Zaandam or Saardam (15),
a town in North Holland, 5 m. NW. of Amsterdam; intersected
with a network of canals, with various manufactures, including
shipbuilding, and a considerable trade; it was here Peter the
Great wrought as a ship carpenter in 1699, and the house is
still preserved in which he lived, with a stone tablet inscribed "Petro
Zacate`cas (40), a town of
Mexico, capital of an inland province of the same name (452),
440 m. NW. of Mexico City; a great silver-mining centre, an
industry which employs over 10,000 of the inhabitants; it is
in a valley over 6000 ft. above the sea-level, and has several
fine churches, a college, a mint, &c.
Zacharias, Pope from 741 to
752; succeeded Gregory III.; set aside the Merovingian dynasty
and sanctioned the elevation of Pepin the Short to the throne
of France, in return for which Pepin twice over saved Rome from
Zacoccia, a king of Mozambique
who, according to the Lusiad (q.
v.), received Vasco da Gama with welcome, believing him
to be a Mohammedan, but conceived feelings of bitterest hatred
to him when he discovered he was a Christian, and tried, but
all in vain, to allure him to his ruin; the agent he employed
to compass it failing, in his despair he took away his own life.
Zadig, name of a famous novel
by Voltaire, of a philosophical cast, bearing upon life as in
the hands of a destiny beyond our control.
Zadkiel, according to the Rabbins,
the name of the angel of the planet Jupiter; also pseudonym
assumed by Richard James Morrison, a naval officer, believer
in astrology, and the compiler of an astrological almanac.
Zagazig (35), a town in the
Delta of Egypt, 50 m. NE. of Cairo; a railway centre, and entrepôt
for the cotton and grain grown in the section of the delta round
it, and once a centre of worship, and the site of two temples;
Tel-el-Kebir (q. v.)
lies E. of it.
Zahn, Theodor, biblical
scholar, born in Rhenish Prussia, professor of Theology at Erlangen;
distinguished for his eminent scholarship in connection with
the matter especially of the New Testament canon; b.
Zähringen, a village
2 m. N. of Freiburg, in Baden, with a castle now in ruins which
gives name to the reigning grand-ducal family of Baden, the
founders of which were counts of Breisgau.
Zaire, name for the
Congo (q. v.) in part of
its lower course.
Zakkum, a tree, according to
Moslem belief, growing in hell, and of the bitter fruit of which
the damned are compelled to eat so as to intensify their torment.
Zaleucus, law-giver of the
ancient Locrians, a Greek people settled in Lower Italy, and
who flourished in 700th century B.C.; had a supreme respect
for law, and was severe in the enforcement of it; punished adultery
with the forfeiture of sight; refused to exonerate his own son
who had been guilty of the offence, but submitted to the loss
of one of his own eyes instead of exacting the full penalty
of the culprit; had established a law forbidding any one to
enter the Senate-house armed; did so himself on one occasion
in a sudden emergency, was reminded of the law, and straightway
fell upon his sword as a sacrifice to the sovereignty of the
claims of social order.
Zama, a fortified city of ancient
Numidea, 100 m. SW. of Carthage, where
Hannibal (q. v.) was defeated
by Scipio Africanus, and the Second
Punic War (q. v.) brought to an end, and the fate
of Carthage virtually sealed.
Zambesi, one of the four great
African rivers, and the fourth largest as regards both the volume
of its waters and the area it drains, the other three being
the Nile, the Congo, and the Niger; its head-streams being the
Lungebungo, the Leeba, and Leeambye; it waters a rich pastoral
region, and it falls into the Indian Ocean after a course of
nearly 1600 m., in which it drains 600,000 sq. m. of territory,
or an area three times larger than that of France; owing to
cataracts and rapids it is only navigable in different stretches;
at 900 m. from its mouth it plunges in a cataract known as the
Victoria Falls, and which rivals in grandeur those even of Niagara.
Zambesia, a territory on the
Zambesi, under British protection, and in the hands of the British
South Africa Company, embracing Mashonaland, Matabeleland, and
the country of Khama.
Zamora (15), ancient town of
Spain, on the right bank of the Douro, 150 m. NW. of Madrid;
now in a decayed state; was a flourishing place in Moorish times;
contains interesting ruins; manufactures linens and woollens,
and trades in wine and fruits.
Zangwill, Israel, littérateur,
born in London, of Jewish parents in poor circumstances; practically
self-taught; studied at London University, where he took his
degree with triple honours; became a teacher, then a journalist;
has written novels, essays, and poems; among his works the "Bachelor's
Club," "Old Maid's Club," "Children of the
Ghetto," "Dreams of the Ghetto," "The Master," "Without
Prejudice," &c.; b. 1854.
Zangwill, Louis, man of
letters, brother of preceding; self-taught; has written several
works under the pseudonym of ZZ; distinguished himself at one
time as a chess-player; b. 1869.
Zante (15), one of the Ionian
Islands, 9 m. off the NW. coast of the Morea, is 24 m. long
and 12 broad; raises currants, the produce of a dwarf vine,
and exports large quantities annually. Zante (14), the capital,
on a bay on the E. coast, is a clean and prosperous town, most
so of any in the group of islands.
Zanzibar, a kingdom of East
Africa, under British protection, consisting of the islands
of Zanzibar (150), with a capital (30) of the same name, and
the island of Pemba (50), and a strip of the coast extending
10 m. inland from Cape Delgado to Kipini; has a hot unhealthy
climate, and a rich tropical vegetation; its products are cloves
chiefly, coco-nuts, betel-nuts, and grain, and the exports ivory,
india-rubber, gum, &c.; the natives are mostly Arab Mohammedans
under a sultan.
Zaporogians, Cossacks of
the Ukraine, who revolted under Mazeppa as chief, and were transported
by Catherine II to the shores of the Sea of Azov.
Zara (11), the capital of Dalmatia,
and a seaport of Austria, on a promontory on the coast, 129
m. SE. of Trieste; it was founded by the Venetians, has a spacious
harbour, was strongly fortified, and the chief manufactures
are glass and a liqueur called maraschino.
Zea, the ancient Ceos, an island
of the Grecian Archipelago; of great fertility; produces wine,
honey, silk, and maize.
Zealand, the largest island
in the Danish Archipelago, situated between the Cattegat and
the Baltic, being 81 m. long and 67 m. broad, with
Copenhagen (q. v.) on
the E. coast; the surface is nearly everywhere fiat, and agriculture
and cattle-rearing the chief industries.
Zealand (213), a province
of the Netherlands, formed chiefly of islands, of which
Walcheren (q. v.) is
one, constituting a delta as if formed by the Maas and Scheldt;
great part of it is reclaimed from the sea.
Zealand, New. See
Zealots, the, a fanatical
party among the Jews in Judea, who rose in revolt against the
Roman domination on the appointment over them of a Roman governor
instead of a native prince, which they regarded as an insult
to their religion and religious belief.
Zebu, one of the Visaya group of
the Philippine Islands, E. of Negros.
Zechariah, a Hebrew prophet
who appears to have been born in Babylon during the captivity,
and to have prophesied in Jerusalem at the time of the restoration,
and to have contributed by his prophecies to encourage the people
in rebuilding the temple and reorganising its worship; his prophecies
are divided into two great sections, but the authenticity of
the latter has been much debated; he is reckoned one of the
Zedlitz, Joseph Christian
von, poet, born in Austrian Silesia; entered and served
in the army, and did service as a diplomatist; wrote dramas
and lyrics, and translated Byron's "Childe Harold"
into German (1790-1862).
Zeehan, a township of recent
growth on the W. coast of Tasmania, with large silver-lead mines
wrought by several companies, and a source of great wealth.
Zeit-geist (i. e.
Time-spirit), German name for the spirit of the time, or the
dominant trend of life and thought at any particular period.
Zeitun (20), a town in the province
of Aleppo, with iron mines, inhabited chiefly by Armenian Christians;
distinguished as having for centuries maintained their independence
under Turkish oppression.
Zeller, Eduard, German
professor of Philosophy, born in Würtemberg; studied at
Tübingen; was first a disciple of Baur, and then of Hegel;
became professor at Berlin, and devoted himself chiefly to the
history of Greek philosophy, and distinguished himself most
in that regard; b. 1814.
Zemindar, in India a holder
or farmer of land from the government, and responsible for the
Zem-Zem, a sacred well in Mecca,
and all built round along with the Caaba
(q. v.); has its name from the bubbling sound of the
waters; the Moslems think it the Well which Hagar found with
her little Ishmael in the wilderness when he was dying of thirst.
Zenana, in India the part of
a house reserved for the women among Hindu families of good
caste, and to which only since 1860 Christian women missionaries
have been admitted, and a freer intercourse established.
Zend, name applied, mistakenly
it would seem, by the Europeans to the ancient Iranian language
of Persia, or the language in which the Zend-Avesta is written,
closely related to the Sanskrit of the Vedas it appears.
Zend-Avesta, the name given
to the sacred writings of the Guebres or Parsees, ascribed to
Zoroaster, of which he was more the compiler than the author,
and of which many are now lost; they represent several stages
of religious development, and as a whole yield no consistent
Zenith, name of Arab origin given
to the point of the heaven directly overhead, being as it were
the pole of the horizon, the opposite point directly under foot
being called the Nadir, a word of similar origin; the imaginary
line connecting the two passes through the centre of the earth.
Zeno, Greek philosopher of the
Eleatic school (q. v.),
and who flourished in 500 B.C.; was the founder of the dialectic
so successfully adopted by Socrates, which argues for a particular
truth by demonstration of the absurdity that would follow from
its denial, a process of argument known as the reductio ad
Zeno, Greek philosopher, the
founder of Stoic philosophy, born at Citium, in Cyprus, son
of a merchant and bred to merchandise, but losing all in a shipwreck
gave himself up to the study of philosophy; went to Athens,
and after posing as a cynic at length opened a school of his
own in the Stoa, where he taught to extreme old age a gospel
called Stoicism, which, at the decline of the heathen world,
proved the stay of many a noble soul that but for it would have
died without sign, although it is thus "Sartor," in
the way of apostrophe, underrates it: "Small is it that
thou canst trample the Earth with its injuries under thy feet,
as old Greek Zeno trained thee; thou canst love the Earth while
it injures thee, and even because it injures thee; for this
a Greater than Zeno was needed, and he too was sent" (342-270
B.C.). See Stoics, The.
Zenobia, queen of Palmyra and
ultimately of the East, whose ambition provoked the jealousy
of the Emperor Aurelian, who marched an army against her, and
after a succession of defeats subdued her and brought her to
Rome to adorn his triumph as conqueror, though afterwards he
presented her with a domain at Tivoli, where she spent the rest
of her days in queen-like dignity, with her two sons by her
side; she was a woman of great courage and surpassing beauty.
Zephaniah, a Hebrew prophet
who prophesied in the interval between the decline and fall
of Nineveh and the hostile advance of Babylon; forewarned the
nation of the judgment of God impending over them for their
ungodliness, and exhorted them to repentance as the only way
of averting the inevitable doom, while he at the same time encouraged
the faithful to persevere in their godly course with the assurance
that the day of judgment would be succeeded by a day of glorious
deliverance, that they would yet become "a name and a praise
among the people of the earth."
Zephon (searcher of secrets),
name of a cherub sent, along with
Ithuriel (q. v.), by the archangel Gabriel to find
out the whereabouts of Satan after his flight from hell.
Zephyrus, a personification
in the Greek mythology of the West Wind, and in love with Flora.
Zermatt, a small village of
the canton Valais, in Switzerland, 23 in. SW. of Brieg, a great
centre of tourists and the starting-point in particular for
the ascent of the Matterhorn.
Zero, a word of Arab origin signifying
a cipher, and employed to denote a neutral point in scale between
an ascending and descending series, or between positive and
Zeus, the chief deity of the Greeks,
the sovereign ruler of the world, the father of gods and men,
the mightiest of the gods, and to whose will as central all
must bow; he was the son of Kronos and Rhea; by the help of
his brothers and sisters dethroned his father, seized the sovereign
power, and appointed them certain provinces of the universe
to administer in his name—Hera to rule with him as queen
above, Poseidon over the sea, Pluto over the nether world, Demeter
over the fruits of the earth, Hestia over social life of mankind;
to his dynasty all the powers in heaven and earth were more
or less related, descended from it and dependent on it; and
he himself was to the Greeks the symbol of the intelligence
which was henceforth to be the life and light of men, an idea
which is reflected in the name Jupiter given him by the Romans,
which means "father of the day"; he is represented
as having his throne in heaven, and as wielding a thunderbolt
in his right hand, in symbol of the jealousy with which he guards
the order of the world established under him as chief.
Zeuss, Johann Kaspar,
great Celtic scholar, and the founder of Celtic philology, born
at Voghtendorf, in Upper Franconia, professor at Bamberg; his
great work, "Grammatica Celtica" (1806-1856).
Zeuxis, famous Greek painter,
born at Heraclea, and who flourished from 420 B.C. to the close
of the century; was unrivalled in rendering types of sensuous,
specially female, beauty, and his principal works are his pictures
of "Helen," "Zeus Enthroned," "The
Infant Hercules Strangling the Serpent"; he is said to
have given away several of his works rather than sell them,
as no price could pay him for them.
Zidon, an ancient town of Phoenicia,
20 m. N. of Tyre, and the original capital.
Ziethen, Johann Joachim
von, Prussian general, born in Russia; entered the army
at the age of 15, served as a cavalry officer under Frederick
the Great, was one of the greatest of his generals, became his
personal friend, and contributed to a great many of his victories,
all of which he lived through, spending his days thereafter
in quiet retirement at Berlin in favour with the people and
in honour to the last with the king; is described by Carlyle
at 45 as "beautiful" to him, though with "face
one of the coarsest," but "face thrice-honest, intricately
ploughed with thoughts which are well kept silent (the thoughts
indeed being themselves mostly inarticulate, thoughts of a simple-hearted,
much-enduring, hot-tempered son of iron and oatmeal); decidedly
rather likeable" (1699-1786). See
Zig, a giant cock in the
Talmud (q. v.), which stands
with its foot on the earth, touches heaven with its head, and
when it spreads its wings causes a total eclipse of the sun.
Zillerthal, a valley in the
Tyrol, watered by the Ziller, an affluent of the Inn, some 400
of the inhabitants of which were in 1837 obliged to seek a home
elsewhere because of their opposition to the practice of auricular
confession, and which they found near Liegnitz, in Prussian
Zimbabye, a remarkable ruin
in Mashonaland, the remains apparently of some enterprising
colony of nature-worshippers that settled there in ancient times,
in the interest of trade presumably.
Zimmermann, Johan Georg
von, Swiss physician, born at Brugg, in the canton of
Bern; studied at Göttingen, became the friend of
Haller (q. v.), and settled
down to practice in his native town, where he continued 16 years,
very successful both in medicine and literature, but "tormented
with hypochondria," and wrote his book on "Solitude,"
which was translated into every European language; wrote also
on "Medical Experiences," a famed book in its day
too, also on "National Pride," and became "famed
throughout the universe"; attended Frederick the Great
on his deathbed, and wrote an unwise book about him, "a
poor puddle of calumnies and credulities" (1728-1795).
For insight into the man and his ways see
a curious record.
Zindikites, a Mohammedan
heretical sect, who disbelieve in Allah, and deny the resurrection
and a future life.
Zinzendorf, a German
count, born in Dresden; studied at Wittenberg, came under the
influence of the Pietist Spener, gave himself up to evangelical
labours, and established a religious community on his estate
at Herrnhut, in Saxony, consisting chiefly of a body of Moravian
Brethren, who had been driven out of Bohemia and Moravia on
account of their religious opinions, and were called Herrnhuters,
of which he became one of the leaders and chief apostles, labouring
far and wide in the propagation of their doctrines and suffering
no small persecution by the way; he was an earnest man, the
author of religious writings, controversial and devotional;
wrote a number of hymns, and died at Herrnhut, from which he
was driven forth, but to which he was allowed to return before
the end (1700-1760).
Zion, that one of the four hills
on which Jerusalem is built, on the SW. of the city, and the
site of the palace of King David and his successors.
Zionism, the name given a movement
on the part of the Jews to re-establish themselves in Palestine
as a nation.
Zirconia Light, an intensely
brilliant light, similar to the Drummond light, but differing
from it chiefly in the employment of
cones of zirconium instead of cylinders of lime; it has been
superseded by the electric light.
Zirconium, a metallic element
often found in connection with silica, commonly in the form
of a black powder.
Zirknitz, Lake, a high-lying
lake in Carniola, 20 m. SW. of Laybach, the waters of which
in the dry season will sometimes disappear altogether through
the fissures, and in rainy will sometimes expand into a lake
5 m. long and 3 m. broad.
Ziska, Johann, Hussite leader,
born in Bohemia of a noble family; began life as a page at the
court of King Wenceslas, but threw up a courtier's life in disgust
for a career in arms; fought and distinguished himself by his
valour against the Teutonic knights at Tannenberg in 1410, to
their utter defeat; signalised himself afterwards against the
Turks, and in 1413 fought on the English side at Agincourt;
failing to rouse Wenceslas to avenge the death of
Huss (q. v.) and of
Jerome of Prague (q.
v.), he joined the Hussites, organised their forces, assumed
the chief command, and in 1420 gained, with a force of 4000
men, a victory over the Emperor Sigismund with an army of 40,000
mustered to crush him; captured next year the castle of Prague,
erected fortresses over the country, one in particular called
Tabor, whence the name Taborites given to his party; blind of
one eye from his childhood, lost the other at the siege of Ratz,
fought on blind notwithstanding, gaining victory after victory,
but was seized with the plague and carried off by it at Czaslav,
where his remains were buried and his big mace or battle-club,
mostly iron, hung honourably on the wall close by; that his
skin was tanned and made into the cover of a drum is a fable;
he was a tough soldier, and is called once and again in Carlyle's "Frederick" "Rhinoceros
Zittau (25), a town of Saxony,
71 m. SE. of Dresden, with a magnificent Rathhaus; stands on
a vast lignite deposit; manufactures cotton, linen, machinery, &c.
Zlatoust (21), a Russian town
near the Urals, 130 m. NE. of Ufa, with iron and gold mines
near; manufactures sword-blades and other steel ware.
Zoar, a small village of Ohio,
U.S., 91 m. S. of Cleveland, and the seat of a German Socialistic
Zöckler, Otto, German
theologian, professor at Greifswald; edited a "Handbuch
der theologischen Wissenschaft," and other works; b.
Zodiac, the name given to a belt
of the heavens extending 8° on each side of the ecliptic,
composed of twelve constellations called signs of the zodiac,
which the sun traverses in the course of a year. These signs,
of which six are on the N. of the ecliptic and six on the S.,
are, commencing with the former, named successively: Aries,
the Ram; Taurus, the Bull; Gemini, the Twins; Cancer, the Crab;
Leo, the Lion; Virgo, the Virgin; Libra, the Balance; Scorpio,
the Scorpion; Sagittarius, the Archer; Capricornus, the Goat;
Aquarius, the Water-bearer; and Pisces, the Fishes. The sun
enters Aries at the spring equinox and Libra at the autumnal
equinox, while the first point of Cancer marks the summer solstice,
and that of Capricorn the winter. The name Zodiac is derived
from the Greek zoon, an animal, and has been given to
the belt because the majority of the signs are named after animals.
Zodiacal Light, a track
of light of triangular figure with its base on the horizon,
which in low latitudes is seen within the sun's equatorial plane
before sunrise in the E. or after sunset in the W., and which
is presumed to be due to a glow proceeding from some illuminated
matter surrounding the sun.
Zohar, a Jewish book of cabalistic
commentaries on the Old Testament.
Zoilus, a Greek rhetorician who
flourished in the 3rd century B.C.; was distinguished for the
bitterness with which he criticised Homer, and whose name has
in consequence become a synonym for a malignant critic, hence
the saying, "Every great poet has his Zoilus."
Zola, Émile, a noted
French novelist of the realistic school, or of what he prefers
to call the naturalist school, born in Paris, of Italian descent;
began literature as a journalist, specially in the critical
department, but soon gave himself up to novel-writing, ultimately
on realistic lines, and an undue catering, as some think, to
a morbid interest on the seamy side of life, to which he addressed
himself with great vigour and not a little graphic power, but
in an entire misconception of his proper functions as an artist
and a man of letters, though, it may be pleaded, he has done
so from a strong conviction on his part that his duty lay the
other way, and that it was high time literature should, regardless
of merely dilettante æstheticism, address itself to exposing,
by depicting it, the extent to which the evil genius is gnawing
at and corroding the vitals of society; and it is not for a
moment to be supposed he has done so from any pleasure he takes
in gloating over the doings of the ghoul, or that he is in sympathy
with those who do; of his works suffice it to mention here some
recent ones, as the story of "Lourdes," published
in 1894, "Rome" in 1896, and "Paris" in
1897; he has recently distinguished himself by his courage in
connection with the Dreyfus affair and his bold condemnation
of the sentence under which Dreyfus was condemned; b.
Zolaism, name given to an excessive
realism in depicting the worst side of human life and society.
Zollverein (Customs Union),
a union of the German States under Prussia in 1827, and extended
in 1867, to establish among them a uniform system of customs
Zones, the name given to belts
of climate on the surface of the earth marked off by the tropical
and polar circles, of which the former are 23½° from
the equator and the latter 23½° from the poles, the
zone between the tropical circles, subject to extremes of heat,
being called the Torrid Zone, the zones between the polar circles
and the poles, subject to extremes of cold, being called respectively
the North Frigid Zone and the South Frigid Zone, and the zones
north and south of the Torrid, subject to moderate temperature,
being called respectively the North Temperate, and the South
or Zerdusht, the founder or reformer of the Parsee religion,
of whom, though certainly a historical personage, nothing whatever
is for certain known except that his family name was Spitama,
that he was born in Bactria, and that he could not have flourished
later than 800 B.C.; he appears to have been a pure monotheist,
and not to be responsible for the Manichean doctrine of dualism
associated with his name, as Zoroastrianism, or the institution
Zosimus, Greek historian; wrote
a history of the Roman emperors from the time of Augustus to
the year 410, and ascribed the decline of the empire to the
decay of paganism (408-450).
Zouaves, the name given to a
body of light infantry in the French army wearing the Arab dress,
a costume copied from that of Kabyles,
in North Africa, and adopted since the French conquest of Algiers;
some regiments of them consist of French soldiers, some of Algerines,
though originally the two were incorporated into one body.
Zoutspansberg, a ridge
of mountains on the NE. of the Transvaal, being a continuation
of the Drakensberg.
Zschokke, Johann Heinrich,
a German writer, born in Magdeburg, lived chiefly at Aarau,
in Aargau, Switzerland, where he spent forty years of his life,
part of them in the service of his adopted country, and where
he died; wrote histories, and a series of tales, but is best
known by his "Stunden der Andacht" (i. e. hours
of devotion), on ethico-rationalistic lines (1771-1845).
Zug (23), the smallest canton of
Switzerland, and sends only one representative to the National
Council; is 12 m. long by 9 m. broad; is hilly and pastoral
in the SE., and has cultivated fields and orchards in the NW.;
all but includes Lake Zug, at the NE. of which is Zug (5), the
capital, which carries on sundry industries on a small scale.
Zuider Zee (i. e. south
sea), a deep inlet of the North Sea, in the Netherlands, which
includes the islands of Texel, Vlieland, Terschelling, and Ameland,
and was formed by irruptions of the North Sea into a lake called
Flevo, in the 12th, 13th, and 14th centuries, when thousands
of people were drowned; is 85 m. long and 45 m. broad, and is
embraced in a circuit of 210 m.; it was for some time in contemplation
to reclaim this area, and after much weighing of the matter
the Dutch Government in 1897 adopted a scheme to give effect
to this project; according to the scheme adopted it is reckoned
it will take 31 years to complete the reclamation at the rate
of several thousand acres every year.
Zuleika, the bride of Abydos,
celebrated by Byron, a pure-souled woman of great beauty, who,
in love with Selim, promises to flee with him and become his
bride, but her father shoots him, and she dies of a broken heart.
Zululand (181), a territory
to the NE. of Natal, from which it is separated by the Tugela,
and of which it was independent till 1898, but it is now an
integral part; it is a little larger than Belgium, is well watered,
is capable of cultivation, and has 140 m. of seaboard; it is
understood to possess some mineral wealth, though it has not
yet been wrought.
Zulus, a section of the Bantu
family which originally occupied the SE. seaboard of Africa
from Delagoa Bay to the Great Fish River; they are a race of
superior physique and intellectual endowment, as well as moral
temperament, and incline to a quiet pastoral life; they were
attacked under Cetywayo by the English in 1879, but after falling
upon an English force at Isandula, and cutting it in pieces,
were overpowered at Ulundi, and put to rout.
Zumpt, Karl, philologist,
born in Berlin, and professor at the University; edited a number
of the Latin classics, and is best known by his Latin Grammar
Spanish painter, born in Estremadura; did mostly religious subjects;
his chef-d'oeuvre an altar-piece in Seville, where he
lived and worked (1598-1662).
Zurich (392), a northern canton
in Switzerland, and the second largest; is in the basin of the
Rhine, with a well-cultivated fertile soil, and manufactures
of cottons and silks, and with a capital (151) of the same name
at the foot of the Lake of Zurich; a large manufacturing and
trading centre; has a Romanesque cathedral and a university,
with silk mills and cotton mills, as well as foundries and machine
shops; here Lavater was born and Zwingli was pastor.
Zutphen (17), manufacturing
town in the Dutch province of Guelderland, in the neighbourhood
of which Sir Philip Sidney fell wounded in a skirmish.
Zwickau (50), a town in Saxony,
in a division (1,389) of the same name, 82 m. SW. of Dresden;
it is in the midst of rich beds of coal, and has a number of
Zwingli, Ulrich, the Swiss
Reformer, born at Wildhaus, in the canton of St. Gall, and founder
of the Reformed Church; studied at Bern and Vienna, afterwards
theology at Basel, and was appointed pastor at Glarus; he got
acquainted with Erasmus at Basel, and gave himself to the study
of Greek, and in particular the epistles of St. Paul; attached
to the monastery of Einsiedeln he, in 1516, attacked the sale
of indulgences, and was in 1518 elected to be preacher in the
cathedral of Zurich; his preaching was attended with an awakening,
and the bishop of Constance tried to silence him, but he was
silenced himself in a public debate with the Reformer, the result
of which was the abolition of the Mass and the dispensation
instead of the Lord's Supper; the movement thus begun went on
and spread, and Zwingli met in conference with Luther, but they
failed to agree on the matter of the Eucharist, and on that
point the Lutheran and the Reformed Churches separated; in 1531
the Catholic cantons declared war against the reformers of Zurich
and Bern, but the latter were defeated at Cappel, and among
the dead on the battlefield was the Reformer; his last words
were, "They may kill the body, but not the soul" (1484-1531).
Zwolle (25), a manufacturing
town in the Dutch province of Oberyssel, 50 m. NE. of Amsterdam;
close to it is Agnetenberg, famous as the seat of the monastery
where Thomas à Kempis lived and died.
Zyme, name of a germ presumed to
be the cause of zymotic diseases.
Zymotic Diseases, diseases
of a contagious nature, presumed to be due to some virus or
organism which acts in the system like a ferment.