the Red Sea, 2200 m. long
by 100 to 600 m. broad; its S. shores are regular; the N. has
many gulfs, and two great inlets, the Ægean and Adriatic
Seas; the Balearic Isles, Corsica, and Sardinia, Sicily, Malta,
Cyprus, and Crete, the Ionian Isles, and the Archipelago are
the chief islands; the Rhône, Po, and Nile the chief rivers
that discharge into it; a ridge between Sicily and Cape Bon
divides it into two great basins; it is practically tideless,
and salter than the Atlantic; its waters too are warm; northerly
winds prevail in the E. with certain regular variations; the
surrounding territories are the richest in the world, and the
greatest movements in civilisation and art have taken place
around it in Africa, Phoenicia, Carthage, Greece, and Rome.
Medium, in modern spiritualism
a person susceptible to communication with the spirit-world.
Medjidie, an Ottoman order
of knighthood instituted in 1852 by the Sultan Abd-ul-Medjid,
as a reward of merit in civil or military service.
Médoc, a district in the
dep. of the Gironde, on the left of the estuary, in the S. of
France, famous for its wines.
Medusa, one of the
three Gorgons (q. v.),
is fabled to have been originally a woman of rare beauty, with
a magnificent head of hair, but having offended Athena, that
goddess changed her hair into hideous serpents, and gave to
her eyes the power of turning any one into stone who looked
into them; Perseus (q. v.)
cut off her head by the help of Athena, who afterwards wore
it on the middle of her breastplate or shield.
Medway, a river in Kent, which
rises in Surrey and Sussex, and which after a NE. course of
58 m. falls into an estuary at Sheerness.
Meeanee, a village in Sind,
6 m. N. of Hyderabad, where Sir Charles Napier defeated an army
of the Ameer of Sind in 1843.
Meerschaum (lit. sea-foam),
a fine white clay, a hydrate-silicate of magnesia, supposed,
as found on the sea-shore in some places, to have been sea-foam
Meerut (119), an Indian town
in the North-West Provinces, on the Nuddi, 40 m. NE. of Delhi;
is capital of a district of the same name, and an Important
military station; it is noted as the scene of the outbreak of
the Mutiny in 1857.
Megaris, a small but populous
State of ancient Greece, S. of Attica, whose inhabitants were
adventurous seafarers, credited with deceitful propensities.
The capital, Megara, famous for white marble and fine clay,
was the birthplace of Euclid.
Megatherium, an extinct
genus of mammalia allied to the sloth, some 18 or 20 ft. in
length and 8 ft. in height, with an elephantine skeleton.
Mehemet Ali, pasha of Egypt,
born in Albania; entered the Turkish army, and rose into favour,
so that he was able to seize the pashalic, the Sultan compromising
matters by exaction of an annual tribute in acknowledgment of
his suzerainty; the Mamelukes, however, proved unruly, and he
could not otherwise get rid of them but by luring them into
his coils, and slaughtering them wholesale in 1811; he maintained
two wars with the Sultan for the possession of Syria, and had
Ibrahim Pasha, his son, for lieutenant; compelled to give up
the struggle, he instituted a series of reforms in Egypt, and
prosecuted them with such vigour that the Sultan decreed the
pashalic to remain hereditary in his family (1769-1849).
Meissen (15), a town of Saxony,
on the Upper Elbe, 15 m. NW. of Dresden; has a very fine Gothic
cathedral and an old castle. Gellert and Lessing were educated
here. There is a large porcelain factory, where Dresden china
is made, besides manufactures of iron.
Meissonier, Jean Louis
Ernest, French painter, born at Lyons; began as a book
illustrator of "Paul and Virginia" amongst other works,
practising the while and perfecting his art as a figure painter,
in which he achieved signal success, from his "Chess-player"
series to his designs for the decoration of the Pantheon, "The
Apotheosis of France," in 1889 (1811-1891).
Meister, Wilhelm, a great
work of Goethe's, fraught with world-wisdom, the hero of which
of the name represents a man who is led, in these very days,
by a higher hand than he is aware of to his appointed destiny.
Singers, a guild founded in Germany in the 15th century
or earlier for the cultivation of poetry, of which
Hans Sachs (q. v.) was
the most famous member.
Mekhong, is the great river
of Siam. Its source In the mountains of Chiamdo is unexplored.
Its course, 3000 m., is southerly to the China Sea; the last
500 m. are navigable. It carries great quantities of silt which
goes to form and augment the delta through which it issues.
Protestant Reformer, born in the Palatinate of the Rhine; was
the scholar of the German Reformation, and a wise friend of
Luther's, having come into contact with him at Wittenberg, where
he happened to be professor of Greek; he wrote the first Protestant
work in dogmatic theology, entitled "Loci Communes,"
and drew up the "Augsburg Confession"; the sweetness
of temper for which he was distinguished, together with his
soberness as a thinker, had a moderating influence on the vehemence
of Luther, and contributed much to the progress of the Reformation;
he was the Erasmus of that movement, and combined the humanist
with the Reformer, as George Buchanan did in Scotland (1497-1560).
Melanesia, eleven archipelagoes
of crystalline, coralline, and volcanic islands in the W. of
Polynesia, all S. of the equator, and inhabited by the Melanesian
or dark oceanic race; includes the Fiji, Solomon, Bismarck,
and New Hebrides islands.
Melba, Nellie, a celebrated
operatic singer, born in Australia; made her first appearance
when she was only six; has often appeared in opera in London;
her private name is Mrs. Armstrong, and she resides in Paris;
Melbourne (491), the capital
of Victoria, at the head of Port Phillip Bay; is the largest
and most important city in Australia; built in broad regular
streets, with much architectural beauty, and containing, besides
the Government buildings, a Roman and an Anglican cathedral,
a mint and a university, numerous colleges, hospitals, and other
institutions. Its shipping interests are very large; a ship
canal enables the largest ships to reach the quays; exports
of gold and wool are extensive. Melbourne is the railway centre
of the continent. It has manufactures of boots and clothing,
foundries and flour-mills. It has a hot climate. Its water supply
is abundant, but defective drainage impairs its healthfulness.
First settled in 1835, it was incorporated in 1842, and nine
years later was made capital of the newly constituted colony.
It was the scene of an exhibition in 1888, of a great industrial
struggle in 1890, and of a very severe financial crisis in 1893.
Lamb, Viscount, English statesman, born in London; educated
at Cambridge and Glasgow Universities; entered Parliament as
a Whig in 1805, but was Chief Secretary for Ireland in the Governments
of Canning, Goderich, and Wellington; succeeding to the title
in 1828, he reverted to his old party; was Home Secretary under
Earl Grey in 1830, and was himself Prime Minister for four months
in 1834, and then from 1835 till 1841, when he retired from
public life; he was a man of sound sense, and showed admirable
tact in introducing the young queen to her various duties in
Melchizedek (i. e.
king of righteousness or justice), a priest-king of Canaan,
to whom, though of no lineage as a priest, but as a minister
of God's justice, Abraham did homage and paid tithes; a true
type of priest as ordained of God, and one in that capacity "without
father and without mother."
Meleager, a Greek mythic hero,
distinguished for throwing the javelin, and by his skill in
it slaying a wild boar which devastated his country, and whose
life depended on the burning down of a brand that was blazing
on the hearth at the time of his birth,
but which his mother at once snatched from the flames. But a
quarrel having arisen between him and his uncles over the head
of the boar, in which they met their death, the mother to be
avenged on him for slaying her brothers threw back into the
fire the brand on the preservation of which his life depended,
and on the instant he breathed his last.
Meliorism, the theory that
there is in nature a tendency to better and better development.
Melodrama, a play consisting
of sensational incidents, and arranged to produce striking effects.
Melpomenë, the one of
the nine muses which presides over tragedy.
Melrose, a small town in Roxburghshire,
at the foot of the Eildons, on the S. bank of the Tweed, famed
for its abbey, founded by David I. in 1136; it is celebrated
by Sir Walter Scott in his "Lay of the Last Minstrel."
Melton-Mowbray (6), a
town 15 m. NE. of Leicester, the centre of the great hunting
district; celebrated for its pork pies.
Melusina, a fairy of French
legend, who married Raymond, a knight, on condition that on
a particular day of the week he would not visit her, a stipulation
which he was tempted to break, so that on a day of her seclusion
he broke into her chamber, and found the lower part of her body
from the waist downwards transformed into that of a serpent,
upon which she straightway flew out at the window, to hover
henceforth round the castle of her lord and only appear again
on the occasion of the death of any of the inmates.
Melville, Andrew, Scottish
Presbyterian ecclesiastic, born near Montrose; of good and even
wide repute as a scholar; became Principal first of Glasgow
College and then of St. Mary's College, St. Andrews; was zealous
for the headship of Christ over the Church, in opposition to
the claim of the king, James, and spoke his mind freely both
to the king and the bishops, for which he was sent to the Tower;
on his release, after four years, he retired to a professorship
at Sedan, in France, having been forbidden to return to Scotland
Melville, Whyte-, novelist;
his novels were chiefly of the hunting field, such as "Katerfelto"
and "Black, but Comely," though he wrote historical
ones also, such as "The Queen's Maries" (1821-1878).
Memel (19), Baltic seaport at
the mouth of the Kurisches Haff, in the extreme NE. of Prussia;
ships great quantities of Russian and Lithuanian timber, and
has some chemical works and shipbuilding yards.
Memnon, a son of Tithonus and
Aurora, who was sent by his father, king of Egypt and Ethiopia,
to the assistance of Troy on the death of Hector, and who slew
Antilochus, the son of Nestor, and was himself slain by Achilles,
whereupon Aurora, all tears, besought Zeus to immortalise his
memory, which, however, did not calm her sorrow, for ever since
the earth bears witness to her weeping in the dews of the morning;
a statue, presumed to be to his memory, was erected near Thebes,
in Egypt, which was fabled to emit a musical sound every time
the first ray fell on it from the rosy fingers of Aurora.
Memphis, an ancient city of
Egypt, of which it was the capital; it was founded by Menes
at the apex of the delta of the Nile, and contained 700,000
Memphis (102), a Tennessee
port on the Mississippi, 826 m. above New Orleans, accessible
to the largest vessels, is also a great railway centre, and
therefore a place of great commercial importance; has many industries,
and a great cotton market.
Menado (549), a Dutch colony
in the N. of Celebes.
Menai Strait, a picturesque
channel separating Anglesey from Carnarvonshire, 14 m. long
and at its narrowest 200 yards wide; is crossed by a suspension
bridge (1825) and the Britannia Tubular Bridge for railway (1850).
Menander, a Greek comic poet,
born at Athens; was the pupil of Theophrastus and a friend of
Epicurus; of his works, which were numerous, we have only some
fragments, but we can judge of them from his imitator
Terence (q. v.) (342-291
Mencius or Meng-tze,
a celebrated Chinese sage, a disciple, some say a grandson,
of Confucius (q. v.);
went up and down with his disciples from court to court in the
country to persuade, particularly the ruling classes, to give
heed to the words of wisdom, though in vain; after which, on
his death, his followers collected his teachings in a book entitled
the "Book of Meng-tze," which is full of practical
instruction (372-289 B.C.).
Mendicant Order, a religious
fraternity, the members of which denude themselves of all private
property and live on alms.
Felix, celebrated German composer, grandson of the succeeding,
born in Hamburg; he began to compose early in life, and his
compositions consisted of symphonies, operas, oratorios, and
church music; his oratorios of "St. Paul" and "Elijah"
are well known, and are enduring monuments of his genius; he
was a man universally loved and esteemed, and had the good fortune
to live amidst the happiest surroundings (1809-1847).
a German philosopher, born at Dessau, of Jewish descent, a zealous
monotheist, and wrote against Spinoza; was author of the "Phædon,
a Discourse on the Immortality of the Soul," and did a
great deal in his day to do away with the prejudices of the
Jews and the prejudices against them; he was the friend of Lessing,
and is the prototype of his "Nathan" (1720-1786).
Mendoza (137), province in the
extreme W. of Argentina; has the Andes in the W., Aconcagua
(23,500 ft.), the highest peak in the New World, otherwise is
chiefly worthless pampa, fertile only where irrigated from the
small Mendoza River; there vines flourish; copper is plentiful,
coal and oil are found. Mendoza (20), the capital, 640
m. W. of Buenos Ayres by rail, is on the Trans-Andine route
to Chili, with which it trades largely; suffers frequently from
Menelaus, king of Sparta, the
brother of Agamemnon and the husband of Helen, the carrying
away of whom by Paris led to the Trojan War.
Menhir, a kind of rude obelisk
understood to be a sepulchral monument.
Meninges, the name of three
membranes that invest the brain and spinal cord, and the inflammation
of which is called meningitis.
Mennonites, a Protestant
sect founded at Zurich with a creed that combines the tenets
of the Baptists with those of the Quakers; have an episcopal
form of government, and maintain a rigorous church discipline.
Alexander Danilovitch, Russian soldier and statesman,
born in humble life at Moscow; became servant to Lefort, on
whose death he succeeded him as favourite of Peter the Great,
whom he accompanied to Holland and England; in the Swedish War
(1702-1713) he won renown, and was created field-marshal on
the field of Pultowa; he introduced to
the Czar Catharine, afterwards czarina, whom he captured at
Marienburg, and when Peter died secured the throne for her;
during her reign and her successor's he governed Russia, but
his ambition led the nobles to banish him to Siberia 1727 (1672-1729).
Alexander Sergeievitch, general, great-grandson of the
former, served in the wars of 1812-15, in the Turkish campaign
of 1828, was ambassador to the Porte in 1853, and largely responsible
for the Crimean War, in which he commanded at Alma, Inkermann,
and Sebastopol (1789-1869).
Menteith, Lake of, a
small beautiful loch in Perthshire, 13 m. W. of Stirling, with
three islets, on one of which stood a priory where, as a child,
Mary Stuart spent 1547-48; on another stood the stronghold of
Menthol, a crystalline substance
obtained from the oil of peppermint, used in nervous affections,
such as neuralgia, as a counter-irritant.
Mentone (8), town and seaport
in France, on the Mediterranean, 1½ m. from the Italian
border; was under the princes of Monaco till 1848, when it subjected
itself to Sardinia, which afterwards handed it over to France;
protected by the Alps, the climate is delightful, and renders
it a favourite health resort in winter and spring; it exports
olive-oil and fruit.
Mentor, a friend of Ulysses,
and the tutor of his son Telemachus, whose form and voice Athena
assumed in order to persuade his pupil to retain and maintain
the courage and astuteness of his father.
Menzel, Adolf, German painter,
born at Breslau, professor at Berlin; best known for his historical
pictures and drawings; b. 1815.
Menzel, Wolfgang, German
author and critic, born in Silesia; wrote on German history,
literature, and poetry, as well as general history, and maintained
a vigorous polemic against all who by their writings or their
politics sought to subvert the Christian religion or the orthodox
policy of the German monarchies (1789-1873).
Mephistopheles, the impersonation
in Goethe's "Faust" of the modern devil, the incarnation
of the spirit of universal scepticism and scoffing, who can
see not only no beauty in goodness but no deforming in iniquity,
alike without reverence for God and fear of his adversary, blind
as a mole to all worth and all unworth throughout the universe,
yet knowing and boastful of knowledge, by means of which he
sees only "the ridiculous, the unsuitable, the bad, but
for the solemn, the noble, the worthy is blind as his ancient
Mercator, a celebrated Dutch
geographer who has given name to a projection of the earth's
surface on a plane (1512-1592).
hired soldiers as distinguished from feudal levies, now bodies
of foreign troops in the service of the State; the Scots Guards
in France from the 15th to 18th centuries were famous, and Swiss
auxiliaries once belonged to most European armies; William III.
had Dutch mercenaries in England; under the Georges, German
were hired and were used in the American War, the Irish rebellion,
and the Napoleonic struggle; in the Crimean War German, Swiss,
and Italian were enrolled.
Mercia, one of the three chief
kingdoms of early England; founded by Anglian settlers in the
Upper Trent Valley (now South Staffordshire) In the 6th century;
it rose to greatness under Penda 626-655, subsequently succeeded
Northumberland in the supremacy, but after the death of Cenwulf
819, waned in turn before Wessex and the Danes.
Mercury, the Roman name for
the Greek Hermes, the son of Jupiter and Maia, the messenger
of the gods, the patron of merchants and travellers, and the
conductor of the souls of the dead to the nether world.
Mercury, an interior planet
of the Solar system, whose orbit is nearest the sun, the greatest
distance being nearly 43,000,000 m. and the least over 28,000,000,
is one-seventeenth the size of the earth, but is of greater
density, and accomplishes its revolution in about 84 days; it
is visible just before the sun rises and after it sets, but
that very seldom owing to the sun's neighbourhood.
Mer-de-glace, the great
glacier of the Alps near Chamouni, was the subject of the experiments
of Professor J. D. Forbes of Edinburgh about 1843, and on which
the movement of the glaciers was first observed.
Meredith, George, poet
and novelist, born in Hampshire; began his literary career 1851
as a poet, in which capacity he has since distinguished himself
and given expression to his deepest personal convictions, but
it is chiefly as a novelist he is most widely known and is generally
judged of; as a novel-writer he occupies a supreme place, and
is reckoned superior in that department to all his contemporaries
in the same line by the unanimous consent of one and all of
them; his novels, however, appeal only to a select few, but
by them they are regarded with unbounded admiration, some giving
preference to this and others to that of the series; "The
Ordeal of Richard Feveril," published in 1859, is by many
considered his best, though it is over "The Egoist"
that Louis Stevenson breaks out into raptures; Meredith has
most sympathetic insights into nature and life, has a marvellous
power in analysing and construing character, and shows himself
alive to all the great immediate interests of humanity; b.
Meredith, Owen, the
nom de plume assumed by Edward Robert Bulwer Lytton, from
his descent from a Welsh noble of the name.
Mergui, a small seaport near
the mouth of the Tenasserim, British Burma, which exports birds'
nests to China.
Meridian, an imaginary great
circle passing through the poles at right angles to the equator.
a great French writer, born in Paris; abandoned law, to which
he was bred, for literature; became under Louis Philippe inspector-general
of historical documents, and travelled in that capacity in the
S. and W. of France, publishing from time to time the fruits
of his researches; he wrote in exquisite style stories, historical
dissertations, and travels, among other works "Guzla," "Chronicles
of Charles IX.," the "History of Don Pedro, King of
Castile," "Letters to an Unknown"; he was a man
of singularly enigmatic character (1802-1870).
Merio`neth (49), a mountainous
county of North Wales, abutting on Cardigan Bay, between Carnarvon
and Cardigan; lofty peaks, Aran Mowddy, Cader Idris, and Aran
Benllyn; rivers, Dee and Dovey, and Lake Bala afford picturesque
scenery; the soil is fit only for sheep-grazing; but there are
slate and limestone quarries, manganese and gold mines; the
county town, Dolgelly (2), on the Wnion, has woollen and tweed
Merivale, Charles, dean
of Ely, born at Exeter; held a succession of appointments as
lecturer; wrote a history of Rome from its foundation in 753
to the fall of Augustus in 476, but his chief work is the "History
of the Romans under the Empire,"
indispensable as an Introduction to Gibbon (1808-1893).
Jean-Henri. See D'Aubigné,
Merlin, a legendary Welsh prophet
and magician, child of a wizard and a princess, who lived in
the 5th century, and was subsequently a prominent personage
at King Arthur's' court; prophecies attributed to him existed
as far back as the 14th century; Tennyson represents him as
bewitched by Vivian; legend also tells of a Clydesdale Merlin
of the 6th century; his prophecies, published in 1615, include
the former; both legends are based on Armorican materials.
Mermaids and Mermen
(i. e. sea-maids and sea-men), a class of beings fabled
to inhabit the sea, with a human body as far as the waist, ending
in the tail of a fish; the females of them represented above
the surface of the sea combing their long hair with one hand
and holding a mirror with the other; they are supposed to be
endowed with the gift of prophecy, and are of an amorous temper.
Merovingians, a name given
to the first dynasty that ruled over France, and which derives
its name from Merovig, the founder of the family.
Merrilees, Meg, a half-crazy
Border gipsy; one of the characters in Scott's "Guy Mannering."
Merry Monarch, a title
by which Charles II. of England was at one time familiarly known.
Mersey, river rising in NW. Derbyshire,
flows westward 70 m. between Lancashire and Cheshire to the
Irish Sea; is of great commercial importance, having Liverpool
on its estuary; its chief tributary is the Irwell, on which
industrial town in Glamorganshire, on the Taff, 15 m. NW. of
Cardiff; is the centre of great coal-fields and of enormous
iron and steel works, which constitute the only industry.
Merv (500), an oasis in Turkestan,
belonging to Russia, being conquered in 1883, 60 m. long by
40 broad, producing cereals, cotton, silk, &c.; breeds horses,
camels, sheep, with a capital of the same name, on the Transcaspian
Meryon, Charles, etcher
of street scenes, born at Paris; son of English doctor; died
Mesmer, Friedrich Anton,
a German physician, born near Constance; bred for the Church,
but took to medicine; was the founder of animal magnetism, called
mesmerism after him, his experiments in connection with which
created a great sensation, particularly in Paris, until the
quackery of it was discovered by scientific investigation, upon
which he retired into obscurity, "to walk silent on the
shore of the Bodensee, meditating on much" (1733-1815).
Mesmerism, animal magnetism
so called, or the alleged power which, by operating on the nervous
system, one person obtains control over the thoughts and actions
Mesopotamia, the name given
after Alexander the Great's time to the territory "between
the rivers" Euphrates and Tigris, stretching from Babylonia
NW. to the Armenian mountains; under irrigation it was very
fertile, but is now little cultivated; once the scene of high
civilisation when Nineveh ruled it; it passed from Assyrian
hands successively to Babylonian, Persian, Greek, Roman, and
Arab; now, after many vicissitudes, it is in the deathly grasp
of Turkish rule.
Messenia, a province of Greece,
mainly the fertile peninsula between the Gulfs of Arcadia and
Coron; in ancient times the Messenians were prosperous, excited
Spartan envy, and after two long wars were conquered in 668
B.C. and fled to Sicily.
Messiah (i. e. the Anointed
one), one consecrated of God, who the Jewish prophets predicted
would one day appear to emancipate the Jewish people from bondage
and exalt them in the eyes of all the other nations of the earth
as His elect nation, and for the glory of His name.
Messina (78), on a bay at the
NE. corner of Sicily; is a very ancient city, but rebuilt after
the earthquake of 1783; has a 12th-century cathedral, two old
castles, and a university, founded 1549; it manufactures light
textiles, coral ornaments, and fruit essences; its excellent
harbour encourages a good trade.
Messina, Strait of,
24 m. long, and at its narrowest 2½ broad; separates
Sicily from the Italian mainland; here were the Scylla and Charybdis
of the ancients.
Messuage, a dwelling-house
with buildings and land attached for the use of the household.
Metabolism, name given to
a chemical change in the cells or tissues of living matter.
Metamorphosis is a classical
name for the changing of a human being into a beast, an inanimate
object, or an element, stories of which are common in all folk-lore.
Metaphysics, the science
of being as being in contradistinction from a science of a particular
species of being, the science of sciences, or the science of
the ultimate grounds of all these, and presupposed by them,
called by Plato dialectics, or the logic of being.
Metastasio, an Italian poet,
born at Rome, the son of a common soldier named Trapassi; his
power of improvising verse attracted the attention of one Gravina,
a lawyer, who educated him and left him his fortune; he wrote
opera librettoes, which were set to music by the most eminent
composers, was court poet at Vienna, and died there 40 years
after his active powers were spent (1698-1782).
Meteors or Shooting Stars
are small bodies consisting of iron, stone, and certain other
familiar elements which are scattered in immense numbers through
planetary space; they revolve round the sun in clouds or in
long strings, and when the earth gets close to them numbers
are drawn down to its surface, friction with the atmosphere
rendering them luminous and grinding them usually to fine dust;
larger meteors are known as fireballs and aërolites, many
of which have reached the earth; comets are masses of meteors.
Methodists, a body of Christians
founded by John Wesley in the interests of personal religion,
ecclesiastically governed by a Conference with subordinate district
synods, and holding and professing evangelical principles, which
they teach agreeably to the theology of Arminius; the name is
also given to the followers of Whitefield, who are Calvinists
in certain respects.
is alcohol adulterated with 10 per cent. of wood-spirit.
Metis (i. e. wise counsel),
in the Greek mythology the daughter of Oceanos and Tethys, and
the first wife of Zeus; afraid lest she should give birth to
a child wiser and more powerful than himself, he devoured her
on the first month of her pregnancy, and some time afterwards
being seized with pains, he gave birth to
Athena (q. v.) from his
Mètre, the name given to
the unit of length in the metric or decimal system, and equal
to 39.37 English inches, the tenths, the hundreds, and the thousands
of which are called from the Latin respectively decimetres,
centimetres, and millimetres, and ten times, a hundred times,
and a thousand times, which are called
from the Greek respectively decamètres, hectomètres,
Prince von, Austrian diplomatist, born at Coblenz; served
as ambassador successively at the courts of Dresden, Berlin,
and Paris, and became first Minister of State in 1809, exercising
for 40 years from that date the supreme control of affairs in
Austria; one of his first acts as such was to effectuate a marriage
between Napoleon and the Archduchess Maria Theresa, himself
escorting her to Paris; he presided at the Congress of Vienna
in 1815, and from that date dominated in foreign affairs in
the interest of the rights of kings and the repression of popular
insurrection; he had to flee from Vienna in 1848, but returned
in 1851, after which, though not called back to office, he continued
to influence affairs by his advice (1773-1859).
Metz (60), strongest fortress in
Lorraine, on the Moselle, 105 m. SW. of Coblenz, captured in
1870 from the French, who had held it since 1552; has a cathedral,
library, museum, and school of music; industries are unimportant;
the trade is in liquor, leather, and preserved fruits.
Meung, Jean de, mediæval
French satirist; continued the unfinished "Roman de la
Rose," in which he embodied a vivid satiric portraiture
of contemporary life (1250-1305 ?).
Meuse, river, 500 m. long, rises
in Haute-Marne, France, and becoming navigable flows N. through
Belgium, turns E. at Namur, where the Sambre enters from the
left, N. again at Liège, where it receives the Ourthe
from the right; enters Holland at Maastricht, is for a time
the boundary, finally trends westward, and joins the Rhine at
Mexico (12,050), a federal republic
of 27 States, a district, and two territories, lying S. of the
United States, between the Gulf of Mexico and the Pacific, and
including the peninsulas of Lower California in the W. and Yucatan
in the E.; is nearly half as large as Europe without Russia;
it consists of an immense plateau 3000 to 8000 ft. high, from
which rises the Sierra Nevada, 10,000 ft., running N. and S.,
and other parallel ranges, as also single peaks. Toluca (19,340
ft.), Orizaba (18,000), and Popocatapetl (17,000); the largest
lake is Chapala, in the centre; the rivers are mostly rapid
and unnavigable; the chief seaports are Vera Cruz (29) and Tampico
(5) on the E. and Acapulco on the W., but the coast-line is
little indented and affords no good harbours; along the eastern
seaboard runs a strip of low-lying unhealthy country, 60 m.
broad; on the Pacific side the coast land is sometimes broader;
these coast-lines are well watered, with tropical vegetation,
tropical and sub-tropical fruits; the higher ground has a varied
climate; in the N. are great cattle ranches; all over the country
the mineral wealth is enormous, gold, silver, copper, iron,
sulphur, zinc, quicksilver, and platinum are wrought; coal also
exists; the bulk of Mexican exports is of precious metals and
ores; there are cotton, paper, glass, and pottery manufactures;
trade is chiefly with the United States and Britain; imports
being textile fabrics, hardware, machinery, and coal; one-fifth
of the population is white, the rest Indian and half-caste;
education is backward, though there are free schools in every
town; the religion is Roman Catholic, the language Spanish;
conquered by Cortez in 1519, the country was ruled by Spain
and spoiled for 300 years; a rebellion established its independence
in 1821, but the first 50 years saw perpetual civil strife,
and wars with the United States in 1848 and France in 1862;
since 1867, however, when the constitution was modelled on that
of the United States, there has been peace and progress, Ponfirio
Diaz, President since 1876, having proved a masterly ruler.
Mexico (327), the capital of the republic, 7000 ft. above
the level of the sea, in the centre of the country, is a handsome
though unhealthy city, with many fine buildings, a cathedral,
a picture-gallery, schools of law, mining, and engineering,
a conservatory of music, and an academy of art; there are few
manufactures; the trade is chiefly transit.
Mexico, Gulf Of, a large
basin between United States and Mexican territory; is shut in
by the peninsulas of Florida and Yucatan, 500 m. apart, and
the western extremity of Cuba, which lies between them; it receives
the Mississippi, Rio Grande, and many other rivers; the coasts
are low, with many lagoons; ports like New Orleans, Havana,
and Vera Cruz make it a highway for ships; north-easterly hurricanes
blow in March and October.
Meyer, Conrad Ferdinand,
Swiss poet and novelist, native of Zurich; has written "Der
Heilige" and many other novels; b. 1825.
Meyerbeer, illustrious musical
composer, born at Berlin, of Jewish birth; composer of operatic
music, and for over 30 years supreme in French opera; produced "Robert
le Diable" in 1831, the "Huguenots" in 1833, "Le
Prophète" in 1844, "L'Étoile du Nord"
in 1854, the "Dinorah" in 1859 (1791-1864).
cardinal and linguist, born at Bologna; celebrated for the number
of languages he knew, some 58 in all; lived chiefly in Rome,
and was keeper of the Vatican library; Byron called him "a
walking polyglot" (1771-1848).
Mezzotint, a mode of engraving
on steel or copper in imitation of Indian ink drawings, the
lights and shades of the picture being produced by scraping
on a black ground.
Miall, Edward, journalist,
English apostle of disestablishment, founder of the Liberation
Society; sat for Rochdale and Bradford; was presented on his
retirement with a sum of ten thousand guineas for his services
Micah, one of the minor prophets
of the Old Testament, a contemporary of Isaiah, Hosea, and Amos;
his prophecies are in the same strain as those of Isaiah, and
numerous are the coincidences traceable between them; though
a great sternness of temper and severity of tone appears in
his prophecies, a deep tenderness of heart from time to time
reveals itself, and a winning persuasiveness (chap. vi. 8);
chap. vii. 8-20 has been quoted as one of the sweetest passages
of prophetic writing; his prophecies predict the destruction
both of Samaria and Jerusalem, the captivity and the return,
with the re-establishment of the theocracy, and the advent of
Micawber, a character in "David
Copperfield," a schemer whose schemes regularly came to
grief, yet who always wakes up after his depression, and hopes
something will turn up to his advantage.
Michael, an archangel, the leader
of the heavenly host, at never-ending war with the devil and
his angels in their arrogance of claim; is represented in art
as clad in armour, with a sword in one hand and a pair of scales
in the other to weigh the souls of men at the judgment. Festival,
Michael, the name of a succession
of eight emperors who, at different periods, occupied the throne
of the East from 811 to 1282, the last being Michael VIII.,
the founder of the Palæologic dynasty.
Michael Angelo Buonarotti,
painter, sculptor, architect, and poet, born at Caprese, in
Tuscany, one of the greatest artists that ever lived; studied
art as apprentice for three years under Domenico Ghirlandajo,
and at seventeen his talents attracted the notice of Lorenzo
de' Medici, who received him into his palace at Florence, and
employed as well as encouraged him; on the death of his patron
he left for Bologna, and afterwards, in 1496, went to Rome,
whither his renown as a sculptor had gone before him, and there
he executed his antiques "Bacchus" and "Cupid,"
followed by his "Pieta," or Virgin weeping over the
dead Christ; from 1503 to 1513 he was engaged on the ceiling
in the Sistine Chapel; in 1530 we find him at Florence dividing
his time between work as an engineer in the defence of the city
and his art as a sculptor; three years after this he was back
in Rome, and by-and-by busy painting his great fresco
in the Sistine Chapel, the "Last Judgment," which
occupied him eight years; in 1542 he was appointed architect
of St. Peter's, and he planned and built the dome; sculpture
was his great forte, but his genius was equal to any task imposed
on him, and he has left poems to show what he might have done
in the domain of letters as he has done in those of arts, with
which his fame is more intimately associated (1474-1564).
Michaelis, Johann David,
an Orientalist and Biblical scholar, born at Halle; was a man
of vast learning; professor of Philosophy as well as of Oriental
Languages at Göttingen; wrote an "Introduction to
the New Testament," and "Commentaries on the Legislation
of Moses"; was one of the first to correlate the history
of the Jews with that of the other Oriental nations of antiquity
Michaelmas is the festival
in honour of St. Michael and the angels, held on the 20th September,
the day being one of the quarter days on which rents are levied.
French antiquary, born at Lyons; was commissioned by the French
Government in 1835 to visit the libraries of England in the
interest of the history and literature of France; was a most
erudite man, and edited a great many works belonging to the
Middle Ages; wrote even on the Scottish language and Scottish
Michelet, Jules, French
historian, born in Paris; was the author among other works of
a "History of France" in 18 vols., and a "History
of the Revolution" in 7 vols.; he cherished a great animosity
against the priests, and especially the Jesuits, whom he assailed
with remorseless invective; he was from 1838, for 13 years,
professor of History in the College of France, but he lost the
appointment because he refused to take the oath of allegiance
to Louis Napoleon; from this date he abandoned all interest
in public affairs, and gave himself to the quiet study of nature
and animal life; wrote on birds and insects, on the sea, on
women, on love, on witchcraft, and the Bible and humanity; as
a writer of history he gave his imagination free scope, and
he painted it less as it was than as he regarded it from his
own personal likes and dislikes (1798-1874).
Michigan (2,094), a State of
the American Union, larger than England and Wales, is broken
in two by Lake Michigan; the western portion has Wisconsin on
its S. border, the eastern portion has Indiana and Ohio on the
S.; the rest of the State is surrounded by Lakes Superior, Huron,
and Erie. The western section is mountainous, with great forests
of pine, little agriculture, rich mines of copper and iron,
and some gold; the eastern section is much larger, very flat
and low, has coal, gypsum, and marble quarries, but is chiefly
a wheat-growing area; in the Saginaw Valley are great salt wells;
the climate is modified by the lakes. At first a French colony,
the country was handed over to England in 1760, and to the United
States in 1776; it was organised as a territory in 1805, and
admitted a State in 1837; the chief commercial city is Detroit
(206), on Detroit River, in the E., has manufactures of machinery
and railway plant, leather, and beer, and a large shipping trade.
Grand Rapids (60), on the Grand River, has furniture
works, and makes stucco-plaster and white bricks. Lansing
(13) is the State capital, and an important railway centre.
Michigan, Lake, in the
N. of the United States, between Michigan and Wisconsin, is
the third largest of the fresh-water seas, its surface being
three-fourths that of Scotland; it is 335 m. long and 50 to
80 broad, bears much commerce, has low sandy shores and no islands;
the chief ports are Chicago, Milwaukee, and Racine.
Mickiewicz, Adam, Polish
poet, born in Lithuania, of a noble family; in 1822 published
at Kovno a collection of poems instinct with patriotic feeling;
was exiled into the interior of Russia, in 1824, for secret
intrigues in the interest of his nation; while there published
three epics, conceived in the same patriotic spirit; left Russia
in 1829 for Italy by way of Germany; was warmly welcomed by
Goethe in passing; in 1834 published his great poem "Sir
Thaddeus," and in 1840 was appointed to a professorship
of Polish Literature in Paris, where to the last he laboured
for his country; died at Constantinople, whence his bones were
transferred to lie beside those of Kosciusko at Cracow (1798-1855).
Mickle, William Julius,
translator of the "Lusiad"
(q. v.), born at Langholm, in Dumfriesshire, author of "There's
nae Luck aboot the Hoose" (1734-1788).
Microbe, a minute organism found
in the blood of animals, especially when suffering from disease.
Microcosm, name given by the
Middle Age philosophers to man as representing the macrocosm
or universe in miniature.
Microphone, an instrument
invented in 1878 by Professor Hughes, and consisting of charcoal
tempered in mercury, which intensifies and renders audible the
faintest possible sound.
Microzyme, a minute organism
which acts as a ferment when it enters the blood and produces
Midas, a king of Phrygia who,
in his lust of riches, begged of Bacchus and obtained the power
of turning everything he touched into gold, a gift which he
prayed him to revoke when he found it affected his very meat
and drink, which the god consented to do, only he must bathe
in the waters of the Pactolus, the sands of which ever after
were found mixed with gold; appointed umpire at a musical contest
between Pan and Apollo, he preferred the pipes of the former
to the lyre of the latter, who thereupon awarded him a pair
of ass-ears, the which he concealed with a cap, but could not
hide them from his barber, who could not retain the secret,
but whispered it into a hole in the ground, around which sprang
up a forest of reeds, which as the wind passed through them
told the tale into the general ear, to the owner's discomfiture.
Middle Ages, is a term used
in connection with European history to denote the period beginning
with the fall of the Roman Empire in 476, and
closing with the invention of printing,
the discovery of America, and the revival of learning in the
Middle English, the English
in use for two centuries and a half from 1200 to 1460.
Middle Passage, in the
slave-trade the part of the Atlantic stretching between Africa
and the West Indies.
Middlesbrough (99), iron
manufacturing and shipping town at the mouth of the Tees, in
the N. of Yorkshire, 45 m. N. of York; has also shipbuilding
yards and chemical works, and exports coal. It owes its growth
to the discovery of one of the largest iron-fields in the country
in the Cleveland hills, near at hand, in 1850.
Middlesex (560), a small county
on the N. of the Thames, adjacent to and W. of London; has no
hills and no rivers, only undulating pasture land and small
streams. In 1888 the populous part next the metropolis was detached
for the new county of London, leaving no big town but many suburban
villages, Brentford, reckoned the county town, Harrow with its
school, Highgate, and Hornsey. Hampton Court, Hampstead Heath,
and Enfield Chase are in the county. There are many market gardens.
a liberal theologian, Fellow of Cambridge; was engaged a good
deal in controversy, particularly with Bentley; wrote an able
Life of Cicero; is distinguished among English authors for his "absolutely
plain style" of writing (1683-1750).
Middleton, Thomas, dramatist,
born in London, where he was afterwards City Chronicler, married
Mary Morbeck, and died; was fond of collaboration, and received
assistance in his best work from Drayton, Webster, Dekker, Rowley,
and Jonson; his comedies are smart and buoyant, sometimes indecorous;
his masques more than usually elaborate and careful; in the
comedy of "The Spanish Gypsy," and the tragedies of "The
Changeling," and "Women beware Women," is found
the best fruit of his genius (1570-1627).
Midgard, a name given in the
Norse mythology to the earth as intermediate between the
Asgard (q. v.) of the gods
and Utgard of the Jötuns (q.
Midianites, a race of Arabs
descended from Abraham by Keturah, who dwelt to the E. of Akaba;
though related, were troublesome to the Hebrews, but were subdued
Midrash, the earliest Hebrew
exposition of the Old Testament; included the Halacha, or development
of the legal system on Pentateuchal lines, and the Hagada, a
commentary on the whole Scripture, with ethical, social, and
religious applications. The name Midrash came to refer exclusively
to the latter, in which much fanciful interpretation was mixed
with sound practical sense.
Mights and Rights, the
Carlyle doctrine that Rights are nothing till they have realised
and established themselves as Mights; they are rights
first only then.
Migne, the Abbé,
French Catholic theologian, born at St. Flour; edited a great
many works on theology, such as "Patrologiæ Cursus
Completus," and "Orateurs Sacrés," and
founded L'Univers journal (1800-1875).
August, French historian, born at Aix, settled at Paris;
was a friend of Thiers; became keeper of the archives of the
Foreign Office, and had thus access to important historical
documents; wrote a number of historical works, among others
a "History of the French Revolution," and "History
of Marie Stuart" (1796-1884).
Mignon, an impassioned Italian
child, a creation of Goethe's in his "Wilhelm Meister,"
of mysterious origin and history; represented as a compact of
vague aspirations and longings under which, as never fulfilled,
she at length pines away and dies.
Miguel, Don, king of Portugal,
born at Lisbon; usurped the throne in defiance of the right
of his brother, Don Pedro, emperor of Brazil, who, however,
conceded to him the title of regent on condition of his marrying
Donna Maria, his daughter; on his arrival in Portugal he had
himself proclaimed king, but refused to marry Maria, who followed
him, and prohibited her landing, which, together with his conduct
of affairs, provoked a civil war, in which the party of Don
Pedro prevailed, and which ended in the capitulation of the
usurper and his withdrawal to Italy (1802-1866).
Mikado, the emperor of Japan,
regarded as the head of both Church and State in his dominions.
Miklosich, Franz von,
philologist, born at Luttenberg, studied at Grätz; in 1844
was appointed to an office in the Imperial Library, Vienna,
where from 1850 to 1885 he was professor of Slavonic; his works,
all philological, are the authority on the Slavonic languages;
Milan (296), the largest city
in Italy except Naples, is in Lombardy, 25 m. S. of Lake Como;
of old much vexed by war, it is now prosperous, manufacturing
silks and velvets, gold, silver, and porcelain ware, and trading
in raw silk, grain, and tobacco, with great printing works,
and is the chief banking centre of N. Italy; it is rich in architectural
treasures, foremost of which is the magnificent Gothic cathedral
of white marble; has a splendid picture-gallery, and many rich
frescoes; in 1848 it revolted finally from Austrian oppression.
Milan Decree, a decree
of Napoleon dated Milan, 27th Dec. 1807, declaring the British
dominions in a state of blockade, and under penalty prohibiting
all trade with them.
Miletus, the foremost Ionian
city of ancient Asia Minor, at the mouth of the Mæander,
was the mother of many colonies, and the port from which vessels
traded to all the Mediterranean countries and to the Atlantic;
its carpets and cloth were far-famed; its first greatness passed
away when Darius stormed it in 494 B.C., and it was finally
ruined by the Turks; Thales the philosopher and Cadmus the historian
were among its famous sons.
Military Orders were
in crusading times associations of knights sworn to chastity
and devoted to religious service; the Hospitallers, the earliest,
tended sick pilgrims at Jerusalem; the Templars protected pilgrims
and guarded the Temple; the Knights of St. John were also celibate,
but the orders of Alcantara and others in Spain, of St. Bennet
in Portugal, and others elsewhere, with different objects, were
permitted to marry.
Militia, a body of troops in
the British service for home defence, the members of which have
as a rule never served in the regular army, nor have, except
for a short period each year, any proper military training.
Milky Way. See
Mill, James, economist, born
in Logie Pert, near Montrose, the son of a shoemaker, bred for
the Church; was a disciple of Locke and Jeremy Bentham; wrote
a "History of British India," "Elements of Political
Economy," and an "Analysis of the Human Mind";
held an important lucrative post in the East India Company's
Mill, John Stuart, logician
and economist, born in London, son of the preceding; was educated
pedantically by his father; began to learn Greek at 3, could
read it and Latin at 14, "never was a boy," he says,
and was debarred from all imaginative literature, so that in
after years the poetry of Wordsworth came to him as a revelation;
entered the service of the East India Company in 1823, but devoted
himself to philosophic discussion; contributed to the Westminster
Review, of which he was for some time editor; published
his "System of Logic" in 1843, and in 1848 his "Political
Economy"; entered Parliament in 1865, but lost his seat
in 1868, on which he retired to Avignon, where he died; he wrote
a book on "Liberty" in 1859, on "Utilitarianism"
in 1863, on "Comte" in 1865, and on "Sir William
Hamilton's Philosophy" the same year, and left an "Autobiography";
he was a calm thinker and an impartial critic; he befriended
Carlyle when he went to London, and Carlyle rather took to him,
but divergences soon appeared, which, as it could not fail,
ended in total estrangement; he had an Egeria in a Mrs. Taylor,
whom he married when she became a widow; it was she, it would
almost seem, who was responsible for the fate of Carlyle's MS.
Millais, Sir John Everett,
painter, born of Jersey parentage, at Southampton; studied at
the Royal Academy, and at 17 exhibited a notable historical
work; early associated with Rossetti and Holman Hunt, he remained
for over 20 years under their influence; to this period belong "The
Carpenter's Shop," 1851, "Autumn Leaves," 1856,
and "The Minuet," 1866; "The Gambler's Wife"
marks the transition from Pre-Raphaelitism; his chief subsequent
work, in which technical interest predominates, was portraiture,
including Gladstone and Beaconsfield; he was a profuse illustrator,
and wrought some etchings; he was made R.A. 1864, a baronet
in 1885, and P.R.A. February 1896 (1829-1896).
Millbank Prison, Westminster,
constructed 1812-21 on the plans of Howard and Bentham, so that
each of its 1100 cells were visible from the governor's room,
was used for solitary confinement preparatory to penal servitude,
and as a convict prison until 1886, and demolished 1890.
Miller, Hugh, journalist
and geologist, self-taught, born in Cromarty, of sailor ancestry;
began life as a stone-mason; editor of the Witness newspaper
from 1839 till his death; wrote the "Old Red Sandstone," "Footprints
of the Creator," and the "Testimony of the Rocks,"
books which awakened an interest in geological subjects, besides
being the author of an account of his life, "My Schools
and Schoolmasters"; died by his own hand at Portobello;
he was a writer of considerable literary ability, and "nothing,"
says Prof. Saintsbury, "can be more hopelessly unliterary
than to undervalue Hugh Miller" (1802-1856).
Miller, William, line-engraver,
lived at Millerfield, Edinburgh; famed for his engravings of
Turner; was a member of the Society of Friends, and stood high
in his art as an engraver (1797-1882).
Millet, Jean François,
French painter of French peasant life, born near Greville, of
a peasant family; sent to Paris, studied under Paul Delaroche,
withdrew into rustic life, and took up his abode at the village
of Barbizon, near the Forest of Fontainebleau, where he spent
as a peasant the rest of his life, honoured though poor by all
his neighbours, and produced inimitable pictures of French country
life, completing his famous "Sower," and treating
such subjects as the "Gleaners," the "Sheep-Shearers," "Shepherdess
and Flock," &c., with an evident appreciation on his
part of the life they depicted so faithfully (1814-1875).
Milman, Henry Hart,
dean of St. Paul's, ecclesiastical historian, born in London;
edited Gibbon's "Decline and Fall," wrote "History
of the Jews," "History of Christianity to the Abolition
of Paganism under the Empire," and "History of Latin
Christianity," all learned works, particularly the last
in 9 vols., described by Dean Stanley as "a complete epic
and philosophy of mediæval Christianity"; was professor
of Poetry at Oxford (1791-1865).
eminent naturalist, born at Bruges, of English parentage; wrote
extensively and learnedly on natural history subjects, dissented
from Darwin, and held to the theory of different centres of
creation, and to this he stoutly adhered to the last (1800-1885).
Milner, Viscount, High
Commissioner of South Africa since 1897, and Governor of the
Transvaal and Orange River Colonies since 1901; a student of
Balliol (graduating with a first class in classics), and a Fellow
of New College, Oxford; called to the bar in 1881; Private Secretary
to Mr. Goschen (1887-1889); Under-Secretary for Finance in Egypt
(1889-1892); Chairman of the Inland Revenue Board, from 1892
to 1897, when he succeeded Lord Rosmead at the Cape; represented
the Mother Country with great ability before and during the
Boer War; visited England and raised to the peerage in 1901;
declined the Colonial Secretaryship in 1903; resigned in 1905;
Milner, Joseph, Church
historian; master of the Grammar School, Hull; his "History
of the Church" reaches down to the 16th century (1744-1797).
Milo, a celebrated athlete, born
at Crotona, of extraordinary strength, said to have one day
carried a live bullock 120 paces along the Olympic course, killed
it with his fist, and eaten it up entire at one repast; in old
age he attempted to split a tree, but it closed upon his arm,
and the wolves devoured him.
Miltiades, an Athenian general,
famous for his decisive defeat of the Persians at Marathon,
490 B.C.; failing in a naval attack on Paros, and fined to indemnify
the cost of the expedition, but unable to pay, was cast into
prison, where he died of his wounds inflicted in the attempt.
Milton, John, poet, born
in London, son of a scrivener; graduated at Cambridge, and settled
to study and write poetry in his father's house at Horton, 1632;
in 1638 he visited Italy, being already known at home as the
author of the "Hymn on the Nativity," "Allegro," "Penseroso," "Comus,"
a mask, and "Lycidas," an elegy on his friend King,
who was drowned in the Irish Sea in 1637, besides much excellent
Latin verse; the outbreak of the Civil War recalled him, and
silenced his muse for many years; settling in London he took
pupils, married in 1643 Mary Powell, and became active as a
writer of pamphlets on public questions; his first topic was
Church Government, then his wife's desertion of him for two
years called forth his tracts on Divorce, a threatened prosecution
for which elicited in turn the "Areopagitica, a Speech
for the Liberty of Unlicensed Printing"; his father died
in 1647, his wife in 1652; under the Common wealth he was "Secretary
of Foreign Tongues," and successfully defended the execution
of Charles I. in his Latin "Defence of the English People,"
and other bitter controversial works; he married in 1656 his
second wife, who died two years later; the Restoration gave
him back to leisure and poetry; his greatest work, "Paradise
Lost," was composed rapidly, dictated to his daughters,
and completed in 1663, but not published
till 1667; 1671 saw "Paradise Regained" and "Samson
Agonistes"; he had been blind since 1652; he married Elizabeth
Minshull in 1663, who comforted him in his closing years; a
man of fervent, impulsive temperament, and a lover of music,
he was sincere in controversy, magnanimous in character, and
of deep religious faith; the richness, melody, and simplicity
of his poetry, the sublimity of his great theme, and the adequacy
of its treatment, place him among the greatest poets of the
world; in later years he leaned to Arianism, and broke away
from the restraints of outward religious practice; his last
prose work, a Latin treatise on "Christian Doctrines,"
was lost at the time of his death, and only recovered 150 years
Milwaükee (285), chief
city of Wisconsin, U.S., on W. shore of Lake Michigan, 80 miles
N. by W. of Chicago. Exports grain, iron ore, &c.; manufactures
flour, machinery, and pig-iron.
Mimes, dramatic performances among
the Greeks and Romans, in comic representation of scenes in
ordinary life, often in extempore dialogue.
Mimir, in the Norse mythology
the god of wisdom, guardian of the sacred well which nourished
the roots of the tree Iggdrasil
(q. v.), and a draught of whose waters imparted divine
Minarets, a salient feature
of Mohammedan architecture, are tall slim towers, in several
storeys with balconies, from which the muezzin calls the people
to prayer, and terminated by a spire or finial.
Minerva, the Roman virgin goddess
of wisdom and the arts, identified with the
Greek Athena (q. v.); born
full-armed from the brain of Jupiter, and representing his thinking,
calculating, inventive power, and third in rank to him.
Minerva Press, a printing
establishment in Leadenhall Street, London, which about a century
ago issued a set of trashy, extremely sentimental novels with
complicated plots, in which hero and heroine were involved before
they could get married.
Minghetti, Marco, Italian
patriot and statesman, born at Bologna; a man of liberal views;
a friend and associate of Cavour; held office under him as Minister
of the Interior in 1862; was ambassador to the Court of St.
James's in 1868, and Prime Minister at Rome from 1873 to 1876
Minims, an order of monks founded
by St. Francis of Paula in 1453, a name which signifies "the
least" to express super-humility.
Minneapolis (203), city
of U.S., Minnesota, on both sides of the Mississippi, the greatest
centre of the wheat and flour trade in U.S.
Minnesingers (i. e.
love-singers), a name given to the lyric poets of Germany during
the latter part of the 12th and the first half of the 13th centuries.
Minnesota (1,302), one of
the United States of America; lies between the Dakotas on the
W. and Wisconsin on the E., Canada on the N., and Iowa on the
S., round the upper waters of the Mississippi, the St. Lawrence,
and the Red River of the North; the State is largely prairie,
with hundreds of lakes, the largest Red Lake, and is chiefly
a wheat-producing area; there are pine forests in the N., iron
mines, slate and granite quarries; the climate is dry, equable,
and bracing; education is good; the State university is at Minneapolis;
the capital is St. Paul (133), where the Mississippi
is still navigable, a fine city, founded in 1840, the centre
of the grocery and dry-goods trade; the largest city is Minneapolis
(203), which has great lumber and flour mills; Duluth (33) has
a magnificent harbour and good shipping trade.
Minorca (34), the second of
the Balearic Isles, hilly, with stalactite caves and rocky coast;
is less fertile than Majorca, from which it is 25 m. distant
NE.; it produces oil, wine, and fruits, and makes boots and
shoes, but under Spanish misrule is not prosperous; the capital
Mahon (17), in the SE., is strongly fortified, and has a good
Minos, an ancient king of Crete,
celebrated for his administration of justice; was fabled to
have been appointed, along with Æacus and Rhadamanthus,
one of the judges of the dead on their descent into the nether
Minotaur, in the Greek mythology
a monster, half-man half-bull with a bull's head, confined in
the Labyrinth of Crete, fed by the annual tribute of seven youths
and seven maidens of Athenian birth, till he was slain by Theseus
with the help of Ariadne (q.
Minstrels, a body of men who
during the Middle Ages wandered from place to place, especially
from court to court, singing their own compositions to the harp
Minto, Earl of, Governor-General
of India; was bred to the bar, served in Parliament and as ambassador,
went out to India in 1806, consolidated the British power, captured
Java, and opened diplomatic relations with powers around (17501814).
Gabriel Honoré Riquetti, Comte de, son of the
succeeding, born at the mansion-house of Bignon; was a man of
massive intellect and strong physical frame, who came to the
front in the French Revolution; being expelled from his order
by the noblesse of Provence, he ingratiated himself with the
Third Estate, and was elected commons-deputy of Aix to the States-General
in 1789, where he became, as the incarnation of the whole movement,
the ruling spirit of the hour, and gave proof, if he had lived,
of being able to change the whole course of the Revolution,
for he was already in communication with the court and in hopes
of gaining it over to accept the inevitable, when he sickened
and died, to the consternation of the entire people, whose affection
and confidence he had won (1749-1791). See
Carlyle's "French Revolution"
and his Essay in his "Miscellanies."
Riquetti, Marquis de, "crabbed old friend of men,"
born at Pertuis, in Provence, claimed to be of Florentine descent; "could
never make the world go to his mind," and set about reforming
it by coercing a family as self-willed as himself, to the driving
of his celebrated son to desperate courses and reckless excesses;
advocated the doctrines of the French economists in a series
of writings instinct with a certain theoretical philanthropy
Miracle Plays were strictly
speaking dramas founded on legends of the saints, as distinct
from mysteries founded on scriptural subjects, but the name
came to cover all those religious representations for the instruction
of the people fostered by the Church of the Middle Ages, performed
first in churches, afterwards in public places; they were common
in England from the 12th century, but latterly became corrupt
through the introduction of grotesque indecorous comicalities;
the rise of the drama led to their abandonment; on the Continent
ecclesiastical action was taken against them, not by the Reformers,
but by the Church itself in the 18th century, and everywhere
they have all but disappeared; the Passion Play acted every
10 years at Oberammergau, Bavaria, is the only important survival.
Miranda, the beautiful daughter
of the magician Prospero in Shakespeare's "Tempest."
Miranda, Francesco de,
a Portuguese poet; wrote sonnets and epistles in verse; was
predecessor of Camoëns (1495-1558).
Miserere, a carved bracket
on the under side of the stall seats in mediæval churches,
which, when the seat was turned up during the standing portion
of the service, afforded support to the older clergy. Miserere,
the Catholic name for the 51st Psalm.
Mishna, the oral law of the Jews,
which is divided into six parts, and constitutes the text of
the Talmud, of which the Gemara is the commentary.
Misprision, a high offence
under, but close upon, the degree of a capital one; misprision
of treason being a concealment of a felony without consenting
Missal, a book containing the
service of the mass for the entire year, such as is now in almost
universal use throughout the Catholic world.
Mississippi (1,290), an
American State on the E. bank of the Lower Mississippi, abutting
on the Gulf of Mexico, between Louisiana and Alabama; has a
hilly surface, traversed by numerous rivers, the Yazoo, a tributary
of the Mississippi, forming a great fertile delta; the climate
is free from extremes; the chief industry is agriculture; the
best crops are grown in the N., and on the alluvial bottom lands;
in the centre and NE. are good grazing farms; cotton, corn,
oats, and fruits are the chief crops; virgin forests of hardwood
cover much of the delta; valuable deposits of pipe and ochre
clays and of lignite are found; cotton is manufactured, and
there is trade in lumber; more than half the population is coloured,
and the races are kept distinct in the State schools; the State
university is at Oxford, and there are many other colleges;
Jackson (6), the capital, is the chief railway centre, Meridian
(10) has iron manufactures, Vicksburg (13) and Natchez (10)
are the chief riverports; Mississippi was colonised by the French
in 1699, ceded to Britain 1763, admitted to the Union 1817,
joined the South in 1861, but was readmitted to the Union in
Mississippi River rises
in Lake Itaska, Minnesota, and flowing S. for 2800 m., enters
the Gulf of Mexico by a large delta; its earlier course is through
picturesque country, often in gorges, with rapids such as the
St. Anthony Falls, the Des Moines and Rock Island Rapids. After
receiving the Missouri, 3000 m. long, from the Rocky Mountains,
it flows 2½ m. per hour through great alluvial plains,
which are protected from its overflows by hundreds of miles
of earth embankments, and is joined by the Ohio from the E.,
the Red and Arkansas Rivers from the W., and many other navigable
streams. The Mississippi is navigable by large steamers for
2000 m.; St. Louis, Memphis, Vicksburg, Natchez, and New Orleans
are among the chief ports on its banks.
was started in France 1717 by John Law and the Government, ostensibly
to develop the Mississippi basin, but really to ease the pressure
on the exchequer; a company was formed and empowered to monopolise
almost all the foreign trade; 624,000 shares were issued; depreciated
paper currency was accepted in payment, and the national bank
issued notes without stint; in 1719 the demand for shares was
enormous; the nation was completely carried away; next year
the crash came; the Government made every effort to save the
position, but in vain; the distress was extreme, and Law had
to leave the country.
Missolonghi (6), Greek seaport
and fishing town, on the Gulf of Patras, chiefly noted for heroic
defences in the War of Independence 1821-1826, and as the place
of Byron's death 1824.
Missouri (2,679), an American
State on the right bank of the Mississippi, between Iowa and
Arkansas, is half the size of the British Isles, and is traversed
by the Missouri River; N. of that river the country is level,
S. of it there rise the Ozark tablelands; the soil is very fertile,
and the State principally agricultural; immense crops of maize,
oats, potatoes, cotton, and tobacco are raised; there are large
cattle ranches, and dressed beef and pork are largely exported;
the climate is subject to extremes; coal, iron, lead, zinc,
and other minerals abound, while marble, granite, and limestone
are quarried; the rivers afford excellent transport facilities;
the educational system is very complete; admitted to the Union
in 1821, Missouri was divided in the Civil War, and suffered
terribly, but since then has been very prosperous; the capital,
St. Louis (452), is one of the greatest commercial and manufacturing
towns in the Union, does a vast trade in grain and cotton, and
has hardware, leather goods, and tobacco factories; Kansas City
(133), has great pork-packing establishments and railroad iron-works.
poet of Southern France, born near Maillaune, was a peasant's
son, and himself a peasant; his fame rose on the publication
of the epic, "Mirèio," in Provençal
dialect, 1859; in 1867 he published "Calendou," and
in 1876 a volume of songs, and in 1884 "Nerto," a
novel; b. 1830.
Mitford, Mary Russell,
authoress, born at Alresford, Hants, lived with her father,
an extravagant physician, at Lyme Regis and London; she published
poems in 1810-11-12, but, forced to earn a living, took to dramatic
work; "Julian," "The Foscari," and "Rienzi"
were successful if ephemeral tragedies; her best work was "Our
Village," sketches of homely English life written with
much care, and after appearing in the London Magazine,
published in 5 vols., 1824-32 (1786-1855).
Mitford, William, English
author; wrote a "History of Greece" and on the "English
Metre, or the Harmony of Language" (1744-1827).
Mithras (i. e. the Friend),
the highest of the second order of deities in the ancient Persian
religion, the friend of man in this life and his protector against
evil in the world to come, sided with Ormuzd against Ahriman,
incarnated in the sun, and represented as a youth kneeling on
a bull and plunging a dagger into his neck, while he is at the
same time attacked by a dog, a serpent, and a scorpion.
Mithridates the Great,
surnamed Eupator, king of Pontus from 123 to 63 B.C.; an implacable
enemy of the Romans, between whom and him there raged from 90
to 63 a succession of wars, till he was defeated by Pompey near
the Euphrates, when, being superseded by his son, he put an
end to his life; he was a great man and conqueror, subdued many
surrounding nations, and was a collector of works of art; he
made a special study of poisons, and familiarised himself with
all their antidotes, in view of possible attempts by means of
them to take away his life.
Mitrailleuse, a gun consisting
of several, as many as 25, barrels, from which a number of shots
may be fired simultaneously or in rapid succession, used by
the French in the Franco-German War.
Mivart, St. George, naturalist,
a Roman Catholic professor at Louvain, distinguished for his
opposition to Darwinianism; b. 1827.
Mnemosynë in the Greek
mythology the daughter of Uranos, the goddess of memory, and
the mother of the Muses by Zeus.
Moa, the name of several species
of New Zealand and Australian birds, from 2 to 14 ft. high,
and quite wingless; almost extinct since the 17th century; two
living specimens were captured in 1876.
Moab, a pastoral region extending
along the E. of lower parts of the Jordan and the Dead Sea,
and inhabited by the descendants of Lot, now extinct, or merged
among the Arabs.
Moabite Stone, a stone
4 ft. high and 2 ft. broad found by Dr. Klein in 1868 among
the ruins of Dhiban, a town in Moab, now in the Louvre at Paris,
describing a victory of the Moabites over the Israelites; it
was broken by the Arabs, but the fragments have been collected
and put into their proper places.
Mobile (31), a city and port
of Alabama, U.S., 30 m. N. of the Gulf of Mexico; a thriving
place; exports cotton, lumber, &c.
a banking and financial company founded in Paris in 1852; lends
money on security of property other than real, and takes shares
in public schemes, such as railways.
Modena (31), Italian town, 62
m. N. of Florence; has a cathedral, with noted campanile, university,
library, and art collections, and manufactures silk and leather;
capital of a duchy (303); incorporated in the kingdom of Italy
Modern Athens, Edinburgh,
from its resemblance to Athens and its repute for literary culture;
applied also to Boston, in America.
Modern Babylon, London,
from its huge extent and the miscellaneous character of its
Modjeska, Helena, actress,
born in Cracow; went on the stage after her first marriage in
1861, and from 1868 to 1876 was the favourite of Warsaw; retired
to California on her second marriage, but returned to the stage,
having learned English in seven months in California 1877, and
till her final retirement in 1895, was eminently successful
in America and Britain in such parts as Rosalind, Beatrice, &c.
Modred, Sir, a treacherous
knight, the rebellious nephew of King Arthur, whose wife he
seduced; was slain in battle, and buried in Avalon.
Moffat, Robert, African
missionary, born at Ormiston, Haddingtonshire; the scene of
his nearly lifelong labours was among the Bechuanas in South
Africa, whom he raised from a savage to a civilised state; he
was sent out in 1816 by the London Missionary Society. He married
(1819) Mary Smith, a daughter of his former employer at Dunkinfield.
Mohammed, great prophet of
the Arabs, and founder of Islamism, born at Mecca, the son of
Abdallah, of the tribe of the Koreish; left an orphan, brought
up by his uncle Abu Taleb; became steward to a rich
widow Kadijah (q. v.) whom
he married; was given to serious meditation, would retire into
solitude and pray, and one day, by the favour of Heaven, got
answer which left him "in doubt and darkness no longer,
but saw it all," saw into the vanity of all that was not
God, that He alone was great, inconceivably great; that it was
with Him alone we had to do, we must all submit to Him; this
revelation made to him he imparted to Kadijah, and after a time
she assented, and his heart leaped for joy; he spoke or his
doctrine to this man and that, but made slow progress in persuading
others to believe it; made only 13 converts in 3 years; his
preaching gave offence to the chief people, and his relatives
tried hard to persuade him to hold his peace, but he would not;
after 13 years a conspiracy was formed to take his life, and
he fled, through peril after peril, to Medina, in his fifty-third
year, and in 622 of our era; his enemies had taken up the sword
against him, and he now replied with the same weapon, and in
10 years he prevailed; it was a war against idolatry in all
its forms, and idolatry was driven to the wall, the motto on
his banner "God is Great," a motto with a depth of
meaning greater than the Mohammedan world, and perhaps the Christian,
has yet realised; it is for one thing a protest on the part
of Mohammed, in which the Hebrew prophets forestalled him, against
all attempts to understand the Deity and fathom "His ways,
which are ever in the deep, and whose footsteps are not known"
Mohammedanism, the religion
of Mohammed, or
Islam, (q. v.), is essentially
much the same as the religion of the Jews with some elements
borrowed from the Christian religion, and is defined by Carlyle
as a bastard Christianity; originating in Arabia it spread rapidly
over the W. of Asia, the N. of Africa, and threatened at one
time to overrun Europe itself; it is the religion to-day of
two hundred millions of the human race, and the profession of
it extends over a wide area in western and southern Asia as
also in northern Africa, though its limits in Europe do not
extend beyond the bounds of Turkey.
Mohawk, a tribe of American Indians,
gave name to a band or club of ruffians who infested the streets
of London in 1711-12.
Mohic`ans, an American Indian
tribe, took sides with the English settlers against the French
and with the former against England.
Mohl, Julius, Orientalist,
born in Stuttgart; edited the "Shah Nameh" of Firdushi,
a monumental work (1800-1876).
Möhler, Johann Adam,
a Roman Catholic theologian, born at Würtemberg, author
of "Symbolik," a work which discusses the differences
between the doctrines of Catholics and Protestants, as evidenced
in their respective symbolical books, a work which created no
small stir in the theological world (1796-1838).
Moir, David Macbeth,
the "Delta" of Blackwood, born in Musselburgh,
where he practised as a physician; was author of "Mansie
Francis Rawdon-Hastings, Earl of, son of the Earl of
Moira; entered the army 1771, and served against the Americans
in the War of Independence; created Baron Rawdon in 1783; succeeded
to his father's title 1793; entered political life under Fox,
and was Governor-General of India 1813-23, in which period fell
the Goorkha War, for the successful negotiations subsequent
on which he was created Marquis of Hastings; his administration
encouraged native education and freedom of the press; from 1824
he was Governor of Malta till his death at Naples (1754-1826).
Mokanna, Al, "the veiled
one," a name given to Hakim ben Allah, who wore a veil
to hide the loss of an eye; he professed to be an incarnation
of the Deity and to work miracles; found followers; founded
a sect at Khorassan; seized some fortresses, but was overthrown
at Kash A.D. 780, whereupon he took poison.
Moldau, largest river in Bohemia,
rises on the N. of the Böhmerwald Mountains, flows SE.
along their base, then turns northward through Bohemia, passes
Budweis, becomes navigable, is 100 yards broad at Prague, and
joins the Elbe at Melnik after flowing 278 m.
Moldavia, once independent,
now the northern division of Roumania, lies between the Carpathians
and the Pruth River, and is well watered by the Sereth; its
chief town is Jassy, in the NE.
Molé, Louis Matthieu,
Comte, French statesman, born in Paris; published in
1805 an essay on politics which, defending Napoleon, won for
its author a series of minor offices, and in 1813 a peerage
and a seat in the Cabinet; retaining power under Louis XVIII.
and Louis Philippe, he was Minister of Marine 1817, Foreign
Minister 1830, and Premier 1837, but retired from politics two
years later (1781-1855).
Molecule, the smallest particle
of which an element or a compound body is composed, and that
retains all the properties in a free state.
Molesworth, Sir William,
British statesman, born in London; was an advanced Liberal;
editor and proprietor of the Westminster Review; edited
the works of Hobbes (1810-1855).
Jean Baptiste Poquelin, great French comic dramatist,
born in Paris; studied law and passed for the bar, but evinced
from the first a proclivity for the theatre, and soon associated
with actors, and found his vocation as a writer of plays, which
procured him the friendship of Lafontaine, Boileau, and other
distinguished men, though he incurred the animosity of many
classes of society by the ridicule which he heaped on their
weaknesses and their pretensions, the more that in his satires
his characters are rather abstract types of men than concrete
individualities; his principal pieces are, "Les Précieuses
Ridicules," "L'École des Femmes," "Le
Tartuffe," "Le Misanthrope," "George Dandin," "L'Avare," "Le
Bourgeois Gentilhomme," "Les Fourberies de Scapin," "Le
Malade malgré Lui," "Les Femmes Savantes,"
and "Le Malade Imaginaire"; though seriously ill,
he took part in the performance of this last, but the effort
was too much for him, and he died that night; from the grudge
which the priests bore him for his satires on them he was buried
without a religious service (1622-1673).
Molina, Luis, a Spanish Jesuit
and theologian, author of a theory called Molinism, which resolves
the doctrine of predestination into a mere foreknowledge of
those who would accept and those who would reject the grace
of God in salvation.
Molinos, Miguel de, a Spanish
theologian, born at Saragossa; published a book called the "Spiritual
Guide," which, as containing the germ of Quietism, was
condemned by the Inquisition, and its author sentenced to imprisonment
for life (1627-1696).
Mollah, a judge of the highest
rank among the Turks on matters of law, both civil and sacred.
Mollwitz, a village in Silesia,
20 m. SE. of Breslau, where Frederick the Great defeated the
Moloch or Molech, the
chief god of the Ammonites, the worship of whom, which prevailed
among all the Canaanites, was accompanied with cruelties, human
sacrifices among others, revolting to the humane spirit of the
Jewish religion; originally it appears to have been the worship
of fire, through which the innocent as well as the guilty have
often to pass for the achievement of the noblest enterprises,
which degenerated at length into selfish sacrifices of others
for interests of one's own, into the substitution of the innocent
for the guilty by way of atonement to the Deity!
Moltke, Count von, surnamed
the Silent, great German field marshal, born in Mecklenburg-Schwerin,
of an old family; was pre-eminent as a military strategist,
planned and conducted the Prussian campaign against Austria
in 1866, and the German campaign against France in 1870-72;
was in the service of Denmark before he entered the Prussian
Moluccas or Spice Islands
(400), an archipelago of mountainous islands, mostly volcanic,
between Celebes and New Guinea, is in two main groups; in the
N. the largest island is Jilolo, but the most important Tidor
and Ternate, which export spices, tortoise-shell, and bees-wax;
in the S. Buru and Ceram are largest, most important, Amboyna,
from which come cloves; the people are civilised Malays; the
islands are equatorial, but tempered by sea-breezes, and healthy;
discovered by the Portuguese in 1521, they have been in Dutch
possession since 1607, except when held by Britain 1810-1814.
Mombasa (Africans and Arabs
20), capital of British East Africa, on a rocky islet, close
inshore, 50 m. N. of Pemba; was ceded with a tract of country
six times the size of the British Isles, and rich in gold, copper,
plumbago, and india-rubber, to the British East African Company
by the Sultan of Zanzibar in 1888, since when it has been rebuilt,
and the harbour, one of the best and healthiest on the coast,
made a naval coaling-station and head-quarters.
Mommsen, Theodor, historian,
born in Schleswig, a man of immense historical knowledge; his
greatest work the "History of Rome"; was professor
of Ancient History at Berlin; his forte was his learning
more than his critical capacity; b. 1817.
Momus, the god of raillery, the
son of Night, a kind of ancient
Mephistopheles (q. v.).
Monachism, or Monasticism,
is an institution in which individuals devote themselves, apart
from others, to the cultivation of spiritual contemplation and
religious duties, and which has constituted a marked feature
in Pre-Christian Jewish asceticism, and in Buddhism as well
as in Christianity; in the Church it developed from the practice
of living in solitude in the 2nd century, and received its distinctive
note when the vow of obedience to a superior was added to the
hermit's personal vows of poverty and chastity; the movement
of St. Benedict in the 6th century stamped its permanent form
on Western Monasticism, and that of St. Francis in the 12th
gave it a more comprehensive range, entrusting the care of the
poor, the sick, the ignorant, &c., to the hitherto self-centred
monks and nuns; during the Middle Ages the monasteries were
centres of learning, and their work in copying and preserving
both sacred and secular literature has been invaluable; English
Monachism was swept away at the Reformation; in France at the
Revolution; and later in Spain, Portugal, and Italy it has been
suppressed; brotherhoods and sisterhoods have sprung up in the
Protestant churches of Germany and England, but in all of them
the vows taken are revocable.
Monaco (13), a small principality
9 m. E. of Nice, on the Mediterranean shore, surrounded by French
territory and under French protection; has a mild salubrious
climate, and is a favourite winter resort. The capital, Monaco,
is built on a picturesque promontory, and 1 m. NE. stands Monte
Monad, the name given by Leibnitz
to one of the active simple elementary substances, the plurality
of which in their combinations or combined activities constitutes
in his regard the universe both spiritual and physical; it denotes
in biology an elementary organism.
Monaghan (82), an inland Ulster
county, Ireland, surrounded by Louth,
Armagh, Tyrone, Fermanagh, Cavan, and Meath; is undulating,
with many small lakes and streams; grows flax and manufactures
linen, and has limestone and slate quarries. The chief towns
are Clones (2), and the county-town Monaghan (3),
which has a produce market.
Monboddo, James Burnett,
Lord, a Scottish judge, born in Kincardineshire, an
eccentric writer, author of a "Dissertation on the Origin
of Language" and of "Ancient Metaphysics"; had
original fancies on the origin, particularly of the human race
from the monkey, conceived not so foolish to-day as they were
Moncreiff, Sir Henry
Wellwood, Scottish clergyman, born at Blackford; from
1775 to 1827 minister of St. Cuthbert's, Edinburgh, and leader
of the evangelical party of the Scottish Church.
Moncreiff, James W., Lord,
second son of preceding, eminent Scottish judge; was the author
of the Veto Act which led to the Disruption of 1843 (1776-1851).
Moncreiff, Sir Henry W.,
son of preceding, became a Free Church minister, and was Principal
Clerk of the General Assembly of the Free Church; an authority
on Church law (1809-1885).
Moncreiff, James, brother
of preceding, bred for the Scottish bar; was Lord Advocate of
Scotland under four administrations; was appointed Lord Justice-Clerk
in 1860; was raised to the peerage in 1874 (1811-1895).
Mond, Ludwig, distinguished
technical chemist and inventor, born at Cassel, in Germany;
was a pupil of Kolbe and Bunsen, and has made important additions
to chemical-industrial processes and products; b. 1839.
Money, defined by Ruskin to be "a
documentary claim to wealth, and correspondent in its nature
to the title-deed of an estate."
Monge, Gaspard, celebrated
French mathematician, born at Beaune; one of the founders of
the Polytechnic School in Paris (1746-1818).
Mongols, a great Asiatic people
having their original home on the plains E. of Lake Baikal,
Siberia, who first rose into prominence under their ruler Genghis
Khan in the 12th century; he, uniting the three branches of
Mongols, commenced a career of conquest which made him master
of all Central Asia; his sons divided his empire, and pursued
his conquests; a Mongol emperor seized the throne of China in
1234, and from this branch sprang the great Kublai Khan, whose
house ruled an immense territory 1294-1368. Another section
pushed westwards as far as Moravia and Hungary, taking Pesth
in 1241, and founded the immense empire over which Tamerlane
held sway. A third but later movement, springing from the ruins
of these earlier empires, was that of Baber, who conquered India,
and founded the Great Mogul line, 1519. Now Mongols are constituent
elements in the populations of China, Russian, and Turkish Asia.
Monica, St., the mother of
St. Augustine, who became to him the symbol of "the highest
he knew on earth, bowing before a Higher in heaven."
Monism, the name given to the
principle of any system of philosophy which resolves the manifold
of the universe into the evolution of some unity in opposition
to dualism (q. v.).
Monk, George, Duke
of Albemarle, general and admiral, was a Devonshire
man, who spent his youth in the Dutch wars, and returned to
England just in time to side with Charles I. against the Parliament;
after leading a regiment in Ireland, he was captured at Nantwich
in 1644, and spent two years in the Tower; obtaining his release
by changing sides, he won commendation from Cromwell at Dunbar
in 1650, and was entrusted with the command of operations in
Scotland afterwards; in 1653 he beat Van Tromp at sea, twice;
from 1654 till 1660 he was Governor of Scotland; on the death
of Cromwell he saw the confusion, marched with 6000 troops to
London, and after cautious negotiations, brought Charles II.
to England and set him on the throne, receiving a peerage and
many honours for reward; he behaved well as Governor of London
in the plague year, and was again admiral in the Dutch wars
of 1666 (1608-1670).
a Welsh priest of the 12th century, compiler of what he called
a "History of the Early Kings of Britain," from that
of Brut, through the story of King Arthur and others, such as
King Lear, down to that of Cadwallo, a Welsh king, who died
Monmouth, James, Duke of,
illegitimate son of Charles II., born at Rotterdam; was admitted
to Court after the Restoration, and received his title in 1663;
his manners and his Protestantism brought him popular favour
in spite of his morals, and by-and-by plots were formed to secure
the succession for him; forced to fly to Holland in 1683, he
waited till his father's death, then planned a rebellion with
Argyll; Argyll failed in Scotland; Monmouth, landing in Dorsetshire
1685, was soon overthrown at Sedgemoor, taken prisoner, and
Monmouthshire (252), a
west of England county lying N. of the Severn estuary, between
Glamorgan and Gloucestershire; is low and flat in the S., but
otherwise hilly, and is traversed by the Usk River; more than
half the surface is under permanent pasture; the wealth of Monmouthshire
consists of coal and iron-stone; Monmouth (5), the county town,
is the centre of beautiful scenery, and has some fine buildings.
Monophysites, a body of
heretics who arose in the 5th century and maintained that the
divine and human natures in Christ were united in one divine-human
nature, so that He was neither wholly divine nor wholly human,
but in part both.
Monotheism, belief in the
existence of one God, or the divine unity, or that the Divine
Being, whether twofold, as in dualism, threefold, as in Trinitarianism,
is in essence and in manifestation one.
Monothelism, a heresy which
arose in the 7th century, in which it was maintained that, though
in Christ there were two natures, there was but One Will, viz.,
Monro, Alexander, founder
of Edinburgh Medical School, born of Scotch parentage in London;
studied there, and at Paris and Leyden, and was appointed lecturer
on Anatomy by the Surgeons' Company at Edinburgh in 1719; two
years later he became professor, and in 1725 was admitted to
the University; he was a principal promoter and early clinical
lecturer in the Royal Infirmary, and continued his clinical
work after resigning his chair to his son Alexander; he wrote
several medical works, and was a Fellow of the Royal Society;
he was called primus, to distinguish him from his son
and grandson, who were called respectively secundus and
tertius, and were professors of Anatomy in Edinburgh
like himself (1697-1767).
Monroe, James, American
President, born in Virginia, of Scottish descent; left college
to join Washington's army; was wounded in the war, and studying
law, entered Congress in 1783; he assisted in framing the Constitution,
and sat in the Senate 1790-1794; his diplomatic career in France
was marked by the purchase of Louisiana from that
country in 1803; he was governor of Virginia
thrice over, and Secretary of State till 1817; then followed
two terms of the Presidency, during which Florida was acquired
from Spain 1819, the delimitation of the slave limit by the
Missouri compromise, the recognition of the South American Republics,
and the statement of the "Monroe
doctrine" (q. v.); in his later years his generosity
led him into debt, and he spent his closing days with relations
in New York (1758-1831).
Monroe Doctrine, the
doctrine of James Monroe, twice over President of the United
States, that the United States should hold aloof from all interference
with the affairs of the Old World, and should not suffer the
Powers of the Old World to interfere with theirs.
Monson, Sir Edward,
English diplomatist; entered the diplomatic service in 1856,
and after service at various courts, became ambassador at Paris
in 1896; b. 1834.
Monsoon originally denoted a
periodical wind in the Indian Ocean, which blows from SW. from
April to October, and from NE. from October to April; now denotes
any wind connected with a continent regularly recurring with
Monstrance, a transparent
pyx on which the Host is exhibited on the altar to the people,
or conveyed in public procession.
Mont Blanc, in the Graian
Alps, on the French-Italian frontier, the highest mountain in
Europe, 15,782 ft., the upper half under perpetual snow; has
56 magnificent glaciers, including the Mer-de-Glace; it was
first climbed by Balmat and Paccard in 1786, and since then
has been many times ascended, now by 50 parties every year.
Mont Cenis, an Alpine peak
(12,000 ft.) on the Savoy-Piedmont frontier and the adjacent
pass, over which a road was constructed 1802-1810, and near
which a railway tunnel was pierced (1857-70) at a cost of £3,000,000.
Mont de Piété,
an institution to lend money to the poor at little or no interest,
first established in the 15th century, a time when lending to
the poor was as much a work of mercy as giving to them; a public
pawnbroking establishment, so called in France.
Montagu, Lady Mary Wortley,
an English lady, born in Nottinghamshire, celebrated for her
wit and beauty, and for her "Letters on the Manners of
the East" (1690-1762).
Montaigne, Michel de,
a sceptico-speculative thinker and moralist, born in the Château
of Montaigne, Périgord; an easy-going mortal, but a keen
observer of the ways and manners of other people, which some
experience in travel gave him opportunities to do, as well as
the study of the old classic Latin authors; his fame rests on
his "Essays," in which he records his observations
of mankind, but in which, from a decided descendental twist
he had, he betrays a rather low idea of the morale of the race;
the book, however, is a favourite with all observant people
of education, and a translation of it by Florio is the one book
we know for certain to have been in the library of Shakespeare;
bred as he was by his father's arrangement among the common
people, he always retained a friendly feeling towards his neighbours,
and they cherished towards him feelings of very high regard;
he was a quiet, tolerant man, and his writings reveal a character
which commands the respect of men who affect a much higher level
of thinking than that occupied by himself (1533-1592).
Montalembert, Comte de,
a French politician, born in London, son of a French emigrant;
was associated with Lamennais and Lacordaire in the conduct
of the Avenir, an Ultramontane Liberal organ, and spent
his life in advocating the cause of a free unfettered system
of national education; wrote the "Monks of the West,"
his chief work (1810-1870).
Montana (132), a State of the
American Union, in the NW., lies along the Canadian border between
Idaho and the Dakotas, with Wyoming on the S.; has a mild climate,
and a soil which, with irrigation, produces fine crops of grain
and vegetables. Cattle-raising is profitable, but the chief
industry is mining, in the Rocky Mountains, which occupy a fifth
of the State. There gold, silver, copper, and lead abound. The
Missouri and the Columbia Rivers rise in Montana, and the Yellowstone
traverses the whole State. The State was admitted to the Union
in 1889, with Helena (9) as capital.
Montanism, a heresy which
arose in the 2nd century; derived its name from an enthusiast
in Phrygia named Montanus, who insisted on the permanency of
the spiritual gifts vouchsafed to the primitive Church, and
a return to the severe discipline of life and character prevailing
de Saint Véran, Louis Joseph, Marquis de, born
near Nîmes; entered the army early, and at forty-four
was field-marshal and commander of the forces in Quebec against
the English; the capture of Forts Oswego and William Henry and
the defence of Ticonderoga were followed by the loss of Louisburg
and Fort Duquesne and the retreat on Quebec, where, surprised
by Wolfe in 1759, he was totally defeated, and Canada lost to
France; both generals fell (1712-1759).
Monte Carlo (4), a great
gambling centre in Monaco, 1 m. NE. of the capital; visited
by 400,000 persons annually. The Casino is held by a company,
and stands on ground leased from the prince.
Montefiore, Sir Moses,
a philanthropic Jewish banker, born in Leghorn; a friend to
the emancipation not only of the oppressed among his own race,
but of the slave in all lands; lived to a great age (1784-1885).
French critic, born at Limoges; is noted for books of travel,
studies in French and English literature, and for translations
of Shakespeare, Macaulay's "History," and Emerson's "Essays."
Montenegro (236), a Balkan
State, less than half the size of Wales, lying in a wild mountainous
region between Herzegovina and Albania, and touching the Adriatic
Sea with its SW. corner only. The climate is severe in winter,
mild in summer. The soil is sterile, but is industriously tilled,
and patches of arable land on the mountain sides and in the
valleys yield maize, oats, potatoes, and tobacco. Cattle and
sheep are reared in large numbers; vines and mulberries are
cultivated round the lake, whose waters abound in fish. Cattle,
hides, and cheese are the exports. The Montenegrins are a primitive
people; the men hunt and fight, the women work. They are mostly
of the Greek Church, and noted for their morality. The government
is patriarchal, with a prince at the head. Education and road-making
have recently advanced. The towns are mere villages. Cetinje
(1) is the capital; Antivari and Dulcigno, the Adriatic ports.
Montespan, Marquise de,
mistress of Louis XIV.; a woman noted for her wit and beauty;
bore the king eight children; was supplanted by
Madame de Maintenon
(q. v.); passed her last days in religious retirement
Montesquieu, Baron de,
illustrious French publicist, born in the Château La Brède,
near Bordeaux; his greatest work, and an able, "Esprit
des Lois," though rated in "Sartor" as at best
the work of "a clever infant spelling letters from a hieroglyphic
prophetic book, the lexicon of which lies in eternity, in heaven";
was author of an able work "On the Causes of the Grandeur
of the Romans and their Declension" (1689-1755).
Montevideo (215), on the
N. shore of the Rio de la Plata, 130 m. E. of Buenos Ayres;
is the capital of Uruguay; a well-built town, with a cathedral,
university, school of arts, and museum. The chief industries
are beef-salting and shipping, though there is practically no
harbour. Nearly half the population are foreigners.
Montez, Lola, an adventuress
of Spanish descent, born at Limerick; contracted no end of marriages,
which were broken off one after another; took to the stage;
took to lecturing, and ended in trying to reclaim fallen women
Montezuma II., the last
of the Mexican emperors; submitted to Cortez when he landed;
died in 1520 of a wound he received as he pled with his subjects
to submit to the conqueror, aggravated by grief over the failure
of his efforts in bringing about a reconciliation.
Montfort, Simon de,
son of a French count; came to England in 1230, where he inherited
from his grandmother the earldom of Leicester; attached to Henry
III., and married to the king's sister, he was sent to govern
Gascony in 1248; returned in 1253, and passed over to the side
of the barons, whom he ultimately led in the struggle against
the king; after repeated unsuccessful attempts to make Henry
observe the Provisions of Oxford, Simon took arms against him
in 1263; the war was indecisive, and appeal being made to the
arbitration of Louis the Good, Simon, dissatisfied with his
award, renewed hostilities, defeated the king at Lewes, and
taking him and his son prisoner, governed England for a year
(1264-65); he sketched a constitution for the country, and summoned
the most representative parliament that had yet met, but as
he aimed at the welfare of not the barons only, but the common
people as well, the barons began to distrust him, when Prince
Edward, having escaped from captivity, joined them, and overthrew
Simon at Evesham, where he was slain (1206?-1265).
inventors of the balloon, who made their first ascent in Paris
in 1783 in "their paper dome, filled with smoke of burnt
wood, amid the shouts of congregated men"; Joseph
(1740-1810), and Étienne (1745-1799).
Scottish poet, born, it is alleged, in Ayrshire, from a branch
of the Eglinton family; wrote sonnets and some short poems,
but his best-known piece is an allegorical poem, "The Cherry
and the Slae" (1556-1610).
Montgomery, Comte de,
a French knight of Scottish descent, captain of the Scottish
Guard under Henry II. of France; having in 1559 mortally wounded
the king in a tourney, he fled to England, but returned to fight
in the ranks of the Huguenots, and having had to surrender,
he was taken to Paris and beheaded, in violation of the terms
of surrender, which assured him of his life (1530-1574).
Montgomery, James, poet
and hymn-writer, born at Irvine, son of a Moravian minister;
studied for the same profession, but was not licensed; after
some years of various occupation he started journalism, and
eventually produced a journal of his own, Sheffield Iris,
1794-1825; he was twice fined and imprisoned for seditious publications,
but became a Conservative in 1832, a pensioner 1835, and died
at Sheffield; of his poetry most is forgotten, but "For
ever with the Lord," and some dozen other hymns are still
author of "The Omnipresence of Deity" and "Satan,"
born at Bath, son of a clown; passed undistinguished through
Oxford, and was minister of Percy Street Chapel, London; all
his many works are forgotten save the above, which lives in
Macaulay's famous review (1807-1855).
a North Wales inland county, surrounded by Merioneth, Cardigan,
Radnor, Salop, and Denbigh; is chiefly a stretch of mountain
pasture land, which rises to 2500 ft. at Plinlimmon, and in
which the Severn rises; but in the E. are well wooded and fertile
valleys. There are lead and zinc mines, and slate and limestone
quarries. There is some flannel manufacture at Newtown. The
county town is Montgomery (1).
Montholon, Comte de,
French general, born in Paris, served under Napoleon, accompanied
him to St. Helena, and left "Memoirs" (1782-1853).
Montmorency, Anne, Duc
de, marshal and constable of France, born of an old
illustrious family; served in arms under Francis I.; was associated
with Condé against the Huguenots, and was mortally wounded
at St. Denis fighting against them (1492-1567).
second Duc of, born at Chantilly; distinguished himself
in arms under Louis XIII., but provoked along with Gaston, Duke
of Orleans, into rebellion, he was taken prisoner and beheaded,
notwithstanding intercessions from high quarters on his behalf
for the zeal he had shown in defence of the Catholic faith (1596-1632).
Montpelier (4), capital of
Vermont, 250 m. N. of New York and 120 m. NW. of Portland, Maine,
is on the Onion River, and has some mills and tanneries.
Montpellier (66), capital
of Hérault, France, on the Lez, 6 m. from the Gulf of
Lyons, 30 m. SW. of Nîmes, is a picturesque town, containing
a cathedral, a university, picture-gallery, libraries, and other
institutions, and has been a centre of culture and learning
since the 16th century; it also manufactures chemicals, corks,
and textiles, and does a large trade in brandy and wine.
Montreal (217), the greatest
commercial city of Canada, on an island in the St. Lawrence,
at the confluence of the Ottawa River, 150 m. above Quebec,
is the centre of railway communication with the whole Dominion
and the States, connected by water with all the shipping ports
on the great lakes, and does an enormous import and export trade;
its principal shipment is grain; it is the chief banking centre,
has the greatest universities (M'Gill and a branch of Laval),
hospitals, and religious institutions, and pursues boot and
shoe, clothing, and tobacco manufactures; more than half the
population is French and Roman Catholic, and the education of
Protestant and Roman Catholic children is kept distinct; founded
in 1642 by the French, Montreal passed to Britain in 1760; in
1776 it was occupied by the revolting colonies, but recovered
next year, and since then has had a steady career of prosperity
Montrose (13), an ancient burgh
and seaport of Forfarshire, 35 m. S. of Aberdeen, stands on
a tongue of land between the sea and a basin which
is almost dry at low water; carries on
timber-trade with Baltic and Canadian ports, and spins flax,
makes ropes and canvas.
Graham, Marquis of, born at Old Montrose, and educated
at St. Andrews; travelled in Italy, France, and the Netherlands;
returning in 1637 he joined the Covenanters, and we find him
at Aberdeen, Stonehaven, and across the English border supporting
the Covenant by force of arms; suspected of treachery to the
cause he was imprisoned for a year, 1641-42, in Edinburgh Castle,
whereupon he joined the side of the king; in 1644-45 he did
splendid service for Charles in Scotland, defeating the Covenanters
near Aberdeen, at Inverlochy and Kilsyth; but routed by Leslie
at Philiphaugh he lost the royal confidence, and next year withdrew
to Norway; an unsuccessful invasion in the Stuart cause in 1650
ended in his defeat at Invercarron, capture, and execution; "The
Great Marquis," as he is called, was a soldier of genius,
and a man of taste, learning, clemency, and courage (1612-1650).
Montyon Prizes, four prizes
in the gift of the French Academy, so named from their founder,
Baron de Montyon (1733-1820), and awarded annually for (1) improvements
in medicine and surgery; (2) improvements tending to health
in some mechanical process; (3) acts of disinterested goodness;
(4) literary works conducive to morality; the last two are usually
divided among several recipients.
Moody, Dwight Lyman,
evangelist, born in Massachusetts; settled in Chicago, where
he began his career as an evangelist, associated with Mr. Sankey;
visited great Britain in 1873 and 1883, and produced a wide-spread
impression, especially on the first visit; b. 1837.
Moon, the satellite of the earth,
from which it is distant 238,800 m., and which revolves round
it in 27-1/3 days, taking the same time to rotate on its own
axis, so that it presents always the same side to us; is a dark
body, and shines by reflection of the sun's light, its diameter
2165 m.; it has a rugged surface of mountains and valleys without
verdure; has no water, no atmosphere, and consequently no life.
Moon, Mountains of the,
a range of mountains supposed by Ptolemy and early geographers
to stretch across Africa from Abyssinia to Guinea, now variously
identified as the Kenia, Kilimanjaro, Ruwenzori, &c.
Moonshee, in India a teacher
of languages, especially Hindustani and Persian.
Moore, Frank Frankfort,
novelist and dramatist, born at Limerick, both his novels and
his dramas are numerous; commenced his literary career as a
journalist in connection with the Belfast News Letter
as literary and art editor, a post he relinquished in 1893 to
settle in London; b. 1855.
Moore, John, M.D., author
and novelist, born at Stirling, studied medicine in Glasgow,
and practised there, in Holland, Paris, and London; he published
books on the countries of Europe which he visited, an essay
on the French Revolution, and among several novels, one of some
note, "Zeluco" (1789); he died at Richmond (1730-1802).
Moore, Sir John, general,
eldest son of above, born at Glasgow; served in Corsica, the
West Indies, Ireland, Holland, Egypt, Sicily, and Sweden; his
famous and last expedition was to Spain in 1808, when with 10,000
men he was sent to co-operate in expelling the French; Spanish
apathy and other causes weakened his hands, and in December
he found himself with 25,000 men at Astorga, a French force
of 70,000 advancing against him; retreat was necessary, but
disastrous; he was overtaken by Soult at Coruña in the
act of embarking; the victory lay with the English, but Moore
was killed (1761-1808).
Moore, Thomas, the Bard
of Erin, born in Dublin, the son of a grocer, studied at Trinity
College; went to London with a translation of "Anacreon,"
which gained him favour and a valuable appointment in the Bermudas
in 1803; fought a duel with Jeffrey in 1806, began his "Irish
Melodies" in 1807, and published "The Twopenny Postbag"
in 1812; in 1817 appeared "Lalla Rookh," a collection
of Oriental tales, and in 1818 a satiric piece "The Fudge
Family," and published a Life of Byron in 1830; Moore's
songs were written to Irish airs, and they contributed much
to ensure Catholic emancipation (1779-1852).
Moors, a general term for tribes
in North Africa descended from Arab and Berber stock; they were
Christians for several centuries, but on their conquest by Arabs
in 647 embraced Mohammedanism; the town Moors do not hold before
European settlers, but the nomad tribes show more vitality;
Moorish peoples seized and settled in Spain early in the 8th
century, and, introducing a civilisation further advanced than
that in Europe generally with respect to science, art, and industry
alike, maintained a strong rule till the 11th century; then
the Spaniards gradually recovered the peninsula; Toledo was
taken in 1085, Saragossa in 1118, Valencia in 1238, Seville
in 1248, Murcia in 1260, and Granada in 1492; Turkish successes
in the East came too late to save the Moors, and the last were
banished from the country in 1609.
Moraines, masses of rock which
become detached from the hill-side and find lodgment on a glacier
are so called, and are further described as lateral, medial,
terminal, or ground moraines, according as they lie along its
edges, its middle, are piled up in mounds at its end, or falling
down crevasses, are ground against the rock underneath.
Moralities, didactic dramas,
following in order of time the miracle plays and mysteries,
in which the places of saints and biblical personages in them
were taken by characters representing different virtues and
vices, and the story was of an allegorical nature; were the
immediate precursors of the secular drama.
Moravia (2,277), a crownland
in the N. of Austria, lying between the Moravian and the Carpathian
Mountains, with Silesia on the N., Hungary on the E., Lower
Austria on the S., and Bohemia on the W.; is mountainous, with
lofty plains in the S., and is watered by the March, a tributary
of the Danube; the valleys and plains are fertile; grain, beetroot,
flax, hemp, and vines are grown; cattle and poultry rearing
and bee-keeping occupy the peasantry; sugar, textiles, and tobacco
are the chief manufactures; there are coal and iron mines, graphite
and meerschaum are found; the capital is Brünn (94), which
has woollen and leather industries; associated with Bohemia
in 1029, Moravia passed with that country to Austria in 1526,
its association with Bohemia terminating in 1849; the inhabitants
are two-thirds Slavs and one-third German, and are mostly Roman
Moravians, a sect of Protestant
Christians who, followers of John Huss, formed themselves into
a separate community in Bohemia in 1467 on the model of the
primitive Church, in which the members regarded each other as
brethren, and were hence called the United Brethren; like other
heretics they suffered much persecution at the hands
of the orthodox Church; they are known
also as Herrnhuters.
Moray, James Stuart,
Earl of, illegitimate son of James V. of Scotland, and
so half-brother of Mary, Queen of Scots; was from 1556 the leader
of the Reformation party, and on Mary's arrival in her kingdom
in 1561 became her chief adviser; on her marriage with Darnley
he made an unsuccessful attempt to raise a Protestant rebellion,
and had to escape to England 1565, and after a visit to Edinburgh,
when he connived at Rizzio's murder, to France in 1567; he was
almost immediately recalled by the nobles, who had imprisoned
Mary in Lochleven, and appointed regent; next year he defeated
at Langside the forces which, on her escape, had rallied round
her, and in the subsequent management of the kingdom secured
both civil and ecclesiastical peace, and earned the title of "the
Good Regent"; he was shot by a partisan of the queen's,
James Hamilton of Bothwellhaugh, when riding through Linlithgow
More, Hannah, English authoress,
born near Bristol; wrote dramas, a novel entitled "Coelebs
in Search of a Wife," and a tract "The Shepherd of
Salisbury Plain" (1745-1833).
More, Henry, a Platonist,
born at Grantham, a Fellow of Christ College, Cambridge, and
author of a poem "Song of the Soul"; he was a mystic
who exercised a great influence among the young men of Cambridge
More, Sir Thomas, Chancellor
of England, born in London; was the lifelong friend of Erasmus,
and the author of "Utopia," an imaginary commonwealth;
succeeded Wolsey as Chancellor, but resigned the seals of office
because he could not sanction the king's action in the matter
of the divorce, and was committed to the Tower for refusing
to take the oath of supremacy, whence after 12 months he was
brought to trial and sentenced to be beheaded; he ascended the
scaffold, and laid his head on the block in the spirit of a
philosopher; was one of the wisest and best of men (1478-1535).
Morea is the modern name of the
ancient Peloponnesus, that remarkable peninsula, larger than
Wales, which constitutes the southern half of Greece, and is
joined to the mainland by the Isthmus of Corinth, less than
4 m. broad.
Moreau, Jean Victor,
French general, born at Morlaix; served with distinction under
the Republic and the Empire; was suspected of plotting against
the latter with George Cadoudal, and banished on conviction;
went to America, but returning to Europe, joined the ranks of
the Russians against his country, and was mortally wounded by
a cannon ball at Dresden (1763-1813).
is a union permitted to German princes who, forbidden to marry
except with one of equal rank, may ally themselves with a woman
of inferior status, their children being legitimate but not
eligible for the succession; the marriages of British princes
contracted before the age of 25 without consent of the sovereign,
or after that age without consent of Parliament, are of a morganatic
Morgarten, a mountain slope
in the canton of Zug, Switzerland, where 1400 Swiss, on Nov.
15, 1315, in assertion of their independence, defeated an Austrian
army of 15,000.
Sanzio Cavaliere, engraver, born in Naples, of German
parentage; studied in Rome, and by genius and industry became
one of the foremost engravers; his works include engravings
of Raphael's "Transfiguration," the result of 16 years'
labour, and Leonardo da Vinci's "Last Supper," his
Morgue, a house in which bodies
found dead are placed for identification.
Morisonianism, the principles
of the Evangelical Union, a Scottish denomination founded by
the Rev. James Morison of Kilmarnock on his expulsion from the
United Secession Church in 1843, and united with the Scottish
Congregational Union in 1897; differed from the older Presbyterianism
in affirming the freedom of the human will to accept or reject
salvation, and the universal scope of the offer of salvation
as made by God to all men; in polity the Morisonians observed
a modified independency.
Morley, John, politician
and man of letters, born in Blackburn; is an advanced Liberal
in both capacities; besides essays and journalistic work, has
written biographies, particularly on men associated with politics
and social movements, such as Voltaire, Rousseau, and Diderot,
as well as Burke, and is editor of "English Men of Letters";
in politics he was a staunch supporter of Mr. Gladstone, though
he could have little sympathy with him as a High Churchman;
Mormon, Book of, a book
which in 1827 fell into the hands of Joseph Smith, the son of
a farmer, alleged by him to have been written by a Hebrew prophet
who emigrated to America 600 years before Christ, and to have
been recorded by him as a direct revelation to himself from
heaven, by means of which the interrupted communication between
heaven and earth was to be restored.
Mormonism, the creed of the
Mormons, or Latter-day Saints as they are called, who have settlements
of their own in the valley of the Salt Lake, generally called
Utah, U.S.; they conceive, according to Hepworth Dixon, of God
as a flesh and blood man, of man as of the divine substance,
as existing from, and to exist to, all eternity, and without
inherited sin, of the earth as only one of many inhabited worlds,
of the spirit world as consisting of beings awaiting incarnation,
of polygamy as of divine ordination and the relationship eternal,
and of their social system as the kingdom of God on earth.
Morny, Duc de, French politician,
born in Paris; played a conspicuous part in the coup d'état
of December 1851, and was President of the Corps Législatif;
was believed to have been the son of Queen Hortense, and consequently
Louis Napoleon's half-brother (1811-1865).
Morocco (4,000), an empire in
the NW. corner of Africa, three times the size of Great Britain,
its coast-line stretching from Algeria to Cape Nun, and its
inland confines being vaguely determined by the French hinterlands.
Two-thirds of the country is desert; much of the remainder is
poor pasture land; the Atlas Mountains stretch from SW. to NE.,
but there are some expanses of level fertile country; on the
seaboard the climate is delightful, with abundance of rain in
the season; among the mountains extremes prevail; south of the
Atlas it is hot and almost rainless; the mineral wealth is probably
great; gold, silver, copper, and iron are known to be plentiful,
but bad government hinders development; the exports are maize,
pulse, oil, wool, fruit, and cattle; cloth, tea, coffee, and
hardware are imported; the chief industries are the making of
leather, "Fez" caps, carpets, and the breeding of
horses; government is extremely despotic and corrupt, and the
Sultan's authority over many of the tribes is merely nominal;
there is no education; the religion is Mohammedanism, and slavery
prevails; there are no roads, and the country is imperfectly
known; telegraph, telephone, and postal
service are in European hands; the country was taken from the
Romans by the Arabs in the 7th century, and has ever since been
in their hands, but Berbers, Spaniards, Moors, Jews, and negroes
also go to make up the population. The chief towns are Fez (25),
in the N., a sacred Moslem city, squalid and dirty, but with
good European trade, and a depôt for the caravans from
the interior; and Morocco (60), in the S., near the Tensift
River, 240 m. SW. of Fez, well situated for local and transit
trade, but a dilapidated city.
Morocco, a fine-grained leather
of the skin of a goat or sheep, first prepared in Morocco.
Morpheus (i. e. the
Moulder), the god of dreams, the son of Night and Sleep.
Morris-dance, a rustic
merrymaking common in England after 1350, and still extant;
is of disputed origin; the chief characters, Maid Marian, Robin
Hood, the hobby-horse, and the fool, execute fantastic movements
and Jingle bells fastened to their feet and dress.
Morris, Sir Lewis, a
poet, born in Carmarthen, Wales; the author of "Songs of
Two Worlds," "The Epic of Hades," "A Vision
of Saints," &c.; often confounded with the succeeding,
with whom he has next to nothing in common; b. 1833.
Morris, William, poet,
art-worker, and Socialist, born in Walthamstow, near London,
son and heir of a wealthy merchant; studied at Oxford, where
he became the lifelong bosom friend of Burne-Jones; of an artistic
temperament, he devoted his working hours to decorative art,
in particular designing wall-papers; produced in 1858 "The
Defence of Guenevere and other Poems," in 1867 "The
Life and Death of Jason," and from 1868 to 1870 his masterpiece,
"The Earthly Paradise"
(q. v.); among other works he translated the "Æneid"
and the "Odyssey," and gave a splendid rendering of
some of the Norse legends (1834-1896).
Morrison, Robert, first
missionary to China, and Chinese scholar, born of Scottish parentage
at Morpeth; entered the Independent ministry, and was sent to
Macao and Canton by the London Missionary Society in 1807; in
1814 he published a Chinese version of the New Testament, and
in 1819 of the Old Testament; in 1823 his great Chinese Dictionary
was published at the expense of the East India Company; returning
to England in 1824, he went out again 10 years later as interpreter
to Lord Napier, and died at Canton (1782-1834).
Morse, Samuel Finley
Breese, inventor, born at Charlestown, Massachusetts,
graduated at Yale in 1810 and adopted art as a profession; he
gained some distinction as a sculptor, and in 1835 was appointed
professor of Design in New York; electrical studies were his
hobby; between 1832 and 1837 he worked out the idea of an electric
telegraph—simultaneously conceived by Wheatstone in England—and
in 1843 Congress granted funds for an experimental line between
Washington and Baltimore; honour and fortune crowded on him,
his invention was adopted all over the world, and he received
an international grant of £16,000; he died in New York
Mortgage, a deed conveying
property to a creditor as security for the payment of a debt,
the person to whom it is given being called the Mortgagee.
Morton, James Douglas,
Earl of, regent of Scotland; joined the Reforming party,
was made Chancellor, took part in the murder of Rizzio, and
was privy to the plot against Darnley, joined the confederacy
of the nobles against Mary, fought against her at Langside,
and became regent in 1572; became unpopular, was charged with
being accessory to Darnley's murder, and beheaded in 1581.
Mosaylima, a rival of Mohammed,
posed as equally a prophet, and entitled to share with Mohammed
the sovereignty of the world; two battles followed, in the second
of which Mosaylima was killed, to the dispersion of his followers.
Moschus, a Greek pastoral poet,
author of lyrics which have been translated by Andrew Lang;
lived 150 B.C.
Moscow (799), on the Moskwa River,
in the centre of European Russia, 370 m. SE. of St. Petersburg;
was before 1713 the capital, and is still a great industrial
and commercial centre; its manufactures include textiles, leather,
chemicals, and machinery; it does a great trade in grain, timber,
metals from the Urals, and furs, hides, &c., from Asia;
besides the great cathedral there are many churches, palaces,
and museums, a university, library, picture-gallery, and observatory;
the enclosure called the Kremlin or citadel is the most sacred
spot in Russia; thrice in the 18th century the city was devastated
by fire, and again in 1812 to compel Napoleon to retire.
Moselle, river, rising W. of
the Vosges Mountains, flows NW. through French and German Lorraine,
then NE. through Rhenish Prussia to join the Rhine at Coblenz,
315 m. long, two-thirds of it navigable; it passes in its tortuous
course Metz, Thionville, and Trèves.
Moses, the great Hebrew law-giver,
under whose leadership the Jews achieved their emancipation
from the bondage of Egypt, and began to assert themselves as
an independent people among the nations of the earth; in requiring
of the people the fear of God and the observance of His commandments,
he laid the national life on a sure basis, and he was succeeded
by a race of prophets who from age to age reminded the people
that in regard or disregard for what he required of them depended
their prosperity or their ruin as a nation, of which from their
extreme obduracy they had again and again to be admonished.
Mosheim, a Protestant Church
historian, born at Lübeck, was professor at Göttingen;
his principal work a History of the Church, written in Latin,
and translated into English and other languages (1694-1755).
who formerly raided the moss-grown borderland of England and
Scottish poet, born in Glasgow, educated in Edinburgh; entered
a lawyer's office in Paisley in 1811 and became Sheriff-Clerk
Depute of Renfrewshire 1818; he was editor of the Paisley Advertiser
in 1828, and of the Glasgow Courier in 1830; he wrote biographical
notices of local poets, and edited "Minstrelsy, Ancient
and Modern," in 1827; but his own fame was established
by "Poems, Narrative and Lyrical," 1832, the gem of
the collection being "Jeanie Morison"; he died in
Motley, John Lothrop,
historian and diplomatist, born in Massachusetts; commenced
his literary career as a novelist, but soon turned all his thoughts
to the study of history; spent years in the study of Dutch history;
wrote the "History of the Dutch Republic," which was
published in 1856, the "History of the United Netherlands,"
publishing the first part in 1860 and the second in 1868, and
the "Life and Death of John Barnevelde" in 1874; was
appointed the United States minister at Vienna in 1861, and
at St. James's in 1869; he ranks high
as a historian, being both faithful and graphic (1814-1877).
Motor Car, a vehicle propelled
by petroleum, electricity, &c.
Mountain, The, the name
given to the Jacobins, or the extreme democratic party, at the
French Revolution, from their occupying the highest benches
in the hall of the National Convention, and included such men
as Marat, Danton, Robespierre, and the men of the Reign of Terror.
Movable Feasts, festivals
of the Church, the date of which varies with the date of Easter.
Mozambique (1,000), the general
name for Portuguese East Africa, lies between Cape Delgado and
Delagoa Bay on the mainland, opposite Madagascar; the Rovuma
River separates it from German territory in the N.; in the S.
it touches British Maputaland, while inland it borders on British
Central and South Africa and the Transvaal; the Zambesi divides
it into two; the coast is low and wet, inland are richly wooded
plateaux; the soil is fertile, and minerals abound, but the
government is bad, and industry does not develop; 52 miles of
railway connect Lorenzo Marques with the Transvaal; other chief
towns are Quilimane (6), and the capital Mozambique (7),
on an island.
Amadeus Chrysostom, eminent musical composer, born at
Salzburg; was distinguished for his musical genius as a boy,
and produced over 600 musical compositions, but his principal
works were his operas, the "Marriage of Figaro," "Don
Giovanni," and the "Magic Flute"; his fate was
an unhappy one; he suffered much from poverty and neglect; the
last piece he wrote was a Requiem Mass, which he felt, he said,
as if he were writing for himself, and he died at Prague on
the evening of its rehearsal (1756-1791).
an old fisherman in Scott's "Antiquary."
Mucklewrath, a fanatic preacher
in Scott's "Old Mortality."
Mucous Membrane, a delicate
membrane which lines the cavities and the canals of the human
Muezzin, an official, usually
blind, attached to a Mohammedan mosque, summons the faithful
to prayers with a chant from a minaret.
Mufti, a doctor and interpreter
of Mohammedan law.
Mufti, The Grand, is head
of the Ulema, or interpreters of the Korân; holds his
appointment from the Sultan, and exercises great influence at
the Porte; legal advisers to local and general councils in the
Turkish empire are also styled Mufti.
Muggleton, founder of the
Muggletonians, a tailor who, along with one Reeve, at the time
of the Commonwealth, pretended to be the two witnesses of the
Revelation and the last of God's prophets, invested with power
to save and to damn; individuals of the sect founded by him
existed so recently as the beginning of this century.
Muir, John, a Sanskrit scholar,
born in Glasgow; was of the Indian Civil Service; was a man
of liberal views, particularly in religion, and a patron of
learning; endowed the Chair of Sanskrit in Edinburgh University
Muir, Sir William, an
Arabic scholar, brother of the preceding; Principal of Edinburgh
University; was in the Indian Civil Service; wrote a "Life
of Mahomet," on the rise of Mohammedanism, and on the Korân;
Mukden (250), in Chinese Shing-king,
the capital of Manchuria, on a tributary of the Liao, in the
S. of the province; is a city of considerable commercial importance,
and has good coal-mines in the neighbourhood; there are a great
palace, and numerous temples; Irish and Scotch Presbyterian
and Roman Catholic missions have a centre here; the Japanese
invasion of 1894-98 was directed towards it.
Mull (5), large island in the NW.
of Argyllshire, third of the Hebrides; is mountainous and picturesque,
with greatly indented coast-line; the highest peak is Ben More,
3185 ft., the largest inlet Loch-na-Keal; the soil is best adapted
for grazing. Tobermory (1), in the N., is the only town.
Müller, George, founder
of the Orphan Homes near Bristol; born in Prussia; founded the
Orphan Home, in 1836, on voluntary subscriptions, in answer
to prayer, to the support one year of more than 2000 orphans
eminent German physiologist, born at Coblenz; professor at Berlin;
ranks as the founder of modern physiology, and famed as author
of a text-book on the science, entitled "Handbuch der Physiologie
des Menschen" (1801-1858).
Müller, Johannes von,
celebrated historian, born at Schaffhausen, the "History
of Switzerland" his principal work (1752-1809).
Müller, Julius, a
German theologian, born at Brieg; professor at Halle; his great
work, the "Christian Doctrine of Sin"; he collaborated
on theological subjects with Neander and Nitzsch (1801-1878).
Müller, Karl Otfried,
archæologist and philologist, born at Brieg, brother of
the preceding; was professor at Göttingen, and distinguished
for his researches in Grecian antiquities and his endeavour
to construe all that concerns the history and life of ancient
Greece, including mythology, literature, and art (1797-1840).
Mulock, Dinah Maria
(Mrs. Craik), English novelist, born in Stock-upon-Trent, authoress
of "John Halifax, Gentleman," and other novels (1820-1887).
genre painter, born at Ennis, Ireland, illustrated the "Vicar
of Wakefield" and other works (1786-1863).
Multan (75), a Punjab city near
the Chenab River, 200 m. SW. of Lahore; has many mosques and
temples; manufactures of silks, carpets, pottery, and enamel
ware, and considerable trade.
von, a cavalry officer in the service of Hanover famed
for the extravagant stories he used to relate of his adventures
and exploits which, with exaggerations, were collected by one
Raspe, and published in 1785 under Münchhausen's name (1720-1797).
Münich (351), capital of
Bavaria, on the Isar, 440 m. by rail SW. of Berlin; is a city
of magnificent buildings and rare art treasures; palaces, public
buildings, cathedral, churches, &c., are all on an elaborate
scale, and adorned with works of art; there are galleries of
sculpture, and ancient and modern painting, a university, colleges,
and libraries; the industries include stained glass, lithographing,
bell-founding, and scientific instrument-making; and there are
enormous breweries. Münich has been the centre of artistic
life and culture in the 19th century, and associated with it
are Cornelius, Kaulbach, and many famous names.
Münster (49), capital of
Westphalia, a mediæval-looking town, 100 m. by rail N.
of Cologne; has textile, paper, and printing industries; there
is an old cathedral of 12th century, a town-hall, castle, and
16th-century wine-cellar; the place of the Catholic university
has been taken by an academy with Catholic
theological and philosophical faculties; here took place the
Anabaptist movement of 1535; the bishops retained their secular
jurisdiction till 1803.
Münzer, Thomas, Anabaptist
leader, born at Stolberg, and began to preach at Zwickau 1520;
he came into collision both with the civil authorities and the
Reformed Church; for several years he travelled through Bohemia
and South Germany, and in 1525 settled at Mühlhausen; here
his communistic doctrines obtained popularity and kindled an
insurrection; the rebels were routed at Frankenhansen, and Münzer
was captured and executed (1489-1525).
Murat, Joachim, king of
Naples, born near Cahors, the son of an innkeeper; entered the
army, attracted the notice of Bonaparte, and became his aide-de-camp;
distinguished himself in many engagements, received Bonaparte's
sister to wife, and was loaded with honours on the establishment
of the Empire, and for his services under it as a dashing cavalry
officer was rewarded with the crown of Naples in 1808, but to
the last allied in arms with his brother-in-law; he had to fight
in the end on his own behalf in defence of his crown, and was
defeated, taken prisoner, and shot (1771-1815).
Muratori, Ludovico Antonio,
Italian antiquary and historian, horn in Vignola, Modena; became
librarian in Milan 1695, and of the D'Este library, Modena,
in 1700, in which city he died; he edited the Italian chronicles
of the 5th-16th centuries, with many essays and dissertations,
and many other historical and antiquarian works; but his name
is chiefly associated with the "Muratorian Fragment,"
which dates from the 2nd century, and contains a list of the
then canonical scriptures, and which he published 1840 (1672-1750).
Muravieff, Count, Russian
statesman, born of a distinguished family; entered the diplomatic
service in connection with the Russian embassies at Berlin,
Stockholm, The Hague, and Paris, and became Minister to Denmark
in 1893; in 1897 he was appointed Minister for Foreign Affairs
in succession to Lobanoff; b. 1845.
Murchison, Sir Roderick
Impey, geologist, born in Ross-shire; entered the army
and served in the Peninsular War, but retiring in 1816 gave
himself to science; he explored many parts of Europe, predicted
the discovery of gold in Australia, was President of the British
Association, and knighted in 1846, and subsequently received
many other scientific appointments and honours; he founded the
Chair of Geology in Edinburgh University in 1870; but his fame
rests on his discovery and establishment of the Silurian system;
his book on "The Silurian System" is the chief of
several works (1792-1871).
Murdoch, William, engineer,
born at Auchinleck, Ayrshire; was a manager of the Soho Works
under Boulton and Watt, where he distinguished himself by his
inventive ingenuity, and where on his suggestion coal-gas was
first employed for lighting purposes (1754-1830).
Mure, Colonel, Greek scholar,
born at Caldwell, Ayrshire; wrote a scholarly work, "A
Critical Account of the Language and Literature of Ancient Greece"
Mürger, Henri, French
novelist and poet, born at Paris; is chiefly distinguished as
the author of "Scènes de la Vie de Bohême,"
from his own experiences, and instinct with pathos and humour,
sadness his predominant tone; wrote lyrics as well as novels
and stories, the chief "La Chanson de Musette," "a
tear," says Gautier, "which has become a pearl of
Murillo, a celebrated Spanish
painter, born at Seville; his subjects were drawn partly from
low life and partly from religious or scripture themes, such
as the Immaculate Conception and the Assumption of the Virgin,
as well as "Moses Smiting the Rock," the "Miracle
of the Loaves and Fishes," &c.; died from a fall from
a scaffold while painting an altar-piece at Cadiz (1618-1682).
Murray, John, London publisher,
a successful business man; was on intimate terms with the celebrated
men, such as Byron and Scott, whose works he published (1778-1843).
Murray, Lindley, grammarian,
born in Pennsylvania, of Quaker parents; having realised a competency
in business came to England and settled near York, where he
produced his "Grammar of the English Language" in
Murray, William, Scottish
actor, lessee of Edinburgh theatre for 42 years; enjoyed the
friendship of the Edinburgh literary celebrities of the time,
and was an excellent actor, did Falstaff to perfection (1791-1852).
Murray River, the chief
river of Australia, 1120 m. long, rises at the foot of Mount
Kosciusko, in New South Wales, flows NW. between New South Wales
and Victoria; receives the Lachlan and Darling on the right,
and entering South Australia turns southward and reaches the
sea at Encounter Bay.
Musæus, John August,
German author, born at Jena, famous as the author of German
Volksmärchen, three of which, "Dumb Love," "Libussa,"
and "Melechsala," were translated in the volumes of "German
Romance" by Thomas Carlyle; he parodied Richardson's "Sir
Charles Grandison" and satirised Lavater's "Physiognomical
Muscat (20), capital of Oman,
in Eastern Arabia, on the Gulf of Oman; is an ill-built, unhealthy
city, but does an important transit trade between Arabia, Persia,
India, and East Africa; it was in Portuguese possession from
1508 to 1658, but has been independent since.
Muses, The, daughters of Zeus
and Mnemosynë, presided over the liberal arts particularly,
were nine in number, and dwelt along with Apollo near Parnassus,
Pieria, and Helicon; Clio presided over history, Euterpë
over music, Thalia over comedy, Melpomenë over tragedy,
Terpsichorë over choral dance and song, Erato over erotic
poetry and elegy, Polyhymnia over lyric poetry, Urania over
astronomy, and Calliopë over eloquence and epic poetry.
Musselburgh (9), an old-fashioned
Midlothian fishing town on the coast, 6 m. E. of Edinburgh,
with golf links, paper, nets, and tanning industries, and Loretto
Musset, Alfred de, the
premier poet of modern French literature, born in Paris of good
parentage; wayward and impulsive in youth, he would settle to
no occupation, till his already awakened taste for poetry receiving
a powerful stimulus through contact with Victor Hugo, led him
to embrace the profession of letters; two volumes of poetry
were published before he achieved, in 1833, his first signal
success with the dramas "André del Sarto" and "Les
Caprices de Marianne"; in the same year began his famous
liaison with George Sand
(q. v.), involving him in the ill-fated expedition to
Venice, whence he returned in the spring of 1834 shattered in
health and disillusioned; from one unhappy love intrigue he
passed to another, seeking in vain a solace for his restless
spirit, but reaping an experience which enriched his writings; "Confessions
d'un Enfant du Siècle" appeared in
1836, and is a significant confession of his life at this time;
two years later he was appointed librarian at the Home Office,
and in 1847 his charming comedy, "Un Caprice," was
received with enthusiasm; in 1852 he was elected to the Academy,
but his work was done, and already an ill-controlled indulgence
in alcohol had fatally undermined his never robust strength;
his writings, besides possessing the charm of an exquisite style,
heightened by an undertone of true tenderness, are chiefly remarkable
for the intense sincerity of feeling, albeit of a limited range,
which animates them, and which finds its highest expression
in his four great lyrical pieces, "Les Nuits"; his
fine instinct for dramatic situation and gift of witty dialogue
are manifest in the dramas already mentioned, as also in many
others; of his prose works, "Le Fils du Titien," "Mademoiselle
Mimi Pinson," and the "Confessions" are his best;
he was a handsome man, with fascinating manners (1810-1857).
Mutsu Hito, the Mikado of
Japan, ascended the throne in 1867, married in 1869; has one
son, Prince Yoshihito, and three daughters; his reign has been
marked by great reforms, and especially the abolition of the
feudal system which till then prevailed, to the great and increasing
prosperity of the country, and the opening of it to the ideas
and arts of Western civilisation; b. 1852.
of Persia, second son of Nasr-ed-Din, who nominated him to succeed
him; succeeded his father on his death by assassination in 1896,
on the 1st of May; b. 1853.
Mycenæ, capital of Agamemnon's
kingdom, in the NE. of the Peloponnesus, was in very ancient
days a great city, but never recovered the invasion of the people
of Argos in 468 B.C.; excavations point to its civilisation
being more akin to Phoenician than Greek.
so-called because Zeus was said to have peopled Thessaly, from
which originally they came, by transforming ants into men; they
were the people of Ægina, whose warriors followed Achilles
to the siege of Troy.
Mysore (4,900), a native State,
half the size of England, embedded in the Madras Presidency,
occupies a lofty, broken, but fertile tableland; the upper waters
of the Kistna and Kaveri are used for irrigation purposes; betel-nut,
coffee, cotton, rice, and silk are exported; cloth, wheat, and
precious metals are imported; the climate is healthy and pleasant;
under British government from 1831, it was restored to its prince
in 1881, under British protection; the capital is Mysore
(74), a prosperous, well-built town.
Mystagogue, in Greece, was
the priest who instructed candidates and prepared them for initiation
into the various religious mysteries; in the Christian Church
it denoted the catechist who prepared catechumens previous to
their admission to the sacraments.
Mysteries, sacred rites and
ceremonies of stated observance among the Greeks and Romans
in connection with the worship of particular divinities, to
which only the initiated were admitted, and in which, by associating
together, they quickened and confirmed each other in their faith
and hope, and in which it would seem they made solemn avowal
of these; the name is also applied to the
miracle plays (q. v.)
of the Middle Ages.
Mysticism, a state of mind
and feeling induced by direct communion with the unseen, and
by indulging in which the subject of it estranges himself more
and more from those who live wholly in the outside world, so
that he cannot communicate with them and they cannot understand