Quadragesima (i. e.
fortieth), a name given to Lent because it lasts forty days,
and assigned also to the first Sunday in Lent, the three Sundays
which precede it being called respectively Septuagesima, Sexagesima,
Quadrant, an instrument for
taking altitudes, consisting of the graduated arc of a circle
of ninety degrees.
an equation involving the square of the unknown quantity.
Quadriga, a two-wheeled chariot
drawn by four horses abreast, used in the ancient chariot races.
Quadrilateral, The, the
name given to a combination of four fortresses, or the space
enclosed by them, in North Italy, at Mantua, Legnago, Verona,
Quadroon, the name given to
a person quarter-blooded, in particular the offspring of a mulatto
and a white person.
an alliance formed in 1719 between England, France, Austria,
and Holland to secure the thrones of France and England to the
reigning families, and to defeat the schemes of Alberoni to
the aggrandisement of Spain.
Quæstors, the name given
in Roman history to the officers entrusted with the care of
the public treasury, originally two in number, one of them to
see to the corn supply in Rome, but eventually, as the empire
extended, increased, till in Cæsar's time they amounted
to forty. Under the kings they were the public prosecutors in
cases of murder.
Quaigh, a name formerly given
to a wooden drinking-cup in Scotland.
Quain, Jones, anatomist,
born at Mallow, Ireland; was professor
of Anatomy and Physiology in London University; was author of "Elements
of Anatomy," of which the first edition was published in
1828, and the tenth in 1800 (1796-1865).
Quain, Richard, anatomist,
born at Fermoy, Ireland, brother of preceding, and professor
in London University; author of a number of medical works; bequeathed
a large legacy to the university for "education in modern
Quain, Sir Richard,
physician, born at Mallow, cousin of preceding; edited "Dictionary
of Medicine," and was President of Medical Council in 1891
Quair, an old Scotch name for
Society of Friends (q.
v.), so called first by Justice Bennet of Derby, because
Fox bade him quake before the Lord.
Quarantine, the prescribed
time, generally 40 days (hence the name), of non-intercourse
with the shore for a ship suspected of infection, latterly enforced,
and that very strictly, in the cases of infection with yellow
fever or plague; since November 1896, the system of quarantine
as regards the British Islands has ceased to exist.
Quarles, Francis, religious
poet, born in Essex, of good family; a member of Christ's College,
Cambridge, and Lincoln's Inn; held divers offices at the Court,
in the city, and the Church; was a bigoted Royalist and Churchman,
a voluminous author, both in prose and verse, but is now remembered
for his "Divine Emblems," and perhaps his "Enchiridion";
he wrote in his quaint way not a few good things (1592-1644).
Quarter Days, in England
and Ireland Lady Day, 25th March; Midsummer Day, 24th June;
Michaelmas Day, 29th September; and Christmas Day, 25th December;
while in Scotland the legal terms are Whitsunday, 15th May,
and Martinmas, 11th November, though the Whitsunday term is
now changed to the 28th May.
Quarter-deck, the part
of a ship abaft the main-mast, or between the main and mizzen,
where there is a poop.
court held every quarter by justices of the peace in the several
divisions of a county to try offences against the peace.
wooden staff 6½ ft. long, shod with iron, grasped in
the middle; formerly used in England for attack and defence.
Quarterly Review, a
review started by John Murray, the celebrated London publisher,
in February 1809, in rivalry with the Edinburgh, which
had been seven years in possession of the field, and was exerting,
as he judged, an evil influence on public opinion; in this enterprise
he was seconded by Southey and Scott, the more cordially that
the Edinburgh had given offence to the latter by its
criticism of "Marmion." It was founded in the Tory
interest for the defence of Church and State, and it had Gifford
for its first editor, while the contributors included, besides
Southey and Scott, all the ablest literary celebrities on the
Tory side, of which the most zealous and frequent was John Wilson
Quartermaster, in the
army an officer whose duty it is to look after the quarters,
clothing, rations, stores, ammunition, &c., of the regiment,
and in the navy a petty officer who has to see to the stowage,
steerage, soundings, &c., of the ship.
Quartette, a musical piece
in four parts, or for four voices or instruments.
Quarto, a book having the sheet
folded into four leaves.
Quasimodo Sunday, the
first Sunday after Easter.
Quass, a beer made in Russia from
rye grain, employed as vinegar when sour.
Quatre-Bras (i. e.
four arms), a village 10 m. SE. of Waterloo, where the roads
from Brussels to Charleroi and from Nivelles to Namur intersect:
was the scene of an obstinate conflict between the English under
Wellington and the French under Ney, two days before the battle
Quatrefages de Bréau,
French naturalist and anthropologist, born at Berthezenne (Gard);
studied medicine at Strasburg; was professor at the Natural
History Museum in Paris; devoted himself chiefly to anthropology
and the study of annelides (1810-1892).
Marc, French Orientalist, born in Paris; was professor
at the College of France; was distinguished for his knowledge
of Arabic and Persian, as well as for his works on Egypt; was
of vast learning, but defective in critical ability (1782-1857).
Quatremère de Quincy,
a learned French archæologist and writer on art, born
in Paris; was involved in the troubles of the Revolution; narrowly,
as a constitutionalist, escaped the guillotine, and was deported
to Cayenne in 1797, but after his return took no part in political
affairs; wrote a "Dictionary of Antiquities" (1755-1849).
Quatro Cento (i. e.
four hundred), a term employed by the Italians to signify one
thousand four hundred, that is, the 15th century, and applied
by them to the literature and art of the period.
Quebec (1,359), formerly called
Lower Canada, one of the Canadian provinces occupying that part
of the valley of the St. Lawrence, and a narrow stretch of fertile,
well-cultivated land on the S. of the river, which is bounded
on the S. by the States of New York and Maine, and on the E.
by New Brunswick; it is twice the size of Great Britain, and
consists of extensive tracks of cultivated land and forests
interspersed with lakes and rivers, affluents of the St. Lawrence;
the soil, which is fertile, yields good crops of cereals, hay,
and fruit, and excellent pasturage, and there is abundance of
mineral wealth; it was colonised by the French in 1608, was
taken by the English in 1759-60, and the great majority of the
population is of French extraction.
Quebec (63), the capital of
the above province, and once of all Canada, a city of historical
interest, is situated on the steep promontory, 333 feet in height,
of the NW. bank of the St. Lawrence, at the mouth of the St.
Charles River, 300 m. from the sea, and 180 m. below Montreal;
it is divided into Upper and Lower, the latter the business
quarter and the former the west-end, as it were; there are numerous
public buildings, including the governor's residence, an Anglican
cathedral, and a university; it is a commercial centre, has
a large trade in timber, besides several manufacturing industries;
the aspect of the town is Norman-French, and there is much about
it and the people to remind one of Normandy.
Quedlinburg (19), an old
town of Prussian Saxony, on the river Bode, at the foot of the
Harz Mountains, 32 m. SW. of Magdeburg, founded by Henry the
Fowler, and where his remains lie; was long a favourite residence
of the emperors of the Saxon line; it has large nurseries, an
extensive trade in flower seeds, and sundry manufactures.
Queen Anne's Bounty,
a fund established in 1704 for the augmentation of the incomes
of the poorer clergy, the amount of which for distribution in
1890 was £176,896; it was the revenue from a tax on the
Church prior to the Reformation, and
which after that was appropriated by the Crown.
Queen Charlotte Islands,
a small group of islands on the W. coast of North America, N.
of Vancouver's Island, 80 m. off the coast of British Columbia,
a half-submerged mountain range, densely wooded, with peaks
that rise sheer up 2000 ft.
Queenborough, a town on
the Isle of Sheppey, 2 m. S. of Sheerness, between which and
Flushing, in Holland, a line of steamers plies daily.
Queen's College, a college
for women in Harley Street, London, founded in 1848, and incorporated
by Royal Charter in 1853, of which Maurice, Trench, and Kingsley
were among the originators; attendance of three years entitles
to the rank of "Associate," and of six or more to
that of "Fellow"; it is self-supporting.
Queen's Colleges, colleges
established in Ireland in 1845 to afford a university education
to members of all religious denominations, and opened at Belfast,
Cork, and Galway in 1849, the first having 23 professors, with
343 students; the second 23 professors, with 181 students; and
the third 37 professors, with 91 students. There is also a Queen's
College in Melbourne.
Queen's County (6), one
of the inland counties of Leinster, in Ireland, N. of King's
County, mostly flat; agriculture and dairy-farming are carried
on, with a little woollen and cotton-weaving; population mostly
Queen's Metal, an alloy
of nine parts tin and one each of antimony, lead, and bismuth,
is intermediate in hardness between pewter and britannia metal.
Queensland, a British colony
occupying the NE. of Australia, 1300 m. from N. to S. and 800
m. from E. to W., two-thirds of it within the tropics, and occupying
an area three times as large as that of France. Mountains stretch
away N. parallel to the coast, and much of the centre is tableland;
one-half of it is covered with forests, and it is fairly well
watered, the rivers being numerous, and the chief the Fitzroy
and the Burdekin. The population is only half a million, and
the chief towns are Brisbane, the capital, Gympie, Maryborough,
Rockhampton, and Townsville. The pastoral industry is very large,
and there is considerable mining for gold. The mineral resources
are great, and a coal-field still to be worked exists in it
as large as the whole of Scotland. Maize and sugar are the principal
products of the soil, and wool, gold, and sugar are the principal
exports; the colony is capable of immense developments. Until
1859 the territory was administered by New South Wales, but
in that year it became an independent colony, with a government
of its own under a Governor appointed by the Crown; the Parliament
consists of two Houses, a Legislative Council of 41 members,
nominated by the Governor, and the Legislative Assembly of 72
members, elected for three years by manhood suffrage.
Queenstown, a seaport, formerly
called the Cove of Cork, on the S. shore of Great Island, and
14 m. SE. of Cork; a port of call for the Atlantic line of steamers,
specially important for the receipt and landing of the mails.
Quelpart (10), an island 52
m. S. of the Corea, 40 m. long by 17 broad, surrounded with
small islets in situation to the Corea as Sicily to Italy.
Quercitron, a yellow dye
obtained from the bark of a North American oak.
Querétaro (36), a high-lying
Mexican town in a province of the same name, 150 m. NW. of Mexico;
has large cotton-spinning mills; here the Emperor Maximilian
was shot by order of court-martial in 1867.
Quern, a handmill of stone for
grinding corn, of primitive contrivance, and still used in remote
parts of Ireland and Scotland.
a great French economist, born at Mérez (Seine-et-Oise),
bred to the medical profession, and eminent as a medical practitioner,
was consulting physician to Louis XV., but distinguished for
his articles in the "Encyclopédie" on political
economy, and as the founder of the
(q. v.), the school which attaches special importance
in State economy to agriculture (1694-1774).
Quesnel, Pasquier, a
French Jansenist theologian, born in Paris; was the author of
a great many works, but the most celebrated is his "Reflexions
Morales"; was educated at the Sorbonne, and became head
of the congregation of the Oratory in Paris, but was obliged
to seek refuge in Holland with Arnauld on embracing Jansenism;
his views exposed him to severe persecution at the hands of
the Jesuits, and his "Reflexions" were condemned in
101 propositions by the celebrated bull Unigenitus; spent
his last years at Amsterdam, and died there (1634-1719).
Belgian astronomer and statistician, born at Ghent; wrote on
meteorology and anthropology, in the light especially of statistics
Quetta, a strongly fortified
town in the N. of Beluchistan, commanding the Bolan Pass, and
occupied by a British garrison. It is also a health resort from
the temperate climate it enjoys.
Queues, Bakers', "long
strings of purchasers arranged in tail at the bakers'
shop doors in Paris during the Revolution period, so that first
come be first served, were the shops once open," and that
came to be a Parisian institution.
Quevedo y Villegas,
Francisco Gomez de, a Spanish poet, born at Madrid, of an old
illustrious family; left an orphan at an early age, and educated
at Alcalá, the university of which he left with a great
name for scholarship; served as diplomatist and administrator
in Sicily under the Duke of Ossuna, the viceroy, and returned
to the Court of Philip IV. in Spain at his death; struggled
hard to purify the corrupt system of appointments to office
in the State then prevailing but was seized and thrown into
confinement, from which, after four years, he was released,
broken in health; he wrote much in verse, but only for his own
solace and in communication with his friends, and still more
in prose on a variety of themes, he being a writer of the most
versatile ability, of great range and attainment (1580-1645).
Quibéron, a small fishing
village on a peninsula of the name, stretching southward from
Morbihan, France, near which Hawke defeated a French fleet in
1759, and where a body of French emigrants attempted to land
in 1795 in order to raise an insurrection, but were defeated
by General Hoche.
Quichuas, a civilised people
who flourished at one time in Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia, and
spoke a highly-cultivated language called Quichua after them.
Quick, Robert Hebert,
English educationist; wrote "Essays on Educational Reformers";
was in holy orders (1832-1891).
Quicksand, sandbank so saturated
with water that it gives way under pressure; found near the
mouths of rivers.
Quietism, the name given to
a mystical religious turn of mind which seeks to attain spiritual
illumination and perfection by maintaining a
purely passive and susceptive attitude
to Divine communication and revelation, shutting out all consciousness
of self and all sense of external things, and independently
of the observance of the practical virtues. The high-priest
of Quietism was the Spanish priest
Molinos (q. v.), and his chief disciple in France
was Madame de Guyon, who infected the mind of the saintly Fénélon.
The appearance of it in France, and especially Fénélon's
partiality to it, awoke the hostility of Bossuet, who roused
the Church against it, as calculated to have an injurious effect
on the interests of practical morality; indeed the hostility
became so pronounced that Fénélon was forced to
retract, to the gradual dying out of the fanaticism.
Quilimane (6), a seaport of
East Africa, on the Mozambique Channel, in a district subject
to Portugal; stands 15 m. from the mouth of a river of the name.
Quilon, a trading town on the
W. coast of Travancore, 85 m. N. of Comorin.
Quimper (17), a French town
63 m. SE. of Brest, with a much admired cathedral; has sundry
manufactures, and a fishing industry.
Quin, James, a celebrated
actor, born in London; was celebrated for his representation
of Falstaff, and was the first actor of the day till the appearance
of Garrick in 1741 (1693-1766).
Quinault, French poet; his
first performances procured for him the censure of Boileau,
but his operas, for which Luini composed the music, earned for
him a good standing among lyric poets (1635-1688).
Quincey, De. See
Quincy (31), a city in Illinois,
U.S., on the Mississippi, 160 m. above St. Louis; a handsome
city, with a large trade and extensive factories; is a great
Quincy, Josiah, American
statesman, born at Boston; was bred to the bar, and entered
Congress in 1804, where he distinguished himself by his oratory
as leader of the Federal party, as the sworn foe of slave-holding,
and as an opponent of the admission of the Western States into
the Union; in 1812 he retired from Congress, gave himself for
a time to purely local affairs in Massachusetts, and at length
to literary labours, editing his speeches for one thing, without
ceasing to interest himself in the anti-slavery movement (1772-1864).
Quinet, Edgar, a French
man of letters, born at Bourg, in the department of Ain; was
educated at Bourg and Lyons, went to Paris in 1820, and in 1823
produced a satire called "Les Tablettes du Juif-Errant,"
at which time he came under the influence of
Herder (q. v.) and executed
in French a translation of his "Philosophy of Humanity,"
prefaced with an introduction which procured him the friendship
of Michelet, a friendship which lasted with life; appointed
to a post in Greece, he collected materials for a work on Modern
Greece, and this, the first fruit of his own view of things
as a speculative Radical, he published in 1830; he now entered
the service of the Revue des Deux Mondes, and in the
pages of it his prose poem "Ahasuérus" appeared,
which was afterwards published in a book form and soon found
a place in the "Index Expurgatorius" of the Church;
this was followed by other democratic poems, "Napoleon"
in 1835 and "Prometheus" in 1838; from 1838 to 1842
he occupied the chair of Foreign Literature in Lyons, and passed
from it to that of the Literature of Southern Europe in the
College of France; here, along with Michelet, he commenced a
vehement crusade against the clerical party, which was brought
to a head by his attack on the Jesuits, and which led to his
suspension from the duties of the chair in 1846; he distrusted
Louis Napoleon, and was exiled in 1852, taking up his abode
at Brussels, to return to Paris again only after the Emperor's
fall; through all these troubles he was busy with his pen, in
1838 published his "Examen de la Vie de Jésus,"
his "Du Genie des Religions," "La Révolution
Religieuse au xixe Siècle," and other
works; he was a disciple of Herder to the last; he believed
in humanity, and religion as the soul of it (1803-1875).
Quinine, an alkaloid obtained
from the bark of several species of the cinchona tree and others,
and which is employed in medicine specially as a ferbrifuge
and a tonic.
Quinisext, an ecclesiastical
council held at Constantinople in 692, composed chiefly of Eastern
bishops, and not reckoned among the councils of the Western
the Sunday before the beginning of Lent.
Quinsy, inflammation of the tonsils
of the throat.
Quintana, Manuel José,
a Spanish lyric and dramatic poet, born in Madrid; was for a
time the champion of liberal ideas in politics, which he ceased
to advocate before he died; is celebrated as the author of a
classic work, being "Lives of Celebrated Spaniards"
Quintette, a musical composition
in obligato parts for five voices or five instruments.
Quintilian, Marcus Fabius,
celebrated Latin rhetorician, born in Spain; went to Rome in
the train of Galba, and began to practise at the bar, but achieved
his fame more as teacher in rhetoric than a practitioner at
the bar, a function he discharged with brilliant success for
20 years under the patronage and favour of the Emperor Vespasian
in particular, being invested by him in consequence with the
insignia and title of consul; with posterity his fame rests
on his "Institutes," a great work, being a complete
system of rhetoric in 12 books; he commenced it in the reign
of Domitian after his retirement from his duties as a public
instructor, and it occupied him two years; it is a wise book,
ably written, and fraught with manifold instruction to all whose
chosen profession it is to persuade men (35-92).
Quipo, knotted cords of different
colours used by the ancient Mexicans and Peruvians for conveying
orders or recording events.
Quirinal, one of the seven
hills on which Rome was built, N. of the Palatine, and one of
the oldest quarters of the city.
Quirites, the name the citizens
of Rome assumed in their civic capacity.
Quito (80), the capital of Ecuador,
situated at an elevation of nearly 9000 ft. above the sea-level,
and cut up with ravines; stands in a region of perpetual spring
and amid picturesque surroundings, the air clear and the sky
a dark deep blue. The chief buildings are of stone, but all
the ordinary dwellings are of sun-dried brick and without chimneys.
It is in the heart of a volcanic region, and is subject to frequent
earthquakes, in one of which, in 1797, 40,000 of the inhabitants
perished. The population consists chiefly of Indians, whose
religious interests must be well cared for, for there are no
fewer than 400 priests to watch over their spiritual welfare.
Quito, Cordillera of,
a chain of mountains, the chief of them volcanic, in Ecuador,
containing the loftiest peaks of the Andes, and including among
them Antisana, Cotopaxi, and Chimborazo.
Quit-rent, a rent the payment
of which frees the tenant of a holding
from other services such as were obligatory under feudal tenure.
Quorra, the name given to the
middle and lower course of the Niger.
Quorum, the number of the members
of a governing body required by law to give legality to any
transaction in the name of it.