a range of mountains which extend NE. from the Altai chain,
and run S. of Lake Baikal, near the frontier of China, dividing
the basin of the Amur from that of the Lena.
Yacu-mama, a fabulous marine
monster, said to haunt the lagoons of the Amazon, and to suck
into its mouth and swallow whatever comes within a hundred yards
of it; before bathing in a lagoon, where he apprehends its presence,
the Indian sounds a horn, the effect of which is to make it
reveal itself if it is there.
Yahoo, name of a race of brutes,
subject to the Houyhuhnms (q.
v.), in "Gulliver's Travels," with the form and
all the vices of men.
Yajur-Veda, one of the books
of the Vedas (q. v.), containing
the prescribed formulæ in connection with sacrifices.
Yaksha, a species of gnome in
the Hindoo mythology.
Yakutsk (5), a capital town
in East Siberia, on a branch of the Lena; occupied chiefly by
traders in furs, hides, &c.; is said to be the coldest town
in the world.
Yale University, a well-equipped
university at New Haven, Connecticut, U.S., founded in 1701,
which derives its name from Elihu Yale, a Boston man, and which
was given to it in recognition of his benefactions; it occupies
a square in the heart of the city, has a staff of 70 professors,
besides tutors and lecturers, also 1200 students, and a library
of 200,000 volumes; the faculties include arts, medicine, law,
theology, fine arts, and music, while the course of study extends
over four years.
Yama, in the Hindu mythology "a
solar hero who rules over the dead; might have lived as an immortal,
but chose to die; was the first to traverse the road from which
there is no return, tracing it for future generations; in the
remotest extremity of the heavens, the abode of light and the
eternal waters, he reigns in peace and in union with
Varuna (q. v.); there by
the sound of his flute, under the branches of the mythic tree,
he assembles around him the dead who have lived nobly, they
reach him in a crowd, convoyed by Agni
(q. v.), grimly scanned as they pass by two monstrous
dogs that are the guardians of the road."
Yambo or Yambu, the port
of Medina, in Arabia, on the Red Sea.
Yanaon (5), a small patch of
territory belonging to France, on the Godavery, enclosed in
the British province of Madras, India.
the Blue, or Great, River, the largest river in China and in
the East; rises in the plateau of Tibet, and after a course
of 3200 m., draining and irrigating great part of China by the
way, falls by a wide estuary into the Yellow Sea, terminating
near Shanghai; it has numerous tributaries, some of great length,
and is of great value to the country as a waterway; it is navigable
1000 m. from its mouth, and at Hankow, 700 m. up, is a mile
Yankee, slang name for a New
Englander; applied in England to the citizens of the United
States generally; it is of uncertain derivation.
Yapura, an affluent of the Amazon,
which rises in Columbia; has a course of 1750 m., and is navigable
to steamers for 970 m.
Yarkand (60), the capital or
chief city of Eastern Turkestan, 100 m. SE. of Kashgar; is in
the centre of a very fertile district of the vast continental
basin of Central Asia, abounding also in large stores of mineral
wealth; it is a great emporium of trade, and the inhabitants
are mostly Mohammedans.
Yarmouth (49), a seaport, fishing
town, and watering-place of Norfolk, 20½ m. E. of Norwich
and some 2 m. above the mouth of the Yare; is the principal
seat of the English herring fishery, and is famous for its herrings,
known as bloaters; it has a fine roadstead called Yarmouth Roads,
a safe anchorage for ships, being protected by sandbanks; has
a number of public buildings, in particular a parish church,
one of the largest in England, and a fine marine parade.
Yarrell, William, naturalist,
born at Westminster; wrote "History of British Fishes"
and "History of British Birds" (1784-1856).
Yarrow, a famous Scottish stream
which rises on the confines of the shires of Peebles, Dumfries,
and Selkirk, passes NE. through the Loch of the Lowes and St.
Mary's Loch, and joins the Ettrick 2 m. above Selkirk after
a course of 25 m.
Yates, Edmund, journalist,
founded The World newspaper; wrote a supremely interesting "Autobiography"
Yellow Sea, or Whang-hai,
an inlet of the Pacific, on the NE. coast of China, bounded
on the E. by the Corea, including in the NW. the Gulf of Pechili,
some 600 m. long, and its average breadth 300 m.; is very shallow,
and gradually silting up owing to the quantity of alluvium brought
down by the rivers which fall into it.
Yellowstone, the, a river
which rises in the NW. of Wyoming
(q. v.), and falls into the Missouri as one of its chief
tributaries after a course of 1300 m.
Park, a high-lying tract of land in the State of
Wyoming (q. v.) traversed
by the Yellowstone, about the size of Kent, being a square about
75 m. in diameter; is set apart by Congress as a great pleasure
ground in perpetuity for the enjoyment of the people; it abounds
in springs and geysers, and care is taken that it be preserved
for the public benefit, to the exclusion of all private right
Yemen (3,000), a province in the
SW. of Arabia, bounded on the N. by Hedjaz, bordering on the
Red Sea, and forming the Arabia Felix of the ancients; about
400 m. in length and 150 m. in breadth; it is a highly fertile
region, and yields tropical and sub-tropical fruits, in particular
coffee, dates, gums, spices, and wheat.
Yenikale or Kertch,
a strait 20 m. long, connecting the Sea of Azov with the Black
Yenisei, a river which rises
in the mountainous region that borders the plateau of Gobi,
its head-waters collecting in Lake Baikal, and after a course
of 3200 m. through the centre of Siberia, falls by a long estuary
or gulf into the Arctic Ocean; it is the highway of a region
rich in both mineral and vegetable products, the traffic on
which is encouraged by privileges and bounties to the trader
at the hands of the Russian government.
Yeniseisk (8), a town of East
Siberia, on the Yenisei, in a province of the name, and a centre
of trade in it.
Yeomanry, name given to a cavalry
volunteer force the members of which provide their own horses
and uniforms, with a small allowance from the Government, which
is increased when called out.
Yeomen, a name given in England
to a class of freeholders next in rank to the gentry, and to
certain functionaries in royal households.
Yeomen of the Guard,
a body of old soldiers of soldierly presence, employed on ceremonial
occasions in conjunction with the gentlemen-at-arms, as the
bodyguard of the British sovereign; they were constituted in
1485, and number besides officers 100 men; the Beef-eaters,
as they are called, are the wardens of the Tower, and are a
Yeovil (9), a town in Somerset,
4 m. S. of Bristol, is in the centre of an agricultural district,
and the staple industry is glove-making.
Yetholm, a village of Roxburghshire,
7 m. SE. of Kelso; consists of two parts, Town Yetholm and Kirk
Yetholm, the latter of which has for two centuries been the
head-quarters of the gypsies in Scotland.
Yezd (40), a town in an oasis,
surrounded by a desert, in the centre of Persia, 230 m. SE.
of Ispahân; a place of commercial importance; carries
on miscellaneous manufactures.
Yezidees, a small nation bordering
on the Euphrates, whose religion is a mixture of devil worship
and Ideas derived from the Magi, the Mohammedans, and the Christians.
Yezo or Yesso, the northernmost
of the four large islands of Japan, is about as large as Ireland;
is traversed from N. to S. by rugged mountains, several of them
active volcanoes; is rich in minerals, and particularly coal;
its rivers swarm with salmon, but the climate is severe, and
it is only partially settled.
Yiddish, a kind of mongrel language
spoken by foreign Jews in England.
Ymir, a giant in the Norse mythology,
slain by the gods, and out of whose carcass they constructed
the world, his blood making the sea, his flesh the land, his
bones the rocks, his eyebrows Asgard, the dwelling-place of
the gods, his skull the vault of the firmament, and his brains
Yniol, an earl of Arthurian legend,
the father of Enid, who was ousted from his earldom by his nephew
the "Sparrow-Hawk," but who, when overthrown, was
compelled to restore it to him.
Yoga, in the Hindu philosophy a
state of soul, emancipation from this life and of union with
the divine, achieved by a life of asceticism and devout meditation;
or the system of instruction or discipline by which it is achieved.
Yogin, among the Hindus one who
has achieved his yoga, over whom nothing perishable has
any longer power, for whom the laws of nature no longer exist,
who is emancipated from this life, so that death even will add
nothing to his bliss, it being his final deliverance or Nirvâna,
as the Buddhists would say.
Yokohama (130), principal port
of entry of Japan, 18 m. SW. of Tokyo (q. v.), situated
in a spacious bay, the centre of trade with the West and the
head-quarters of foreign trade generally; foreigners are numerous,
and the exports include silk, tea, cotton, flax, tobacco, &c.
Yokuba (150), the largest town
in Sokoto, in the Lower Soudan, with a large trade in cotton,
tobacco, and indigo.
Yonge, Charlotte Mary,
popular novelist, born at Otterbourne, Hants; has written "Cameos
of History of England," "Landmarks of History," &c.;
has edited the Monthly Packet for 30 years; b.
Yoni, a Hindu symbol of the female
principle in nature, and as such an object of worship. See
Yonkers (48), a city of New
York, U.S., on the Hudson River. 15 m. N. of New York; has factories
of various kinds, and some beautiful villas occupied by New
Yonne (344), a department of the
NE. of France, watered by the Yonne, a tributary of the Seine,
with forests and vineyards which yield large quantities of wine.
Yorick, a jester at the court
of Denmark, whose skull Hamlet apostrophises in the churchyard;
also a sinister jester in "Tristram Shandy."
York (67), the county town of Yorkshire,
situated at the confluence of the Foss with the Ouse, 188 m.
N. of London and 22 m. NE. of Leeds; is an interesting historic
town, the seat of an archbishop, and a great railway centre;
known among the Romans as Eboracum, it was the centre of the
Roman power in the North, relics of which as such still remain;
its cathedral, known as the Minster, is one of the grandest
in England; it is built on the site of a church erected as early
as the 7th century, and was finished as it now exists in 1470;
it is 524 ft. in length, and the transepts 250 ft., the breadth
of the nave 140 ft., the height of the central tower 216 ft.,
and of the western one 201 ft. There are other buildings of
great antiquity, and the Guildhall dates from the 15th century.
It is the military head-quarters of the northern district of
York, Cardinal, the last
of the line of the Stuart royal family, who died in 1807, 19
years after his brother Charles Edward.
York, Duke of, title often
given to the second son of the English sovereign, and conferred
in 1892 upon Prince George, second son of the Prince of Wales
(afterwards King Edward VII.), and held by him till 1901. In
that year the Duke and Duchess visited Australia, in order to
inaugurate the new Commonwealth. Henry VIII. and Charles I.
were Dukes of York, while their elder brothers were alive, and
James II., till he became King.
Yorke, Oliver, the name
assumed by the editor of Fraser's Magazine when it first
Yorkshire (3,208), the largest
county in England, is divided into three Ridings (i. e.
thirdings or thirds) for administrative purposes, North, East,
and West, with a fourth called the Ainsty, under the jurisdiction
of the Lord Mayor and aldermen of York; of these the West is
the wealthiest and the most populous; contains a large coal-field,
and is the centre of the woollen manufacture of the county;
the East being mainly agricultural, with iron-works and shipbuilding-works;
and the North mainly pastoral, with industries connected with
mining and shipping. Leeds (q.
v.) is the largest town.
Yorktown, a small town in Virginia,
U.S., on the York River, where Lord Cornwallis surrendered to
Washington in 1781.
Yosemite Valley, the
most remarkable gorge in the world, in the centre of California,
140 m. E. of San Francisco, 6 m. long and from ½ to 24
m. broad, girt by perpendicular walls thousands of feet deep
and traversed by the river Merced in a succession of falls of
great height, the whole presenting a scene of mingled grandeur
and beauty; it was discovered in 1851, and steps are being taken
by Congress to preserve it as a place of public resort and recreation.
Youghal, a seaport in co. Cork,
on the estuary of Blackwater, 27 m. E. of Cork; has some structures
of interest, and exports chiefly agricultural produce.
Young, Arthur, writer on
agriculture, born at Whitehall; was trained to mercantile life,
which he abandoned in disgust, and took to farming, which he
studied at home and abroad and practised on scientific lines,
and became Secretary of the Board of
Agriculture on its establishment in 1793; he elevated agriculture
to the rank of a science and imparted dignity to the pursuit
of it (1741-1820).
Young, Brigham, Mormon
polygamist chief, born at Whittingham, Vermont, U.S., son of
a small farmer; had no schooling, wrought as carpenter, fell
in with Joe Smith's brother, and embraced Mormonism in 1832;
became one of the apostles of the Church and a preacher, and
finally the head in 1851 after the settlement of the body at
Utah; with all his fanaticism he was a worldly-wise man and
a wise manager of secular affairs; died rich, leaving his fortune
to 17 wives and 56 children (1810-1877).
Young, Charles Mayne,
tragedian, born in London, made his début in 1798;
married in 1805 a gifted young actress, Julia Anne Grimani,
with whom he had often played in lover's parts, and whom, after
a brilliant partnership of 16 months on the stage together,
he the year after lost in giving birth to a son; he survived
her 50 years, but the love with which he loved her never faded
from his heart; appeared in the Haymarket, London, in 1807 in
the character of Hamlet; played afterwards other Shakespearian
characters, such as Iago, Macbeth, and Falstaff in Covent Garden
and Drury Lane, and took leave of the stage in 1832 in the same
character in which he first appeared on it in London, and died
at Brighton (1777-1856).
Young, Edward, poet, born
in Hampshire, educated at Westminster School; studied at Corpus
Christi, Oxford, and obtained a Fellowship at All-Souls' College;
wrote plays and satires, but is best known to fame as the author
of "Night Thoughts," which has been pronounced "his
best work and his last good work," a poem which was once
in high repute, and is less, if at all, in favour to-day, being
written in a mood which is a strain upon the reader; it is "a
little too declamatory," says Professor Saintsbury, "a
little too suggestive of soliloquies in an inky cloak, with
footlights in front"; his "Revenge," acted in
1721, is pronounced by the professor to be "perhaps the
very last example of an acting tragedy of real literary merit";
his satires in the "Love of Fame; or, The Universal Passion,"
almost equalled those of Pope, and brought him both fame and
fortune; he took holy orders in 1727, and became in 1730 rector
of Welwyn, in Hertfordshire; his flattery of his patrons was
fulsome, and too suggestive of the toady (1681-1765).
Young, James, practical chemist,
born in Glasgow; discovered cheap methods of producing certain
substances of value in the chemical arts, and made experiments
which led to the manufacture of paraffin (1811-1889).
Young, Robert, a notorious
impostor; forged certificates, and obtained deacons' orders
and curacies, and could by no penalty be persuaded to an honest
life, and was hanged in the end for coining in 1700.
Young, Thomas, physicist,
born in Somersetshire, of Quaker parents; studied medicine at
home and abroad; renounced Quakerism, and began practice in
London in 1800; was next year appointed professor of Natural
Philosophy in the Royal Institution, 1802; made Secretary of
the Royal Society, and was afterwards nominated for other important
appointments; his principal work is a "Course of Lectures
on Natural Philosophy and the Mechanical Arts," published
in 1807, in which he propounded the undulatory theory of light,
and the principle of the interference of rays; the hieroglyphic
inscriptions of Egypt occupied much of his attention, and he
is credited with having anticipated Champollion in discovering
the key to them (1773-1829).
Young Men's Christian
Association, an association founded in London in 1844,
for the benefit of young men connected with various dry-goods
houses in the city, and which extended itself over the other
particularly large cities throughout the country, so that now
it is located in 1249 centres, and numbers in London alone some
14,000 members; its object is the welfare of young men at once
spiritually, morally, socially, and physically.
People's Society of Christian Endeavour, a society established
in 1881 by Dr. F. E. Clark, Portland, Maine, U.S., in 1898;
has a membership of three and a quarter million; it is undenominational,
but evangelical apparently, and its professed object is "to
promote an earnest Christian life among its members, to increase
their mutual acquaintanceship, and to make them more useful
in the service of God."
Youngstown (45), a town in
Ohio, U.S., with large iron factories; is in the heart of a
district rich in iron and coal.
Ypres (16), an old Belgian town
in West Flanders, 30 m. SW. of Bruges; was at one time a great
weaving centre, and famous for its diaper linen; has much fallen
off, though it retains a town-hall and a cathedral, both of
Gothic architecture in evidence of what it once was; it was
strongly fortified once, and has been subjected to many sieges;
the manufacture of thread and lace is now the most important
Yriarte, Charles, French
littérateur, born in Paris, of Spanish ancestry; has
written works dealing with Spain, Paris, the Franco-German War,
Venice, &c.; b. 1832.
Yriarte, Thomas de,
Spanish poet; studied at Madrid; was editor of the Madrid
Mercury; his principal works "Musica," a poem,
and "Literary Fables" (1750-1790).
Ystad, a seaport in the extreme
S. of Sweden, with a commodious harbour, and a trade chiefly
Ystradyfodwg (88), a township
in Glamorgan, in a rich mining district.
Yttrium, a rare metal always
found in combination with others, and is a blackish-gray powder;
the oxide of it, yttria, is a soft whitish powder, and when
ignited glows with a pure white light.
Yucatan, a peninsula in Central
America dividing the Gulf of Mexico from the Caribbean Sea,
and one of the few peninsulas of the world that extend northwards;
is a flat expanse; has a good climate and a fertile soil, yielding
maize, rice, tobacco, indigo, &c.; abounds in forests of
valuable wood; forms one of the States of the Mexican Republic;
it bears traces of early civilisation in the ruins of temples
and other edifices.
Yuga, a name given by the Hindus
to the four ages of the world, and, according to M. Barth, of
the gradual triumph of evil, as well as of the successive creations
and destructions of the universe, following each other in the
lapse of immense periods of time.
Yukon, a great river of Alaska,
rises in British territory, and after a course of 2000 m. falls,
by a number of mouths forming a delta, into the Behring Sea;
it is navigable nearly throughout, and its waters swarm with
salmon three months in the year, some of them from 80 to 120
lbs. weight, and from 5 to 6 ft. long.
Yule, the old name for the festival
of Christmas, originally a heathen one, observed at the winter
solstice in joyous recognition of the
return northward of the sun at that period, being a relic in
the N. of the old sun worship.
Yule, Sir Henry, Orientalist,
born at Inveresk, Mid-Lothian; was an officer in Bengal Engineers,
and engaged in surveys in the East; was president of the Royal
Asiatic Society; wrote numerous articles for Asiatic societies;
his two great works, "The Book of Marco Polo the Venetian"
and the "Anglo-Indian Glossary," known by its other
title as "Hobson Jobson" (1820-1889).
Yumboes, fairies in African
mythology, represented as about two feet in height, and of a
Yung-ling, a mountain range
running N. and S., which forms the eastern buttress of the tableland
of Central Asia.
Yunnan (4,000), the extreme south-western
province of the Chinese Empire; is fertile particularly in the
S.; yields large quantities of maize, rice, tobacco, sugar,
and especially opium, and abounds in mineral wealth, including
gold, silver, mercury, as well as iron, copper, and lead; the
country was long a prey to revolt against the Chinese rule,
but it is now, after a war of extermination against the rebels,
the Panthays, the Burmese, reduced to order.
Yuste, St., called also St.
Just, a village in Estremadura, Spain, the seat of a monastery
where Charles V., Emperor of Germany, spent the last 18 years
of his life, and where he died.
Yves, the patron-saint of lawyers;
was a lawyer himself, and used his knowledge of the law to defend
the oppressed; is called in Brittany "the poor man's advocate."
Yvetot (7), an old town in the
dep. of Seine-Inférieure, 24 m. NW. of Rouen, with manufactures
of textile fabrics, and a trade in agricultural produce, the
seigneurs of which long bore the title of king, "Roi d'Yvetot,"
a title satirically applied by Béranger to Napoleon,
and often employed to denote an insignificant potentate with