Waal, a S. branch of the Rhine,
Wace, Anglo-Norman poet, born in
Guernsey; author of two metrical chronicles, "Geste des
Brétons" and "Roman de Rou," the latter
recording the fortunes of the dukes of Normandy down to 1106
Wace, Henry, Principal of
King's College, London; has lectured ably on Christian apologetics,
and written valuable works in defence of Christianity; b.
Wade, George, English general;
commanded in Scotland during the rebellion of 1715, has the
credit of the construction in 1725-35 of the military roads
into the Highlands, to frustrate any further attempts at rebellion
in the north (1668-1748).
Wadman, Widow, a lady in "Tristram
Shandy" who pays court to Uncle Toby.
Wady, an Arabic name for the channel
of a stream which is flooded in rainy weather and at other seasons
Wagner, Wilhelm Richard,
the great musical composer, born at Leipzig; showed early a
faculty for music, and began the enthusiastic study of it under
Beethoven; in 1835 became conductor of the orchestra of the
theatre of Magdeburg, and held the same post afterwards at Riga
and Königsberg; his principal works were "Rienzi"
(1840), "The Flying Dutchman" (1843), "Tannhäuser"
(1845), "Lohengrin" (1850), "Tristan and Isolde"
(1859), "The Mastersingers of Nürnberg" (1859-60),
and the "Ring of the Nibelungen," the composition
of which occupied 25 years; this last was performed in 1876
at Bayreuth in a theatre erected for the purpose in presence
of the emperor of Germany and the principal musical artists
of the world; "Parsifal" was his last work; his musical
ideas were revolutionary, and it was some time before his works
made their way in England (1813-1883).
Wagram, a village, 10 m. NE.
of Vienna, where Napoleon gained a great victory over the Austrians
under the Archduke Charles, on July 5 and 6, 1809.
Wahabis, a Mohammedan sect which
arose among the Nedj tribe in Central Arabia, whose aims were
puritanic and the restoration of Islamism to its primitive simplicity
in creed, worship, and conduct; in creed they were substantially
the same as the Sunnites (q.
Waikato, the largest river in
New Zealand, in the North Island, the outlet of the waters of
Lake Taupo, the largest lake; has a course of 170 m.
Wakefield (37), a borough
of Yorkshire, 9 m. S. of Leeds; has large woollen and other
Walcheren, an island in the
province of Zeeland, in the delta formed by the Maas and Scheldt;
was the destination of an unfortunate expedition sent to the
help of the Austrians against Napoleon in Antwerp, in which
7000 of the army composing it died of marsh fever, from which
10,000 were sent home sick and the rest recalled.
two high-lying territories in North Germany forming one principality
and subject to imperial authority; consists of hill and valley.
Waldenses, a Christian community
founded in 1170 in the south of France, on the model of the
primitive Church, by Peter Walden, a rich citizen of Lyons,
and who were driven by persecution from country to country until
they settled in Piedmont under the name of the
Vaudois (q. v.), where
they still exist.
Wales (1,519), one of three divisions
of Great Britain; is 135 m. in length and from 37 to 95 m. in
breadth, and bounded on the NW. and S. by the sea; it is divided
into 12 counties, of which 6 form North Wales and 6 South Wales;
is a mountainous country, intersected by beautiful valleys,
which are traversed by a number of streams; it is largely agricultural;
has mines of coal and iron, lead and copper, as well as large
slate-quarries, which are extensively wrought; the Church of
England is the church established, but the majority of the people
are Nonconformists; it is represented in Parliament by 30 members;
the natives are Celts, and the native language Celtic, which
is still the language of a goodly number of the people.
Wales, Prince of, title
borne by eldest son of the English monarch; first conferred
in 1301 on eldest son of Edward I. after subjugation of Wales
(1282); since 1901 borne by Prince George, formerly Duke of
York; entered the navy in 1877, and attained the post of commander
in 1890; became heir of the throne on death of his brother,
Duke of Clarence (1892); married Princess Mary of Teck (1893),
and has by this marriage four sons and a daughter; b.
Walfish Bay, a dependency
of Cape Colony, in the middle of the coast-line of German South-West
Walker, George, defender
of Londonderry against the army of James II., born in co. Tyrone,
of English parents; was in holy orders, and by his sermons encouraged
the town's-people during the siege, which lasted 105 days; he
afterwards fought in command of his Derry men at the battle
of the Boyne, where he lost his life.
Wallace, Alfred Russel,
English naturalist, born at Usk, in Monmouthshire; was devoted
to the study of natural history, in the interest of which he
spent four years (1848-52) in the valley of the Amazon, and
eight years after (1854-62) in the East India Archipelago, from
the latter of which expedition especially he returned with thousands
of specimens of natural objects, particularly insects and birds,
and during his absence he wrought out a theory in the main coincident
with Darwin's natural selection in corroboration thereof; he
has since devoted much of his time to the study of spiritualism,
and in spite of himself has come to be convinced of its claims
to scientific regard; he has written on his travels, "Contributions
to the Theory of Natural Selection," "Miracles and
Modern Spiritualism," &c.; b. 1823.
Wallace, Sir William,
the champion of Scottish independence, born in Renfrewshire,
second son of Sir Malcolm Wallace of Elderslie; was early seized
with a desire to free his country from foreign oppressors, and
ere long began to figure as chief of a band of outlaws combined
to defy the authority of Edward I., who had declared himself
Lord of Scotland, till at length the sense of the oppression
became wide-spread, and he was appointed to lead in a general
revolt, while many of the nobles held aloof or succumbed to
the usurper; he drove the English from one stronghold after
another, finishing with the battle of Stirling, and was installed
thereafter guardian of the kingdom; such a reverse was more
than the "proud usurper" could brook; he accordingly
mustered a large army, and at Falkirk literally crushed Wallace
and his followers with an overwhelming force, the craven nobles
still standing aloof, one of them in the end proving traitor,
and handing Wallace over to the enemy, who carried him off to
London, and had him hanged, beheaded, and quartered.
a collection of works of art bequeathed to the nation by Lady
Wallace, and now being housed in Hertford House, Manchester
Wallenstein, general of
the Imperial army in the Thirty Years' War, born in Bohemia,
of a Protestant family, but on the death of his parents was,
in his childhood, adopted and educated by the Jesuits, and bred
up in the Catholic faith; bent on a military life, he served
first in one campaign and then another; rose in imperial favour,
and became a prince of the empire, but the jealousy of the nobles
procured his disgrace, till the success of Gustavus Adolphus
in the Thirty Years' War and the death of Tully led to his recall,
when he was placed at the head of the imperial army as commander-in-chief;
drove the Saxons out of Bohemia, and marched against the Swedes,
but was defeated, and fell again into disfavour; was deprived
of his command, charged with treason, and afterwards murdered
in the castle of Egra; he was a remarkable man, great in war
and great in statesmanship, but of unbounded ambition; is the
subject of a drama by Schiller, in three parts (1583-1634).
Waller, Edmund, poet, born
in Hertfordshire to great wealth, and educated at Eton and Cambridge;
early gave evidence of his genius for poetry, which, however,
was limited in practice to the production of merely occasional
pieces; he was in great favour at court; was a member of the
Long Parliament; leant to the Royalist side, though he wrote
a panegyric on Cromwell, which, too, is considered his best
poem; he revived, or rather "remodelled," the heroic
couplet form of verse, which continued in vogue for over a hundred
years after (1605-1687).
Walloons, name given to the
descendants of the ancient Belgæ, a race of a mixed Celtic
and Romanic stock, inhabiting Belgium chiefly, and speaking
a language called Walloon, a kind of Old French; in Belgium
they number to-day two and a quarter millions.
Walpole, Horace, Earl
of Orford, born in London, educated at Eton and Cambridge; travelled
on the Continent with Gray, the poet, who had been a school-fellow,
but quarrelled with him, and came home alone; entered Parliament
in 1741, and continued a member till 1768, but took little part
in the debates; succeeded to the earldom in 1791; his tastes
were literary; wrote "Anecdotes of Painting in England,"
and inaugurated a new era in novel-writing with his "Castle
of Otranto," but it is by his "Letters" he will
live in English literature, which, "malicious, light as
froth, but amusing, retail," as Stopford Brooke remarks, "with
liveliness all the gossip of the time"; he is characterised
by Carlyle as "one of the clearest-sighted men of his century;
a determined despiser and merciless dissector of cant"
Walpole, Sir Robert,
Earl of Orford, Whig statesman, born at Houghton, Norfolk, educated
at Eton and Cambridge; entered Parliament in 1701, and became
member for King's Lynn in 1702; was favoured by the Whig leaders,
and promoted to office in the Cabinet; was accused of corruption
by the opposite party when in power, and committed to the Tower;
on his release after acquittal was re-elected for King's Lynn;
in 1715 became First Lord of the Treasury,
and in 1721 became Prime Minister, which he continued to be
for twenty-one years, but not without opposition on account
of his pacific policy; on being driven against his will into
a war with Spain, which proved unsuccessful, he retired into
private life; he stood high in repute for his financial policy;
it was he who established the first Sinking Fund, and who succeeded
as a financier in restoring confidence after the bursting of
the South Sea Bubble (q.
v.); it is to his policy in defeating the plans of the Jacobites
that the Hanoverian dynasty in great part owe their permanent
occupancy of the British throne; it was a favourite maxim of
his. "Every man has his price," and he was mortified
to find that Pitt could not be bought by any bribe of his (1677-1745).
Walpurgis Night, the
eve of the 1st May, when the witches hold high revel and offer
sacrifices to the devil their chief, the scene of their festival
in Germany being the Brocken (q.
v.). This annual festival was in the popular belief conceded
to them in recompense for the loss they sustained when by St.
Walpurga the Saxons were persuaded to renounce paganism with
its rites for Christianity.
Walsingham, Sir Francis,
English statesman, born at Chiselhurst; was ambassador at Paris,
and was there during the St. Bartholomew massacre, and was afterwards
appointed one of Queen Elizabeth's Secretaries of State; he
was an insidious inquisitor, and had numerous spies in his pay,
whom he employed to ferret out evidence to her ruin against
Mary, Queen of Scots, and he had the audacity to sit as one
of the Commissioners at her trial (1536-1590).
Walston, St., patron saint
of husbandmen, of British birth; gave up wealth for agriculture,
and died at the plough; is represented with a scythe in his
hand and cattle near him.
Walter, John, London printer;
the founder proper, though his father was the projector, of
the Times newspaper, and forty years in the management
of it, under which it became the "leading journal"
of the day, a success due to his discernment and selection of
the men with the ability to conduct it and contribute to it
Walter the Penniless,
a famous mob leader, adjutant of Peter the
Hermit (q. v.) in
the first Crusade.
Walton, Izaak, the angler,
born in Stafford; settled as a linen-draper, first in Fleet
Street and then in Chancery Lane, London; married a lady, a
grand-niece of Cranmer, and on her death a sister of Bishop
Ken, by whom he had several children; he associated with some
of the best clergymen of the Church of England, among the number
Dr. Donne, and was much beloved by them; on the death of his
second wife he went to Winchester and stayed with his friend
Dr. Morley, the bishop; his principal work was the "Complete
Angler; or, the Contemplative Man's Recreation," which
was extended by his friend Charles Cotton, and is a classic
to this day; he wrote in addition Lives of Hooker, Dr. Donne,
Bishop Sanderson, Sir Henry Wotton, and George Herbert, all
done, like the "Angler," in a uniquely charming, simple
Wandering Jew. See
Wapenshaw, originally gatherings
of the people of a district in ancient times in Scotland, at
which every man was bound to appear duly armed according to
his rank, and make exhibition of his skill in the use of his
weapons, against a time of war.
Warbeck, Perkin, an impostor
who affected to be Richard, Duke of York, second son of Edward
IV., alleged to have been murdered in the Tower, and laid claim
to the crown of England in preference to Henry VII. In an attempt
to make good this claim he was taken prisoner, and hanged at
Tyburn in 1499.
an English divine, born at Newark; was bishop of Gloucester;
was author of the famous "Divine Legation of Moses,"
characterised by Gibbon as a "monument of the vigour and
weakness of the human mind"; is a distracted waste of misapplied
logic and learning; a singular friendship subsisted between
the author and Pope (1698-1779).
Ward, Artemus, the pseudonym
of C. F. Browne (q. v.).
Ward, Mrs. Humphry, English
authoress, born at Hobart Town; is a niece of Matthew Arnold;
translated Amiel's "Journal," a suggestive record,
but is best known by her romance of "Robert Elsmere,"
published in 1888, a work which was a help to some weak people
and an offence to others of the same class; b. 1851.
Ward, William George,
English theologian; was a zealous promoter of the Tractarian
Movement, and led the way in carrying out its principles to
their logical issue by joining the Church of Rome; he was a
broad-minded man withal, and won the regard of men of every
school; became editor of the Dublin Review (1812-1882).
Warrington (55), a parliamentary
borough in Lancashire, on the Mersey, 20 m. E. of Liverpool;
an old town, but with few relics of its antiquity; manufactures
iron-ware, glass, soap, &c.; sends one member to Parliament.
Wars of the Roses, name
given to a civil war in England from 1452 to 1486, between the
Houses of York and Lancaster, so called from the badge of the
former being a white rose and that of the latter being
a red; it terminated with the accession of Henry VII.,
who united in his person the rival claims.
Warsaw (465), formerly the capital
of Poland, now of the province of Russian Poland; stands on
the left bank of the Vistula, 700 m. SW. of St. Petersburg;
is almost in the heart of Europe, and in a position with many
natural advantages; is about as large as Birmingham, and the
third largest city in the Russian empire; it has a university
with 75 professors and 1000 students, and has a large trade
and numerous manufactures.
Wartburg, an old grim castle
overhanging Eisenach (q. v.),
where Luther was confined by his friends when it was too hot
for him outside, and where, not forgetful of what he owed his
country, he kept translating the Bible into the German vernacular,
and where they still show the oaken table at which he did it,
and the oaken ink-holder which he threw at the devil's head,
as well as the ink-spot it left on the wall.
Warton, Thomas, English
poet, born at Basingstoke; was professor of Poetry at Oxford,
and Poet-Laureate; wrote a "History of English Poetry"
of great merit, and a few poetic pieces in faint echo of others
by Pope and Swift for most part (1728-1790).
Warwick (11), the county town
of Warwickshire, on the Avon, 21 m. SE. of Birmingham; it dates
from Saxon times, and possesses a great baronial castle, the
residence of the earls of Warwick, erected in 1394 on an eminence
by the river grandly overlooking the town; it is the seat of
several industries, and has a considerable trade in agricultural
Neville, Earl of, eldest son
of the Earl of Salisbury, the
king-maker (q. v.); fought in the "Wars of the
Roses," and was in the end defeated by Edward IV. and slain
Warwickshire (805), central
county of England; is traversed by the Avon, a tributary of
the Severn; the north portion, which was at one time covered
by the forest of Arden, is now, from its mineral wealth, one
of the busiest industrial centres of England; it contains the
birthplace of Shakespeare; Birmingham is the largest town.
Wash, The, an estuary of the
E. coast of England, between the counties of Norfolk and Lincoln,
too shallow for navigation.
Washington (278), capital
of the United States, in the district of Columbia, on the left
bank of the Potomac, 35 in. SW. of Baltimore; was founded in
1791, and made the seat of the Government in 1800; it is regularly
laid out, possesses a number of noble buildings, many of them
of marble, the chief being the Capitol, an imposing structure,
where the Senate and Congress sit; near it, 1½ m. distant,
is the White House, the residence of the President, standing
in grounds beautifully laid out and adorned with fountains and
Washington (340), a NW.
State of the American Union, twice the size of Ireland; lies
N. of Oregon; is traversed by the Cascade Mountains, the highest
8138 ft., and has a rugged surface of hill and valley, but is
a great wheat-growing and grazing territory, covered on the
W. by forests of pine and cedar; Olympia is the capital. Washington
is the name of hundreds of places in the States.
one of the founders and first President of the United States,
born at Bidges Creek, Westmoreland Co., Virginia, of a family
from the North of England, who emigrated in the middle of the
17th century; commenced his public life in defending the colony
against the encroachments of the French, and served as a captain
in a campaign against them under General Braddock; In the contest
between the colony and the mother-country he warmly espoused
that of the colony, and was in 1775 appointed commander-in-chief;
his first important operation in that capacity was to drive
the English out of Boston, but the British rallying he was defeated
at Brandywine and Germantown in 1777; next year, in alliance
with the French, he drove the British out of Philadelphia, and
in 1781 compelled Cornwallis to capitulate in an attack he made
on Yorktown, and on the evacuation of New York by the British
the independence of America was achieved, upon which he resigned
the command; in 1789 he was elected to the Presidency of the
Republic, and in 1793 was re-elected, at the end of which he
retired into private life after paying a dignified farewell
Waterbury (46), a city of
Connecticut, U.S., 88 m. NE. of New York, with manufactures
of metallic wares; world-famous for its cheap watches.
Waterford (21), a town in
a county of the same name (98), in Munster, Ireland, at the
junction of the Suir and the Barrow; has a splendid harbour
formed by the estuary, and carries on an extensive export trade
with England, particularly in bacon and butter, the chief industries
of the county being cattle-breeding and dairy-farming.
Waterloo, a village 11 m. S.
of Brussels, which gives name to a battle in which the French
under Napoleon were defeated by an army under Wellington on
June 18, 1815.
Watling Street, a great
Roman road extending from Dover and terminating by two branches
in the extreme N. of England after passing through London, the
NE. branch, by York, and the NW. by or to Chester.
Watson, William, poet,
born in Yorkshire; the first poem which procured him recognition
was "Wordsworth's Grave," and his subsequent poems
have confirmed the impression produced, in especial his "Lachrymæ
Musarum," one of the finest tributes paid to the memory
of Tennyson on the occasion of his death; among his later productions
the most important is a volume entitled "Odes and other
Poems," published in 1894; has also written an admirable
volume of essays, "Excursions in Criticism"; b.
Watt, James, inventor of the
modern steam-engine, born in Greenock, son of a merchant; began
life as a mathematical-instrument maker, opened business in
Glasgow under university patronage, and early began to experiment
on the mechanical capabilities of steam; when in 1703, while
engaged in repairing the model of a Newcomen's engine, he hit
upon the idea which has immortalised his name. This was the
idea of a separate condenser for the steam, and from that moment
the power of steam in the civilisation of the world was assured;
the advantages of the invention were soon put to the proof and
established, and by a partnership on the part of Watts with
Matthew Boulton (q.
v.) Watt had the satisfaction of seeing his idea fairly
launched and of reaping of the fruits. Prior to Watt's invention
the steam-engine was of little other use than for pumping water
Watteau, Antoine, celebrated
French painter and engraver, born at Valenciennes; his pictures
were numerous and the subjects almost limited to pseudo-pastoral
rural groups; the tone of the colouring is pleasing, and the
design graceful (1684-1721).
Watts, George Frederick,
eminent English painter, born in London; is distinguished as
a painter at once of historical subjects, ideal subjects, and
portraits; did one of the frescoes in the Poets' Hall of the
Houses of Parliament and the cartoon of "Caractacus led
in Triumph through the Streets of Rome"; has, as a "poet-painter,"
by his "Love and Death," "Hope," and "Orpheus
and Eurydice," achieved a world-wide fame; he was twice
over offered a baronetcy, but on both occasions he declined;
Watts, Isaac, Nonconformist
divine, born at Southampton, son of a schoolmaster; chose the
ministry as his profession, was for a time pastor of a church
in Mark Lane, but after a succession of attacks of illness he
resigned and went on a visit to his friend Sir Thomas Abney,
with whom he stayed for 36 years, at which time his friend died,
and he resumed pastoral duties as often as his health permitted;
he wrote several books, among which was a book on "Logic,"
long a university text-book, and a great number of hymns, many
of them of wide fame and much cherished as helps to devotion
Watts, Theodore, critic,
born at St. Ives, bosom friend of Swinburne, who pronounces
him "the first critic of our time—perhaps the largest-minded
and surest-sighted of any age"; his influence is great,
and it has been exercised chiefly through contributions to the
periodicals of the day; has assumed the surname of Dunton after
his mother; b. 1836.
Waugh, Edwin, a Lancashire
poet, born at Rochdale, bred a bookseller; wrote, among other
productions, popular songs, full of original native humour,
the first of them "Come Whoam to thy Childer and Me"
Wayland, the smith, a Scandinavian
Vulcan, of whom a number of legends were current; figures in
Waziris, a tribe of independent
Afghans inhabiting the Suleiman Mountains, on the W. frontier
of the Punjab.
Wealth, defined by Ruskin to
be the possession of things in themselves valuable, that is,
of things available for the support of life, or inherently possessed
of life-giving power.
Weber, Karl Maria von,
German composer, born near Lübeck, of a famed musical family;
early gave proof of musical talent; studied at Vienna under
Abbé Vogler, and at Dresden became founder and director
of the German opera; his first great production was "Der
Freischütz," which established his fame, and was succeeded
by, among others, "Oberon," his masterpiece, first
produced in London, where, shortly after the event, he died,
broken in health; he wrote a number of pieces for the piano,
deservedly popular (1786-1826).
Weber, Wilhelm Eduard,
German physicist, born at Wittenberg; professor at Göttingen;
distinguished for his contributions to electricity and magnetism,
both scientific and practical (1801-1891).
Webster, Daniel, American
statesman and orator, born at New Hampshire; bred to the bar,
and practised in the provincial courts; by-and-by went to Boston,
which was ever after his home; entered Congress in 1813, where,
by his commanding presence and his animated oratory, he soon
made his mark; was secretary for foreign affairs under President
Harrison, and negotiated the Ashburton Treaty in settlement
of the "boundary-line" question between England and
the States; was much admired by Emerson, and was, when he visited
England, commended by him to the regard of Carlyle as a man
to "hear speak," as "with a cause he could
strike a stroke like a smith"; Carlyle did not take to
him; he was too political for his taste, though he recognised
in him a "man—never have seen," he wrote Emerson, "so
much silent Berserkir-rage in any other man" (1782-1852).
Webster, John, English dramatist
of the 17th century; did a good deal as a dramatist in collaboration
with others, but some four plays are exclusively his own work,
the two best the "White Devil" and the "Duchess
Webster, Noah, lexicographer,
born at Hartford, Connecticut, U.S.; bred to law; tried journalism;
devoted 20 years to his "Dictionary of the English Language"
Wedgwood, Josiah, celebrated
English potter, born at Burslem, son of a potter; in 1759 started
a pottery on artistic lines in his native place; devoted himself
first to the study of the material of his art and then to its
ornamentation, in which latter he had at length the good fortune
to enlist Flaxman as a designer, and so a ware known by his
name became famous for both its substantial and artistic excellence
far and wide over the country and beyond; he was a man of varied
culture and of princely generosity, having by his art amassed
a large fortune (1730-1793).
Wednesbury (69), a town in
Staffordshire, 8 m. NW. of Birmingham; iron-ware manufacture
the chief industry; has an old church on the site of an old
temple to Woden, whence the name, it is alleged.
Wednesday, fourth day of the
week, Woden's Day, as Thursday is Thor's. It is called Midwoch,
i. e. Midweek, by the Germans.
Week, division of time of seven
days, supposed to have been suggested by the interval between
the quarters of the moon.
a sobriquet given to Heraclitus
(q. v.) from a melancholy disposition ascribed to him,
in contrast with Democritus
(q. v.), designated the laughing philosopher.
Wei-hai-wei, a city in a
deep bay on the Shantung promontory, China, 40 m. E. of Chefoo,
and nearly opposite Port Arthur, which is situated on the northern
side of the entrance to the Gulf of Pechili; was leased to Great
Britain in 1898, along with the islands in the bay and a belt
of land along the coast; its harbour is well sheltered, and
accommodates a large number of vessels.
Weimar (24), capital of the grand-duchy
of Saxe-Weimar, in a valley on the left bank of the Ilm, 13
m. E. of Erfurt, and famous as for many years the residence
of the great Goethe and the illustrious literary circle of which
he was the centre, an association which constitutes the chief
interest of the place.
composer and musical conductor, born at Zara, Dalmatia; has
composed symphonic poems, operas, and songs; b. 1863.
Weismann, August, biologist,
born at Frankfort-on-the-Main; studied medicine at Göttingen;
devoted himself to the study of zoology, the first-fruit of
which was a treatise on the "Development of Diptera,"
and at length to the variability in organisms on which the theory
of descent, with modifications, is based, the fruit of which
was a series of papers published in 1882 under the title of "Studies
on the Theory of Descent"; but it is with the discussions
on the question of heredity that his name is most intimately
associated. The accepted theory on the subject assumes that
characters acquired by the individual are transmitted to offspring,
and this assumption, in his "Essays upon Heredity,"
he maintains to be wholly groundless, and denies that it has
any foundation in fact; heredity, according to him, is due to
the continuity of the germ-plasm, or the transmission from generation
to generation of a substance of a uniform chemical and molecular
composition; b. 1834.
Weiss, Bernhard, German
theologian, born at Königsberg; became professor at Kiel
and afterwards at Berlin; has written on the theology of the
New Testament, an introduction to it, and a "Leben Jesu,"
all able works; b. 1827.
Weissenfels (23), a town
of Prussian Saxony, 35 m. SW. of Leipzig, with an old castle
of the Duke of Weissenfels and various manufactures.
in Carlyle's "Sartor," an imaginary European city,
viewed as the focus, and as exhibiting the operation, of all
the influences for good and evil of the time we live in, described
in terms which characterised city life in the first quarter
of the 19th century; so universal appeared the spiritual forces
at work in society at that time that it was impossible to say
where they were and where they were not,
and hence the name of the city, Know-not-where.
eminent German theologian; studied at Tübingen and Berlin;
succeeded Baur (q. v.) as
professor at Tübingen; was a New Testament critic, and
the editor of a theological journal, and distinguished for his
learning and lucid style; b. 1822.
Welldon, James Edward
Cowell, bishop of Calcutta; educated at Eton and Cambridge;
has held several appointments, both scholastic and clerical;
has translated several of the works of Aristotle, and was Hulsean
Lecturer at Cambridge in 1897; b. 1854.
Weller, Sam, Mr. Pickwick's
servant, and an impersonation of the ready wit and best quality
of London low life.
Wellesley, a small province,
part of Penang Territory, in the Straits Settlements; of great
fertility, and yields tropical products
in immense quantities, such as spices, tea, coffee, sugar, cotton,
Cowley, Marquis of, statesman and administrator, born
in Dublin, eldest son of the Earl of Mornington, an Irish peer,
and eldest brother of the Duke of Wellington, and his senior
by nine years; educated at Eton and Cambridge, where he distinguished
himself in classics; in 1781 succeeded his father in the Irish
House of Peers; entered Parliament in 1784; was a supporter
of Pitt, and in 1797 appointed Governor-General of India in
succession to Cornwallis, and raised to the English peerage
as Baron Wellesley; in this capacity he proved himself a great
administrator, and by clearing out the French and crushing the
power of Tippoo Saib, as well as increasing the revenue of the
East India Company, laid the foundation of the British power
in India, for which he was raised to the marquisate, and voted
a pension of £5000; he afterwards became Foreign Secretary
of State and Viceroy of Ireland (1760-1842).
Old Testament scholar, born at Hameln; held the post of professor
of Theology at Greifswald, but resigned the post from conscientious
scruples and became professor of Oriental Languages at Marburg
in 1885; is best known among us as a biblical critic on the
lines of the so-called higher criticism, the criticism which
seeks to arrange the different parts of the Bible in their proper
historical connection and order; b. 1844.
a market-town in Northamptonshire, 10 m. NE. of Northampton;
has some fine buildings; the manufacture of shoes a chief industry.
Wellington (33), the capital
of New Zealand, in the North Island, on Cook Strait; has a spacious
harbour, with excellent accommodation for shipping, a number
of public buildings, including government offices, and two cathedrals,
a Roman Catholic and an Anglican, and a considerable trade;
in 1865 it superseded Auckland as the capital of the whole of
Wellington, Arthur Wellesley
(or Wesley), Duke of, born probably in Dublin,
third son of the Earl of Mornington, an Irish peer, educated
first at Chelsea, then at Eton, and then at a military school
at Angers, in France; entered the army in 1787 as an ensign
in the 73rd, and stepped gradually upwards in connection with
different regiments, till in 1793 he became lieutenant-colonel
of the 33rd; sat for a time in the Irish Parliament as a member
for Trim, and went in 1794 to the Netherlands, and served in
a campaign there which had disastrous issues such as disgusted
him with military life, and was about to leave the army when
he was sent to India, where he distinguished himself in the
storming of Seringapatam, and in the command of the war against
the Mahrattas, which he brought to a successful issue in 1803,
returning home in 1805; next year he entered the Imperial Parliament,
and in 1807 was appointed Chief Secretary for Ireland; in 1808
he left for Portugal, where he was successful against the French
in several engagements, and in 1809 was appointed commander-in-chief
of the Peninsular army; in this capacity his generalship became
conspicuous in a succession of victories, in which he drove
the French first out of Portugal and then out of Spain, defeating
them finally at Toulouse on the 12th April 1814, and so ending
the Peninsular War; on his return home he was loaded with honours,
and had voted to him from the public treasury a grant of £400,000;
on the return of Napoleon from Elba he was appointed general
of the allies against him in the Netherlands and on 18th June
1815 defeated him in the ever-memorable battle of Waterloo;
this was the crowning feat in Wellington's military life, and
the nation showed its gratitude to him for his services by presenting
him with the estate of Strathfieldsaye, in Hampshire, worth £263,000,
the price paid for it to Lord Rivers, the proprietor; in 1827
he was appointed commander-in-chief of the army, and in 1828
was Prime Minister of the State; as a statesman he was opposed
to Parliamentary reform, but he voted for the emancipation of
the Catholics and the abolition of the Corn Laws; he died in
Walmer Castle on 1st September 1852, aged 84, and was buried
beside Nelson in a crypt of St. Paul's (1769-1852).
a college founded in 1853 at Wokingham, Berks, in memory of
the Duke of Wellington, primarily for the education of the sons
of deceased military officers; there is a classical school to
prepare for the university, and a modern side to prepare for
the army, &c.
Wells, a small episcopal city
in Somersetshire, 20 m. SW. of Bath; it derives its name from
hot springs near it, and is possessed of a beautiful cruciform
cathedral in the Early English style, adorned with some 600
statues of saints, 151 of which are life-size, and some of them
Wells, Charles Jeremiah,
English poet, born in London; author of a dramatic poem entitled "Joseph
and his Brethren," published in 1824, a poem which failed
to attract attention at the time, and the singular merits of
which were first recognised by Swinburne in 1875, the author
having meantime given up literature for the law, to which he
had been bred (1800-1879).
Welsh, David, a Scottish
divine, a gentlemanly scholarly man, professor of Church History
in the University of Edinburgh; was Moderator of the General
Assembly on the occasion of the Disruption of the Scottish Church
(1843), and headed the secession on the day of the exodus (1793-1845).
Welsh, or Welch, John,
a Scottish divine, a Nithsdale man; became Presbyterian minister
of Ayr, and was distinguished both as a preacher and for his
sturdy opposition to the ecclesiastical tyranny of James VI.,
for which latter he suffered imprisonment and exile; he was
an ancestor of Jane Welsh Carlyle, and was married to a daughter
of John Knox, who, when the king thought to win her over by
offering her husband a bishopric, held out her apron before
sovereign majesty, and threatened she would rather kep (catch)
his head there than that he should live and be a bishop; she
figures in the chapter in "Sartor" on Aprons, as one
of Carlyle's apron-worthies (1570-1625).
Methodists, the largest Nonconformist body in Wales,
of native growth, and that originated in the middle of the 18th
century in connection with a great religious awakening; has
an ecclesiastical constitution on Presbyterian lines, and is
in alliance with the Presbyterian Church of England; it consists
of 1330 churches, and has a membership of over 150,000, that
is, on their communion roll, and two theological seminaries,
one at Trevecca and one at Bala.
Welshpool (6), town in Montgomeryshire,
North Wales, on the left bank of the Severn, 19 m. W. of Shrewsbury,
the manufacture of flannels and woollen goods being the chief
Wends, a horde of savage Slavs
who, about the 6th century, invaded and took possession of vacant
lands on the southern shores of the Baltic, and
extended their inroads as far as Hamburg
and the ocean, south also far over the Elbe in some quarters,
and were a source of great trouble to the Germans in Henry the
Fowler's time, and after; they burst in upon Brandenburg once,
in "never-imagined fury," and stamped out, as they
thought, the Christian religion there by wholesale butchery
of its priests, setting up for worship their own god "Triglaph,
ugliest and stupidest of all false gods," described as "something
like three whales' cubs combined by boiling, or a triple porpoise
dead-drunk." They were at length "fairly beaten to
powder" by Albert the Bear, "and either swept away
or else damped down into Christianity and keeping of the peace,"
though remnants of them, with their language and customs, exist
in Lusatia to this day.
Wendt, Hans, German theologian,
born in Hamburg, professor at Kiel and at Heidelberg; has written
an excellent "Leben Jesu" among other able works;
Wenegeld, among the old Saxons
and other Teutonic races a fine, the price of homicide, of varying
amount, paid in part to the relatives of the person killed and
in part to the king or chief.
Wener, Lake, the largest lake
in Sweden, in the SW., 150 ft. above the sea-level and 100 m.
long by 50 m. of utmost breadth, contains several islands, and
abounds in fish.
Werewolf, a person transformed
into a wolf, or a being with a literally wolfish appetite, under
the presumed influence of a charm or some demoniac possession.
Ludwig Zacharias, a dramatist of a mystic stamp, born
at Königsberg; is the subject of an essay by Carlyle, and
described by him as a man of a very dissolute spiritual
texture; wrote the "Templars of Cyprus," the "Story
of the Fallen Master," &c. (1768-1823).
Werther, the hero of Goethe's
sentimental romance, "The
Sorrows of Werther" (q. v.).
Wesley, Charles, hymn-writer,
born at Epworth, educated at Eton and Oxford; was associated
with his more illustrious brother in the establishment of Methodism;
his hymns are highly devotional, and are to be found in all
the hymnologies of the Church (1708-1788).
Wesley, John, the founder
of Methodism, born at Epworth, in Lincolnshire, son of the rector;
was educated at the Charterhouse and at Lincoln College, Oxford,
of which he became a Fellow; while there he and his brother,
with others, were distinguished for their religious earnestness,
and were nicknamed Methodists; in 1735 he went on a mission
to Georgia, U.S., and had for fellow-voyagers some members of
the Moravian body, whose simple piety made a deep impression
on him; and on his return in two years after he made acquaintance
with a Moravian missionary in London, and was persuaded to a
kindred faith; up to this time he had been a High Churchman,
but from this time he ceased from all sacerdotalism and became
a believer in and a preacher of the immediate connection of
the soul with, and its direct dependence upon, God's grace in
Christ alone; this gospel accordingly he went forth and preached
in disregard of all mere ecclesiastical authority, he riding
about from place to place on horseback, and finding wherever
he went the people in thousands, in the open air generally,
eagerly expectant of his approach, all open-eared to listen
to his word; to the working-classes his visits were specially
welcome, and it was among them they bore most fruit; "the
keynote of his ministry he himself gave utterance to when he
exclaimed, 'Church or no Church, the people must be saved.'"
Saved or Lost? was with him the one question, and it is the
one question of all genuine Methodism to this hour (1703-1791).
Wessel, Johann, a Reformer
before the Reformation, born at Gröningen; was a man of
powerful intellect; taught in the schools, and was called by
his disciples Lux Mundi (1420-1489).
Wessex, a territory in the SW.
of England, inhabited by Saxons who landed at Southampton in
514, known as the West Saxons, and who gradually extended their
dominion over territory beyond it till, under Egbert, their
king, they became supreme over the other kingdoms of the Heptarchy.
West, Benjamin, painter,
born near Springfield, Pennsylvania, of Quaker parentage; was
self-taught, painted portraits at the age of 16, went to Italy
in 1760, and produced such work there that he was elected member
of several of the Italian academies; visited England on his
way back to America in 1763, where he attracted the attention
of George III., who patronised him, for whom he painted a goodly
number of pictures to adorn Windsor Castle; he remained in England
40 years, painting hundreds of pictures, and was in 1792 elected
President of the Royal Academy in succession to Sir Joshua Reynolds;
among his paintings were "The Death of General Wolfe," "Edward
III. at Crécy," and "The Black Prince at Poitiers"
West Africa, name given to
the region SW. of the Sahara, consisting of low lands with high
lands behind, and through the valleys of which rivers flow down,
and including Senegambia, Upper Guinea, and Lower Guinea, the
coast of which is occupied by trading stations belonging to
the French, the English, the Germans, the Belgians, and the
Portuguese, and who are severally forcing their way into the
inland territory connected with their several stations.
West Australia (161),
the largest of the Australian colonies, though least populous,
formerly called the Swan River Settlement, 1500 m. long and
1000 m. broad, and embracing an area nearly equal to one-third
of the whole Australian continent; great part of it, particularly
in the centre, is desert, and the best soil is in the W. and
NE.; emigration to it proceeded slowly at first, but for the
last 20 years it has been steadily increasing, especially since
the discovery of gold, and it is now opening up; in 1890 it
received a constitution and became self-governing like the other
possessions of Great Britain in Australia; Perth, on the Swan
River, is the capital, and the chief exports are wool and gold.
West Bromwich (59), a manufacturing
town of the "Black Country," in Staffordshire, 5 m.
NW. of Birmingham; has important industries connected with the
manufacture of iron ware; is of modern growth, and has developed
West Indies (3,000), an archipelago
of islands extending in a curve between North and South America
from Florida on the one side to the delta of the Orinoco on
the other, in sight of each other almost all the way, and constituting
the summits of a sunken range of mountains which run in a line
parallel to the ranges of North America; they are divided into
the Great Antilles (including Cuba, Hayti, Jamaica, and Porto
Rico), the Lesser Antilles (including the Leeward and the Windward
Isles), and the Bahamas; lie all, except the last, within the
Torrid Zone, and embrace unitedly an area larger than that of
Great Britain; they yield all manner of tropical produce, and
export sugar, coffee, tobacco, cotton, spices, &c.; except
Cuba, Hayti (q. v.), and
Porto Rico, they belong to the Powers
of Europe—Great Britain, France, Holland, and Denmark,
and till lately Spain. The name Indies was applied to them because
when Columbus first discovered them he believed he was close
upon India, as he calculated he would find he was by sailing
West Point, an old fortress,
the seat of the United States Military Academy, on the right
bank of the Hudson River, 12 m. N. of New York; the Academy
is on a plateau 188 ft. above the road; it was established in
1802 for training in the science and practice of military engineering,
and the cadets are organised into a battalion of four companies
officered from among themselves, all under strictest discipline.
West Virginia. See
Westcott, Brook Foss,
biblical scholar, born near Birmingham; studied at Trinity College,
Cambridge, and obtained a Fellowship; took orders in 1851, and
became Bishop of Durham in 1890; edited along with Dr. Hort
an edition of the Greek New Testament, the labour of years,
and published a number of works bearing on the New Testament
and its structure and teachings; b. 1825.
Westkappel Dyke, one
of the strongest dykes in the Netherlands; protects the W. coast
of Walcheren; is 4000 yards long, and surmounted by a railway
Westmacott, Sir Richard,
sculptor, born in London; studied at Rome under Canova; acquired
great repute as an artist on his return to England, and succeeded
Flaxman as professor of Sculpture in the Royal Academy; he executed
statues of Pitt, Addison, and others, and a number of monuments
in Westminster Abbey and St. Paul's; his latest work was the
sculptured pediment of the British Museum (1775-1856).
sculptor and writer on art, born in London, son of preceding;
was distinguished for the grace, simplicity, and purity of his
style as an artist; succeeded his father as professor of Sculpture
in the Royal Academy, and wrote a "Handbook of Sculpture"
Westmeath (71), an inland
county in Leinster, Ireland; is mostly level and gently undulating;
the soil in many parts is good, but little cultivated; the only
cereal crop raised is oats, but the herbage it yields supplies
food for fattening cattle, which is a chief industry.
Westminster, a city of Middlesex,
on the N. bank of the Thames, and comprising a great part of
the West End of London; originally a village, it was raised
to the rank of a city when it became the seat of a bishop in
1451, but it was as the seat of the abbey that it developed
into a bishop's see; the abbey, for which it is so famous, was
erected as it now exists at the same period, during 1245-72,
on the site of one founded by Edward the Confessor during 1045-65;
in Westminster Parliaments were held as early as the 13th century,
and it is as the seat of the legislative and legal authority
of the country that it figures most in modern times, though
the most interesting chapters in its history are connected with
the abbey round which it sprang up. See Dean Stanley's "Memorials
of Divines, a convocation of divines assembled under
authority of Parliament, at which delegates from England and
Scotland adopted the
Solemn League and
Covenant (q. v.), fixed the establishment of the
Presbyterian form of Church government in the three kingdoms,
drew up the "Confession of Faith," the "Directory
of Public Worship," and the Larger and Shorter Catechisms;
it held its first meeting on 1st July 1643, and did not break
up till 22nd February 1649.
Westminster Hall, a
structure attached to the Houses of Parliament at Westminster,
built by King William Rufus, and roofed and remodelled by Richard
II.; was the scene of the trials of Wallace, Sir Thomas More,
Strafford, Charles I., Warren Hastings, and others, as well
as the installation of Cromwell as Lord Protector, and till
1883 the seat of the High Courts of Justice; is a place of great
historic interest; has a roof composed of 13 great timber beams,
and one of the largest in the world to be unsupported.
Westmorland (i. e.
westmoorland) (60), a northern county of England, 32 m. from
N. to S. and 40 m. from E. to W.; is in the Lake District, and
mountainous, with tracts of fertile land and forest land, as
well as rich pasture lands.
(15), a watering-place in Somersetshire, on the Bristol Channel,
looking across it towards Wales.
Westphalia, a German duchy,
now a Prussian province; made with other territories in 1807
into a kingdom by Napoleon for his brother Jerome, and designed
to be the centre of the Confederation of the Rhine; was assigned
to Prussia in 1813 according to the Treaty of Vienna.
Wetstein, Johann Jacob,
biblical scholar, born at Basel; was devoted to the study of
the New Testament text; published a Greek Testament with his
emendations and "Prolegomena" connected therewith;
his emendations, one in particular, brought his orthodoxy under
suspicion for a time (1693-1754).
Wette, De. See
Wetter, Lake, one of the
largest lakes in Sweden, 70 m. long, 13 m. broad, and 270 ft.
above the sea-level; its clear blue waters are fed by hidden
springs, it rises and falls periodically, and is sometimes subject
to sudden agitations during a calm.
Wetterhorn (i. e.
peak of tempests), a high mountain of the Bernese Oberland,
with three peaks each a little over 12,000 ft. in height.
Wexford (111), a maritime county
in Leinster, Ireland; is an agricultural county, and exports
large quantities of dairy produce; has a capital (11) of the
same name, a seaport at the mouth of the river Slaney.
Weyden, Roger Van der,
Flemish painter, born at Tourney; was trained in the school
of Van Eyck, whose style he contributed to spread; his most
famous work, a "Descent from the Cross," now in Madrid
Weymouth (13), a market-town
and watering-place in Dorsetshire, 8 m. S. of Dorchester; has
a fine beach and an esplanade over a mile in length; it came
into repute from the frequent visits of George III.
Wharton, Philip, Duke of,
an able man, but unprincipled, who led a life of extravagance;
professed loyalty to the existing government in England; intrigued
with the Stuarts, and was convicted of high-treason, and died
in Spain in a miserable condition (1698-1731).
Whately, Richard, archbishop
of Dublin, born in London; studied at Oriel College, Oxford,
of which he became a Fellow, and had Arnold, Keble, Newman,
Pusey, and other eminent men as contemporaries; was a man of
liberal views and sympathies, and much regarded for his sagacity
and his skill in dialectics; his post as archbishop was no enviable
one; is best known by his "Logic," for a time the
standard work of the subject; he opposed the Tractarian movement,
but was too latitudinarian for the evangelical
Wheatstone, Sir Charles,
celebrated physicist and electrician, born near Gloucester;
was a man of much native ingenuity, and gave early proof of
it; was appointed professor of Experimental Philosophy in King's
College, London, and distinguished himself by his inventions
in connection with telegraphy; the stereoscope was of his invention
Wheel, Breaking on the,
a very barbarous mode of inflicting death at one time, in which
the limbs of the victim were stretched along the spokes of a
wheel, and the wheel being turned rapidly round, the limbs were
broken by repeated blows from an iron bar; this is what the
French roué means, applied figuratively to a person
broken with dissipation, or what we call a rake.
Wheeling (39), largest city
in West Virginia, U.S., on the Ohio River, 67 m. SW. of Pittsburg;
contains some fine buildings; is a country rich in bituminous
coal; has extensive manufactures; is a great railway centre,
and carries on an extensive trade.
Whewell, William, professor
of the "science of things in general," born at Lancaster,
son of a joiner; studied at Trinity College, Cambridge, of which
he became successively fellow, tutor, professor, and master;
was a man of varied attainments, of great intellectual and even
physical power, and it was of him Sydney Smith said, "Science
was his forte and omniscience his foible";
wrote "Astronomy and General Physics in reference to Natural
Theology," the "Philosophy of the Inductive Sciences,"
the "History of Moral Philosophy," an essay on the "Plurality
of Worlds," &c. (1794-1866).
Cambridge Platonist, born in Shropshire; was a Fellow and Tutor
of Emmanuel College; was distinguished for his personal influence
over his pupils, many of them eminent men; he gave a philosophical
turn to their theological opinions (1609-1683).
Whigs, name given at the end of
the 17th century to the Covenanters of Scotland, and afterwards
extended to the Liberal party in England from the leniency with
which they were disposed to treat the whole Nonconformist body,
to which the persecuted Scottish zealots were of kin; they respected
the constitution, and sought only to reform abuses.
Whistler, James Abbot
M'Neill, painter and etcher, born at Lowell, Massachusetts;
studied military engineering at
West Point (q. v.), and art at Paris, and settled
at length as an artist in London, where he has exhibited his
paintings frequently; has executed some famous portraits, in
especial one of his mother, and a remarkable one of Thomas Carlyle,
now the property of Glasgow Corporation; paintings of his exhibited
in the Grosvenor Gallery, London, provoked a criticism from
Ruskin, which was accounted libellous, and as plaintiff he got
a farthing damages, without costs; very much, it is understood,
to his critic's disgust, and little to his own satisfaction,
as is evident from the character of the pamphlet he wrote afterwards
in retaliation, entitled "Whistler versus Ruskin:
Art and Art Critics"; b. 1834.
Whiston, William, divine
and mathematician, born in Leicestershire; educated at Clare
College, Cambridge, of which he became a Fellow; gained reputation
from his "Theory of the Earth"; succeeded Sir Isaac
Newton as Lucasian professor, but was discharged from the office
and expelled from the university for Arianism; removed to London,
where he lived a separatist from the Church, and died a Baptist;
wrote "Primitive Christianity," and translated "Josephus";
he was a crotchety but a conscientious man (1667-1752).
Whitby, a seaport and famous
bathing-place in the North Riding of Yorkshire, 54½ m.
NE. of York; is situated at the mouth of the Esk, and looks
N. over the German Ocean; it consists of an old fishing town
sloping upwards, and a fashionable new town above and behind
it, with the ruins of an abbey; Captain Cook was a 'prentice
here, and it was in Whitby-built ships, "the best and stoutest
bottoms in England," that he circumnavigated the globe.
Whitby, Daniel, English
divine, born in Northamptonshire; became rector of St. Edmunds,
Salisbury; involved himself in ecclesiastical controversy first
with the Catholics, then with the High Church party, and got
into trouble; had one of his books burned at Oxford; his most
important work "Paraphrase and Commentary on the New Testament";
died an Arian (1638-1726).
White, Alexander, a Scottish
divine, born in Kirriemuir, of humble parentage; a man of deep
religious sympathies and fervid zeal, with an interest before
all in spiritual things; studied the arts in Aberdeen and theology
in Edinburgh, in the latter of which cities he ministers to
a large attached flock; is the author of books, originally for
most part addresses, calculated to awaken in others an interest
in divine things akin to his own; b. 1837.
White, Sir George Stewart,
English general, has had a brilliant career; entered the army
in 1853; won the Victoria Cross twice over; served in the Mutiny,
in the Afghan Campaign (1879-1880), in the Nile Expedition (1885),
in the Burmese War (1885-1887), and was made Commander-in-Chief
in India in 1893, Quartermaster-General in 1898, and is now
distinguishing himself by his generalship and heroism in the
South African War; b. 1835.
White, Gilbert, English
naturalist, born in the village of Selborne, Hants; educated
at Oriel College, Oxford, in which he obtained a Fellowship,
which he retained all his life; became curate of Selborne, and
passed an uneventful life studying the habits of the animals
around him, where he "had not only no great men to look
on, but not even men, only sparrows and cockchafers; yet has
he left us a 'Biography' of these, which, under the title of
'Natural History of Selborne,' still remains valuable to us,
which has copied a little sentence or two faithfully
from the inspired volume of Nature, and so," adds Carlyle, "is
itself not without inspiration" (1720-1793).
White, Henry Kirke,
minor poet, born at Nottingham; published a book of poems in
1803, which procured him the patronage of Southey; got a sizarship
in St. John's, Cambridge; through over-zeal in study undermined
his constitution and died of consumption, Southey editing his "Remains"
White, Joseph Blanco,
man of letters of an unstable creed, born in Seville, of Irish
parentage; first ordained a priest; left the Catholic Church,
and took orders in the Church of England; left the English,
became a Unitarian, and settled to miscellaneous literary work;
left an autobiography which reveals an honest quest of light,
but to the last in doubt; he lives in literature by a sonnet "Night
and Death" (1775-1841).
White Horse, name given to
the figure of a horse on a hill-side, formed by removing the
turf, and showing the white chalk beneath; the most
famous is one at Uffington, in Berkshire,
alleged to commemorate a victory of King Alfred.
White House, name popularly
given to the official residence of the President of the United
States, being a building of freestone painted white.
White Lady, a lady dressed
in white fabled in popular mediæval legend to appear by
day as well as at night in a house before the death of some
member of the family; was regarded as the ghost of some deceased
White Mountains, a range
of mountains in Maine and New Hampshire, U.S., forming part
of the Appalachian system; much frequented by tourists on account
of the scenery, which has won for it the name of the "Switzerland
of America"; Mount Washington, one of the hills, has a
hotel on the summit approached by a railway.
White Nile, one of the two
streams forming the Nile, which flows out of the Albert Nyanza,
and which unites with the Blue Nile from Abyssinia near Khartoum.
White Sea, a large inlet of
the Arctic Ocean, in the N. of Russia, which is entered by a
long channel and branches inward into three bays; it is of little
service for navigation, being blocked with ice all the year
except in June, July, and August, and even when open encumbered
with floating ice, and often enveloped in mists at the same
Whiteboys, a secret Irish
organisation that at the beginning of George III.'s reign asserted
their grievances by perpetrating agrarian outrages; so called
from the white smocks the members wore in their nightly raids.
founder of Calvinistic Methodism, born at Gloucester; was an
associate of Wesley (q.
v.) at Oxford, and afterwards as preacher of Methodism both
in this country and America, commanding crowded audiences wherever
he went, and creating, in Scotland particularly, a deep religious
awakening, but who separated from Wesley on the matter of election;
died near Boston, U.S. (1714-1770).
Whitehaven (18), a seaport
of Cumberland, 38 m. SW. of Carlisle, with coal and hematite
iron mines in the neighbourhood; has blast-furnaces, iron-works,
and manufactures of various kinds, with a considerable coasting
a statesman of the Commonwealth, born in London; studied law
at the Middle Temple: sat in the Long Parliament, and was moderate
in his zeal for the popular side; at the Restoration his name
was included in the Act of Oblivion, but he took no part afterwards
in public affairs; left "Memorials" of historical
Whitgift, John, archbishop
of Canterbury, born at Great Grimsby; was educated at Cambridge,
and became Fellow and Master of Pembroke College; escaped persecution
under Queen Mary, and on the accession of Elizabeth was ordained
a priest; after a succession of preferments, both as a theologian
and an ecclesiastic, became archbishop in 1583; attended Queen
Elizabeth on her deathbed, and crowned James I.; was an Anglican
prelate to the backbone, and specially zealous against the Puritans;
contemplated, with no small apprehension, the accession of James, "in
terror of a Scotch mist coming down on him with this new Majesty
from the land of Knox, or Nox, Chaos, and Company"; his
last words were, with uplifted hands and eyes, a prayer for
the Church, uttered in King James's hearing (1530-1604).
Whithorn, a small town in Wigtownshire,
12 m. S. of Wigtown, celebrated as the spot where St. Ninian
planted Christianity in Scotland, and founded a church to St.
Martin in 397.
Whitman, Walt, the poet
of "Democracy," born in Long Island, U.S., of parents
of mingled English and Dutch blood; was a large-minded, warm-hearted
man, who led a restless life, and had more in him than he had
training to unfold either in speech or act; a man eager, had
he known how, to do service in the cause of his much-loved mankind;
wrote "Leaves of Grass," "Drum-Taps," and "Two
Whitney, Eli, an American
inventor, born in Massachusetts; invented the cotton-gin, a
machine for cleaning seed-cotton, and became a manufacturer
of firearms, by which he realised a large fortune (1765-1825).
Whitney, William Dwight,
American philologist, born in Massachusetts; studied at Yale
College, where he became professor of Sanskrit, in which he
was a proficient, and to the study of which he largely contributed;
has done much for the science of language (1827-1894).
Whitsunday, the seventh Sunday
after Easter, a festival day of the Church kept in commemoration
of the descent of the Holy Ghost.
Whittier, John Greenleaf,
the American "Quaker Poet," born at Haverhill, in
Massachusetts, the son of a poor farmer; wrought, like Burns,
at field work, and acquired a loving sympathy with Nature, natural
people, and natural scenes; took to journalism at length, and
became a keen abolitionist and the poet-laureate of abolition;
his poems are few and fugitive (1807-1893).
Whittington, Sir Richard,
Lord Mayor of London, born at Pauntley, Gloucestershire; came
to London, prospered in business, was elected Lord Mayor thrice
over, and knighted; this is the Whittington of the nursery tale, "Dick
Whittington and his Cat" (1538-1623).
Whitworth, Sir Joseph,
eminent mechanician, born at Stockport; the rival of Lord Armstrong
in the invention of ordnance; invented artillery of great range
and accuracy; was made a baronet in 1869 (1803-1887).
George John, novelist of the sporting-field, born at
Mount Melville, near St. Andrews; entered the army, and for
a time served in it; met his death while hunting (1821-1878).
Wick (8), county-town of Caithness,
on Wick River, 161 m. NE. of Inverness, is the chief seat of
the herring fishery in Scotland; Wick proper, with its suburbs
Louisburgh and Boathaven, is on the N. of the river, and Pultneytown
on the S.; has a few manufactures, with distilleries and breweries.
Wicked Bible, an edition
of the Bible with the word not omitted from the Seventh
Commandment, for issuing which in 1632 the printers were fined
and the impression destroyed.
Wicklow (61), a maritime county,
with a capital of the name in Leinster, Ireland; is in great
part mountainous and barren; has mines and quarries, and some
Wicliffe, John, or Wyclif,
the "Morning Star of the Reformation," born at Hipswell,
near Richmond, Yorkshire; studied at Oxford, and became Master
of Balliol in 1361, professor of Divinity in 1372, and rector
of Lutterworth in 1375; here he laboured and preached with such
faithfulness that the Church grew alarmed, and persecution set
in, which happily, however, proved scatheless, and only the
more emboldened him in the work of reform which he had taken
up; and of that work the greatest was his translation of the
Bible from the Vulgate into the mother-tongue, at which, with
assistance from his disciples, he laboured
for some 10 or 15 years, and which was finished in 1380; he
may be said to have died in harness, for he was struck with
paralysis while standing before the altar at Lutterworth on
29th December 1384, and died the last day of the year; his remains
were exhumed and burned afterwards, and the ashes thrown into
the river Swift close by the town, "and thence borne,"
says Andrew Fuller, "into the main ocean, the emblem of
his doctrine, which now is dispersed all the world over"
Widdin (14), a town on the right
bank of the Danube, Bulgaria; is a centre of industry and trade;
was a strong place, but by decree of the Berlin Congress in
1879 the fortress was demolished.
Wieland, Christoph Martin,
eminent German littérateur, born near Biberach, a small
village in Swabia, son of a pastor of the pietist school; studied
at Tübingen; became professor of Philosophy at Erfurt,
and settled in Weimar in 1772 as tutor to the two sons of the
Duchess Amalia, where he by-and-by formed a friendship with
Goethe and the other members of the literary coterie who afterwards
settled there; he wrote in an easy and graceful style, and his
best work is a heroic poem entitled "Oberon" (1733-1813).
Wieliczka (6), a town in Austrian
Galicia, near Cracow, famous for its salt mines, which have
been wrought continuously since 1250, the galleries of which
extend to more than 50 m. in length, and the annual output of
which is over 50,000 tons.
Wier, Johann, physician,
born in North Brabant; was distinguished as the first to attack
the belief in witchcraft, and the barbarous treatment to which
suspects were subjected; the attack was treated as profane,
and provoked the hostility of the clergy, and it would have
cost him his life if he had not been protected by Wilhelm IV.,
Duke of Jülich and Clèves, whose physician he was
Wiertz, Antoine, a Belgian
painter, born at Dinant, did a great variety of pictures on
a variety of subjects, some of them on a large scale, and all
in evidence of a high ideal of his profession, and an original
genius for art (1806-1865).
Wiesbaden (65), capital of
Hesse-Nassau, a famous German watering-place, abounding in hot
springs, 5 m. NW. of Mainz; has a number of fine buildings and
fine parade grounds, picture-gallery, museum, and large library;
is one of the best-frequented spas in Europe, and is annually
visited by 60,000 tourists or invalids; it was famed for its
springs among the old Romans.
Wife of Bath, one of the
pilgrims in Chaucer's "Canterbury Tales."
Wigan (55), a town in Lancashire,
18 m. NW. of Manchester, in the centre of a large coal-field;
cottons are the staple manufactures; is a place of ancient date,
and has some fine buildings.
Wight, Isle of, an island
in the S. of England, included in Hampshire, from which it is
separated by the channel of the Solent
(q. v.); it is of triangular shape, is 23 m. of utmost
length, and about 14 m. of utmost breadth; it is traversed by
a range of chalk downs from E. to W.; the soil is fertile, especially
in the E.; the scenery rich and varied, and the climate charming;
Newport is the capital in the centre; near Cowes is Osborne
House, the summer residence of Queen Victoria.
Wigtownshire (36), the
most southerly county in Scotland, in the SW. of which the largest
town is Stranraer, and the county town Wigtown; it is an agricultural
county, and largely pastoral.
English prelate, born at Clapham, third son of the succeeding;
entered Oriel College, Oxford, at 18, where he distinguished
himself by his powers of debate; took holy orders, and rose
to eminence in the Church; was made Bishop of Oxford in 1845,
and of Winchester in 1869; was a High Churchman of the pure
Anglican type, and equally opposed to Romanism and Nonconformity;
shone in society by his wit and powers of conversation; Carlyle
often "exchanged pleasant dialogues with him, found him
dexterous, stout and clever, far from being a bad man"; "I
do not hate him," he said to Froude one day, "near
so much as I fear I ought to do"; he found him "really
of a religious nature," and secretly in sympathy with himself
on religious matters; was killed by a fall from his horse; he
was popularly known by the sobriquet of "Soapy Sam"
eminent philanthropist, born at Hull, son of a wealthy merchant;
attended St. John's College, Cambridge, at 17; represented his
native town in Parliament as soon as he was of age; he was early
and deeply impressed with the inhumanity of the slave-trade,
and to achieve its abolition became the ruling passion of his
life; with that object he introduced a bill for its suppression
in 1789, but it was not till 1801 he carried the Commons with
him, and he had to wait six years longer before the House of
Lords supported his measure and the Emancipation Act was passed;
he retired into private life in 1825, and died three days after
the vote of 20 millions to purchase the freedom of the West
Indian slaves; he was an eminently religious man of the Evangelical
school; wrote "Practical View of Christianity" (1759-1833).
Wild, Jonathan, an English
villain, who for housebreaking was executed in 1725, and the
hero of Fielding's novel of the name; he had been a detective;
was hanged amid execration on the part of the mob at his execution.
Wilderness, a district covered
with brushwood in Virginia, U.S., the scene of a two days' terrible
conflict between the Federals and the Confederates on the 5th
and 6th May 1864.
Wildfire, Madge, a character
in the "Heart of Midlothian," who, being seduced,
had, in her misery under a sense of her crime, gone crazy.
Wilfrid, St., a Saxon bishop
of York, born in Northumbria; brought up at Lindisfarne; had
a checkered life of it; is celebrated in legend for his success
in converting pagans, and is usually represented in the act;
Wilhelmina I., queen of
the Netherlands, daughter of William III., and who ascended
the throne on his decease in November 1890; her mother, a sister
of the Duchess of Albany, acted as regent during her minority,
and she became of age on the 11th August 1898, when she was
installed as sovereign amid the enthusiasm of her people;
Wilhelmshaven (13), the
chief naval port of Germany, on Jahde Bay, 43 m. NW. of Bremen.
Wilkes, Charles, American
naval officer; made explorations in the Southern Ocean in 1861;
boarded on the high seas the British mail-steamer Trent,
and carried off two Confederate commissioners accredited to
France, who were afterwards released on the demand of the British
Wilkes, John, a notable figure
in the English political world of the 18th century, born in
Clerkenwell, son of a distiller; was elected M.P. for Aylesbury
in 1761; started a periodical called the North Briton,
in No. 45 of which he published an offensive libel, which led
to his arrest and imprisonment in the
Tower, from which he was released—on the ground that the
general warrant on which he was apprehended was illegal—amid
general rejoicing among the people; he was afterwards prosecuted
for an obscene production, an "Essay on Women," and
outlawed for non-appearance; he sought an asylum in France,
and on his return was elected for Middlesex, but instead of
being allowed to sit was committed to prison; this treatment
made him the object of popular favour; he was elected Lord Mayor
of London, re-elected for Middlesex, and at length allowed to
take his seat in the House; he was for years the cause of popular
tumults, the watchword of which was "Wilkes and Liberty";
the cause of civil liberty certainly owes something to him and
to the popular agitations which an interest in him stirred up
Wilkie, Sir David, painter,
born at Cults, Fife; executed a great many pictures depicting
homely subjects, which were very popular, and are generally
well known by the engravings of them, such as the "Rent
Day," "The Penny Wedding," "Reading the
Will," &c., which were followed by others in a more
ambitious style, and less appreciated, as well as portraits
Wilkins, John, bishop of
Chester, born in Northamptonshire; married Oliver Cromwell's
sister; wrote mathematical treatises, a curious one in particular, "Discovery
of a New World," and was one of the founders of the Royal
Wilkinson, Sir John,
Egyptologist, born In Westmorland; studied at Oxford; explored
the antiquities of Egypt, and wrote largely on the subject (1797-1875).
Will, Freedom of the,
the doctrine that in and under the dominion of pure reason the
will is free, and not free otherwise; that in this element the
Will "reigns unquestioned and by Divine right"; only
in minds in which volition is treated as a synonym of Desire
does this doctrine admit of debate.
Willems, Jan Frans,
Dutch poet and scholar, born near Antwerp; translated "Reynard
the Fox" into Flemish, and did much to encourage the Flemings
to preserve and cultivate their mother-tongue (1793-1846).
William I., the Conqueror,
king of England, born at Falaise; became Duke of Normandy by
the death of his father; being an illegitimate son had to establish
his power with the sword; being the cousin of Edward the Confessor
was nominated by him his successor to the English throne, which
being usurped by Harold, he invaded England and defeated Harold
at Senlac in 1066 and assumed the royal power, which he established
over the length and breadth of the country in 1068; he rewarded
his followers with grants of land and lordships over them, subject
to the crown; the Doomsday Book
(q. v.) was compiled by his order, and the kingdom brought
into closer relation with the Church of Rome, his adviser in
Church matters being Lanfranc, archbishop
of Canterbury (q. v.); died by a fall from his horse
when suppressing rebellion in Normandy, and was buried at Caen.
He was, as characterised by Carlyle, "in rude outline a
true God-made king, of most flashing discernment, of most strong
lion-heart—in whom, as it were, within a frame of oak
and iron the gods had planted the soul of 'a man of genius'
... the essential element, as of all such men, not scorching
fire (merely), but shining illuminative light ... the most sure-eyed
perception of what is what on this God's earth." His invasion
of England is known as the Norman Conquest, and it involved
the introduction of the feudal system and Norman manners in
the habits and speech of the English people (1027-1087).
William II., king of England,
surnamed Rufus or Ruddy, born in Normandy, third son of William
I.; succeeded his father in 1087; had to face a rebellion, headed
by Bishop Odo, in favour of his eldest brother, Robert, Duke
of Normandy, which he suppressed by favour of the mass of the
people, to whom he made promises which he did not keep, for
he proved a stern and exacting ruler; his energy was great,
but was frequently spasmodic; he added Normandy to his dominion
by compact with Robert, who went on Crusade, compelled Malcolm
of Scotland to do homage for his kingdom, conducted several
campaigns against the Welsh, and had a long-continued wrangle
with Archbishop Anselm, virtually in defence of the royal prerogative
against the claims of the Church, for a humorous account of
the meaning of which see Carlyle's "Past
and Present," Book iv. chap. i.; he was accidentally shot
while hunting in the New Forest by Walter Tirel, and buried
in Winchester Cathedral, but without any religious service;
in his reign the Crusades began, and Westminster Hall was built
William III., king of England,
born at The Hague, son of William II., Prince of Orange, by
Mary, the daughter of Charles I.; during a contest on the part
of the United Provinces with Louis XIV. was, in 1672, elected
Stadtholder, and by his valour and wisdom brought the war to
an end in 1678; married his cousin Mary, daughter of James II.;
being invited to England, landed with a large army at Torbay,
and on the flight of James to France, he and Mary were proclaimed
king and queen of Great Britain and Ireland in 1689; the Scotch
and the Irish offered resistance in the interest of the exiled
monarch, but the former were defeated at Killiecrankie in 1689,
and the latter at the battle of the Boyne in 1690; he was an
able man and ruler, but his reign was troubled by an interminable
feud with France, and by intrigues on behalf of James both at
home and abroad; he died by a fall from his horse at Kensington
just as a great war with France was impending; he was through
life the adversary of the covetous schemes of Louis, and before
his death he had prepared the materials of that coalition which,
under Marlborough and Prince Eugene, brought Louis to the brink
of ruin; his reign forms one of the great epochs in the history
of England, and is known as the Revolution (1650-1702).
William IV., king of England,
known as the "sailor king," born in Buckingham Palace,
the third son of George III.; entered the navy in 1779; saw
service under Rodney and Nelson, but practically retired in
1789, as from insubordination he had to do, though he was afterwards
promoted to be Admiral of the Fleet, and even Lord High Admiral,
and continued to take great interest in naval affairs; after
living, as Duke of Clarence, from 1792 to 1816 with Mrs. Jordan,
the actress, by whom he had 10 children, he married in 1810
Adelaide, eldest daughter of the Duke of Saxe-Meiningen; on
the death of the Duke of York in 1827 became heir-presumptive,
and on the death of George IV. in 1830 succeeded to the throne;
his reign was distinguished by the passing of the first Reform
Bill in 1832, the abolition of slavery in the colonies in 1833,
the reform of the poor-laws in 1834, and the Municipal Reform
Act in 1835; died at Windsor, and was succeeded by his niece.
Queen Victoria (1765-1837).
William I., emperor of Germany,
born at Berlin, second son of Frederick William III. of Prussia,
and brother of Frederick William IV., his predecessor on the
Prussian throne; was bred from boyhood to military life, having
received his first commission at the age of 10; took part in
the war of liberation that preceded the fall of Napoleon, and
received his baptism of fire on 14th February 1814; visited
England in 1844, and again in 1848, and returned prepossessed
in favour of constitutional government, which he found the king
had already conceded in his absence; in 1858 he was appointed
regent owing to his brother's incapacity, and on 2nd February
1861 he succeeded to the throne, having previously made the
acquaintance of Moltke in 1818 and of Bismarck in 1834; on his
accession, while professing all due respect to the representatives
of the people, he announced his intention to maintain to the
uttermost all his rights as king, and this gave rise to a threat
of insurrection, but a war with Denmark, which issued in the
recovery of the German duchies of Sleswick-Holstein, led to
an outburst of loyalty, and this was deepened by the publication
of the project of Bismarck to unite all Germany under the crown
of Prussia; this provoked a war with Austria, which lasted only
seven weeks, and ended with the consent of the latter to the
projected unification of the other States, and the establishment
of a confederation of these under the headship of the Prussian
king, a unification which was consolidated into an Imperial
one at the close of the Franco-German War, when, on the 18th
January 1871, the Prussian king was proclaimed emperor of Germany
in the palace of Versailles; the reign which followed was a
peaceful one, and the pledge of peace to the rest of Europe;
the emperor was a man of robust frame, of imposing figure, of
temperate habits, of firm purpose, conspicuous courage, and
devoted with his whole heart to the welfare of his people (1797-1888).
William II., emperor of
Germany, born at Berlin, grandson of the preceding, and son
of Frederick III., whom he succeeded as emperor in 1888; was
trained from early boyhood for kinghood, and on his accession
to the throne gave evidence of the excellent schooling he had
received to equip him for the high post he was called to fill;
he showed that the old Hohenzollern blood still flowed in his
veins, and that he was minded to be every inch a king; one of
the first acts of his reign was to compel the resignation of
Bismarck, as it was his intention to reign alone; that he has
proved himself equal to his task events since have fully justified,
and it is hoped it will be seen that his influence on public
affairs will lead to the advantage of the German people and
the peace of the world; he is by his mother the grandson of
Queen Victoria, and the relationship is full of promise for
the union throughout the world of the Teutonic peoples, who
have already achieved so much for the good of the race; b.
William the Lion, king
of Scotland, grandson of David I., and brother of Malcolm IV.,
whom he succeeded in 1165, and whose surname is supposed to
have been derived from his substitution of the lion for the
dragon on the arms of Scotland; was taken captive when invading
England at Alnwick Castle in 1174; sent prisoner to Falaise,
in Normandy, but liberated on acknowledgment of vassalage to
the English king, a claim which Richard I. surrendered on payment
by the Scots of 10,000 marks to aid him in the Crusade; was
the first king of Scotland to form an alliance with France;
died at Stirling after a reign of 49 years (1143-1214).
William the Silent,
Prince of Orange, a cadet of the noble house of Nassau, the
first Stadtholder of the Netherlands, a Protestant by birth;
he was brought up a Catholic, but being at heart more a patriot
than a Catholic, he took up arms in the cause of his country's
freedom, and did not rest till he had virtually freed it from
the Spanish yoke, which was then the dominant Catholic power;
his enemies procured his assassination in the end, and he was
murdered by Belthazar Gerard, at Delft; he was brought up at
the court of Charles V., where "his circumspect demeanour
procured him the surname of Silent, but under the cold exterior
he concealed a busy, far-sighted intellect, and a generous,
upright, daring heart" (1533-1584).
Williams, Isaac, Tractarian,
born in Wales; educated at Oxford; got acquainted with Keble;
wrote religious poetry and Tract LXXX. on "Reserve in Religious
Williams, John, missionary
and martyr, born near London; brought up an ironmonger; offered
his services to the London Missionary Society; was sent out
in 1816 to the Society Islands; laboured with conspicuous success
among the natives; came home in 1834, and after four years returned,
but was murdered at Erromango in the New Hebrides, and his body
eaten by the cannibals (1796-1839).
Williams, Sir Monier
Monier-, Sanskrit scholar, born at Bombay; appointed
Boden professor of Sanskrit at Oxford, 1860; author of a Sanskrit
Grammar and Lexicon, and projected the founding of the Indian
Institute; b. 1819.
Williams, Roger, founder
of the State of Rhode Island, U.S., born in Wales; being a Puritan,
fled the country to escape persecution, and settled in New England,
where he hoped to enjoy the religious freedom he was denied
at home, but was received with disfavour by the earlier settlers
as, from his extreme views, a "troubler of Israel,"
and obliged to separate himself and establish a colony of his
own, which he did at Providence by favour of an Indian tribe
he had made friends of, and under a charter from the Long Parliament
of England, obtained through Sir Henry Vane, where he extended
to others the toleration he desired for himself; he was characterised
by Milton, who knew him, as "that noble champion of religious
Williams, Rowland, English
clergyman, born in Flintshire; was a prominent member of the
Broad Church party; was condemned, though the judgment was reversed,
by the Court of Arches, for a paper contributed to the famous "Essays
and Reviews"; wrote "Rational Godliness," "Christianity
and Hinduism," &c. (1817-1870).
Willibrod, St., the "Apostle
of the Frisians," born in Northumbria; was the chief of
a company of 12 monks who went as missionaries from Ireland
to Friesland, where they were welcomed by Pépin d'Héristal,
and afterwards favoured by his son, Charles Martel; he founded
an abbey near Trèves; when he was about to baptize the
Duke of Friesland, it is said the duke turned away when he was
told his ancestors were in hell, saying he would rather be with
them there than in heaven without them (658-739).
Willis, Parker, American
writer and journalist; had travelled much abroad, and published
his experiences; among his writings "Pencillings by the
Way," "Inklings of Adventure," "People I
have Met," &c. (1806-1867)
Willoughby, Sir Hugh,
early Arctic voyager; was sent out in 1553 with three vessels
by a company of London merchants on a voyage of discovery, but
the vessels were separated by a storm in the North Seas, and
not one of them returned, only Richard Challoner, the captain
of one of them, found his way to Moscow, and opened up a trade
with Russia and this country; the ships, with the dead bodies
of their crews, and the journal of their commander, were found
by some fishermen the year after.
Wills, William John,
Australian explorer, born at Totnes; accompanied O'Hara Burke
from the extreme S. to the extreme N. of the continent, but
died from starvation on the return journey two days before his
Wilmington (61), a large
and handsome city and port in Delaware, 25 m. SW. of Philadelphia,
with extensive manufactures; also the name of the largest city
(20) in North Carolina, with considerable manufactures and trade;
was a chief Confederate port during the Civil War.
Wilson, Alexander, ornithologist,
born at Paisley; son of a weaver, bred to the loom; began his
literary career as a poet; imprisoned for a lampoon on a Paisley
notability, went on his release to America unfriended, with
only his fowling-piece in his hand, and a few shillings in his
pocket; led an unsettled life for a time; acquired the arts
of drawing, colouring, and etching, and, so accomplished, commenced
his studies on the ornithology of America, and prevailed upon
a publisher in Philadelphia to undertake an exhaustive work
which he engaged to produce on the subject; the first volume
appeared in 1808, and the seventh in 1813, on the publication
of which he met his death from a cold he caught from swimming
a river in pursuit of a certain rare bird (1766-1813).
Wilson, Sir Daniel,
archæologist, was born in Edinburgh, became in 1853 professor
of English Literature at Toronto; wrote "Memorials of Edinburgh," "Prehistoric
Annals of Scotland," "Prehistoric Man," &c.
Wilson, Sir Erasmus,
English surgeon, a great authority on skin diseases, and devoted
much time to the study of Egyptian antiquities; it was at his
instance that the famous Cleopatra's Needle was brought to England;
he was liberal in endowments for the advance of medical science
Wilson, George, chemist,
born in Edinburgh, younger brother of Sir Daniel; was appointed
professor of Technology in Edinburgh University; was eminent
as a popular lecturer on science, and an enthusiast in whatever
subject he took up (1819-1859).
Wilson, Horace Hayman,
Orientalist, born in London; studied medicine; went to India
as a surgeon; mastered Sanskrit, and became Boden professor
at Oxford (1786-1860).
Wilson, John, Indian missionary,
born near Lauder, educated at Edinburgh; missionary at Bombay
from 1828 to his death—from 1843 in connection with the
Free Church of Scotland; from his knowledge of the languages
and religions of India, and his sagacity, was held in high regard
Wilson, John, the well-known "Christopher
North," born in Paisley, son of a manufacturer, who left
him a fortune of £50,000; studied at Glasgow and Oxford;
a man of powerful physique, and distinguished as an athlete
as well as a poet; took up his abode in the Lake District, and
enjoyed the society of Wordsworth, Coleridge, and Southey; wrote
two poems, the "Isle of Palms," and the "City
of the Plague"; lost his fortune, and came to settle in
Edinburgh; was called to the Scottish bar, but never practised;
became editor of Blackwood's Magazine, and was in 1820
elected over Sir William Hamilton professor of moral philosophy
in Edinburgh University; his health began to fail in 1840; resigned
his professorship in 1851, and received a pension from the Crown
of £300; he is described by Carlyle as "a tall, ruddy,
broad-shouldered figure, with plenteous blonde hair, and bright
blue flashing eyes, and as he walked strode rapidly along; had
much nobleness of heart, and many traits of noble genius, but
the central tie-beam seemed always wanting; a good, grand
ruined soul, that never would be great, or indeed be
Wilton, market-town in Wiltshire,
3 m. NW. of Salisbury; was the ancient capital of Wessex, and
gave name to the county; its church, erected by Lord Herbert
of Lea in 1844, is a rich Lombardic structure, with a campanile
108 ft. high.
Wiltshire or Wilts
(264), an inland county in SW. of England, with Gloucestershire
on the N. and Dorset on the S., 54 m. from N. to S. and 37 m.
from E. to W.; is largely an agricultural and pastoral county;
is flat, rising into hills in the N., and is broken by downs
and rich valleys in the S., except on Salisbury Plain; sheep-breeding
and dairy-farming are the chief industries, and it is famous
for cheese and bacon.
Wimbledon (25), a suburb of
London, 7½ m. to the SW., on a common used by the volunteers
from 1860 to 1889 for rifle practice.
Winchester (19), an ancient
city of Hampshire, and the county town, 60 m. SW. of London,
on the right bank of the Itchen; is a cathedral city, with a
noted large public school; was at one time the capital of England;
the cathedral dates from the 11th century, but it has subsequently
undergone considerable extensions and alterations; the school
was founded by William of Wykeham in 1387.
Joachim, great art critic, born at Stendal, in Prussian
Saxony, of poor parents; was a student from his boyhood, and
early devoted especially to archæology and the study of
the antique; became a Roman Catholic on the promise of an appointment
in Rome, where he would have full scope to indulge his predilections,
and became librarian to Cardinal Albani there; his great work
was "Geschichte der Kunst des Alterthums" (the "History
of Ancient Art"), in particular that of Greece, which proved
epoch-making, and the beginning of a new era in the study of
art in general; he was assassinated in a hotel at Trieste on
his way to Vienna by a fellow-traveller to whom he had shown
some of his valuables, and the German world was shocked (1717-1768).
Windermere, a lake on the
borders of Westmorland and Lancashire, the largest in England,
10½ m. long from N. to S., and 1 m. broad; is 240 ft.
deep and 134 ft. above sea-level; is amid beautiful scenery,
and near it is Rydal Mount, long the residence of Wordsworth.
Windham, William, English
statesman, born of an ancient Norfolk family; was opposed to
the American War; took part in the impeachment of Warren Hastings;
was Secretary at War under Pitt; advocated the removal of Catholic
disabilities, but was opposed to Parliamentary reform; has been
described by his contemporaries as the model both physically
and mentally of an English gentleman, able and high minded (1780-1810).
Austrian field-marshal; took part in
the campaigns against Napoleon, and in 1848 suppressed the revolution
at Prague and Vienna; failed against the Hungarians, and was
Windsor (12), a town in Berkshire,
on the right bank of the Thames, opposite Eton, and about 22
m. W. of London, with a castle which from early Plantagenet
times has been the principal residence of the kings of England.
Windward Islands (150),
a group of the West Indies, the Lesser Antilles, belonging to
Britain, extending from Martinique to Trinidad.
Windward Passage, a
channel leading into the Caribbean Sea, between the islands
of Cuba and Hayti.
Winer, George Benedict,
New Testament scholar, born at Leipzig, and professor there;
best known for his work on the New Testament Greek idioms (1789-1858).
Winifred, St., a British
maiden who was decapitated by Prince Caradoc in 650; where her
head rolled off tradition says a spring instantly gushed forth,
the famous Holywell in Flintshire; is represented in art carrying
Winkelried, Arnold von,
a brave Swiss who, on the field of Sempach, on 9th June 1386,
rushed on the lances of the opposing Austrians, and so opened
a way for his compatriots to dash through and win the day.
Rip Van Winkle.
Winnipeg (25), formerly Fort
Garry, the capital of Manitoba, at the junction of the Assiniboine
with the Red River, over 1400 m. NW. of Montreal; is a well-built
town, with several public buildings and all modern appliances;
stands on the Pacific Railway; is a busy trading centre, and
is growing rapidly.
Winnipeg, Lake, a lake
in Manitoba, 40 m. N. of the city, 280 m. long, 57 m. broad,
and covering an area of over 8000 sq. m.; it drains an area
twice as large as France; the Saskatchewan flows into it, and
the Nelson flows out.
Winstanley, Henry, English
engineer; erected a lighthouse on the Eddystone Rock in 1696,
and completed it in four years; it was built of timber, and
had not much strength; he perished in it in a storm in 1703.
Wint, Peter de, water-colourist,
born in Staffordshire, of Dutch descent; famed for paintings
of English scenery and rustic life (1784-1849).
Winter King, name given by
the Germans to Frederick V., husband of Elizabeth, daughter
of James I., his Winter Queen, who was elected king of Bohemia
by the Protestants in 1619, and compelled to resign in 1620.
Winthrop, John, "Father
of Massachusetts," born in Suffolk; studied at Trinity
College; headed a Puritan colony from Yarmouth to Salem, and
was governor of the settlement at Boston till his death; was
a pious and tolerant man; left a "Journal" (1581-1649).
Wisconsin (1,686), one of
the Central States of North America, nearly as large as England
and Wales, and situated between Lake Superior and Michigan;
the surface is chiefly of rolling prairie, and the soil fertile;
yields cereals, sugar, hops, hemp, and large quantities of lumber
from the forests; lead, iron, copper, and silver are among its
mineral resources; it abounds in beautiful lakes; the Wisconsin
and the Chippewa are the chief rivers, tributaries of the Mississippi;
and Madison (the capital), Milwaukee, and La Crosse are the
Wisdom of Jesus. See
Wisdom of Solomon, one
of the most beautiful books in the Apocrypha, written at the
close of the 2nd century B.C. by one who knew both the Greek
language and Greek philosophy, to commend the superiority to
this philosophy of the divine wisdom revealed to the Jews. Its
general aim, as has been said, is "to show, alike from
philosophy and history, as against the materialists of the time,
that the proper goal of life was not mere existence, however
long, or pleasure of any sort, but something nobly intellectual
and moral, and that the pious Israelite was on the surest path
to its attainment."
Wiseman, Nicholas, cardinal
and Roman Catholic Archbishop of Westminster, born at Seville,
of Irish parents; studied at a Roman Catholic college near Durham
and the English college at Rome, of which he became rector;
lectured in London in 1836 on the Doctrines of the Catholic
Church, and in 1840 became vicar-apostolic, first in the central
district of England, then of the London district in 1846, and
was in 1850 named Archbishop of Westminster by the Pope; this
was known in England as the "papal aggression," which
raised a storm of opposition in the country, but this storm
Wiseman, now cardinal, succeeded very considerably in allaying
by a native courtesy of manner which commended him to the regard
of the intelligent and educated classes of the community; he
was a scholarly man, and a vigorous writer and orator (1802-1865).
Wishart, George, a Scottish
martyr, born in Forfarshire; began life as a schoolmaster; was
charged with heresy for teaching the Greek New Testament; left
the country and spent some time on the Continent; on his return
boldly professed and preached the Reformation doctrines, and
had the celebrated John Knox, who was tutor in the district,
for a disciple among others; he was arrested in Haddingtonshire
in January and burned at St. Andrews in March 1546; Knox would
fain have accompanied him on his arrest, but was paternally
dissuaded by the gentle martyr; "Go home to your bairns"
(pupils), said he; "ane is sufficient for a sacrifice."
Wismar (15), a seaport of Mecklenburg-Schwerin,
on the Baltic; has a number of quaint old buildings, various
manufactures, and an active trade.
Witch of Endor, a divining
woman consulted by King Saul, who affected to call up the spirit
of Samuel, who foretold his defeat and doom.
Witenagemot (assembly of
the wise), name given to the national council or Parliament
of England in Anglo-Saxon times, agreeably to whose decisions
the affairs of the kingdom were managed; it consisted of the
bishops, royal vassals, and thanes.
Wither, George, poet, born
at Arlesford, in Hampshire, and educated at Magdalen College,
Oxford; was imprisoned for his first poem, a satire, "Abuses
Stript and Whipt," in 1613; his subsequent productions
betray true poetic inspiration, and special passages in them
are much admired; he was a religious poet, and is much belauded
by Charles Lamb; in the Civil War he espoused the Puritan side,
and in his zeal in its behalf raised a troop of horse (1588-1667).
Witherspoon, John, Scottish
theologian, born at Tester; was minister at Paisley; became
president of the college at New Jersey, U.S.; died at Princeton;
wrote "Ecclesiastic Characteristics" against the Moderates,
also on justification and regeneration (1722-1794).
Witsius, Hermann, Dutch
theologian; became professor at Leyden; wrote on what are in
old orthodox theology called the "Covenants," of which
there were reckoned two, one of works,
under the Mosaic system, and the other of grace, under the
Wittekind, leader of the Saxon
struggle against Charlemagne; annihilated the Frankish army
in 783, in retaliation for which Charlemagne executed 4500 Saxons
he had taken prisoners, which roused the entire Saxon people
to arms, and led to a drawn battle at Detmold, upon which Wittekind
accepted baptism, and was promoted to a dukedom by the Frankish
king; he fell in battle with Gerold, a Swabian duke, in 807.
Wittenberg (13), a town in
Prussian Saxony, on the right bank of the Elbe, 50 m. SW. of
Berlin; was the capital of the electorate of Saxony, and a stronghold
of the Reformers; is famous in the history of Luther, and contains
his tomb; it was on the door of the Schlosskirche of which he
nailed his famous 95 theses, and at the Elster Gate of which
he burned the Pope's bull, "the people looking on and shouting,
all Europe looking on."
Wizard of the North,
name given to Sir Walter Scott, from the magic power displayed
in his writings.
Woden, the German and Anglo-Saxon
name for Odin (q. v.).
Wodrow, Robert, Scottish
Church historian, born at Glasgow; studied at the University,
became librarian, and settled as minister at Eastwood, Renfrewshire;
was diligent with his pen; left 50 volumes of MSS., only one
of which was published in his lifetime, "History of the
Sufferings of the Church of Scotland from the Restoration to
the Revolution," the rest having been in part published
by several antiquarian societies since (1679-1734).
Woffington, Peg, actress,
born in Dublin, where she made her first appearance in 1737,
and in London at Covent Garden in 1740, in a style which carried
all hearts by storm; she was equally charming in certain male
characters as in female; her character was not without reproach,
but she had not a little of that charity which covereth a multitude
of sins, in the practice of which, after her retirement in 1757,
she ended her days (1720-1768).
Woiwode, name at one time of
an elective prince among the Slavs, originally one chosen in
some emergency; superseded by Hospodar in 1716.
Woking (9), a small town in Surrey,
24 m. SW. of London; contains a large cemetery with crematorium
near it, and not far off is Bisley Common, with shooting-butts
for practice by the Volunteers.
Wolcot, John, better known
by his pseudonym Peter Pindar, born in Devonshire; bred to and
practised medicine; took orders, and held office in the Church;
took eventually to writing satires and lampoons, which spared
no one, and could not be bribed into silence; was blind for
some years before he died (1738-1819).
Wolf, Friedrich August,
great classical scholar, born near Nordhausen; studied at Göttingen;
was professor of Philology at Halle; became world-famous for
his theory of the Homeric poems; he maintains, in his "Prolegomena
ad Homerum," that the "Iliad" and the "Odyssey"
were originally a body of independent ballads handed down by
oral tradition, and gradually collected into two groups, which
finally appeared each as one, bearing the name of Homer, who,
he allows, was probably the first to attempt to weave
them severally into one; the "Prolegomena" was published
in 1735, and its appearance caused a wide-spread sensation,
and gave rise to a controversy which maintains itself to the
present time (1759-1824).
Wolfe, Charles, author
of the "Burial of Sir John Moore," born in Dublin;
became an Irish clergyman; died of consumption (1791-1823).
Wolfe, James, major-general,
born in Kent, son of a lieutenant-general, who served under
Marlborough; was present at the battles of Dettingen, Fontenoy,
Falkirk, and Culloden, and served in the expedition against
Rochefort, which it was believed proved disastrous because his
counsel was not followed; this circumstance attracted the attention
of Pitt, who appointed him a command in Canada; here he distinguished
himself first at the siege of Louisburg, and then by the capture
of Quebec, where he fell at the moment of victory; he lived
to hear the cry "They run," and eagerly asked "Who
run?" and being told the French, exclaimed, "I thank
God, and die contented" (1727-1759).
an old town in Brunswick, 7 m. S. of Brunswick; contains an
old building, now rebuilt, being a library of vast extent and
rich in MSS.; has various manufactures.
Wolff, Johann Christian
von, German philosopher and mathematician, born at Breslau;
was appointed professor at Halle in 1707, but was in 1723 not
only removed from his chair, but banished from Prussia by Frederick
William on account of his opinions, which, as fatalistic, were
deemed socially demoralising, but was recalled by Frederick
the Great on his accession, and afterwards promoted to the rank
of baron of the empire; he was a disciple of Leibnitz, and the
father of the philosophy that prevailed in Germany before the
time of Kant; his merits as a philosopher were threefold: he
claimed for philosophy the entire field of knowledge, he paid
special attention to method in philosophical speculation, and
he first taught philosophy to express itself in German, or made
German the philosophical language (1679-1754).
ethical and theological writer, born near Stafford; wrote "Religion
of Nature," a rationalistic work written in an optimistic
Wollaston, William Hyde,
physicist and chemist, born in Norfolk, grandson of preceding;
made extensive discoveries in chemistry and optics; invented
the camera lucida and the goniometer.
Wolseley, Garnet Joseph,
Lord, field-marshal, born in co. Dublin, of a Staffordshire
family; entered the army in 1852; served in the Burmese War
of 1852-1853, in the Crimean War, where he was severely wounded,
in the Chinese War of 1860, and afterwards in Canada; commanded
in the Ashantee War in 1878, and received the thanks of Parliament,
with a grant of £25,000, for "courage, energy, and
perseverance" in the conduct of it, and after services
in Natal, Egypt, and Ireland was made field-marshal in 1894,
and commander-in-chief in 1895; b. 1833.
Wolsey, Thomas, cardinal,
born at Ipswich, son of a well-to-do grazier and wool-merchant;
educated at Magdalen College, Oxford; entered the Church early;
gained the favour of Henry VII., and was promoted by him for
his services to the deanery of Lincoln; this was the first of
a series of preferments at the hands of royalty, which secured
him one bishopric after another until his revenue accruing therefrom
equalled that of the crown itself, which he spent partly in
display of his rank and partly in acts of munificence; of his
acts of munificence the founding of Christ Church College in
the interest of learning was one, and the presentation of Hampton
Court Palace, which he had built, to the king, was another;
it was in the reign of Henry VIII. that he rose to
power, and to him especially he owed
his honours; it was for his services to him he obtained the
chancellorship of the kingdom, and at his suit that he obtained
the cardinal's hat and other favours from the Pope; this, though
not the height of his ambition, was the limit of it, for he
soon learned how frail a reed is a prince's favour; he refused
to sanction his master's marriage with Anne Boleyn, and was
driven from power and bereft of all his possessions; finally,
though restored to the see of York, he was arrested on a charge
of treason, took ill on the way to London, and died at Leicester,
with the words on his lips, "Had I but served God as I
have served the king, He would not have forsaken me in my grey
Wolverhampton (82), a
town in Staffordshire, 12½ m. NW. of Birmingham, in the
midst of coal and iron fields; the centre of a group of towns
engaged in different kinds of iron manufacture, locks and keys
the staple, and the metropolis of the Black Country.
Woman's Rights, claims
on the part and in the behalf of women to a status in society
which will entitle them to the legal and social privileges of
Wood, Sir Andrew, Scottish
admiral, born in Largo, Fife; was distinguished and successful
in several naval engagements, chiefly in the Forth, against
the English in the reigns of James III. and James IV.; received
for his services the honour of knighthood and the village and
lands of Largo in fee; was an eccentric old admiral; is said
to have had a canal cut from his house to the church, and to
have sailed thither in his barge every Sunday; d. 1540.
Wood, Anthony, antiquary,
born at Oxford, and educated at Merton College, Oxford; was
a gentleman of independent means; wrote "History and Antiquities
of Oxford University," which appeared in 1674, and "Athenæ
Oxonienses," which appeared in 1691, being an exact history
of all the writers and bishops educated at Oxford from 1500
to 1690 (1632-1695).
Wood, Sir Evelyn, soldier,
born in Essex; served in the Indian Mutiny War, and received
the V.C., also in the Ashanti, in the Zulu, in the Transvaal
(1880-1881) Wars, and in Egypt in 1882; b. 1838.
Wood, Mrs. Henry (née
Price), novelist, born in Worcestershire; her best novels "The
Channings" and "Mrs. Halliburton's Troubles,"
though her most popular "East Lynne"; she wrote some
thirty, all popular, and deservedly so (1820-1887).
Wooden Horse, a gigantic
horse of wood, within which Greek warriors were concealed, and
which the Trojans were persuaded to admit into their city, to
its ruin, on the pretext that it was an offering by the Greeks
to Pallas, to atone for their abstraction of her image from
Woodstock, a small market-town
on the Glyme, 8 m. NW. of Oxford, once a royal manor, near which
is Blenheim Park (q. v.).
Woolner, Thomas, English
sculptor, born at Hadleigh, in Suffolk; sympathised with the
Pre-Raphaelite movement; did a number of statues (one of Bacon
for Oxford), busts of famous contemporaries—Carlyle, Darwin,
Tennyson, &c.—and ideal works, such as Elaine, Ophelia,
Guinevere, &c.; was a poet as well as a sculptor (1826-1892).
Woolsack, the seat of the Lord
Chancellor in the House of Lords, as Speaker of the House, being
a large square cushion of wool covered with red cloth, without
either back or arms.
Woolston, Thomas, an
eccentric semi-deistical writer, born at Northampton, who maintained
a lifelong polemic against the literal truth of the Bible, and
insisted that the miraculous element in it must be allegorically
interpreted, with such obstinacy that he was in the end subjected
to imprisonment as a blasphemer, from which he was never released,
because he refused to recant (1669-1731).
Woolwich (40), a town in Kent,
on the S. bank of the Thames, 9 m. below London; is the chief
military arsenal in the country; contains a gun factory, ammunition
factory, laboratory, &c., which employ 12,000 men, besides
barracks for artillery, engineers, &c., covering an area
4 m. in circumference.
Worcester (42), the county
town of Worcestershire, on the left bank of the Severn, 26 m.
SE. of Birmingham; a very ancient place, and a handsome city,
with a noble old Gothic cathedral; is famous for its blue porcelain
ware and other industries, particularly glove-making; was the
scene in 1651 of Cromwell's victory over the Royalists, which
he called his "crowning mercy."
Worcester (118), the second
city of Massachusetts, U.S., a place of busy industry, and with
a flourishing trade.
Worcester, Marquis of,
inventor of the steam-engine, born probably in the Strand; early
gave himself to mechanical studies; was an ardent Royalist;
negotiated with the Irish Catholics on behalf of the king; was
discovered and imprisoned on a charge of treason, but his release
being procured by the king, he spent some time in exile; on
his return he was again imprisoned and then released; wrote
an account of inventions amounting to a hundred, "A Century
of Inventions" as he called it, one of which he described
as "an admirable and most forcible way of driving up water
by fire" (1601-1667).
Worcestershire, an agricultural
and pastoral county in the valley of the Severn, the N. part
of which is the Black Country, rich in coal and iron mines,
with Dudley for capital, and the SW. occupied by the Malvern
Hills, while the S. is famous for its orchards and hop-gardens;
it has also extensive manufactures at Worcester, Kidderminster,
Stourbridge, and Redditch.
Word, The, or Logos,
the name given by St. John to God as existing from the beginning
as in the fulness of time He manifested Himself in Christ, or
as at first what He revealed Himself at last.
bishop of St. Andrews, born in Lambeth, studied at Christ Church,
Oxford; was private tutor to Gladstone and Manning, Warden of
Glenalmond College, Perthshire, and made bishop in 1852; was
a student of Shakespeare, and distinguished as a prelate for
his zeal for Church union in Scotland; he was a nephew of the
poet, born at Cockermouth, of a Yorkshire stock; educated at
Hawkshead Grammar School and at St. John's College, Cambridge;
travelled in France at the Revolution period, and was smitten
with the Republican fever, which however soon spent itself;
established himself in the S. of England, and fell in with Coleridge,
and visited Germany in company with him, and on his return settled
in the Lake Country; married Mary Hutchinson, who had been a
school-fellow of his, and to whom he was attached when a boy,
and received a lucrative sinecure appointment as distributor
of stamps in the district, took up his residence first at Grasmere
and finally at Rydal Mount, devoting his life in best of the
Muses, as he deemed, to the composition of poetry, with all
faith in himself, and slowly but surely bringing round his admirers
to the same conclusion; he began his
career in literature by publishing along with Coleridge "Lyrical
Ballads"; finished his "Prelude" in 1806, and
produced his "Excursion" in 1814, after which, from
his home at Rydal Mount, there issued a long succession of miscellaneous
pieces; he succeeded Southey as poet-laureate in 1843; he is
emphatically the poet of external nature and of its all-inspiring
power, and it is as such his admirers regard him; Carlyle compares
his muse to "an honest rustic fiddle, good and well handled,
but wanting two or more of the strings, and not capable of much";
to judge of Wordsworth's merits as a poet the student is referred
to Matthew Arnold's "Selections" (1770-1850).
World, the, the name applied
in the New Testament to the collective body of those who reject
and oppose the spirit of Christ, who practically affirm what
He denies, and practically deny what He affirms, or turn His
Yea into Nay, and His Nay into Yea.
Worms (25), an old German town
in Hesse-Darmstadt, in a fertile plain on the left bank of the
Rhine, 40 m. SE. of Mainz, with a massive Romanesque cathedral
having two domes and four towers; it was here the Diet of the
empire was held under Charles V., and before which Martin Luther
appeared on 17th April 1521, standing alone in his defence on
the rock of Scripture, and deferentially declining to recant: "Here
stand I; I can do no other; so help me God."
Worsaae, Jans Jacob,
eminent Danish archæologist, born in Jutland; has written
on the antiquities of the North, specially in a Scandinavian
Worthing (16), a fashionable
watering-place on the Sussex coast, 10½ m. SW. of Brighton;
has a mild climate, fine sands, and a long wide parade.
Wotton, Sir Henry, diplomatist
and scholar, born in Kent; was ambassador of James I. for 20
years, chiefly at Venice; visited Kepler (q. v.) on one
occasion, and found him a very "ingenious person,"
and came under temporary eclipse for his definition of an ambassador, "An
honest man sent to lie abroad for the good of his country";
was ultimately provost of Eton, and was a friend of many good
men, among others Isaac Walton, who wrote his Life; he wished
to be remembered as the author of the saying, "The itch
of controversy is the scab (scabies) of the Churches,"
and caused it to be insculpt in his epitaph (1568-1630).
Dutch painter, born at Haarlem, where he lived and died; painted
small landscapes, hunting pieces, and battle pieces, from which
the picture-dealers profited, while he lived and died poor;
had two brothers, whose pictures are, though inferior, often
mistaken for his (1619-1668).
Prussian field-marshal, born at Stettin; served with distinction
in various campaigns, and commanded in the Danish War of 1864,
and was present in the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, though without
command; was known as Papa Wrangel among the Berliners, who
loved him for his disregard of grammar (1784-1877).
Wrangler, name given in Cambridge
University to those who have attained the first rank in mathematics,
pure and applied, the one who heads the list being known as
the Senior Wrangler.
Wrede, Philip, field-marshal
and prince, born in Heidelberg; served as a Bavarian general
against Austria as the ally of Napoleon at Wagram, and also
in the expedition against Russia in 1812, on which occasion
he covered the retreat of the French army to the loss of nearly
all the cavalry; fought against the French at Hanau; was defeated,
but was afterwards successful on French soil, and eventually
became commander-in-chief of the Bavarian army (1767-1838).
Wren, Sir Christopher,
architect, born at East Knoyle, in Wiltshire; educated at Westminster
School and Wadham College, Oxford, and became Fellow of All
Souls; was early distinguished in mathematics and for mechanical
ingenuity, and soon became notable for his skill in architecture,
and received a commission to restore St. Paul's, London, but
on its destruction in 1666 he was appointed to design and erect
an entirely new structure; for this he had prepared himself
by study abroad, and he proceeded to construct a new St. Paul's
after the model of St. Peter's at Rome, a work which, as it
occupied him from 1675 to 1710, took him 35 years to finish;
he died at the age of 90, sitting in his chair after dinner,
and was buried in the cathedral which he had erected, with this
inscription, "Si monumentum requiris, circumspice"
(If you inquire after his monument, look around); Wren was a
man of science as well as an artist; he was at one time Savilian
professor of Astronomy at Oxford, and one of the founders of
the Royal Society (1631-1723).
Wren, Matthew, bishop of
Ely; was one of the judges of the Star Chamber; assisted in
preparing the liturgy for Scotland, which, when read in St.
Giles', Edinburgh, roused the ire of
Jenny Geddes (q. v.);
was impeached, and confined in the Tower for 18 years, and released
at the Restoration (1585-1667).
Wrexham (12), an important town
in Denbighshire, North Wales, 12 m. SW. from Chester, in the
centre of a mining district, and famed for its breweries.
Wright, Joseph, painter,
usually called "Wright of Derby," from his birthplace
and place of residence nearly all his life; he excelled in portraits,
and in the representation of the effects especially of firelight
Wright, Thomas, antiquary,
born in Shropshire, but settled in London; wrote or edited a
vast number of works bearing on the antiquities, literary and
other, of England, and was connected with the founding of sundry
antiquarian societies (1810-1877).
Writers to the Signet,
a body of solicitors in Scotland who had at one time the exclusive
privilege of practising in and drawing up cases for the supreme
courts of the country, and whose privileges are now limited
to the preparation of crown writs.
Wulstan, St., Saxon bishop
of Worcester in the days of Edward the Confessor; being falsely
accused by his adversaries, after the king's death, he was required
to resign, but refused, and laying his crozier on the Confessor's
shrine called upon him to decide who should wear it; none of
his accusers could lift it, only himself, to his exculpation
from their accusations.
Wundt, Wilhelm Max,
distinguished German physiologist, born in Baden, and professor
at Leipzig; distinguished for his studies on the connection
of the physical with the psychical in the human organisation,
and has written on psychology as well as physiology; b.
Wupperthal, a densely-peopled
valley in Germany traversed by the river Wupper, which after
a course of 40 m. enters the right bank of the Rhine between
Cologne and Düsseldorf, and which embraces the towns of
Barmen and Elberfeld.
Wurmser, Count von,
Austrian general, born in Alsace; took an active part in the
war with France; commanded the respect of Napoleon
from his defence of Mantua, on the capitulation
of which he refused to take him prisoner (1721-1797).
a kingdom of South Germany, about one-fourth the size of Scotland,
between Baden on the W. and Bavaria on the E.; the Black Forest
extends along the W. of it, and it is traversed nearly E. and
W. by the Swabian Alp, which slopes down on the N. side into
the valley of the Neckar, and on the S. into that of the Danube;
the soil is fertile, and is in great part under cultivation,
yielding corn, vines, and fruits, agriculture being the chief
industry of the population; there are only four towns whose
inhabitants exceed 20,000, of which Stuttgart is one, and Ulm,
the capital, is the other; the towns are the centres of varied
manufactures; education is of a high standard; and associated
with the country is a number of famous names-enough to mention
the names of Kepler, Schiller, Hegel, Schelling, and Strauss;
the government is constitutional, under a hereditary sovereign.
Wurtz, Charles Adolphe,
celebrated French chemist, born at Strasburg (1817-1884).
Würzburg (51), a Bavarian
town in a valley of the Main, 70 m. SB. of Frankfort; its principal
buildings are the Royal or Episcopal Palace, the cathedral,
and the university, with the Julius Hospital, called after its
founder, Bishop Julius, who was also founder of the university,
which is attended by 1500 students, mostly medical, and has
a library of 100,000 volumes; the fortress of Marienberg, overlooking
the town, was till 1720 the episcopal palace.
Wuttke, Karl, theologian,
born at Breslau, professor at Halle; wrote on Christian ethics,
stoutly maintained the incompatibility of Christianity with
democracy, that a Christian could not be a democrat or a democrat
a Christian (1819-1870).
Wyandots, a tribe of North
American Indians of the Iroquois stock; were nearly exterminated
in 1636, but a feeble remnant of them now occupy a small district
in the Indian Territory.
Wyatt, Richard, sculptor,
born in London; studied in Home under Canova, and had Gibson
for fellow-student; a man of classical tastes, and produced
a number of exquisitely-modelled, especially female, figures
Wyatt, Sir Thomas, English
poet, courtier, and statesman, born at Allington Castle, in
Kent, and educated at St. John's College, Cambridge; was a welcome
presence at court, a friend of Anne Boleyn, in high favour with
the king, and knighted in 1537; did a good deal of diplomatic
work in Spain and the Netherlands, and died on his way to meet
the Spanish ambassador and convoy him to London; he had travelled
in Italy, had studied the lyric poets of Italy, especially Petrarch,
and, along with Surrey, imported their sentiment into English
verse, "amourist poetry," as it has been called, "a
poetry extremely personal, and personal as English poetry had
scarcely ever been before" (1503-1542).
Wyatt, Sir Thomas,
the younger, only son of the preceding; was leader of the rebellion
that broke out in 1554 in consequence of the settlement of the
marriage between Queen Mary and Philip of Spain, in which, being
repulsed at Temple Bar, he surrendered, was committed to the
Tower, and for which he was executed, Lady Jane Grey and her
husband following to the same doom shortly after (1520-1554).
dramatist, born in Shropshire, of good birth, and resided for
a time in Paris, being admitted to the circle of the Précieuses,
but returned to England at the Restoration, and became a figure
at the court; his plays were marked with the coarseness of the
time, and his best were "The Country Wife" (1675)
and the "Plain Dealer" (1677); married the Countess
of Drogheda for her fortune, a legacy which cost him only lawsuits
and imprisonment for debt; succeeded to his paternal estate
when he was an old man; married again, and died immediately
Wycliffe, John. See Wicliffe.
Wycombe, High (13), a market-town
in Buckinghamshire, on the Wye, 25 m. SE. of Oxford; has a parish
church built in the Norman style in 1273 and restored in 1887,
and several public buildings; the manufacture of chairs, lace,
and straw-plait among the leading industries.
Wye, a lovely winding river in South
Wales, which rises near the source of the Severn on Plinlimmon,
and falls into its estuary at Chepstow, 125 m. from its head;
rapid in its course at first, it becomes gentler as it gathers
volume; barges ascend it as far as Hereford, but a high tidal
wave makes navigation dangerous at its mouth.
Wykeham, William of,
bishop of Winchester, born in Hampshire of humble parentage;
was patronised by the governor of Winchester Castle and introduced
by him to Edward III., who employed him to superintend the rebuilding
of Windsor Castle, and by-and-by made him Privy Seal and Lord
Chancellor, though he fell into disgrace towards the close of
Edward's reign; was restored to favour in Richard II.'s reign
and once more made Chancellor; in his later years he founded
the New College, Oxford, built and endowed St. Mary's College,
Winchester, and rebuilt the cathedral there. He was less of
a theologian than an architect; was disparagingly spoken of
by John Wickliffe as a "builder of castles," and his
favourite motto was, "Manners make the man"; (1324-1404).
Wynnad, a highland district in
the Western Ghâts, Madras Presidency, with extensive coffee
plantations, and a wide distribution of auriferous quartz rock,
the working of which has been on an extravagant scale, and has
involved the loss of much capital.
Wyntoun, Andrew of,
Scottish chronicler; lived at the end of the 14th and beginning
of the 15th centuries; was canon regular of St. Andrews and
prior of St. Serf, Lochleven; the subject of his "Original
Chronicle," as he calls it, was Scottish history, introduced
by foreign from the creation downwards, and it was written in
verse that can hardly be called poetry; it is of value historically
and interesting philologically, and consists of nine books or
cantos; it is to him we owe "When Alexander our King was
Wyoming (60), a North-West State
of the American Union, chiefly on the eastern slope of the Rocky
Mountains, an elevated region about three times the area of
Ireland and a comparatively sparse population, settled principally
along the line of the Union Pacific Railway; it has a very rugged
surface, and abounds in deep cañons and frowning precipices,
the lakes also are deep, and there are immense geysers, one,
the Great Geyser, throwing up a volume of water 300 ft. high;
it is rich in minerals, yields good crops of various grains,
rears large herds of horses and cattle, as well as game on its
moors, and trout and salmon in its rivers. See
Wyoming Valley, a fertile
valley in Pennsylvania, on the Susquehanna River, 20 m. long
by 5 broad; it was the scene of a series of contests
between rival settlers, when the last
of them were set upon by an invading force, forced to surrender,
and either massacred or driven forth from the valley; Campbell's "Gertrude
of Wyoming" relates to this last disaster.
Wyss, Johann Rudolf,
Swiss littérateur, born at Bern, professor of Philosophy
there; the author of the "Swiss Family Robinson,"
on which alone his title to fame rests (1781-1830).
Wyvern, a heraldic device in
shape of a dragon with expanded wings, with only two legs and
the pointed tail of a scorpion.