Lab`arum, the standard, surmounted
by the monogram of Christ, which was borne before the Emperor
Constantine after his conversion to Christianity, and in symbol
of the vision of the cross in the sky which led to it. It was
a lance with a cross-bar at its extremity and a crown on top,
and the monogram consisted of the Greek letter for Ch and R.
Labé, Louise, poetess,
surnamed "La belle Cordière" as the wife of
a rope-maker, born in Lyons; wrote in prose "Dialogue d'Amour
et de Folie," and elegies and sonnets, with "a singular
approach to the ring of Shakespeare's" (1526-1566).
Labiche, Eugene, a French
dramatist, born at Paris; his dramas give evidence of a genius
of inexhaustible fertility of invention, wit, and humour; his
best-known play "Le Voyage de M. Perrichon," 1860
Lablache, a celebrated operatic
deep bass singer, born in Naples, of French origin; he created
quite a furore wherever he went; was teacher of singing
to Queen Victoria (1794-1858).
Laboulaye, René de,
a French jurist, born in Paris; was a Moderate in politics;
wrote on French law, and was the author of some tales of a humorous
turn, such as "Paris in America" (1811-1883).
de, French naval officer, born at St. Malo, Governor
of the Isle of France; distinguished himself against the English
in India; was accused of dishonourable conduct, and committed
to the Bastille, but after a time found guiltless and liberated
Labrador (6), the great peninsula
in the E. of Canada, washed by Hudson's Bay, the Greenland Sea,
and the Gulf of St. Lawrence; is a high tableland, with many
lakes and rivers, and forests of birch and fir. The climate
is much too severe for agriculture. Summer is very short, and
plagued with mosquitoes. The rivers abound in salmon; the fox,
marten, otter, and other animals are trapped for their fur;
iron and labradorite are plentiful. The population is largely
Eskimo, christianised by the Moravians. The name Labrador specially
belongs to the region along the eastern coast, between Capes
St. Louis and Chudleigh, presenting a barren front to the sea,
precipitous, much indented, and fringed with rocky islands.
This region is governed by Newfoundland; its chief industry
is cod and herring fishing.
La Bruyère, Jean de,
a celebrated French moralist, born at Paris; was tutor to the
Duke of Bourbon, the grandson of the great Condé, and
spent a great part of his life in Paris in connection with the
Condé family; his most celebrated work is "Les Caractères
de Théophrastus" (1687), which abounds in wise maxims
and reflections on life, but gave offence to contemporaries
by the personal satires in it under disguised names; he ranks
high as a writer no less than as a moralist; his style is "a
model of ease, grace, and fluency, without weakness in his characters;
a book," adds Professor Saintsbury, "most interesting
to read, and especially to Englishmen" (1645-1696).
Labuan (6), a small island, distant
6 m. from the W. coast of North Borneo, ceded to Britain in
1846, and administered by the British North Borneo Company;
has rich coal-beds; its town, Victoria, is a market for Borneo
and the Sulu Archipelago, and exports sago, camphor, and pearls;
the population is chiefly Malay and Chinese.
Labyrinth, a name given to
sundry structures composed of winding passages so intricate
as to render it difficult to find the way out, and sometimes
in. Of these structures the most remarkable were those of Egypt
and of Crete. The Egyptian to the E. of Lake Moeris, consisted
of an endless number of dark chambers, connected by a maze of
passages into which it was difficult to find entrance; and the
Cretan, built by Dædalus, at the instance of Minos, to
imprison the Minotaur, out of which one who entered could not
find his way out again unless by means of a skein of thread.
It was by means of this, provided him by
Perseus (q. v.) found his
way out after slaying the Minotaur
Lac, a term employed in India for
a hundred thousand, a crore amounting to 100 lacs, usually of
Laccadives, The, or
The Hundred Thousand Isles (14), a group of low-lying coral
islands 200 m. W. of the Malabar coast of India, mostly barren,
and yielding chiefly cocoa-nuts; the population being Hindus
professing Mohammedanism and poorly off.
de, French naturalist, born at Agen; was entrusted by
Buffon to complete his Natural History on his death; wrote on
his own account also the natural histories of reptiles, of fishes,
and of man (1756-1825).
de, a French Jesuit, an extremely politic member of
the fraternity in the reign of Louis XIV.; had a country house
E. of Paris, the garden of which is now the cemetery Père
la Chaise (1624-1709).
Lachesis, the one of the three
Fates that spun the thread of life and apportioned the destinies
of man. See Parcæ.
Lachmann, Karl, a German
philologist and classical scholar, born at Brunswick, professor
at Berlin; besides sundry of the Latin classics, in particular
Lucretius, he edited the Nibelungen Lied, and the Greek New
Testament, as well as contributed important critical essays
on the composition of the "Iliad," which he regarded
as a collection of lays from various independent sources (1783-1851).
Lachryma Christi, a
sweet wine of a red or amber colour, produced from grapes grown
on Mount Vesuvius.
Laconia, ancient name for Sparta,
the inhabitants of which were noted for the brevity of their
Baptiste Henry, a celebrated French preacher, and one
of the most brilliant orators of the century; bred for the bar;
held sceptical opinions at first, but came under the influence
of religion; took orders as a priest and became associated with
Montalembert and Lamennais as joint-editor of the Avenir,
a journal which advocated views at once Ultramontane and radical,
but which, being condemned by the Pope, was discontinued; after
this he took to preaching, and immense crowds gathered to hear
his conferences, as they were called, in the church of Notre
Dame, where, to the astonishment of all, he appeared in the
pulpit in guise of a Dominican monk with the tonsure; he was
afterwards elected member of the Constitutent Assembly, where
he sat in his monk's attire, but he soon retired; he ended his
days as head of the Military College of Sorrèze (1802-1861).
Lacratelle, French historian,
born at Metz; began life as a journalist; became professor of
History in Paris University; wrote a history of the 18th century
and of the French Revolution, showing very great accuracy of
detail, if little historical insight (1766-1855).
La Crosse, the national game
of Canada, of Indian derivation; is played twelve a side, each
armed with a long-handled racquet or crosse, the object of the
game being to drive an india-rubber ball through the opponents'
Lactantius, a Christian apologist
of the early part of the 14th century, who, from his eloquent
advocacy of the Christian faith, was styled the Christian Cicero;
he was a pagan born, and by profession a rhetorician.
Ladislaus, the name of seven
kings of Hungary, of which the first (1077-1095) received canonisation
for his zeal on behalf of Christianity.
Ladoga, a lake as large as Wales
and the largest in Europe, in the NW. of Russia, not far from
St. Petersburg; it is the centre of an extensive lake and river
system, receiving the Volkhov, Syas, and Svir, and drained into
the Gulf of Finland by the Neva; but
so dangerous is navigation, owing to sunken rocks and shoals
and to the storms that prevail during the open months, that
the extensive shipping is carried round the S. shores by the
Ladoga and the canals.
Ladrones or Mariana Islands
(10), a well-watered, thickly-wooded group in the North Pacific,
1400 m. E. of the Philippines and belonging to Spain; produce
cotton, indigo, and sugar, but the trade is of little worth;
the only town is San Ignazio de Agaña, on the largest
Lady Chapel, a chapel dedicated
to the Virgin Mary attached to a church.
Lady Day, the festival of the
annunciation of the Virgin Mary, March 25; a quarter-day in
England and Ireland.
Lady of England, title
of Matilda, daughter of Henry I. and wife of Geoffrey Plantagenet,
conferred on her by a council held at Westminster, 1141.
Lady of Shalott, a maiden
of great beauty, the subject of a poem by Tennyson, in love
with Lancelot, who died because her love was not returned.
Lady of the Lake, the
name given to Vivien, the mistress of Merlin, who dwelt in an
imaginary lake, surrounded by a court of knights and damsels;
also to Helen Douglas, a heroine of Scott's, who lived with
her father near Loch Katrine.
La Fayette, Madame de,
novelist, born in Paris; is credited with being the originator
of the class of fiction in which character and its analysis
are held of chief account; she was the daughter of the governor
of Havre, and contracted a Platonic affection for La Rochefoucauld
in his old age, and was besides on intimate terms with Madame
Sévigné and the most eminent literary men of the
time; her "Princess de Clèves" is a classic
work, and the merit of it is enhanced by the reflection that
it preceded by nearly half a century the works both of Le Sage
and Defoe (1634-1693).
La Fayette, Marquis de, born
in the castle of Chavagnac; went to America in 1777, took an
active and self-sacrificing part in the War of Independence;
was honourably distinguished at the battle of Brandywine; sailed
for France, brought over auxiliaries; he commanded Washington's
vanguard in 1782; returned to Paris, and was made commander-in-chief
of the National Guard in 1789; would have achieved the Revolution
with the minimum of violence and set up a republic on the model
of the Washington one; was obliged to escape from France during
the Reign of Terror; was imprisoned five years at Olmütz,
but was liberated when Napoleon appeared on the scene; as a
consistent republican showed no favour to Napoleon; took part
in the Revolution of 1830, became again commander-in-chief of
the National Guard and a supporter of Louis Philippe, the citizen
king; characterised by Carlyle as "a constitutional pedant;
clear, thin, inflexible, as water turned to thin ice" (1757-1834).
Lafitte, Jacques, French
banker and financier; played a conspicuous part in the Revolution
of 1830, and by his influence as a liberal politician with the
French people secured the elevation of Louis Philippe to the
throne; in the calamities attendant on this Revolution his house
became insolvent, but he was found, after paying all demands,
to be worth in francs nearly seven millions (1767-1844).
Lafontaine, Jean de,
celebrated French author, born at Château-Thierry, in
Champagne; a man of indolent, gay, and dissipated habits, but
of resplendent genius, known to all the world for his inimitable "Tales"
and "Fables," and who was the peer of all the distinguished
literary notabilities of his time; the former, published in
1665, too often transgress the bounds of morality, but are distinguished
by exquisite grace of expression and sparkling wit; the latter,
published in 1668, have an irresistible charm which no reader
can withstand; he was the author also of the "Amours of
Cupid and Psyche"; he was the friend of Boileau, Molière,
and Racine, and in his later years a confirmed Parisian (1621-1695).
La Force, Duc de, maréchal
of France under Henry IV., and one of the most distinguished;
escaped when an infant the massacre of St. Bartholomew (1558-1652).
Lagos (40), a large and thriving
commercial town in a colony (100) of the name subject to Britain,
on the Guinea Coast of Africa.
Lagrange, Joseph Louis, Comte,
famous mathematician, born at Turin of French parentage; had
gained at the age of twenty a European reputation by his abstruse
algebraical investigations; appointed director of Berlin Academy
in 1766, he pursued his researches there for twenty-one years;
in 1787 he removed to Paris, where be received a pension from
the Court of 6000 francs, and remained till his death; universally
respected, he was unscathed by the Revolution; appointed to
several offices, he received the Grand Cross of the Legion of
Honour from Napoleon, who made him a count (1736-1813).
La Harpe, Jean François
de, French littérateur and critic, born in Paris;
wrote dramas and éloges, but his best-known work is his "Cours
de Littérature" in 12 vols., of little account except
for its criticism of French literature, in which he showed not
a little pedantry and ill-temper as well as acuteness; he was
zealous for the Revolution at first, but drew back when extreme
measures were adopted and became a warm royalist, for which
he was sentenced to deportation, but left at liberty (1739-1803).
La Hogue, a cape with a roadstead
on NE. of France, where a French fleet sent by Louis XIV. to
invade England on behalf of James II. was destroyed in 1692.
Lahore (177), an ancient walled
city on the Ravi, a tributary of the Indus, 1000 m. NW. of Calcutta,
is the capital of the Punjab, and an important railway centre;
it has many fine buildings, both English and native, including
a university and a medical school, but the situation is unhealthy;
half the population are Mussulmans; the trade is inconsiderable;
the district of Lahore (1,075) one of the most important in
the province, is well irrigated by the Bári Doab Canal,
and produces fine crops of cereals, pulse, and cotton.
Laidlaw, William, Sir
Walter Scott's factor at Abbotsford, born in Selkirkshire; having
failed in farming, entered Scott's service in 1817 and remained
his trusted and faithful friend, advising him in his schemes
of improvement and acting latterly as his amanuensis till his
death in 1832; thereafter he was factor in Ross-shire, where
he died; he had some poetic gift of his own, and contributed
to the third volume of the "Minstrelsy" (1780-1845).
Laing, David, a learned antiquary,
profound in his knowledge of Scottish ecclesiastical and literary
history, born, the son of bookseller, at Edinburgh, followed
for thirty years his father's trade; was appointed to the charge
of the Signet Library in 1837; was secretary to the Bannatyne
Club, and in 1864 received the degree of LL.D. from Edinburgh
University; he contributed many valuable papers to the Transactions
of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, collected and
edited much of the ancient poetry of Scotland, and
acquired a private library of manuscripts
and volumes of great value (1799-1878).
Laing, Malcolm, Scottish
historian, born in Orkney; passed through Edinburgh University
to the Scottish bar, to which he was called in 1785, but proved
an unsuccessful advocate; turning to literature, he edited "Ossian,"
and wrote a "History of Scotland from James VI. to Anne"
(1800), in a subsequent edition of which he inserted the well-known
attack on Mary Stuart (1762-1818).
Laïs, the name of two Greek
courtesans celebrated for their beauty, the one a native of
Corinth, who lived at the time of the Peloponnesian War, and
the other belonging to Sicily, and who, having visited Thessaly,
was stoned to death by the women of the country out of jealousy.
let things alone and take their course), the name given to the
let-alone system of political economy, in opposition to State
interference, or State regulation, in private industrial enterprise.
Lake District, a district
in Cumberland and Westmorland, 20 m. long by 25 m. broad, abounding
in lakes, environed with scenery of rare beauty, and much frequented
Lake Dwellings, primitive
settlements, the remains of which have been found in many parts
of Europe, but chiefly in Switzerland, the N. of Italy, and
in Scotland and Ireland. They were constructed in various ways.
In the Swiss lakes piles, consisting of unbarked tree trunks,
were driven in a short distance from the shore, and strengthened
more or less by cross beams; extensive platforms laid on these
held small villages of rectangular wooden huts, thatched with
straw and reeds. These were sometimes approachable only in canoes,
more often connected with the shore by a narrow bridge, in which
case cattle were kept in sheds on the platforms. In Scotland
and Ireland the erection was rather an artificial island laid
down in 10 or 12 ft. of water with brushwood, logs, and stones,
much smaller in size, and holding but one hut. The Swiss dwellings,
the chief of which are at Meilen, on Lake Zurich, date from
very early times, some say 2000 years before Christ, and contain
remains of the Stone, Bronze, and Iron Ages, weapons, instruments,
pottery, linen cloth, and the like. The relic of latest date
is a Roman coin of A.D. 54. The British remains are much more
recent, belonging entirely to the Iron period and to historic
times. The object sought in these structures is somewhat obscure—most
probably it was the security their insular nature afforded.
Lake Poets, a school of English
poets, the chief representatives of which were Wordsworth, Southey,
and Coleridge, who adorned the beginning of the 19th century,
and were so designated by the Edinburgh Review because
their favourite haunt was the
Lake District (q. v.) in the N. of England, and the
characteristic of whose poetry may be summed as a feeling of
and a sympathy with the pure spirit of nature.
Lakshmi, in the Hindu mythology
the wife of Vishnu and the goddess of beauty, pleasure, and
victory; she is a favourite subject of Hindu painting and poetry.
Lalande, a French astronomer;
was professor of Astronomy in the College of France, and produced
an excellent treatise on the subject in two vols. (1732-1807).
Lalla-Rookh, the title of
a poem by Moore, from the name of the heroine, the daughter
of the Mogul Emperor, Aurungzebe; betrothed to the young king
of Bacharia, she goes forth to meet him, but her heart having
been smitten by a poet she meets on the way, as she enters the
palace of her bridegroom she swoons away, but reviving at the
sound of a familiar voice she wakes up with rapture to find
that the poet of her affection was none other than the prince
to whom she was betrothed.
Baron de Tollendal, a French general, born at Romans,
in Dauphiné, of Irish descent; saw service in Flanders;
accompanied Prince Charles to Scotland in 1745, and was in 1756
appointed Governor-General of the French settlements in India,
but being defeated by the English he was accused of having betrayed
the French interests, and executed after two years' imprisonment
in the Bastille (1702-1766).
Marquis de, son of the preceding; successfully vindicated
the conduct of his father, and received back his paternal estates
that had unjustly been forfeited; supported
La Fayette (q. v.) at
the time of the Revolution, and followed his example; was arrested
in 1792, but escaped to England; returning to France, he supported
the Bourbon dynasty at the Restoration; wrote a "Defence
of the French Emigrants," and a Life of the Earl of Strafford,
Charles I.'s minister (1751-1830).
Lamaism, Buddhism as professed
in Thibet and Mongolia, or the worship of Buddha and his
Dharma (q. v.); conceived
of as incarnated in the Sangha
(q. v.) or priesthood, and especially in the Grand Lama
or Dalai Lama, the chief priest; a kind of hero-worship, or
at all events saint-worship; long since sunk into mere
idolatry (q. v.).
Lamarck, a French naturalist,
born at Bazentin, Picardy; entered the army at the age of 17,
and after serving in it a short time retired and devoted himself
to botany; in his "Flora Française" published
(1773) adopted a new method of classification of plants; in
1774 became keeper of what ultimately became the Jardin des
Plantes, and was professor of Zoology, devoting himself to the
study of particularly invertebrate animals, the fruits of which
study appeared in his "Histoire Naturelle des Animaux sans
Vertèbres"; he held very advanced views on the matter
of biology, and it was not till the advent of Darwin they were
La Marmora, Marquis de,
an eminent Italian general and statesman, born at Turin; fell
under the rebuke of Bismarck for an indiscretion as a diplomatist
Marie de, a French author, politician, and poet, born
in Mâcon; his poetic effusions procured for him admission
into the French Academy, and in 1834 he entered the Chamber
of Deputies; his ability as a poet, and the independent attitude
he maintained in the Chamber, gained for him a popularity which
his action in 1848 contributed to increase, but it suffered
eclipse from the moment he allied himself with Ledru-Rollin;
after serving in the Provisional Government of 1848 he stood
candidate for the Presidency, but was defeated, and on the occasion
of the coup d'état, he retired into private life;
he published in 1819 "Méditations Poétiques,"
in 1847 the "Histoire de Girondins," besides other
works, including "Voyage en Orient"; he was "of
the second order of poets," says Professor Saintsbury, "sweet
but not strong, elegant but not full;... a sentimentalist and
a landscape painter" (1790-1869).
Lamb, Charles, essayist
and critic, born in London, and educated at Christ's Hospital,
where he had Coleridge for school-fellow; was for 35 years a
clerk in the East India Company's office, on his
retirement from which he was allowed
a pension of £450; it was as a poet he made his first
appearance in literature, but it was as an essayist he attained
distinction, and chiefly by his "Essays of Elia" he
is best known and will be longest remembered; he was the friend
of Wordsworth, Southey, and others of his illustrious contemporaries,
and is famous for his witty remarks, to which his stammering
tongue imparted a special zest; he was never married; his affection
for his sister Mary, for whom he composed his "Tales from
Shakespeare," is well known, and how in her weakness from
insanity he tenderly nursed her (1775-1834).
Lamballe, Princesse de,
a young widow, the devoted friend of Marie Antoinette, born
at Turin; was for her devotion to the queen one of the victims
of the September massacres and brutally outraged; "she
was beautiful, she was good, she had known no happiness"
Lambert, Johann Heinrich,
German philosopher and mathematician; was the successor and
rival of Leibnitz in both regards, and was patronised by Frederick
the Great (1619-1728).
Lambert, John, one of Cromwell's
officers in the civil war, born in Yorkshire; served in the
successive engagements during the war from that of Marston Moor
onwards, and assisted at the installation of Cromwell as Protector,
but declined to take the oath of allegiance afterwards; on the
death of the Protector essayed with other officers to govern
the country, an attempt which was defeated by Monk, and for
which he was imprisoned, tried, and banished (1619-1683).
Lambeth (275), part of the SW.
quarter of London, and a parliamentary borough in Surrey returning
four members; abounds in manufactories, contains St. Thomas's
Hospital and Lambeth Palace, the official residence of the Archbishop
of Canterbury, with a magnificent library and important historic
Robert de, a French theologian and journalist, born
at St. Malo; began life as a free-thinker, but by-and-by became
a Roman Catholic of the extreme ultramontane type; in 1820 went
to Rome and was offered a cardinalate, but in 1830 his views
changed, and he joined Montalembert and Lacordaire in the conduct
of L'Avenir, a journal which advocated religious and
political freedom, on the condemnation of which by the Pope
he became again a free-thinker and revolutionary; his influence
on French literature was great, and affected both Michelet and
Victor Hugo (1782-1854).
Lamentations, Book of,
one of the poetical books of the Old Testament, ascribed to
Jeremiah and historically connected with his prophecies, written
apparently after the fall of Jerusalem and in sight of its ruins,
as lamentation over the general desolation in the land connected
Lammas Day, the first of August,
literally "the loaf-mass" day or festival day at the
beginning of harvest, one of the cross quarter days, Whitsuntide,
Martinmas, and Candlemas being the other three.
Lammermoors, a range of
hills separating the counties of Haddington and Berwick, extending
from Gala Water to St. Abb's Head, the Lammer Law being 1733
La Mettrie, a French physician
and materialist, born at St. Malo; bred to medicine, served
as an army surgeon at Dettingen and Fontenoy; his materialistic
views were given first in a publication entitled "D'Histoire
Naturelle de l'Âme," and at length in his "L'Homme
Machine," both in profession of a materialism so gross
and offensive, being absolutely atheistic, that he was glad
to escape for shelter to Berlin under the wing of Frederick
the Great (1709-1754).
Lamotte, Countess de,
born at Fontelle, in Aube, who came up to Paris a shifty adventuress
and played a chief part in the notorious affair of the
Diamond Necklace (q.
v.), which involved so many high people in France in deep
disgrace (1756-1791). See Carlyle's "Miscellanies."
Lanark (5), county town of Lanarkshire,
on the Clyde, 31 m. SE. of Glasgow; has a cattle-market and
some weaving industry, and is for parliamentary purposes in
the Falkirk group of burghs.
Lanarkshire (1,106), inland
Scottish county occupying the Clyde valley, in size the twelfth,
but first in wealth and population. The middle and south are
hilly, with such outstanding peaks as Tinto, and are adapted
for cattle and sheep grazing and for dairy-farming. The lower
north-western portion is very rich in coal and iron, the extensive
mining and manufacture of which has given rise to many busy
towns such as Glasgow, Motherwell, Hamilton, Coatbridge, and
Airdrie; fireclay, shale, and lead are also found; the soil
is various; comparatively little grain is grown; there are large
woods. The orchards of the river side have given place mostly
to market gardens, which the proximity of great towns renders
profitable. The industries, besides iron and coal, are very
extensive and varied, and include great textile works.
Lancashire (3,927), English
county stretching from the Cumberland Mountains in the N. to
the Mersey in the S. along the shores of the Irish Sea; is the
wealthiest and most populous county, and the indentations of
the coast-line adapt it to be the chief outlet westward for
English trade, more than a third of England's foreign commerce
passing through its ports. The country is mostly low, with spurs
of the Yorkshire hills; it is rich in minerals, chiefly coal
and iron; its industrial enterprise is enormous; nearly half
of the cotton manufacture of the world is carried on in its
towns, besides woollen and silk manufacture, the making of engineer's
tools, boots and shoes. The soil is a fertile loam, under corn
and green crops and old pasture. Lancaster is the county town,
but the largest towns are Liverpool, Manchester, Preston, and
Blackburn. The northern portion, detached by Morecambe Bay,
is known as Furness, belongs really to the Lake District, and
has Barrow-in-Furness, with its large shipbuilding concerns,
for its chief town. Lancashire has long been an influential
Lancaster (31), picturesque
town near the mouth of the Lune, 50 m. NW. of Manchester, is
the county town of Lancashire, and manufactures furniture, cotton,
machinery, and railway plant; it was disfranchised in 1867 for
Lancaster, Joseph, educationist,
born in Southwark, and founder of the Monitorial System; had
a chequered career, died in poverty (1778-1838).
Lancelot of the Lake,
one of the Knights of the Round Table, famous for his gallantry
and his amours with Queen Guinevere; was called of the Lake
because educated at the court of the
Lady of the Lake (q.
v.); he turned hermit in the end, and died a holy man.
Land League, an organisation
founded by Davitt (q. v.)
in Ireland in 1879 to deal with the land question, and suppressed
in 1881 as illegal.
Landaman, name given to the
chief magistrate in certain Swiss cantons, also to the President
of the Swiss Diet.
Lander, Richard, African
explorer, born in Truro, Cornwall; accompanied
Clapperton as his servant; along with his brother John discovered
the lower course of the Niger; on the third expedition was wounded
in a conflict with the natives, and died at Fernando Po (1804-1834).
Landes, sandy plains along the
French coast between the Garonne and the Pyrenees, covered with
heath and broom.
Landgrabber, name given
in Ireland to one in the possession or occupancy of land from
which another has been evicted.
Landgrave, title given to
certain counts of the old German empire who had the rank of
Landon, Letitia Elizabeth,
known as L. E. L., authoress, born in Chelsea; a charming woman,
who wrote well both in verse and prose; was Mrs. Hemans's successor;
having taken prussic acid by mistake had a tragic end (1802-1838).
Landor, Walter Savage,
eminent literary man, born in Warwick, a man of excitable temperament,
which involved him in endless quarrels leading to alienations,
but did not affect his literary work; figured first as a poet
in "Gebir" and "Count Julian," to the admiration
of Southey, his friend, and De Quincey, and ere long as a writer
of prose in his "Imaginary Conversations," embracing
six volumes, on which recent critics have bestowed unbounded
praise, Swinburne in particular; he died in Florence separated
from his family, and dependent on it there for six years; Carlyle
visited him at Bath in 1850, and found him "stirring company;
a proud, irascible, trenchant, yet generous, veracious, and
very dignified old man; quite a ducal or royal man in the temper
of him" (1775-1864).
Land's End, a bold promontory
of granite rock on the SW. coast of Cornwall.
Landseer, Sir Edwin Henry,
greatest English animal-painter, born in London, the son of
an engraver and writer on art, trained by his father, sketched
animals before he was six years old, and exhibited in the Royal
Academy before thirteen; in his early years he portrayed simply
the form and colour and movement of animal life, but after his
twenty-first year he added usually some sentiment or idea; elected
A.R.A. in 1826, and R.A. in 1830; he was knighted in 1853; five
years later he won a gold medal in Paris; in 1859 he modelled
the Trafalgar Square lions; after 1861 he suffered from mental
depression, and declined the Presidency of the Royal Academy
in 1866 (1802-1873).
Landsturm, the name given
to the last reserve in the German army, which is never called
out except in time of war.
Landthing, the name of the
Upper House in the Danish Parliament.
Landwehr, a military force
in Germany and Austria held in reserve against a time of war,
when it is called out to do ordinary military duty. In Germany
those capable of bearing arms have to serve in it five years
after completing their seven years' term of regular service.
Lane, Edward William,
eminent Arabic scholar, born at Hereford; set out for Egypt
in 1825; studied the language and manners, and returned in 1828;
published in 1836 an "Account of the Manners and Customs
of the Modern Egyptians"; translated in 1840 "The
Arabian Nights," and spent seven years in Egypt preparing
an Arabic Lexicon which he had all but finished when he died;
it was completed and edited by S. Lane-Poole (1801-1876).
Lanfranc, archbishop of Canterbury,
born at Pavia; went to France, entered the monastery of Bec,
and became prior in 1046, and was afterwards, in 1062, elected
prior of the abbey of St. Stephen at Caen; and came over to
England with William the Conqueror, who appointed him to the
archbishopric rendered vacant by the deposition of Stigand;
he was William's trusted adviser, but his influence declined
under Rufus; d. 1089.
Lanfrey, Pierre, historian,
born at Chambéry; wrote an elaborate History of Napoleon
to, it is reckoned, the irreparable damage of its hero (1828-1877).
Lang, Andrew, a versatile
writer, born in Selkirk; has distinguished himself in various
departments of literary work, as a poet, a folk-lorist, a writer
of fancy tales, a biographer, and a critic; has composed "Ballads
and Lyrics of Old France," "Ballads in Blue China";
has translated Homer into musical prose, and written the Lives
of Sir Stafford Northcote and John Gibson Lockhart; he began
his literary career as a journalist, and his assiduity as a
writer has never relaxed; b. 1844.
Lange, Friedrich, German
philosopher, born near Solingen, son of the following; became
professor at Marburg; wrote a "History of Materialism"
of great value (1828-1875).
Lange, Johann Peter,
a German theologian, born near Elberfeld; became professor at
Bonn; his works are numerous, but is best known by his "Life
of Christ" and his "Christian Dogmatic" (1802-1884).
Langhorne, John, an English
divine and poet, horn at Kirkby Stephen; was a prebend of Wells
Cathedral; wrote a poem entitled "Genius and Virtue,"
and executed with a brother a translation of Plutarch's Lives
Langland", or Langley, William,
the presumed author of the "Vision of Piers Plowman,"
and who lived in the 14th century.
Langres (10), a French town,
strongly fortified, near the sources of the Marne, rich in antiquities,
and one of the oldest towns in France; has manufactures and
a considerable trade.
Langton, Stephen, archbishop
of Canterbury, born in England but educated in France; a man
of ability and scholarly attainments; in 1206 visited Rome,
was made Cardinal by Innocent III., presented to the Archbishopric,
and consecrated at Viterbo in 1207; King John refused to acknowledge
him, and the kingdom was put under an interdict, a quarrel which
it took five years to settle; established in the primacy, the
prelate took up a constitutional position, and mediated between
the king and the barons to the advancement of political liberty;
Languedoc, a province in the
S. of France, annexed to the French crown in 1361, and now divided
into nine departments, borders on the Rhône.
Lanka, name given to Ceylon in
the Hindu mythology.
Lannes, Jean, Duc
de Montebello, marshal of France, born at Lectoure;
was much esteemed by Napoleon, whom he zealously supported;
went with him to Egypt, was with him at Marengo, distinguished
himself at Austerlitz and in Spain, and fell mortally wounded
at Essling (1769-1809).
third Marquis of, liberal politician, born in London;
educated at Edinburgh and Cambridge; sat in the Commons as member
for Calne from 1801 and for Cambridge from 1806, and succeeded
to the peerage in 1809; on the accession of the Liberals to
power he joined the Cabinet of Canning, presided at the Foreign
Office in Goderich's administration, became President of the
Council under Lord Grey in 1830, and, twice refusing the Premiership,
was a member of every Liberal Government till 1858, when he
retired from public life; he was the
trusted adviser of his party, and friend of the Queen till his
fifth Marquis of, Liberal statesman, grandson of the
above, educated at Oxford; succeeded to the peerage in 1866,
and held office in Liberal Governments, Lord of the Treasury
1868-72, Under-Secretary for War 1872-74, and Under-Secretary
for India 1880; he was Governor-General of Canada 1883-88, and
Viceroy of India 1888-94; in 1895 he joined Lord Salisbury's
ministry as a Liberal-Unionist, becoming Secretary for War;
Lanterne, La, a stout lamp-iron
at the corner of a street in Paris, used by the mob for extemporised
executions during the Revolution by Lynch law.
Laocöon, a priest of Apollo,
in Troy, who having offended the god by, for one thing, advising
the Trojans not to admit the wooden horse of the Greeks within
the walls, was, with his two sons, while engaged in sacrificing
to Poseidon, strangled to death in the coils of two enormous
serpents sent to kill him, a subject which is the theme of one
of the grandest relics of ancient sculpture now in existence
and preserved in the Vatican.
Laodamia, a Grecian lady, who
accompanied her husband to the Trojan War, and who, on his death
on the field, begged the gods to restore him to her for three
hours, a prayer which was granted, but with the result that
at the end of the time she died along with him and accompanied
him on his return to Hades.
Laodicea. Eight ancient cities
bore this name; the chief, situated on the Lycus, in Phrygia,
lay on the way between Ionia and the Euphrates; was a city of
great commerce and wealth, the seat of schools of art, science,
medicine, and philosophy, and of an early Christian bishopric;
though the Church was stigmatised in the Revelation, two councils
assembled here in A.D. 363 and 476, the former of which influenced
the determination of the canon of both Testaments; the city,
destroyed by the Mohammedan invasions, is now in ruins.
Laomedon, the founder of Troy,
who persuaded Apollo and Neptune to assist him in building the
walls, but refused the recompense when the work was finished,
in consequence of which the latter sent a monster to ravage
the country, which could be propitiated only by the annual sacrifice
to it of a young maid, till one year the lot fell on Hermione,
the king's daughter, when Hercules, persuaded by the king, slew
the monster and delivered the maiden.
Laotze (i. e. the old
Philosopher), a Chinese sage, born in the province of Ho-nan
about 565 B.C., a contemporary of Confucius, who wrote the celebrated "Tao-te-King,"
canon, that is, of the Tao, or divine reason, and of virtue,
one—and deservedly so on account of its high ethics—of
the sacred books of China; he was the founder of one of the
three principal religions of China, Confucianism and Buddhism
being the other two, although his followers, the Tao-sze as
they are called, are now degenerated into a set of jugglers.
La Pérouse, a celebrated
French navigator, born near Albi, in Languedoc; after distinguished
services in the navy was in 1785 sent with two frigates on a
voyage of discovery by Louis XVI.; "the brave navigator"
went forth, sailing along the Pacific shores of America and
Asia as far as Botany Bay, but never returned; "the seekers
search far seas for him in vain; he has vanished trackless into
blue immensity, and only some mournful mysterious shadow of
him hovers long in all heads and hearts" (1741-1788).
Lapithæ, a race inhabiting
the mountains of Thessaly; subject to Perithous, who, on the
occasion of his marriage with Hippodamia, invited his kinsfolk
the Centaurs to the feast, but these, under intoxication from
the wine, attempting to carry off the bride and other women,
were set on by the Lapithæ and, after a bloody struggle,
Laplace, a celebrated French
mathematician, born at Beaumont-en-Auge, Normandy; the son of
a farmer; after teaching in his native place went to Paris (1767),
where he became professor in the Royal Military School; becoming
member of the Académie des Sciences in 1785, he attained
a position among mathematicians and astronomers almost equal
to Newton's; his "Three Laws" demonstrated the stability
of the solar system; he published many treatises on lunar and
planetary problems, electricity, magnetism, and a Nebula-hypothesis;
his "Mécanique Céleste" is unrivalled
in that class of work; surviving the Revolution he became implicated
in politics without success or credit; he received his marquisate
from Louis XVIII. in 1817, when he became President of the French
Academy; "Lagrange (q.
v.) has proved that on Newton's theory of gravitation the
planetary system would endure for ever; Laplace, still more
cunningly, even guessed that it could not have been made on
any other scheme" (1749-1827).
Lapland (28), a stretch of country
in the N. of Europe, between the Atlantic and the White Sea;
is divided between Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Russia. Its
climate is very severe; mountainous in the W., it becomes more
level in the E., where are many marshes, lakes, and rivers;
the summer is never dark, and there are six to eight weeks of
winter never light. The Lapps, of whom 18,000 are in Norwegian
Lapland, are closely allied to the Finns, small of stature,
thick lipped, and with small piercing eyes; proverbially uncleanly,
not very intelligent, are good-natured, but untruthful and parsimonious;
nominally Christian, but very superstitious; they are kindly
treated by both Norway and Sweden. The mountain Lapps are nomads,
whose wealth consists of herds of reindeer, which supply nearly
all their wants. The sea Lapps live by fishing. The forest and
river Lapps, originally nomads, have adopted a settled life,
domesticated their reindeer, and taken to hunting and fishing.
La Plata (65), a new city, founded
in 1884 as capital of the prov. of Buenos Ayres, 30 m. SE. of
Buenos Ayres city; rapidly built, it has continued to grow,
and has now some handsome buildings, a college, and cotton and
woollen manufactures; a canal connects it with the La Plata
La Plata River, a broad
estuary in South America, from 28 to 140 m. broad and 200 m.
long, with Uruguay on the N. and the Argentine Republic on the
S., through which the Uruguay and Paraná rivers pour
into the Atlantic; it is much exposed to storms; its best harbour
is at Monte Video.
Lapsi, name given to apostates
in the early Christian Church.
Laputa, a flying island inhabited
by speculative philosophers, visited by Gulliver in his "Travels,"
who, when their minds began to be too much absorbed in their
studies, were wakened up by a set of attendants called "Flappers"
armed with dried bladders full of small pebbles or "dried
peas" attached to the end of a stick, with which they struck
them gently about the mouth and ears.
a popular scientist, born in Dublin; wrote a number of scientific
works; edited a Cyclopedia, being a series of volumes on scientific
subjects; was professor of Natural Philosophy and Astronomy
in University College, London, but from a misdemeanour had to
vacate his chair and emigrate to America (1793-1859).
an English divine, ecclesiastically a Presbyterian but theologically
a Unitarian, author of "Credibility of the Gospel History"
and "Jewish and Heathen Testimonies" in favour of
Lares, household deities of the
Romans; originally deified ancestors of the families whose family
life they protected, and images of whom were kept in some shrine
in the house near the hearth. Besides these domestic lares,
there were public lares, who were protectors of the whole community.
Both classes were objects of worship.
Larissa (13), the capital of
Thessaly, in Greece; stands in a sandy plain; is the seat of
a Greek archbishop; has mosques as well as churches.
François, Duc de, a great maxim writer, member
of a French family of Angoumois, born at Paris; played a conspicuous
part in the war of the Fronde; was present at several engagements,
and was wounded twice over, and retired at length in shattered
health; he passed the rest of his days at court, where he enjoyed
the society of the most distinguished ladies of the time; his "Maxims"
appeared in 1665, and were immediately appreciated; they bear
one and all on ethical subjects, and are the fruit of a life
of large and varied commerce with the race (1613-1680).
Henri, Comte de, a celebrated Vendéan royalist;
the peasants of La Vendée having in 1792 risen in the
royal cause, he placed himself at the head of them, and after
gaining six victories was killed fighting in single combat while
defending Nouaillé (1772-1794).
Larousse, Pierre, a celebrated
French grammarian and lexicographer; best known by his "Grand
Dictionnaire Universel du xixme Siècle"
Larry, Dominique Jean,
Baron, a celebrated military surgeon; distinguished
for the organisation he instituted of the "flying ambulance"
for the care of the wounded in battle; accompanied Napoleon
to Egypt; served in the Russian campaign; was wounded and taken
prisoner at Waterloo; wrote treatises on army surgery (1766-1842).
La Salle, Robert
Cavelier Sieur de, a French explorer, born at Rouen;
set out from Canada and explored the North American continent
along the course of the Mississippi as far as the Gulf of Mexico,
planting the French flag at what he thought was, but was not,
the mouth of the river; was assassinated by one of his retinue
in the end (1640-1687).
Lascars, East Indians serving
as seamen on board of British vessels, who have proved very
tractable, and make excellent sailors; they are mostly Mohammedans.
an eminent Greek scholar, born in Phrygia; on the fall of Constantinople
in 1453 came with his brother John to Italy, published a Greek
grammar, opened a school at Rome and Naples for Greek and Rhetoric,
and did much to propagate in Italy a taste for Hellenic literature
Las Casas, Bartholomé
de, a celebrated Spanish priest, surnamed the Apostle
of the Indians, born at Seville; visited the West Indies early
under Columbus; took a deep interest in the natives; was grieved
to see the usage they were subjected to there, as well as elsewhere,
under the rule of Spain, and spent his life in persuading his
countrymen to adopt a more lenient and humane treatment; crossed
the ocean twelve times on their behalf; was made Bishop of Chiapa,
in Mexico, in 1554; died in Madrid (1474-1566).
Las Cases, French historiographer;
became attached to Napoleon and accompanied him to St. Helena,
and after his death published his Memorial of St. Helena, with
an account of Napoleon's life and the treatment he was subjected
to there (1766-1842).
Lasco, Johannes, a Protestant
Reformer, born in Poland; studied at Rome and Bologna, and entered
holy orders; became acquainted with Erasmus at Basel, and joined
the Reformation movement; settled at Emden; accepted an invitation
from Cranmer to London, and ministered to a Protestant congregation
there, but left it on the accession of Mary, and in 1556 returned
to Poland and contributed largely to the movement already begun
Las Palmas (17), the capital
of the Canary Islands, on the NE. of the Grand Canary, the second
largest of the group; is the seat of the Government, and a health
founder of Socialism in Germany, born at Breslau, of Jewish
parents; attended the universities of Breslau and Berlin; became
a disciple of Hegel; took part in the Revolution of 1848, and
was sent to prison for six months; in 1861 his "System
of Acquired Rights" started an agitation of labour against
capital, and he was again thrown into prison; on his release
founded an association to secure universal suffrage and other
reforms; returning to Switzerland he conceived a passionate
affection for a lady betrothed to a noble whom she was compelled
to marry, and whom he challenged, but by whom he was mortally
wounded in a duel (1825-1864).
Lassell, William, astronomer,
born at Bolton, discovered the satellite of Neptune, and the
eighth satellite of Saturn, in an observatory of his own, with
instruments of his own construction (1799-1880).
Lassen, Christian, eminent
Orientalist, born at Bergen; studied Pâli with Burnouf
in Paris; became professor of Indian Languages and Literature
in Bonn; contributed largely to our knowledge of cuneiform inscriptions,
and wrote, among other works, an epoch-making work entitled "Indische
Lasso, a well-plaited strip of
hide, with a noose, to catch wild horses or cattle with.
Latakia (10), a seaport on the
coast of Syria; exports a tobacco of a fine quality, to which
it gives name.
Lateen Sail, a triangular
sail common on the Mediterranean.
Lateran, the palace, originally
a basilica, built by Constantine in Rome about 333, the residence
of the Pope till 1308, and from which no fewer than five Ecumenical
Councils receive their names as held in it, namely, those of
1123, 1139, 1179, 1215, and 1518; the church, called the Church
of St. John Lateran, is the cathedral church of Rome.
Latham, Robert Gordon,
ethnologist and philologist, born at Billingborough Vicarage,
Lincolnshire, graduated at Cambridge 1832. and became Fellow
of King's College; qualifying in medicine he held appointments
in the London hospitals, but meanwhile was attracted to philology
and ethnology, appointed professor of English Language and Literature
in University College, London, 1839, and director of the ethnological
department of the Crystal Palace, 1852; in 1862 he
affirmed, against the most weighty authorities,
that the Aryan stock is originally European, not Asian, a view
which has since found favour; he published his "English
Language" in 1841, and "The Natural History of the
Varieties of Mankind" in 1850, and was pensioned in 1863
Latimer, Hugh, Bishop of
Worcester, born near Leicester; studied at Cambridge, and entered
the Church, but soon adopted the Reformed doctrines, gained
the favour of Henry VIII. by approving of his divorce, and was
appointed bishop; by his labours in Worcester as a preacher
of the Reformed faith he lost the royal favour, and was twice
committed to the Tower for his obstinacy, he the while resigning
his appointment; under Edward VI. his zeal as a preacher had
full scope, but under Mary his mouth was gagged, and he was
burnt at the stake along with Ridley, opposite Balliol College,
Latin Union, a convention
in 1865, between France, Italy, Belgium, Switzerland, and Greece,
to establish an international monetary standard.
name given to a body of theologians belonging to the Church
of England who, at the end of the 17th century, sought, in the
interest of religion, to affiliate the dogmas of the Church,
with the principles of philosophy as grounded on reason; they
were mostly of the school of Plato, and among their leaders
were Cudworth and Henry More.
Latona, the Latin name for Greek
Leto (q. v.).
Latour d'Auvergne, Corret
de, a French grenadier, born in Brittany; celebrated
for his intrepidity and his self-sacrificing patriotism; distinguished
himself in the wars of the Revolution; would accept no promotion,
and declined even the title of "First Grenadier of the
Republic" which Bonaparte wished to confer on him, but
by which he is known to posterity (1743-1800).
Latrielle, Pierre André,
French naturalist, born at Brives, in Corrèze; one of
the founders of the science of Entomology; succeeded Lamarck
as professor in Natural History in the Jardin des Plantes; wrote
several works on entomology (1762-1833).
Latria, the name given in Catholic
theology to the worship of God, as distinguished from
Dulia (q. v.), their name
for the worship of saints.
a series of pamphlets published by Carlyle in 1850, in vehement
denunciation of the political, social, and religious imbecilities
and injustices of the period.
Laud, William, archbishop
of Canterbury, born at Reading, son of a clothier; studied at
and became a Fellow of St. John's College, Oxford, was ordained
in 1601; early gave evidence of his High-Church proclivities
and his hostility to the Puritans, whom for their disdain of
forms he regarded as the subverters of the Church; he rose by
a succession of preferments, archdeaconship of Huntingdon one
of them, to the Primacy, but declined the offer of a cardinal's
hat at the hands of the Pope, and became along with Strafford
a chief adviser of the unfortunate Charles I.; his advice did
not help the king out of his troubles, and his obstinate, narrow-minded
pedantry brought his own head to the block; he was beheaded
for treason on Tower Hill, Jan. 10, 1645; he "could
see no religion" in Scotland once on a visit there, "because
he saw no ritual, and his soul was grieved" (1573-1645).
Maitland, Duke of, Scottish Secretary under Charles
II., professed Covenanting sympathies in his youth, and attended
the Westminster Assembly of Divines as a Commissioner for Scotland
1643; succeeding to the earldom in 1645 he joined the Royalists
in the Civil War, was made prisoner at Worcester 1651, and confined
for nine years; receiving his Scottish office at the Restoration
he devoted himself to establishing by every means the absolute
power of the king in Church and State; his measures were responsible
for the rising of 1666 and in part for that of 1677; but he
made the Episcopal Church quite subservient; appointed to the
Privy Council, he sat in the "Cabal" ministry, was
made duke in 1672, and in spite of intrigues and an attempt
to censure him in the Commons, remained in power till 1680;
he was shrewd, clever, witty, sensual, and unscrupulous; then
and still hated in Scotland (1616-1682).
Lauenburg (49), a duchy of
N. Germany, between Holstein and Mecklenburg, was annexed to
Prussia in 1876.
a name given to Democrates of Abdera for a certain flippancy
Launceston (17), on the Tamar,
the second city in Tasmania, is the chief port and market in
the N., a fine city, carrying on a good trade with Australian
ports, and serving as a summer resort to Melbourne.
Laura, a young Avignonese married
lady, for whom Petrarch conceived a Platonic affection, and
who exercised a lifelong influence over him.
Laureate, Poet, originally
an officer of the royal household whose business it was to celebrate
in an ode any joyous occasion connected with royalty, originally
the sovereign's birthday; it is now a mere honour bestowed by
royalty on an eminent poet.
Laurier, Sir Wilfred,
Premier of Canada since 1896, and the first French-Canadian
to attain that honour, born in St. Lin; bred for the bar, soon
rose to the top of his profession; elected in 1871 as a Liberal
to the Quebec Provincial Assembly, where he came at once to
the front, and elected in 1874 to the Federal Assembly, he became
distinguished as "the silver-tongued Laurier," and
as the Liberal leader; his personality is as winning as his
eloquence, and he stood first among all the Colonial representatives
at Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee in 1897; b. 1841.
Lausanne (33), a picturesque
town on the slopes of the Jura, 1 m. from the N. shore of Lake
Geneva, is the capital of the Swiss canton of Vaud; noted for
its educational institutions and museums, and for its magnificent
Protestant cathedral; it has little industry, but considerable
trade, and is a favourite tourist resort; here took place the
disputation between Calvin, Farel, and Viret, and here Gibbon
wrote the "Decline and Fall."
Lava, a general term for all rocks
originating in molten streams from volcanoes, includes traps,
basalts, pumice, and others; the surface of a lava stream cools
and hardens quickly, presenting a cellulose structure, while
below the heat is retained much longer and the rock when cooled
is compact and columnar or crystalline; the largest recorded
lava flow was from Skaptar Jökull, Iceland, in 1783.
Lavalette, Count de,
French general, born at Paris; condemned to death after the
Restoration as an accomplice of Napoleon, he was saved from
death by the devotion of his wife, who was found in the prison
instead of him on the morning appointed for his execution (1769-1830).
La Vallière, Duchesse
de, a fascinating woman, born at Tours, who became the
mistress of Louis XIV.; supplanted by another, she became
a Carmelite nun in 1674 in the Carmelite
nunnery in Paris, and continued doing penance there as would
seem till her death (1644-1710).
Lavater, Johann Kaspar,
German clergyman, a mystic thinker and writer on physiognomy,
born at Zurich; wrote "Outlooks to Eternity," and
a work on physiognomy, or the art of judging of character from
the features of the face (1741-1804).
Lavoisier, Antoine Laurent,
one of the founders of modern chemistry, born in Paris; to prosecute
his researches accepted the post of farmer-general in 1769,
introduced in 1776 improvements in manufacturing gunpowder,
discovered the composition of the air and the nature of oxygen,
applied the principles of chemistry to agriculture, and indicated
the presence and action of these principles in various other
domains of scientific inquiry; called to account for his actions
as farmer-general, one in particular "putting water in
the tobacco," and condemned to the guillotine; he in vain
begged for a fortnight's respite to finish some experiments, "the
axe must do its work" (1742-1794).
Law, John, financier and speculator,
son of a goldsmith and banker, born at Edinburgh; was early
noted for his calculating power; visiting London in 1691 he
got into debt, sold his estate, killed a man in a duel, and
escaped to Amsterdam, where he studied finance; came to Scotland
with financial proposals for the Government in 1700, but they
were refused, and he spent some years on the Continent as a
gambling adventurer; in 1716 he and his brother William started
a private bank in Paris, the success of which induced the Regent
Orleans in 1718 to institute the "Royal Bank of France,"
with Law as director; next year he floated the "Mississippi
Scheme" for the settlement of Louisiana, but after a show
of success the scheme proved a bubble; he had to fly to Brussels,
his property being confiscated; he died at Venice, poor, but
scheming to the end (1671-1729).
Law, William, author of "A
Serious Call to a Devout and Holy Life," born at Kingscliffe,
Northamptonshire, son of a grocer; entered Cambridge in 1705;
became a Fellow, and took orders in 1711; became associated
with the family of the elder Gibbon, father of the historian,
in 1727, and spent ten years with them as tutor, friend, and
spiritual director; in 1740 he retired to Kingscliffe, where
he spent the remainder of his life in seclusion, shared by Miss
Hester Gibbon, the historian's aunt, and Mrs. Hutcheson, a widow
of means, occupying themselves much with charitable schemes;
Law was an able theologian and dialectician, and an exponent
of German mysticism; his writings contributed greatly to the
evangelical revival (1686-1761).
Lawrence, John, Lord,
the "Saviour of India," born of Irish parentage at
Richmond, Yorkshire; entered the Bengal Civil Service in 1829,
and on the annexation of the Punjab was appointed Commissioner
and afterwards Lieutenant-Governor; by his justice and the reforms
he carried through he so won the esteem of the Sikhs that at
the Mutiny he was able to disarm the Punjab mutineers, raise
50,000 men, and capture Delhi; returning to England he received
a pension of £1000 a year, was made successively baronet
and Privy Councillor, and sent out again as Governor-General
of India in 1863; his rule was characterised by wise policy
and sound finance; he disapproved of English interference in
Afghan affairs; he was raised to the peerage in 1869 (1811-1879).
Lawrence, St., a deacon of
the Church at Rome, who suffered martyrdom in the time of Valerian,
258, by being broiled on a gridiron, which he is represented
in Christian art as holding in his hand.
Lay Brother, a member of
a monastery under the three monastic vows, but not in holy orders.
Layamon, early English poet
who flourished in the 12th century, and was by his own account
priest near Bewdley, on the Severn; was author of a long poem
or chronicle of 32,250 lines called "Brut d'Angleterre,"
and which is of interest as showing how Anglo-Saxon passed into
the English of Chaucer.
Layard, Sir Austen Henry,
English traveller and diplomatist, born at Paris; spent his
boyhood in Italy, and studied law in London; between 1845 and
1847 he conducted excavations at the ruins of Nineveh, securing
for the British Museum its famous specimens of Assyrian art,
and on his return published works on "Nineveh and its Remains"
and "Monuments of Nineveh"; he received the freedom
of London, Oxford gave him D.C.L., and Aberdeen University chose
him for Lord Rector; entering Parliament in 1852, he sat for
Aylesbury and for Southwark, and was Under-secretary for Foreign
Affairs 1861-06; in 1809 he was sent as ambassador to Madrid,
and from 1877 till 1880 represented England at Constantinople,
where his philo-Turkish sympathies provoked much comment; he
was a noted linguist (1817-1894).
Lazzaroni, an indolent class
of waifs under a chief who used to lounge about Naples, and
proved formidable in periods of revolution; they subsisted partly
by service as messengers, porters, &c., and partly as beggars.
League and Covenant,
Solemn. See Covenant.
League, The, specially a coalition
organised in 1576 by the Duke of Guise to suppress the Reformed
religion in France by denying civil and religious liberty to
the Huguenots, and specially to prevent the accession of Henry
IV. as a Protestant to the throne.
Leamington (27), a fashionable
Warwickshire watering-place of modern date on the Learn, 15
m. SE. of Birmingham. It has chalybeate, saline, and sulphurous
springs, to which visitors have gathered since the end of 18th
century; brewing and kitchen-range making are carried on; Leamington
and Warwick return one member of Parliament.
Leaning Tower, specially
a campanile of white marble at Pisa, in Italy, 178 ft. in height,
and which leans 14 ft. off the perpendicular.
Lear, a legendary British king,
the hero of one of Shakespeare's tragedies, the victim of the
unnatural conduct of two of his daughters.
Lear, Edward, English painter,
and author of "Book of Nonsense," composed for the
grandchildren of the Earl of Derby in 1848, and after of "More
Nonsense Rhymes," which were widely popular with young
people; painted landscapes in Greece and Asia Minor (1812-1888).
Leather Stocking, Natty,
a character in Cooper's novel the "Pioneers," "a
melodious synopsis of man and nature in the West."
Leathes, Stanley, prebendary
of St Paul's, born in Bucks; has held several clerical appointments;
is professor of Hebrew in King's College, London, and is author
of a number of works bearing on Christianity; b. 1830.
Lebanon (i. e. "the
White Mountain"), a range on the northern border of Palestine,
which rises to a height of 10,000 ft., and is divided into two
by a valley, the ancient Coele-Syria, which the
Leontes and Orontes water, the eastern range being called Anti-Lebanon.
Le Brun, Charles, a celebrated
French painter, born in Paris; studied in Rome, settled in Paris,
and patronised by Colbert; he exercised for about 40 years a
great influence on the art of the period; he decorated Versailles
and the Louvre, but with the death of his patron he sunk into
obscurity and pined and died (1619-1690).
Lechler, Gotthard Victor,
theologian, born in Würtemberg; was professor at Leipzig;
wrote "History of Deism," "Life of Wiclif,"
and "Apostolic and Post-Apostolic Times" (1811-1888).
Lecky, William Edward
Hartpole, historian and suggestive writer, born near
Dublin; represents Dublin University in Parliament; is the author
of "Leaders of Public Opinion," 1861; "The Rise
and Influence of the Spirit of Rationalism in Europe,"
1865; the "History of European Morals from Augustus to
Charlemagne," 1869; and the "History of the Eighteenth
Century," 1878-90; b. 1838.
French economist, and experimentalist in the matter of the union
of capital and labour; adopted the system of profit-sharing
in 1842, with important results (1801-1872).
Le Clerc, John, otherwise
Johannes Clericus, liberal Swiss theologian and controversialist,
born at Geneva; studied philosophy and theology there, and at
Paris and London; became professor in the Remonstrant Seminary
in Amsterdam in 1684, but lost his speech in 1728; his voluminous
writings include commentaries on the whole Bible, which contained
opinions on the authorship and composition of the Pentateuch,
and the inspiration of the wisdom books, then startling but
since much in favour (1657-1736).
Leconte de Lisle, a French
poet, a Creole, born in the Isle of Bourbon, author of "Poésies
Barbares" and "Poésies Antiques," and
translator of Homer, Sophocles, Theocrates, and other classics;
his translations are wonderfully faithful to the originals (1820-1894).
Lectern, a stand with a desk
for a book from which the service is read in a church.
Leda, in the Greek mythology the
wife of the Spartan king Tyndareus, who was visited by Zeus
in the form of a swan and became the mother of Castor and Pollux;
was frequently the subject of ancient art.
Alexandra Auguste, a French democrat, born near Paris;
called to the bar in 1830; became a leader of the democratic
movement in the reign of Louis Philippe, and gained the title
of the "Tribune of the Revolution"; in 1848 he became
a member of the Provisional Government; was Minister of the
Interior; secured for France the privilege of universal suffrage;
his opposition to Louis Napoleon obliged him to seek refuge
in England, where he took part in a general democratic movement,
and an amnesty being granted, he returned to France in 1870;
was elected to the Assembly, but his power was gone; died suddenly
Lee, Robert Edward,
Confederate general in the American Civil War, born at Stratford,
Virginia, son of a soldier of old and distinguished family,
and educated at West Point; became captain of Engineers in 1838;
he distinguished himself in the Mexican War of 1846; was from
1852 till 1855 head of the U.S. Military Academy; was in active
service again in Texas 1855-59 as an officer of Cavalry; on
the secession of the Southern States, though disapproving of
the war, deeming Virginia to have a claim before the Union to
his loyalty, resigned his commission, and was appointed general,
third in rank, by the Confederate Congress of Virginia, 1861;
after various services he succeeded General Johnston in command
of the army at Richmond; won the seven days' battle against
M'Clellan; invaded Maryland and Pennsylvania, but was forced
to surrender with 28,000 men to Grant at Appomatox, in Virginia,
April 9, 1865; forfeiting his estates he became President of
the Washington University (since called Washington and Lee),
Lexington, Virginia, which post he held till his death; he was
a man of devout religious faith, a high sense of duty, great
courage and ability as a soldier (1807-1870).
Lee, Robert, a Scottish theologian,
born at Tweedmouth; was minister of Old Greyfriars, Edinburgh,
and professor of Biblical Criticism in the University; reformed
the Presbyterian worship to some extent on the Anglican model,
and suffered no small persecution at the hands of the conservative
party in the Church for these innovations; his proclivities
otherwise were rationalistic (1804-1868).
Lee, Samuel, English Orientalist,
born in Shropshire; professor in Cambridge first of Arabic and
then of Hebrew; was the author of a Hebrew grammar and lexicon,
and a translation of the Book of Job (1783-1852).
Leech, John, English artist,
born in London; was educated at the Charterhouse, and a fellow
pupil there of Thackeray's; displayed early a turn for caricature;
produced a set of illustrations for the "Ingoldsby Legends";
joined the staff of Punch in 1844, and remained a member
of it till his death; here he distinguished himself by his cartoons
and his humorous illustrations of scenes and characters of English
life and society, and showed himself an artist more than a caricaturist;
his work was not limited to Punch; he contributed illustrations
also to Once a Week, the Illustrated London News,
and other publications of the time (1817-1864).
Leeds (368), fifth city in England,
largest in Yorkshire, on the Aire, 25 m. SW. of York, in the
West Riding; has been noted for its textile industry since the
16th century, now its woollen manufactures of all kinds are
the largest in England, and besides other industries, there
are very large manufactures of ready-made clothing, leather,
boots and shoes, and iron. There are many fine buildings: St.
Peter's Church is the largest; St. John's, consecrated in 1634,
still retains the fittings of a "Laudean" church.
There is a magnificent infirmary, a grammar-school, and art-gallery.
The Yorkshire College is affiliated with Victoria University.
Dr. Priestley was a native. A Parliamentary borough only since
1832, it now returns five members.
Leeds, Thomas Osborne,
Duke of, English statesman, son of a Yorkshire baronet,
after the Restoration entered Parliament as member for York
and supporter of King and Church; his advance was rapid till
he was Lord High Treasurer and Earl of Danby in 1674; constantly
intriguing, he was impeached by the Commons in 1678, and kept
for five years in the Tower without trial; returning to public
life he opposed James II.'s policy regarding the Church, and
joined in the movement which set William of Orange on the English
throne; appointed President of the Council, he was again guilty
of corrupt practices; he became Duke of Leeds in 1694, but in
1695 was impeached a second time, and though he again escaped
condemnation he never regained power (1631-1712).
Leeuwenhoek, Anton van,
an early microscopist, born at Delft;
the instrument he used was of his own construction, but it was
the means of his arriving at important discoveries, one of the
most so that of capillary circulation; stoutly opposed the theory
of spontaneous generation (1632-1673).
Jacob, Russian officer, born in Geneva, son of a merchant;
after serving in France and Holland, in 1675 entered the service
and gained the favour of Peter the Great, organised the army
on the French model, laid the foundation of a navy, and died
commander-in-chief both of the land forces and the navy (1656-1699).
Left, The, the opposition in
a Continental Legislative Assembly, as sitting on the left of
the chair; also the liberal section of a philosophical school.
Legalism, adherence to the
strict letter of the law often in disregard of the spirit and
even in defiance of it.
Le Gallienne, Richard,
poet, journalist, and critic, born in Liverpool, of a Guernsey
family; has been connected with and contributed to several London
journals; is author of "My Lady's Sonnets," "George
Meredith: some Characteristics," "The Religion of
a Literary Man," &c.; is successful as a lecturer as
well as a littérateur; b. 1866.
Legate, the title of the Pope's
representative or ambassador; in medieval times this office
was attached to certain bishoprics, and the bishops were styled
legati nati; besides these there were legati a latere,
generally cardinals, and legati missi, or nuncios specially
appointed; legates used to claim full papal jurisdiction within
their provinces, which caused many disputes; now they are ambassadors
for spiritual purposes at Roman Catholic Courts—Vienna,
Münich, Madrid, Lisbon, and Paris—and do not interfere
with the authority of the bishops.
Legendre, Adrien Marie,
brilliant French mathematician, contemporary of Lagrange and
Laplace, born at Toulouse; obtained the professorship of Mathematics
in the Military School at Paris, and was elected to the Academy
of Sciences in 1783; he was one of the commissioners to determine
the length of the metre, and held many posts under the Republic
and the Empire; among many works his best known is the "Elements
of Geometry" (1794), translated into English by Carlyle
Legge, James, a Chinese scholar,
born in Huntly, Aberdeenshire; studied at King's College, Aberdeen;
was sent out as missionary to the Chinese by the London Missionary
Society in 1839, laboured for 30 years at Hong-Kong, and became
professor of the Chinese Language and Literature at Oxford in
1876; edited with a translation and notes the Chinese classics,
the "four Shu," and the "five King,"
and gave lectures on the religions of China as compared with
Christianity; b. 1815.
Leghorn (106), a flourishing
Italian seaport, on the W. coast, 60 m. from Florence; is a
fine city, with broad streets and many canals; its exports include
wine, silk, oil, marble, and straw hats; it imports spirits,
sugar, and machinery; it does a large and increasing coasting
trade, and manufactures coral ornaments; its prosperity dates
from the 15th century; it was a free port till 1868.
Legion, among the ancient Romans
a body of soldiers consisting of three lines, the hastati,
the principes, and the triarii, ranged in order
of battle one behind the other, each divided into ten maniples,
and the whole numbering from 4000 to 6000 men; to each legion
was attached six military tribunes, who commanded in rotation,
each for two months; under Marius the three lines were amalgamated,
and the whole divided into ten cohorts of three maniples each;
under the original arrangement the hastati were young
or untrained men, the principes men in their full manhood,
and the triarii veterans.
Legion of Honour, an
order of merit instituted on republican principles on May 10,
1802, by Bonaparte when First Consul in recompense of civil
and military services to the country; it originally consisted
of four classes, but now comprehends five: grand crosses, grand
officers, commanders, officers, and chevaliers, each, of military
or naval men, with pensions on a descending scale and all for
life; their badge, a white star of five rays, bearing on the
obverse an image of the republic and on the reverse two tricolor
Legitimists, a name given
to supporters of the Bourbon dynasty in France as opposed to
the Orleanists, who supported the claims of Louis Philippe.
Leibnitz, German philosopher,
mathematician, and man of affairs, born in Leipzig; studied
law and took the degree of Doctor of Laws at Altorf; spent a
good part of his life at courts, visited Paris and London and
formed a friendship with the savans in both cities, and finally
settled in Hanover, where he moved much in the circle of the
Electress Sophia and her daughter Sophia Charlotte, the Prussian
Queen, whom he entertained with his philosophy of the "infinitely
little," as it has been called; he discovered with Newton
the basis of the differential calculus, and concocted the system
of monods (his "Monodology"), between which and the
soul, he taught, there existed a "pre-established harmony,"
issuing in the cosmos; he was an optimist, and had for his motto
the oft-quoted phrase, "Everything is for the best in the
best of possible worlds"; his principal works in philosophy
are his "Théodicée," written at the
instance of Sophia Charlotte and in refutation of Bayle, and
his "Monodologie," written on the suggestion of Prince
Leicester (209), county town
of Leicestershire, on the Soar, 40 m. E. of Birmingham; is an
ancient town, with several historic buildings; has grown rapidly
of late owing to its hosiery, boot and shoe, and iron-founding
industries; it sends two members to Parliament.
Dudley, Earl of, Queen Elizabeth's favourite, fifth
son of the Duke of Northumberland; won the queen's favour by
his handsome appearance and courtly address; received many offices
and honours, and on the death, under suspicious circumstances,
of his Countess, Amy Robsart, aspired to her hand; still favoured,
in spite of his unpopularity in the country, he was proposed
as husband to Mary, Queen of Scots, in 1563; he married the
dowager Lady Sheffield in 1573, and afterwards bigamously the
Countess of Essex; after a short term of disfavour he was appointed
commander in the Netherlands, and subsequently at Tilbury Fort,
but proved an incapable soldier (1532-1588).
English midland county, bounded by Nottingham, Lincoln, Rutland,
Northampton, Warwick, and Derby shires; is an undulating upland
watered by the Soar, and mostly under pasture. Leicester cattle
and sheep are noted, and its Stilton cheeses. There are coal
deposits and granite and slate quarries in the N. The chief
towns are Leicester, the county town, Loughborough, and Hinckley.
Leigh, Aurora, the heroine
of Mrs. Browning's poem of the same name. She styled it "a
novel in verse," and wrote of it, it is "the most
mature of my works, and the one into which my highest convictions
upon Life and Art have entered."
Leighton, Frederick, Lord,
eminent English artist, born at Scarborough; studied in the
chief art-centres of the Continent; his first exhibit at the
Royal Academy being "Cimabue's Madonna carried in Procession
through Florence," which was followed by a numerous array
of others of classic merit, and showing the scholar as well
as the artist; he distinguished himself in sculpture as well
as painting, and died President of the Royal Academy after being
Leighton, Robert, a Scottish
theologian, the son of a Puritan clergyman in London, who wrote
a book against prelacy, and suffered cruelly at the hands of
Laud in consequence; studied at Edinburgh; entered the Church,
and became Presbyterian minister at Newbattle in 1641, but resigned
in 1653; was made Principal of Edinburgh University; reluctantly
consented to accept a bishopric, and chose the diocese of Dunblane,
but declined all lordship connected with the office; was for
a time archbishop of Glasgow; retired to England in 1674, and
lived ten years afterwards with a widowed sister in Sussex;
he was a most saintly man, and long revered as such by the Scottish
people; his writings, which are highly imaginative, were much
admired by Coleridge (1611-1684).
Leiotrichi, a primitive race
of people distinguished by their smooth hair.
Leipzig (357), in the W. of
Saxony, and largest city of that kingdom; is the third city
in Germany. The old portion is narrow and quaint, with historic
buildings; the new is well built, with splendid edifices. It
is the seat of the supreme court of the Empire, of an old university
which has a magnificent library and well-equipped medical school,
and of one of the finest conservatories of music in Europe.
Its chief trade is in books, furs, leather, and cloth, and its
chief industries type-founding and pianoforte-making. It was
the birthplace of Leibnitz and Wagner, and is associated also
with Bach and Mendelssohn.
Leith (68), chief seaport in E.
of Scotland, on the Forth, contiguous to Edinburgh and the port
of it; is an old, unattractive, but busy town. The harbour comprises
five docks. The imports are corn, flour, wines, sugar, and fruit;
the exports, coal, iron, paraffin, and whisky. There are shipbuilding
and engineering works, breweries, distilleries, and other industries.
Leith Fort, between the town and Newhaven, is the head-quarters
of the artillery for Scotland.
Leitha, an Austrian stream which
flows NE. and falls into the Danube E. of Vienna; divides Cis-Leithan
Leland, Charles, an American
writer, born at Philadelphia; bred to the bar, but left law
for literature, and contributed to the journals; has taken interest
in and written on the industrial arts, social science, folk-lore,
the gypsies, &c.; his works are numerous, and of a humorous
or burlesque character, and include "The Poetry and Mystery
of Dreams," "The Legends of Birds," "Hans
Breitmann's Ballads," &c.; b. 1824.
Leland, John, English antiquary,
born in London; travelled much on the Continent and amassed
vast learning; held a commission from Henry VIII. to examine
the antiquities and libraries of England, in fulfilment of which
charge he spent six years in collecting a world of things that
would otherwise have been lost, and the rest of his life, till
he went insane, in arranging them (1506-1552).
Leland, John, a Nonconformist
minister, born in Wigan; wrote chiefly in defence of Christianity
against the attacks of the Deists (1691-1766).
Lely, Sir Peter, a painter,
born in Westphalia; settled in London; took to portrait-painting,
and was patronised by Charles I. and II., as well as by Cromwell;
he painted the portraits of his patrons, and the beauties of
Charles II.'s court; was Vandyck's successor (1618-1680).
Leman Lake, the
Lake of Geneva (q. v.).
Lemberg (128), the capital of
Austrian Galicia, from its central position and ready communication
with rivers and railways, enjoys an extensive trade; Polish
is the prevailing language; there is a flourishing university,
and of the population 40,000 are Jews.
Lemming Rat, a rodent, which "travelling
in myriads seawards from the hills," as seen in Norway, "turns
not to the right or the left, eats its way through whatever
will eat, and climbs over whatever will not eat, and perishes
before reaching the sea, its consistent rigidly straight journey,
a journey nowhither." See the Application in the "Latter
Pamphlet," No. 6.
Lemnos (30), an island plateau
in the Ægean Sea, 30 m. SW. of the Dardanelles, Turkish
since 1657; produces corn, wine, and tobacco, and is a place
of exile for Turkish prisoners; the population is mostly Greek;
chief town Kastro (3), on the W. coast.
Lemon, Mark, editor of
Punch from 1843 to his death, born in London; began his
career as a dramatist, story-teller, and song-writer, writing
60 pieces for the stage and 100 songs (1809-1870).
Lem`ures, a name given by the
Romans to the spirits of the dead, and who, such of them as
are ghosts of the wicked, wander about at night as spectres,
and tormented themselves, torment and frighten the living.
Lenclos, Ninon de, a
woman celebrated for wit and beauty, born in Paris, whose salon
in the city was frequented by all the notable personages of
the period; she was a woman of superior mental endowments as
well as polished manners, but of loose morality and want of
Lennep, Jacob van, a
Dutch dramatist and novelist, born at Amsterdam; bred to the
bar and practised as a lawyer; was a devoted student of English
literature, and executed translations from English poets; was
called by his countrymen the Walter Scott of Holland (1802-1868).
Lennox, an ancient district of
Scotland that included Dumbartonshire and part of Stirlingshire.
Lenore, the heroine of a celebrated
ballad by Bürger, the German lyric poet, a maiden whose
lover dies and whose spectre appears to her on horseback and
carries her off mounted behind him.
a distinguished archæologist, born at Paris, a man of
genius and of vast learning; his chief works "Manuel d'Histoire
Ancienne de l'Orient," "Lettres Assyriologues," "Les
Premières Civilisations," and "Les Sciences
Occultes en Asie" (1837-1883).
Lens, a piece of glass adapted
as convex or concave so as to change the direction of the rays
of light passing through it and magnify or diminish the apparent
size of an object.
Lent, a period of fasting previous
to Easter, at first lasting only 40 hours, was gradually extended
to three, four, or six days, then different Churches extended
it to three and six: weeks; in the 6th century Gregory the Great
fixed it for the West at 40 days from
Ash Wednesday to Easter, excluding Sundays; in the Eastern Church
it begins on the Monday after quinquagesima and excludes both
Saturdays and Sundays; in the Anglican Church the season is
marked by special services, but the fast is not rigidly kept.
Lenthall, William, Speaker
of the Long Parliament; is famous for his answer to the demand
of Charles to point out to him five members he had come to arrest, "May
it please your Majesty," said he, failing on his knees, "I
have neither eyes to see nor tongue to speak but as the House
directs me" (1591-1662).
Leo, the fifth sign of the zodiac,
which the sun enters on July 22.
Leo, the name of six emperors
of the East, of which the chief was Leo III., surnamed the Isaurian,
born in Isauria; raised to the imperial throne by the army,
defeated by sea and land the Saracens who threatened Constantinople;
ruled peacefully for nine years, when he headed the
iconoclast movement (q.
v.), which provoked hostility and led to the revolt of Italy
from the Greek empire; d. 741.
Leo, the names of 13 Popes:
L. I., St., Pope from 410 to 461; L. II., St., Pope
from 682 to 683; L. III., Pope from 795 to 816; L.
IV., Pope from 847 to 855; L. V., Pope in 903;
L. VI., Pope from 928 to 929; L. VII., Pope from
936 to 939; L. VIII., Pope from 963 to 965; L. IX.,
St., Pope from 1049 to 1054; L. X., Pope from 1513
to 1521; L. XI., Pope in 1605; L. XII., Pope from
1823 to 1829; L. XIII., Pope since 1878. Of these only
the following deserve mention:—
Leo I., saint, surnamed the
Great; was distinguished for his zeal against heretics,
presided at two councils, and persuaded Attila to retire from
Rome on his invasion of Italy, as he persuaded Genseric four
years later to moderate the outrages of his troops in the city;
his letters are in evidence of the jurisdiction of the Roman
over the universal Church. Festival, Nov. 10.
Leo III., proclaimed Charlemagne
emperor of the West in 800; driven in 799 from the papal chair
by a conspiracy, he was reinstated by Charlemagne, who next
year visited the city and was crowned by him emperor.
Leo IX., saint; was elected at
the Diet of Worms in 1048, welcomed at Rome, and applied himself
zealously to the reform of Church discipline; being defeated
in the field by Guiscard, suffered a 10 years' imprisonment,
fell ill and died.
Leo X., Giovanni de' Medici, son
of Lorenzo the Magnificent, sovereign of Florence; was distinguished
as a patron of art, science, and letters, and as occupant of
the chair of St. Peter at the outbreak of the Reformation, and
as by his issue of indulgences for the replenishment of his
treasure provoking the movement and rousing the ire of Luther,
which set the rest of Europe on fire.
Leo XIII., 257th Pope of Rome,
born at Carpineto; distinguished at college in mathematics,
physics, and philosophy; took holy orders in 1837, was nuncio
to Belgium in 1843, became bishop of Perugia in 1846, cardinal
1853, and Pope in 1878; holds to his rights as Pope both secular
and spiritual; believes in the Catholic Church as the only regenerator
of society, and hails every show of encroach it makes on the
domain of Protestantism as promise of its universal restoration;
Leon, an ancient kingdom in the
NE. of Spain, united with Castile in 1230, with a capital of
the same name 256 m. NW. of Madrid. Also the name of a city
in Nicaragua and another in Mexico.
Leonardo da Vinci, celebrated
painter and sculptor of the Florentine school, born at Vinci
in the Val d'Arno; showed early a wonderful aptitude for art;
studied under Andrea del Verrocchio, but so surpassed him in
his work as to drive him to renounce the painter's art; his
great work, executed by him at Milan, was the famous picture
of the "Last Supper," which he painted in oil about
1497 on the wall of the refectory of the Dominican convent of
the Madonna delle Grazie; it perished from the dampness of the
wall almost as soon as it was finished, but happily copies were
taken of it before decay had ruined it; besides, Leonardo did
in 1503 at Florence the famous cartoon of the Battle of the
Standard; he was a man of imposing personal appearance, of very
wide range of ability, and distinguished himself in engineering
as well as art; he wrote a "Treatise on Painting,"
which has been widely translated (1452-1519).
Leonidas, king of Sparta from
491 to 480 B.C.; opposed Xerxes, the Persian, who threatened
Greece with a large army, and kept him at bay at the Pass of
Thermopylæ with 300 Spartans and 5000 auxiliaries till
he was betrayed by Ephialtes
(q. v.), when he and his 300 threw themselves valiantly
on the large host, and perished fighting to the last man.
Leonids, meteors which descend
in showers during November in certain years, their chief centre
being the constellation Leo.
Leopardi, Giacomo, modern
Italian poet, born near Ancona; a precocious genius; an omnivorous
reader as a boy, and devoted to literature; of a weakly constitution,
he became a confirmed invalid, and died suddenly; had sceptical
leanings; wrote lyrics inspired by a certain sombre melancholy
Leopold I., king of the Belgians,
son of the Duke of Saxe-Coburg; in his youth served in the Russian
army; visited England in 1815, and married Princess Charlotte,
who died two years later; he declined the throne of Greece in
1830, but accepted that of the Belgians in 1831, and proved
a wise, firm, constitutional sovereign; in 1832 he married the
French princess Louise; he was succeeded by his son Leopold
Leopold II., king of the Belgians,
born at Brussels, son and successor of Leopold I.; has travelled
much in Europe and Asia Minor; founded, and is now ruler of,
the Congo Free State; married in 1853 the Archduchess Maria
of Austria, by whom he has had three daughters; b. 1835.
Lepsius, Karl Richard,
a celebrated Egyptologist, born in Prussian Saxony; took at
first to the study of philology under Bopp, but early devoted
himself to the study of the antiquities of Egypt; headed in
1842 an expedition of research among the monuments under the
king of Prussia, which occupied five years, and was fertile
in important results, among others the production of a work
in 12 vols. on the subject entitled "Denkmäleraus
Egypten und Ethiopien," issued between 1849 and 1860; he
was the author also of works on philology (1810-1884).
Lernæan Hydra, a
monster with nine heads, one of them immortal, that infested
a swamp near Lernæ, and which Hercules was required to
slay as one of his twelve labours, only as often as he cut off
one head two grew on, but with the assistance of Iolcus his
servant he singed off the eight mortal ones, cut down the ninth,
and buried it under a huge rock.
Lerwick (31), the capital of
Shetland, on the E. of Mainland; fishing and knitting the chief
Le Sage, Alain René,
French dramatist and novelist, born at Sarzeau, in Brittany;
educated at a Jesuit school at Vannes; went to Paris in 1692;
studied the Spanish language and literature,
and produced translations of Spanish works and imitations; some
of his dramas attained great popularity, and one in particular,
the "Turcaret," a satire on the time generally, and
not merely, as represented, on financiers of the period, gave
offence; but the works by which he is best known are his novels "Le
Diable Boiteux" and "Gil Blas," his masterpiece
Lesbos (36), modern name Mytilene,
a mountainous island, the largest on the Asia Minor coast, 10
m. off shore and 20 m. N. of the Gulf of Symrna; has a delightful
climate, disturbed by earthquakes, fertile soil, and produces
fine olive-oil. In ancient Greek days it was a cradle of literature,
the home of Sappho, and famous for its wine; Turkish since 1462,
its population is mostly Greek; chief town Castro (12), on the
Lese-Majesty, name given
to a crime against the sovereign.
Leslie, name of a Scottish family
distinguished in Scottish history as well as for military service
in foreign parts.
Leslie, Charles, non-juring
controversial divine, born in Dublin, wrote "A Short and
Easy Method with the Jews," and another with the Deists
Leslie, Sir John, natural
philosopher and professor, born at Largo, Fifeshire; educated
at St. Andrews and Edinburgh University; visited America in
1788, and returned to London 1790; for fifteen years he was
engaged in scientific investigation, invented several instruments,
and published his "Inquiry into the Nature of Heat,"
for which he received the Rumford Medal from the Royal Society;
appointed to the chair of Mathematics in Edinburgh in 1805,
he was transferred to that of Natural Philosophy in 1819; continued
his researches and inventions, and shortly before his death
was knighted (1766-1832).
Lespinasse, a French lady,
born in Lyons, famous for her wit, to whom D'Alembert was much
attached, and the centre of a learned circle in Paris in her
Lesseps, Ferdinand de,
French diplomatist, born at Versailles; conceived the scheme
of connecting the Red Sea with the Mediterranean in 1854, and
saw it finished as the Suez Canal in 1869; projected a similar
scheme for a canal at Panama, but it ended in failure, disgrace,
and ruin to the projectors as well as others (1805-1894).
Lessing, Gotthold Ephraim, a
German author, and founder of modern German literature, born
at Kamenz, Saxony, son of the pastor there; sent to study theology
at Leipzig, studied hard; conceived a passion for the stage;
wrote plays and did criticisms; wrote an essay on Pope; took
English authors as his models, revolted against those of France;
made it his aim to inaugurate or rather revive a purely German
literature, and produced examples regarded as classics to this
day; his principal dramas, all conceived on the soil, are "Miss
Sara Sampson," "Mina von Barnhelm," "Emilia
Galotti," and "Nathan der Weise," and his principal
prose works are his "Fables" and "Laocoon,"
a critical work on art still in high repute (1729-1781).
L'Estrange, Sir Roger,
a zealous Royalist, born in Norfolk; was for his zeal in the
royal cause committed to prison; having escaped, he was allowed
to live in retirement under Cromwell, but woke up a vigorous
pamphleteer and journalist in the old interest at the Restoration, "wounding
his Whig foes very sorely, and making them wince"; he translated
Josephus, Cicero's "Offices," Seneca's "Morals,"
the "Colloquies" of Erasmus, and Quevedo's "Visions,"
his most popular work (1616-1704).
Lethe (i. e. oblivion),
in the Greek mythology a stream in the nether world, a draught
of the waters of which, generally extended to the ghosts of
the dead on their entrance into Pluto's kingdom, obliterated
all recollection of the past and its sorrows.
Leto (i. e. the hidden one),
one of the Titan brood, who became by Zeus the mother of Apollo
and Artemis, and for whose confinement, in her persecution by
Hera, Poseidon by a stroke of his trident fixed the till then
floating island of Delos to the sea-bottom.
Letter of Marque, a commission
to the captain of a merchant ship or a privateer to make reprisals
on an enemy's ships or property.
Letters Patent, a document
under seal of the government granting some special privilege
to a person.
Lettres de Cachet (i.
e. sealed letters), warrants of imprisonment, issued prior
to the Revolution, sealed with the private seal of the king,
in contradistinction from lettres patentées, which
were sealed by the Great Seal of the kingdom. See
Cachet, Lettre de.
Leucippus, a Greek philosopher
of the 6th century B.C., the founder of the Atomic theory of
things, of which Democritus
(q. v.) was the chief expounder.
Leuctra, a village in Boeotia,
to the S. of Thebes, where in 371 B.C. Epaminondas and his Thebans
overthrew the ascendency of Sparta.
Leuthen, a village in the W.
of Breslau, in Silesia, where Frederick the Great defeated the
Austrians with great loss in 1757.
Levana, the title of a book by
Jean Paul on the education of children; title from the name
of a Roman goddess, the protectress of foundlings.
Levant (i. e. the Rising),
a name given to the E. of the Mediterranean and the regions
adjoining by the western peoples of the Mediterranean.
Levee, a morning reception held
by the sovereign or some one of high rank.
Levellers, a party of violent
red-hot Republicans, led on by John Lilburne, who appeared in
the time of the Commonwealth, but were suppressed by Cromwell.
Lever, Charles James,
a novelist, born at Dublin, was by profession a physician; author
of a numerous series of Irish stories written in a rollicking
humour, "Harry Lorrequer" and "Charles O'Malley"
among the chief; was a contributor to and for some time editor
of Dublin University Magazine; held ultimately various
consular appointments abroad, and after that wrote with success
in a more sober style (1806-1872).
Leverrier, Urban Jean Joseph,
French astronomer, born at St. Lô; distinguished in chemistry
before he devoted himself to astronomy; rose to eminence in
the latter science by a paper on the variations in the orbits
of the planets, and was led to the discovery of the planet Neptune
from perturbations in the orbit of the planet Uranus; he indicated
the spot where the planet would be found, and it was actually
discovered a few days after by Galle at Berlin (1811-1877).
Levi, Leon, commercial economist,
born at Ancona; settled in England and was naturalised; drew
attention to the want of commercial organisation, and to whose
pleading the first chamber of commerce, that of Liverpool, owes
its existence; became professor of Commercial Law in King's
College, London (1821-1888).
Levirite Law, a law among
the Jews which ordained if a husband
died without issue that his brother should take his widow to
wife and raise up seed to him (Deut. xxv. 5-10).
Levites, a body of men divided
into courses, the servants of the priests in the worship of
the Temple of Jerusalem; they were not permitted to enter the
sanctuary or serve at the altar, their duties being limited
to keeping watch over the Temple, slaying the victims, and making
other preparations for the sacred services.
relationships that preclude marriage, so called as presumably
fixed by the Levitical priesthood of the Jews.
Leviticus, the third book
of the Pentateuch, so called as containing the laws and ordinances
appointed to regulate the services of the sanctuary as conducted
by a priesthood of the tribe of Levi, the narrative portion
of it recording the consecration of Aaron and his sons, the
death of Nadab and Abihu, and the stoning of the blasphemer,
embracing a period of only one year, and the legislation of
it no longer issuing from Mount Sinai, but from the door of
Lewald, Fanny, an eminent
German novelist, born at Königsberg, of Jewish parents;
professed Christianity and was married to Adolf Stahr; was a
realist in art and a zealous woman's rights advocate (1811-1889).
Lewes (11), the county town of
Sussex, finely situated on a slope of the South Downs, 10 m.
NE. of Brighton; was the scene of a victory of Simon de Montfort
in 1264 over the forces of Henry III.; has a trade in corn and
malt, and tanneries.
Lewes, George Henry,
a versatile man of letters, born in London, the son of an actor;
wrote a "Biographical History of Philosophy" from
the Positivist standpoint, published originally in 1845, and
a "Life of Goethe" in 1855, "Seaside Studies," "Problems
of Life and Mind," &c., and edited the Fortnightly
Review; he did much to popularise both science and philosophy;
though a married man with children, formed a connection with
George Eliot, and died in her house (1817-1878).
Lewis, Sir George Cornwall,
English statesman and political philosopher, born in London;
held several important posts under and in the governments of
the day; wrote on "Early Roman History," "The
Influence of Authority on Matters of Opinion," "The
Best Form of Government," "Ancient Astronomy," &c.
Lewis, Matthew Gregory,
romancer, familiarly known as Monk Lewis from the name of his
principal novel, the "Monk," which was written, along
with others, in Mrs. Radcliffe's vein and immensely popular,
and literally swarmed with ghosts and demons (1773-1818).
Leyden, one of the chief towns
of Holland and characteristically Dutch, 15 m. NW. of The Hague,
with a famous university founded by the Prince of Orange in
1576, containing the richest natural history museum in the world;
it is noted for the bravery and power of endurance of its inhabitants,
manifest for a whole year (1573-74) during the War of Independence.
Leyden, John, poet and Orientalist,
born in Denholm, son of a shepherd; bred for the Church, his
genius and abilities attracted the notice of influential people;
was introduced to Scott, and assisted him in his "Minstrelsy
of the Scottish Border"; went to India as a military surgeon;
studied and prelected on the native dialects; became a judge
in Calcutta; died of fever (1775-1811).
Leyden, John of, leader
of the Anabaptists in Münster, born in The Hague; beset
with his followers, who regarded him as a prophet, in Münster,
he was taken alive after a siege of six months and tortured
to death in 1536.
Leyden, Lucas van, an
eminent early Dutch painter and engraver, born in Leyden; succeeded
in every branch of painting, and, like Dürer, engraved
his own pictures; his works are highly valued, and some of them
very rare; he spent his means in high living and died young,
only 39 (1494-1533).
Leyden Jar, an electric condenser,
a cylindrical glass bottle lined inside and outside with metal
to within a short distance from the top, while a brass rod connected
with the inside coating extends upward through a wooden stopper
terminating in a knob.
Leys School, the Cambridge
school founded in 1875 to supply under unsectarian religious
influences a high-class education, the founders of it having
been chiefly members of the Methodist body.
Lhassa (seat of the gods) (50),
the capital of Thibet, and the metropolis of the Buddhist world
in the Chinese Empire, stands in the middle of a plain 11,900
ft. above the sea-level; on a hill in the NW. of the centre
of the city, a conical hill called Potala, amid temples and
palaces, is the residence of the Grand Lama; the monasteries
are 15 in number, and the priests 20,000, and it is the centre
of the caravan trade.
Hôpital, Michel de
Li, a Chinese mile, equal to one-third
of an English mile.
Lia-fail, the stone of destiny
on which the Irish kings used to be crowned, which was at length
removed to Scone, in Perthshire, and is now in Westminster under
the coronation chair, having been removed thither by Edward
Liberalism, Modern, "practically
summed up" by Ruskin, in "the denial or neglect of
the quality and intrinsic worth in things, the incapacity of
discerning or refusal to discern worth and unworth in anything,
and least of all in man."
of the Liberal party in English politics, which in 1886 quitted
the Liberal ranks and joined the Conservative party in opposition
to the Home Rule policy of Mr. Gladstone.
Liberationist, one who
advocates the emancipation of the Church from State control.
Liberia (1,500), a negro republic
on the Grain Coast of Africa, founded in 1822 by American philanthropists
as a settlement for freedmen, with a constitution after the
model of the United States.
and Equality, the trinity of modern democracy, and which
first found expression as a political creed in the French Revolution,
of which the first term is now held to require definition, the
second to have only a sentimental basis, and the third to be
in violation of the fact of things; universal suffrage is the
expression of it politically.
Libration, the name given
to certain apparent movements in the moon as if it swayed like
a balance both in latitude and longitude in its revolution round
Italian mathematician; professor at Pisa, but obliged to resign
for his liberal opinions and take refuge in France, where he
was made professor at the Sorbonne, was a kleptomaniac in the
matter of books (1803-1869).
Libya, a name by the early geographers
to the territory in Africa which lay between Egypt, Ethiopia,
and the shores of the Atlantic.
Lichfield (8), ancient ecclesiastical
town in Staffordshire, 15 m. SE. of Stafford,
an episcopal see since 656, with a cathedral in Early English
style, recently completely restored; has an ancient grammar
school, a museum, and school of art; the birthplace of Samuel
Johnson; its industries are brewing, coachbuilding, and implement
Christoph, German physicist and satirist, born near
Darmstadt; was educated at Göttingen, and appointed professor
there in 1770; he wrote a commentary on Hogarth's copperplates;
his reputation in Germany as a satirist is high (1742-1799).
Licinius, Caius, a Roman
tribune and consul, of plebeian birth, author of several laws
intended to minimise the distinction politically between patrician
and plebeian, in office between 376 and 361 B.C.
Lick Observatory, an
observatory built at the expense of James Lick, an American
millionaire, on one of the peaks of Mount Hamilton, California,
with a telescope that has the largest object-glass of any in
Lictor, an officer in Rome who
bore the fasces (q. v.)
before a magistrate when on duty.
Liddell, Henry George,
Greek lexicographer, graduated at Oxford in 1833; was tutor
of Christ Church, and in 1845 appointed professor of Moral Philosophy;
he was successively Head-master of Winchester, Dean of Christ
Church, and Vice-Chancellor of Oxford from 1870 to 1874; his
great work is a Greek lexicon (first edition 1843, last 1883),
of which he was joint-author with Dr. Robert Scott, and which
is the standard work of its kind in English; b. 1811.
Liddon, Henry Parry,
canon of St. Paul's, London, born in Hants; educated at Christ
Church, Oxford; eminent both as a scholar and a preacher; author
of an eloquent course of lectures, the Bampton, "On the
Divinity of Jesus Christ"; belonged to the Liberal section
of the High-Church party (1829-1890).
Liebig, Baron von, eminent
German chemist, born at Darmstadt; in 1824 attracted the attention
of Alexander von Humboldt by a paper before the Institute of
France on fulminates, and was appointed to the chair of Chemistry
in Giessen, where he laboured 28 years, attracting students
from all quarters, and where his laboratory became a model of
many others elsewhere; wrote a number of works on chemistry,
inorganic and organic, animal and agricultural, and their applications,
as well as papers and letters; accepted a professorship in Münich
in 1852, and in 1860 was appointed President of the Münich
Academy of Sciences (1803-1873).
Liège (160), a town in
Belgium and capital of the Walloons, in a very picturesque region
at the confluence of the Ourthe with the Meuse, the busiest
town in Belgium and a chief seat of the woollen manufacture;
it is divided in two by the Meuse, which is spanned by 17 bridges;
it is the centre of a great mining district, and besides woollens
has manufactures of machinery, and steel and iron goods.
Liegnitz (46), a town in Silesia,
40 m. NW. of Breslau, where Frederick the Great gained a victory
over the Austrians in 1760.
Lifeguards, the British royal
household troops, consisting of cavalry and infantry regiments.
Lightfoot, John, Orientalist
and divine, born at Stoke-upon-Trent, son of a clergyman, educated
at Cambridge; took orders and was rector of Ashley, Staffordshire,
till 1642; next year he was one of the most influential members
of the Westminster Assembly; in 1652 he was made D.D., was Vice-Chancellor
of Cambridge in 1653, and subsequently prebendary of Ely; one
of England's earlier Hebrew scholars, the great work of his
life was the "Horæ Hebraicæ et Talmudicæ,"
published in large part posthumously (1602-1675).
Lightfoot, Joseph Barber,
bishop of Durham, born at Liverpool; was a Fellow of Trinity
College, Cambridge, was eminent among English scholars as a
New Testament exegete, became bishop of Durham in 1879; died
at Bournemouth (1828-1889).
Ligny, a village 13 m. from Charleroi,
where Napoleon defeated Blücher two days before the battle
of Waterloo while Wellington and Marshal Ney were engaged at
Liguori, St. Alphonse
Maria di, founder of the Redemptorists, born at Naples
of a noble family; bred to the law, but devoted himself to a
religious life, received holy orders, lived a life of austerity,
and gave himself up to reclaim the lost and instruct the poor
and ignorant; was a man of extensive learning, and found time
from his pastoral labours to contribute extensively to theological
literature and chiefly casuistry, to the extent of 70 volumes;
was canonised in 1839; the order he founded is called by his
own name as well (1696-1787).
a name given by Bonaparte to the republic of Genoa, founded
Li Hung Chang, an eminent
and enlightened Chinese statesman; is favourable to European
culture and intercourse with Europe; was sent as a special envoy
to the Czar's coronation in 1896, and afterwards visited other
countries in Europe, including our own, and the States and Canada;
Lilburne, John, a victim
of the Star-Chamber in the time of Charles I., and exposed on
the pillory as well as fined and imprisoned; joined the Parliamentary
ranks and fought for the Commonwealth, but as an Independent
indulged in violent harangues against Cromwell, and was committed
to the Tower, but on his release turned Quaker (1618-1657).
Lilith or Lilis, the name
of Adam's first wife, whom, according to Jewish tradition, he
had before Eve, and who bore him in that wedlock the whole progeny
of aërial, aquatic, and terrestrial devils, and who, it
seems, still wanders about the world bewitching men to like
issue and slaying little children not protected by amulets against
Lille (161), chief town in the
department of Nord, in the extreme N. of France, 60 m. inland
from Calais, an ancient and at present very strong fortress,
is in a fertile district; the town, rebuilt in modern times,
has a Catholic university, a medical school, library, and art
gallery, and thriving industries, linen, cotton, tobacco, sugar,
and many others.
Lilliput, a country inhabited
by a very diminutive race of men not larger in size than a man's
finger, visited by Gulliver in his travels.
Lillo, George, English dramatist,
born in London, by trade a jeweller; wrote seven comedies, of
which "The Fatal Curiosity" and "George Barnwell"
are the best and the best appreciated (1693-1739).
Lilly, William, an English
astrologer, born in Leicestershire, who made gain by his fortune-telling
during the Commonwealth period especially, but got into trouble
afterwards as a presumed mischief-maker (1602-1681).
Lima (200), capital of Peru, 6
m. inland from Callao, its port, a picturesque but somewhat
shabby city, 700 ft. above the sea-level, regularly built, with
many plazas; has a cathedral and 70 churches;
trade is in the hands of foreigners, mostly Germans, and industries
are unimportant; it was founded by Pizarro, and his bones lie
buried in the cathedral.
Limburg, in the basin of the
Meuse, formerly a duchy, was after various fortunes divided
in 1839 into Belgian Limburg (225), on the W. of the river,
capital Hasselt (13), and Dutch Limburg (262), on the E., capital
Maestricht (33); partly moorland and partly arable, it has coal,
iron, sugar, and tobacco industries.
Limbus or Limbo, according
to Catholic theologians a region on the confines of Hades tenanted,
the limbus patrum, by the souls of good men who died
before Christ's advent, and the limbus infantium, by
the souls of unbaptized infants, both of whom await there the
resurrection morn to join the ransomed in heaven.
Limelight, a bright light
caused by making a stream of two gases, oxygen and nitrogen,
play in a state of ignition on a piece of compact quicklime.
Limerick (159), Irish county
on the S. of the Shannon estuary, between Tipperary and Kerry,
watered by the Mulcai, Maigue, and Deel; hilly in the S., is
mostly fertile, and under corn and green crops; cattle are reared
and dairy products exported; some woollens and paper manufactured.
There are many antiquities. Limerick (37), the county town,
on the Shannon, is the fourth Irish seaport, and manufactures
a little lace.
liability on the part of the shareholders of a joint-stock company
limited by the amount of their shares.
Limoges (68), chief town in
the dep. of Haute-Vienne, on the Vienne River, 250 m. S. of
Paris; has a Gothic cathedral; is one of the chief manufacturing
towns of France. Its porcelain and woollen cloths are widely
famed; it has a large transit trade; it gives name to a fine
kind of surface enamel, which was brought to perfection there.
Lincoln (44), capital of Lincolnshire,
on the Witham, 130 m. N. of London; is a very old and quaint
city, with one of the finest cathedrals in England, and many
historic buildings. Its annual spring horse-fair is among the
largest in the world. It manufactures agricultural instruments,
and trades in flour. Its stands on the Oolitic Ridge, and commands
a wide view of the Trent Valley.
Lincoln, Abraham, sixteenth
President of the United States, born near Hodgensville, Kentucky;
spent his boyhood there and in the Indiana forests, and picked
up some education in the backwoods schools; passed some years
in rough work; he was clerk in a store at New Salem, Illinois;
became village postmaster and deputy county surveyor, and began
to study law; from 1834 to 1842 he led the Whigs in the State
legislature, and in 1846 entered Congress; he prospered as a
lawyer, and almost left politics; but the opening of the slavery
question in 1854 recalled him, and in a series of public debates
with Stephen Douglas established his reputation as debater and
abolitionist; unsuccessful in his candidature for the Senate,
he was nominated by the Republicans for the Presidency, and
elected 1860; his election was the signal for the secession
of the Southern States; Lincoln refused to recognise the secession,
accepted the war, and prosecuted it with energy; on New Year's
day, 1863, he proclaimed the emancipation of the negroes, and
was re-elected President in 1864, but shortly after his second
inauguration was assassinated; he was a man of high character,
straightforward, steadfast, and sympathetic (1809-1865).
Lincoln's Inn. See
Inns of Court.
Lincolnshire (473), maritime
county in the E. of England, between the Humber and the Wash,
next to Yorkshire in size, consists of upland country in the
W., chalk downs in the E., and fens in the S., but these well
reclaimed and cultivated. It is watered by the Trent, Witham,
and Welland, and crossed by numerous canals. Iron abounds in
the W.; sheep, cattle, and horses are raised. Grimsby is a shipping
and fishing centre. Sir Isaac Newton and Lord Tennyson were
born in the county, which has many historic associations.
Lincrusta Walton, a
plastic material invented by Walton, capable of being moulded
into raised patterns for decorating walls, &c.
Lind, Jenny (Madame Otto Goldschmidt),
the Swedish nightingale, born at Stockholm; giving evidence
of her power of song in childhood, she was put under a master
at nine; too soon put to practise in public, her voice at twelve
showed signs of contracting, but after four years recovered
its full power, when, appearing as Alice in "Robert le
Diable," the effect was electric; henceforth her fame was
established, and followed her over the world; in 1844 she made
a round of the chief cities of Germany; made her first appearance
in London in 1847, and visited New York in 1851, where she married,
and then left the stage for good, to appear only now and again
at intervals for some charitable object; she was plain looking,
and a woman of great simplicity both in manners and ways of
Lindley, John, distinguished
botanist, born near Norwich; wrote extensively on botany according
to the natural system of classification, and did much to popularise
the study; was professor of the science in London University
Lindsay, name of a Scottish
family of Norman extraction, and that first figures in Scottish
history in the reign of David I.
Lindsay or Lyndsay, Sir
David, of the Mount, Scottish poet, born at the Mount, near
Cupar, Fife, at the grammar-school of which he was educated,
as afterwards at St. Andrews University; was usher to James
V. from his childhood, and knighted by him after he came of
age; did diplomatic work in England, France, the Netherlands,
and Denmark; is famous as the author of, among others, three
poems, the "Satire of the Three Estates," "Dialogues
between Experience and a Courtier," and the "History
of Squire Meldrum," of which the first is the most worthy
of note, and is divided into five parts, the main body of it
a play of an allegorical kind instinct with conventional satire;
without being a partisan of the Reformation, his works, from
the satire in them being directed against the Church, contributed
very materially to its reception in Scotland approximately (1490-1555).
Linga, a symbol in the phallus
worship of the East of the male or generative power in nature.
This worship prevails among the Hindu sect of the Givas or Sivas,
and the symbol takes the form of the pistil of a flower, or
an erect cylindrical stone.
Lingard, John, historian,
born at Winchester, the son of a carpenter; besides a work on
the "Antiquity of the Anglo-Saxon Church," wrote a "History
of England from the Roman Invasion to the Reign of William III.,"
the first written that shows anything like scholarly accuracy,
and fairly impartial, though the author's religious views as
a Roman Catholic, it is alleged, distort the facts a little
Lingua Franca, a jargon
composed of a mixture of languages used in trade intercourse.
Linlithgow (4), the county
town of Linlithgowshire, 16 m. W. of Edinburgh, on the S. shore
of a loch of the name, with a palace, the birthplace of James
V.; the county (52) lying on the S. shore of the Forth, and
rich in minerals.
Linnæus, or more properly
Linné, Karl von, great Swedish naturalist, specially
in the department of botany, a branch to the study of which
he was devoted from his earliest years; he was the founder of
the system of the classification of plants which bears his name,
and which is determined by the number and disposition of the
reproductive organs, but which is now superseded by the natural
system of Jussieu; he was professor at Upsala, and his works
on his favourite subject were numerous, and extended far and
wide his reputation as a naturalist (1707-1778).
Linnell, John, English painter,
painted portraits at first, but in the end landscapes, of which
last "The Windmill" and a wood scene are in the National
Gallery; he was a friend and an admirer of William Blake (1807-1882).
Linoleum, a floorcloth, being
a composition of cork and linseed oil with chloride of silver.
Linotype, a contrivance for
setting and casting words or lines for printing.
Linz (47), the capital of the crownland
of Upper Austria, on the right bank of the Danube; a busy commercial
place, a great railway centre, and the seat of the manufacture
of woollen goods, linen, tobacco, &c.; is also of great
strategical importance in time of war.
Lion, The, the king of animals,
was the symbol of power, courage, and virtue, and in Christian
art of the resurrection; is in general, as Mr. Fairholt remarks, "a
royal symbol, and in emblem of dominion, command, magnanimity,
vigilance, and strength; representing when couchant sovereignty,
when rampant magnanimity, when passant resolution,
when guardant prudence, when saliant valour, when
sciant counsel, and when regardant circumspection."
Lip`ari Islands (22),
a group of islands of volcanic origin, 12 in number, off the
N. coast of Sicily, in two of which, Vulcano and Stromboli,
the volcanic force is still active, the latter emitting clouds
of steam at intervals of five minutes.
Lippe (128), an old N. German
principality, the principal towns of which are Detmold, Lemgo,
Lippi, Filippino, Italian
painter, son of the succeeding; is presumed to have been a pupil
of Botticelli's (q. v.);
his earliest known work is the "Vision of St. Bernard"
in Florence, and he executed various works in Bologna, Genoa,
and Rome; painted frescoes and altar-pieces, and scenes in the
lives of St. Peter and St. Paul (1460-1504).
Lippi, Fra Filippo,
Italian painter, born at Florence; left an orphan, was brought
up in a monastery, where his talent for art was developed and
encouraged; went to Ancona, was carried off by pirates, but
procured his release by his skill in drawing, and returning
to Italy practised his art in Florence and elsewhere, till one
day he eloped with a novice in a nunnery who sat to him for
a Madonna, by whom he became the father of a son no less famous
than himself; he prosecuted his art amid poverty with zeal and
success to the last; distinguished by Ruskin (Fors xxiv. 4)
as the only monk who ever did good painter's work; he had Botticelli
for a pupil (1412-1469).
Lipsius, Justus, an erudite
Belgian scholar, with fast and loose religious principles; was
the author of numerous learned works (1547-1579).
Lipsius, Richard Adelbert,
distinguished German theologian, born in Gera; professor in
succession at Vienna, Kiel, and Jena; wrote on dogmatics, the
philosophy of religion, and New Testament criticism (1830-1892).
Lisbon (301), the capital of
Portugal, a magnificent town, built on the N. bank of the Tagus,
9 m. from its mouth, extends along the banks of the river 9
m. and inland 5 m.; it boasts of an array of fine buildings
and squares, a number of literary and scientific institutions,
and a spacious harbour; is remarkable for a marble aqueduct
which brings water more than 10 m. across the valley of Alcantara;
the manufactures include tobacco, soap, wool, and chemicals,
and the exports wine, oil, and fruits; it suffered from an earthquake
of great violence in 1755, by which the greater part of the
city was destroyed, and from 30,000 to 40,000 of the inhabitants
Lister, Joseph, Lord,
eminent surgeon, born at Upton, Essex; the founder of modern
antiseptic surgery, and is as such reckoned among the world's
greatest benefactors; was President of the British Association
in 1896, and is surgeon-extraordinary to the Queen; b.
Liston, John, an English
actor of low comedy, and long famous on the London stage, to
which he was introduced by Charles Kemble; d. 1846.
Liston, Robert, a celebrated
surgeon, born in Linlithgowshire; studied in Edinburgh and London;
was distinguished as an operator; was professor of Clinical
Surgery in University College, London, and author of "Elements
of Surgery" and "Practical Surgery" (1794-1847).
Liszt, Abbé Franz,
famous pianist, a Hungarian by birth; born with a genius for
music, his first efforts at composition were not successful,
and it was not till he heard what Paganini made of the violin
that he thought what might be made of the piano, and that he
devoted himself to the culture of piano music, with the result
that he not only became the first pianist himself, but produced
a set of compositions that had the effect of raising the art
to the highest pitch of perfection; he was a zealous Catholic,
and took holy orders, but this did not damp his ardour or weaken
his power as a musician; he spent the greater part of his life
at Weimar, but he practised his art far and wide, and his last
visit to England in 1886, the year on which he died, created
quite a flutter in musical circles (1811-1886).
Litany, a form of supplication
in connection with some impending calamity in which the prayer
of the priest or officiating clergyman is responded to by the
Literature, defined by Carlyle "as
an 'apocalypse of nature,' a revealing of the 'open secret,'
a 'continuous revelation' of the God-like in the terrestrial
and common, which ever endures there, and is brought out now
in this dialect, now in that, with various degrees of clearness
... there being touches of it (i. e. the God-like) in
the dark stormful indignation of a Byron, nay, in the withered
mockery of a French sceptic, his mockery of the false, a love
and worship of the true ... how much more in the sphere harmony
of a Shakespeare, the cathedral music of a Milton; something
of it too in those humble, genuine, lark-notes of a Burns, skylark
starting from the humble furrow far overhead into the blue depths,
and singing to us so genuinely there."
Lithuania, formerly a grand-duchy
occupying portions of the valleys of the Dwina, Niemen, Dnieper,
and Bug; for centuries connected with Poland; passed to Russia
in 1814. The Lithuanians are a distinct race of the Indo-European
stock, fair and handsome, with a language of their own,
and a literature rich in folk-lore and songs. Of a strong religious
temperament, they embraced Christianity late (13th century),
and still retain many pagan superstitions; formerly serfs, they
are now a humble peasantry engaged in agriculture, cattle-breeding,
Litmus, a colouring matter obtained
from certain lichens; extensively used in chemical experiments
to detect acids, for instance.
Little Corporal, a name
given to Bonaparte after the battle of Lodi from his small stature,
he being only 5 ft. 2 in.
those politicians who hold that English statesmen should concern
themselves with England only and its internal affairs.
Littleton, Sir Thomas,
English jurist of the 15th century; was recorder of Coventry
in 1450, judge of Common Pleas 1466, and knighted in 1475; his
work on "Tenures" was the first attempt to classify
the law of land rights, and was the basis of the famous "Coke
upon Littleton"; d. 1481.
Littré, a celebrated French
scholar, physician, philologist, and philosopher, born in Paris;
wrote on medical subjects, and translated Hippocrates; was of
the Positivist school in philosophy, and owes his fame chiefly
to his "Dictionnaire de la Langue Française,"
published in 1863-72, and on which he spent forty years' labour
Liturgy is sometimes used as
including any form of public worship, but more strictly it denotes
the form for the observance of the Eucharist. As development
from the simple form of their institution in the primitive Church
liturgies assumed various forms, and only by degrees certain
marked types began to prevail: viz., the Roman, ascribed to
St. Peter, in Latin, and prevailing in the Roman Catholic Church
all over the world; the Ephesian, ascribed to St. John, in corrupt
Latin, included the old Scottish and Irish forms, heard now
only in a few places in Spain; the Jerusalem, ascribed to St.
James, in Greek, the form of the Greek Church and in translation
of the Armenians; the Babylonian, ascribed to St. Thomas, in
Syriac, used still by the Nestorians and Christians of St. Thomas;
and the Alexandrian, ascribed to St. Mark, in a Græco-Coptic
jargon, in use among the Copts; these all contain certain common
elements, but differ in order and in subsidiary parts; the Anglican
liturgy is adapted from the Roman; other Protestant liturgies
or forms of service are mostly of modern date and compiled from
Liva, an Italian coin worth 9½
d., and the monetary unit in the country.
Liverpool (585), the third
city and first seaport of Great Britain, in Lancashire, on the
Mersey, 3 m. from the sea, formerly the chief seat of the slave
interest in Britain; owed its present prosperity to the impulse
of the cotton trade at the end of the 18th century; progressing
rapidly it has now docks stretching six miles along the Mersey,
which receive a sixth of the tonnage that visits British ports;
through it passes a third of our foreign trade, including enormous
imports of wheat and cotton and exports of cotton goods; it
possesses shipbuilding and engineering works, iron-foundries,
flour, tobacco, and chemical factories; the public buildings,
town hall, exchange, colleges, and observatory are fine edifices;
it was the native place of W. E. Gladstone.
of, Robert Jenkinson, English statesman, educated at
Oxford; entered Parliament 1791, and as Foreign Secretary negotiated
the peace of Amiens in 1802; becoming Lord Hawkesbury in 1803,
he became Home Secretary under Pitt, and succeeding to the earldom
in 1808; was War Secretary under Perceval in 1800, Premier from
1812 to 1827; he liberalised the tariff and maintained a sound
finance, uniting and holding together the Tory party at a critical
Liverymen, name given to members
of the several guilds or corporations of London and freemen
of the city, so called as entitled to wear the livery belonging
to their respective companies; they possess certain privileges
of a civic character.
African traveller and missionary, born in Blantyre, Lanarkshire;
began life as a mill-worker, studied medicine and theology at
Glasgow, and was sent out to Africa by the London Missionary
Society in 1840, landed at Port Natal, and addressed himself
to missionary work; moving north, he arrived at Lake Ngami in
1849, and ascending the Zambesi in 1853 arrived at Loanda next
year; later on he explored the course of the Zambesi and its
tributaries, discovered Lake Nyassa, and set himself to discover
the sources of the Nile, but this expedition proved too much
for him, and he died exhausted; his body was embalmed, brought
home to England, and buried in Westminster Abbey (1815-1873).
Livius, Titus (Livy),
illustrious Roman historian, born at Patavium (Padua); appears
to have settled early in Rome and spent the most of his life
there; his reputation rests on his "History of Rome from
the Foundation of the City to the Death of Drusus," it
consisted of 142 chapters, but of these only 30 remain entire
and 5 in fragments, bequeathing to posterity his account of
the early history of the city and of the wars with Hannibal
Livonia (1,260), Russian Baltic
province on the Gulf of Riga; is flat and marshy, and only moderately
fertile; produces rye, barley, and potatoes; its chief industries
are distilling, brewing, and iron-founding, and fishing; four-fifths
of the population are Letts and Esthonians, only 5 per cent.
are Russian; the original Finnic Livonians are almost extinct;
capital Riga (180).
Livraison, part of a serial
issued from time to time.
Llandudno (6), a fashionable
watering-place at the foot of Great Ormes Head, Carnarvon, frequented
by people from Yorkshire and Lancashire.
Llanelly (32), a manufacturing
seaport in Carmarthenshire for shipping coal, iron, and copper.
Llanos, vast level plains twice
the size of Great Britain in the N. of South America, in the
basin of the Orinoco, covered in great part with tall grass
and stocked in the rainy season with herds of cattle; during
the dry season they are a desert.
Llorente, Juan Antonio,
Spanish historian, is the author of several works, but his celebrity
is mainly due to his "History of the Spanish Inquisition,"
of which in 1789 he became the secretary (1760-1823).
Lloyd's, a part of the Royal
Exchange, London, appropriated to the use of underwriters and
for marine intelligence, frequented by those interested in merchant
shipping; so called from Lloyd's Coffee-house, formerly the
head-quarters of the class.
Load-line, line painted on
the outside of a vessel to mark the extreme of immersion in
loading her with a cargo.
Loadstone or Lodestone,
an iron ore remarkable for its magnetic quality or power of
attracting iron; it derived its name from its use as a leading
stone in the compass to mariners.
Lobby, The, hall connected
with a legislative assembly to which the public have access.
Local Option, licence granted
to the inhabitants of a district to extinguish
or reduce the sale of intoxicants in their midst.
Lochaber, a Highland district
in the S. of Inverness-shire.
Lochaber Axe, an axe with
a broad blade and a long handle formerly in use among the Highlanders
as a weapon.
Lochiel, a Highland chief, Sir
Evan Cameron his name, head of the Cameron clan, who held out
against William III.'s rule in the Highlands, but ultimately
took the oath of allegiance; d. 1719.
Lochinvar, hero of a ballad
in Scott's "Marmion," who carries off his sweetheart
just as she is about to be sacrificed in marriage to another
whom she loathes.
Lochleven, Scottish lake in
Kinross-shire overshadowed by Benarty and the West Lomond, is
23 m. NW. of Edinburgh; in a castle on one of its islands Mary
Stuart was imprisoned 1567-68; it is now famous for its trout.
Locke, John, English philosopher,
the father of modern materialism and empiricism, born in Wrington,
Somerset; studied medicine, but did not practise it, and gave
himself up to a literary life, much of it spent in the family
of the celebrated Earl of Shaftesbury, both at home with it
and abroad; his great work is his "Essay on the Human Understanding"
in 1690, which was preceded by "Letters on Toleration,"
published before the expulsion of James II., and followed by
the "Treatise on Government" the same year, and "Thoughts
on Education" in 1693; his "Essay" was written
to show that all our ideas were derived from experience, that
is, through the senses and reflection on what they reveal, and
that there are no innate ideas; "Locke," says Prof.
Saintsbury, "is eminently" (that is, before all his
contemporaries) "of such stuff as dreams are not
made of"—is wholly a prosaic practical man and Englishman
Lockhart, John Gibson,
man of letters, born in Cambusnethan; bred for the Scottish
bar and practised at it; contributed to Blackwood, wrote
in collaboration with John Wilson "Peter's Letters to his
Kinsfolk"; married Sophia Scott, Sir Walter's daughter,
in 1820, lived a good deal near Abbotsford, wrote some four
novels and "Spanish Ballads," became editor of the
Quarterly in 1825, and began in 1837 his "Life of
Scott," a great work, and his greatest; died at Abbotsford,
health broken and in much sorrow; his "Life" has been
interestingly written by Andrew Lang (1794-1854).
Lockout, the exclusion of workmen
from a factory by the employer to bring them to terms which
they decline to accept.
Lockyer, Sir Joseph Norman,
astronomer, born at Rugby; became clerk in the War Office in
1857, was secretary to the Royal Commission on Scientific Instruction
in 1870, and was transferred to the Science and Art Department
in 1875; he directed Government eclipse expeditions to Sicily,
India, Egypt, and the West Indies; in 1860 he became F.R.S.,
received the Society's Rumford medal in 1874, next year was
appointed corresponding Member of the Institute of France and
received the Janssen medal in 1891; he was knighted in 1897;
he made important discoveries in spectrum analysis, and has
written several astronomical works; b. 1836.
Loco-focos, the name, which
denotes lucifer-matches, given to an ultra-democratic or radical
party in the United States because at a meeting when on one
occasion the lights were extinguished the matches which they
carried were drawn and the lamps lit again.
Locri, a people of ancient Greece
of two distinct tribes occupying different districts of the
Lodi (18), a town in Lombardy,
18 m. SE. of Milan, on the Adda, famous for a signal victory
of Bonaparte over the Austrians in 1796 in the face of a tremendous
Loewe, Gottfried, German
composer; composed oratorios, operas, and pianoforte pieces;
sang and played in London in 1847 (1796-1869).
Lofoden Islands (20),
a rugged mountainous chain on the NW. Norwegian coast within
the Arctic circle, with winters rendered mild by the Gulf Stream,
afford pasturage for sheep; the waters between them and the
mainland are a rich cod-fishing ground, visited by thousands
of boats between January and March.
Logan, John, a Scotch poet,
born at Soutra; was for a time minister in South Leith church,
but was obliged to resign; was the author of a lyric, "The
Braes of Yarrow" and certain of the Scotch paraphrases
(1748-1788). See Bruce, Michael.
Logarithm, the exponent of
the power to which a fixed number, called the base, must be
raised to produce a certain given number.
Logic, the science of correct
thinking or of the laws which regulate thought, called also
dialectics; or in the Hegelian system "the scientific exposition
and development of those notions or categories which underlie
all things and all being."
Logic Spectacles, Carlyle's
name for eyes that can only discern the external relations of
things, but not the inner nature of them.
Logos, an expression in St. John's
gospel translated the Word (in chap. i.) to denote the manifestation
of God, or God as manifested, defined in theology as the second
person of the Deity, and viewed as intermediary between God
as Father and God as Spirit.
Log-rolling, mutual praise
by authors of each other's work.
Lohengrin, hero of a German
13th-century poem; son of Parzival, and a Knight of the Grail;
carried by a swan to Brabant he delivered and married the Princess
Elsa; subsequently returning from war against the Saracens,
she asked him of his origin; he told her, and was at once carried
back again by the swan. Wagner adapted the story in his opera "Lohengrin."
Loire, the largest river in France,
630 m., rises in the Cévennes, flows northwards to Orleans
and westward to the Bay of Biscay, through a very fertile valley
which it often inundates. It is navigable for 550 m., but its
lower waters are obstructed by islands and shoals; it is connected
by canals with the Seine, Saône, and Brest Harbour.
Loki, in the Norse mythology, a
primitive spirit of evil who mingles with the Norse gods, distinguished
for his cunning and ensnaring ways, whose devices are only evil
in appearance, and are overruled for good.
Lollards, originally a religious
community established at Antwerp in 1300, devoted to the care
of the sick and burial of the dead, and as persecuted by the
Church, regarded as heretics. Their name became a synonym for
heretic, and was hence applied to the followers of Wycliffe
in England and certain sectaries in Ayrshire.
Lombard, Peter, a famous
schoolman, born in Lombardy in the 12th century, of poor parents;
was a disciple of Abelard; taught theology at, and became Bishop
of, Paris; was styled the Master of Sentences, as author of
a compilation of sentences from Augustine and other Church Fathers
on points of Christian doctrine, and long used as a manual in
Lombards, a German people,
settled at the beginning of our era about the lower Elbe. In
the 5th century we find them in Moravia, and a century later
established, a powerful people, between the Adriatic and the
Danube. They invaded Italy in 568, and in three years had mastered
the North, but abandoning their Arian faith they gradually became
Italianised, and after the overthrow of their dynasty by Charlemagne
in 774 they became merged in the Italians. From the 13th century
Italian merchants, known as Lombards, from Lucca, Florence,
Venice, and Genoa, traded under much odium, largely in England
as wool-dealers and bankers, whence the name Lombard Street.
Lombardy (3,982), an inland
territory of Northern Italy between the Alps and the Po, Piedmont,
and Venetia. In the N. are Alpine mountains and valleys rich
in pasturage; in the S. a very fertile, well irrigated plain,
which produces cereals, rice, and sub-tropical plants. The culture
of the silkworm is extensive; there are textile and hardware
manufactures. The chief towns are Milan, Pavia, and Corno. Austrian
in 1713, Napoleon made it part of the kingdom of Italy in 1805;
it was restored to Austria in 1815, and finally again to Italy
Lomond, Loch, an irregularly-shaped
lake in Dumbarton and Stirling shires, 22 m. long and of varying
breadth; contains a number of small wooded islands; on the eastern
shore rises Ben Lomond to the height of 3192 ft.
London (5,633), on the Thames,
50 m. from the sea, the capital of the British Empire, is the
most populous and wealthiest city in the world. An important
place in Roman times, it was the cap. of the East Saxons, and
has been the metropolis of England since the Norman Conquest;
it possesses, therefore, innumerable historic buildings and
associations. Often devastated by plague and fire, its progress
has never been stayed; its population has more than quadrupled
itself this century, and more than doubled since 1850. The City
of London proper occupies one square mile in the centre, is
wholly a commercial part, and is governed by an annually elected
mayor and aldermen; is the seat of a bishopric, with St. Paul's
for cathedral. The City of Westminster is also a bishopric under
a high steward and high bailiff, chosen by the dean and chapter.
These two cities, with twenty-five boroughs under local officers,
constitute the metropolis, and since 1888 the county of the
city of London, and send 59 members to Parliament. Streets in
the older parts are narrow, but newer districts are well built;
the level ground and density of building detracts from the effect
of innumerable magnificent edifices. Buckingham, Kensington,
and St. James's are royal residences; the Houses of Parliament
are the biggest Gothic building in the world; St. Paul's, built
by Sir Christopher Wren, contains the remains of Nelson and
Wellington, Reynolds, Turner, and Wren himself. Westminster,
consecrated 1269, is the burial-place of England's greatest
poets and statesmen, and of many kings; the Royal Courts of
Justice in the Strand were opened in 1882. London has a University
(an examining body), 700 colleges and endowed schools, among
which Westminster, Christ's Hospital, and the Charterhouse are
famous, many medical hospitals, and schools and charitable institutions
of all kinds. London is the centre of the English literary and
artistic world, and of scientific interest and research; here
are the largest publishing houses, the chief libraries and art-galleries,
and museums; the British Museum and Library, the National Galleries, &c.,
and magnificent botanical and zoological gardens. London is
also a grand emporium of commerce, and the banking centre of
the world. It has nine principal docks; its shipping trade is
unrivalled, 55,000 vessels enter and clear annually; it pays
more than half the custom duties of the kingdom, and handles
more than a quarter of the total exports; its warehouse trade
is second only to that of Manchester; it manufactures everything,
chiefly watches, jewellery, leather goods, cycles, pianos, and
glass. The control of traffic, the lighting, and water-supply
of so large a city are causing yearly more serious problems.
London (30), the cap. of Middlesex
county, Ontario, near the S. end of the peninsula, in the middle
of a fertile district, and a rising place.
Londonderry (152), maritime
county in Ulster, washed by Lough Foyle and the Atlantic, surrounded
by Donegal in the W., Tyrone in the S., and Antrim in the W.,
and watered by the Foyle, Roe, and Bann Rivers, somewhat hilly
towards the S., is largely under pasture; the cultivated parts
grow oats, potatoes, and flax; granted to the Corporation and
Guilds of London in 1609, a large part of the land is still
owned by them. The county town, Londonderry (33), manufactures
linen shirts, whisky, and iron goods, and does a considerable
shipping trade. Its siege by the troops of James II. in 1689
Long, George, a distinguished
classical scholar, born in Lancashire; became professor of Greek
in London University; edited several useful works, among others
the "Penny Cyclopædia," on which he spent 11
years of his life (1800-1870).
Long Island (774), a long
narrow island, 115 m. long by from 12 to 24 broad, belonging
to New York State, off the shores of New York and Connecticut,
from which it is separated by the East River and Long Island
Sound. It is low, much of it forest and sandy waste land, with
great lagoons in the S. The chief industry is market-gardening;
fisheries and oyster-beds are valuable. Principal towns, Brooklyn,
Long Island City, and Flushing.
Long Parliament, the
celebrated English Parliament which assembled 3rd November 1640,
and was dissolved by Cromwell 20th April 1653, and which was
afterwards restored, and did not finally decease till 16th March
Long Tom Coffin, a character
in Cooper's novel "The Pilot," and of wider celebrity
than any of the sailor class.
Longchamp, a racecourse on
the W. side of the Bois du Boulogne, Paris.
Longchamp, William de,
a low-born Norman favourite of Richard I., made by him bishop
of Ely; became Justiciar of England 1190, and Papal Legate 1191;
clever, energetic, just, and faithful, he yet incurred dislike
by his ambition and arrogance, and was banished to Normandy;
his energy in gathering the money for Richard's ransom restored
him to favour, and he became Chancellor; d. 1197.
Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth,
American poet, born at Portland, Maine; after studying on the
Continent, became professor of Modern Languages in Harvard University;
wrote "Hyperion," a romance in prose, and a succession
of poems as well as lyrics, among the former "Evangeline," "The
Golden Legend," "Hiawatha," and "Miles Standish"
Longinus, Dionysius Cassius,
a learned Greek philosopher, rhetorician, and critic, and eminent
in all three departments, being in philosophy a Platonist of
pure blood; his fame as a teacher reached the ears of Zenobia,
the queen of Palmyra, and being invited
to her court he became her political adviser as well as the
educator of her children, but on the surrender of the place
he was beheaded by order of the Emperor Aurelian as a traitor;
he wrote several works, but the only one that survives to some
extent is his "Treatise on the Sublime," translated
by Boileau (210-273).
Longmans, famous and oldest
publishing house in London; founded by Thomas Longman of Bristol
in 1726, and now in the hands of the fifth generation; has been
associated with the production of Johnson's "Dictionary,"
Lindley Murray's "Grammar," the works of Wordsworth,
Southey, Coleridge, and Scott, and Macaulay's "Lays," "Essays,"
and "History"; it absorbed the firm of Parker in 1863,
and of Rivington in 1890.
Lönnrot, Elias, a
great Finnish scholar, born in Nyland; was professor at Helsingfors;
was editor of ancient Finnish compositions, and author of a
Finnish-Swedish Dictionary (1802-1884).
Lope de Vega. See
Lord of the Isles, assumed
title of Donald, a chief of Islay, who in 1346 reduced the whole
of the Western Isles under his authority, and borne by his successors,
and, as some allege, his ancestors as well.
Lorelei or Lurlei, a
famous steep rock, 430 ft. high, on the Rhine, near St. Goar;
dangerous to boatmen, on which it was fabled a siren sat combing
her hair and singing to lure them to ruin; the subject of an
exquisite Volkslied by Heine.
Loretto, a city in Italy, 14
m. SE. of Ancona; celebrated as the site of the Santa Casa (q.
v.), and for the numerous pilgrims that annually resort
to the holy shrine.
L'Orient (41), a seaport in
Morbihan; contains the principal shipbuilding yard in France;
was founded by the French East India Company in 1664 in connection
with their trade in the East.
Lorne, Marquis of, eldest
son of the Duke of Argyll; entered Parliament in 1868; married
Princess Louise, fourth daughter of Queen Victoria, in 1871;
became Governor-General of Canada in 1878, member of Parliament
for South Manchester in 1895, and is Governor of Windsor Castle;
Lorraine, a district in France,
between Metz and the Vosges; belonged originally to Germany,
became French in 1766, and was restored to Germany in 1871.
Lorraine, Claude. See
Los Angeles (11), a city
in South California, 345 m. SE. of San Francisco, and founded
in 1781; is the centre of a great orange-growing district, and
a health resort.
Lost Tribes, the ten tribes
of the race of Israel whom the Assyrians carried off into captivity
(see 2 Kings xvii. 6), and of whom all trace has been lost,
and only in recent years guessed at.
Lotus Eaters or Lotophagi,
an ancient people inhabiting a district of Cyrenaica, on the
NE. coast of Africa, who lived on the fruit of the lotus-tree,
from which they made wine. Ulysses and his companions in their
wanderings landed on their shores, but the soothing influence
of the lotus fruit so overpowered them with languor, that they
felt no inclination to leave, or any more a desire to pursue
the journey homewards. See Tennyson's poem "The Lotus-eaters."
Lotze, Rudolf Hermann,
German philosopher, born at Bautzen, in Saxony; professor successively
at Göttingen and Berlin; believed in metaphysics as well
as physics, and was versant in both; "Microcosmus"
is his principal work, published in 1864; he founded the system
of "teleological idealism," based on ethical considerations;
he repudiated agnosticism, and had as little patience with a
mere mechanical view of the universe as Carlyle (1817-1881).
Loudon, John Claudius,
botanist and horticulturist, born at Cambuslang, Lanarkshire;
wrote largely on plants and their cultivation, and an "Arboretum"
on trees and shrubs (1783-1843).
Louis I., le Débonnaire
(i. e. the Gentle), was king of France from 814 to 840
in succession to his father Charlemagne, but was too meek and
lowly to rule, and fitter for a monk than a king; suffered himself
to be taken advantage of by his nobles and the clergy; was dethroned
by his sons, and compelled to retire into a cloister, from which
he was twice over brought forth to stay the ravages of their
enemies; he divided his kingdom among them during his lifetime,
and bequeathed it to them to guard over it when he was gone,
to its dismemberment.
Louis VI., le Gros
(i. e. the Fat), was son of Philip I.; was associated
in the royal power with his father from 1098 to 1108, and sole
king from 1108 till 1137; in his struggle against the great
vassals he, by the help of the clergy and the bourgeois, centralised
the government in the crown; had trouble with Henry I. of England
as Lord Superior of Normandy, and was defeated by him in battle
in 1119; under his reign the burgesses achieved their independence,
and though he did nothing to initiate the movement he knew how
to profit from the achievement in the interest of the monarchy.
Louis VII., the Young,
son of the preceding, married Eleanor of Aquitaine; took part
in the second crusade; on his return divorced his queen for
her profligacy in his absence, who married Henry II. of England,
and brought with her as dowry to Henry the richest provinces
of France, which gave rise to the Hundred Years' War (1120-1180).
Louis VIII., the Lion,
son of Philip Augustus; offered by the barons of England the
crown of England, he was crowned at London in 1216, but defeated
at Lincoln next year, he was obliged to recross the Channel;
became king of France in 1223; he took several towns from the
English, and conducted a crusade against the Albigenses (1187-1226).
Louis IX., Saint Louis,
son of the preceding; was a minor at the death of his father,
and the country was governed by his mother, Blanche of Castile,
with a strong hand; on attaining his majority he found himself
engaged with the English under Henry, who had been called on
to assist certain of the great barons in revolt, but in 1242
he defeated them in three engagements; under a vow he made during
a dangerous illness he became a crusader, and in 1249 landed
in Egypt with 40,000 men, but in an engagement was taken prisoner
by the Saracens; released in 1250 on payment of a large ransom,
though he did not return home for two years after, till on hearing
of the death of his mother, who had been regent during his absence;
on his return he applied himself to the affairs of his kingdom
and the establishment of the royal power, but undertaking a
second crusade in 1270, he got as far as Tunis, where a plague
broke out in the camp, and he became one of the victims, and
one of his sons before him; he was an eminently good and pious
man, and was canonised by Boniface VIII. in 1297 (1215-1270).
Louis XI., son of Charles VII.,
born at Bourges, of a cruel and treacherous nature, took part
in two insurrections against his father, by whom he
had been pardoned after the first and
from whom he had to flee after the second for refuge to Burgundy,
where he remained till his father's death in 1461; he signalised
the commencement of his reign by severe measures against the
great vassals, which provoked a revolt, headed by the Dukes
of Burgundy and Bretagne, which he succeeded in subduing more
by his crafty policy than force of arms; involved afterwards
in a war with Charles the Bold of Burgundy and soliciting an
interview, he was discovered by Charles to have been sowing
treason among his subjects, taken prisoner, and only released
on a solemn protestation of innocence; notwithstanding the sinister
and often cruel character of his policy, he did much to develop
the resources of the country and advance the cause of good government
by the patronage of learning; the crimes he had committed weighed
heavily on his mind towards the end of his days, and he died
in great fear of death and the judgment (1423-1483).
Louis XIII., the son of Henry
IV.; being only nine years old at the death of his father, the
government was conducted by Marie de' Medicis, his mother, and
at his accession the country was a prey to civil dissensions,
which increased on the young king's marriage with a Spanish
princess; the Huguenots rose in arms, but a peace was concluded
in 1623; it was now Richelieu came to the front and assumed
the reins with his threefold policy of taming the nobles, checkmating
the Huguenots, and humbling the house of Austria; Rochelle,
the head-quarters of the Huguenots, revolted, the English assisting
them, but by the strategy adopted the city was taken and the
English driven to sea; henceforth the king was nobody and the
cardinal was king; the cardinal died in 1642 and the king the
year after, leaving two sons, Louis, who succeeded him, and
Philip, Duke of Orleans and the first of his line (1601-1644).
Louis XIV., the "Grand
Monarque," son of the preceding, was only nine when his
father died, and the government was in the hands of his mother,
Anne of Austria, and Cardinal Mazarin, her minister; under the
regency the glory of France was maintained in the field, but
her internal peace was disturbed by the insubordination of the
parlement and the troubles of the Fronde; by a compact on the
part of Mazarin with Spain before he died Louis was married
to the Infanta Maria Theresa in 1659, and in 1660 he announced
his intention to rule the kingdom alone, which he did for 54
years with a decision and energy no one gave him credit for,
in fulfilment of his famous protestation L'état, c'est
moi, choosing Colbert to control finance, Louvois to reorganise
the army, and Vauban to fortify the frontier towns; he sought
to be as absolute in his foreign relations as in his internal
administration, and hence the long succession of wars which,
while they brought glory to France, ended in exhausting her;
at home he suffered no one in religious matters to think otherwise
than himself; he revoked the Edict of Nantes, sanctioned the
dragonnades in the Cévennes, and to extirpate heresy
encouraged every form of cruelty; yet when we look at the men
who adorned it, the reign of Louis XIV. was one of the most
illustrious in letters and the arts in the history of France:
Corneille, Racine, and Molière eminent in the drama,
La Fontaine and Boileau in poetry, Bossuet in oratory, Bruyère
and Rochefoucauld in morals, Pascal in philosophy, Saint-Simon
and Retz in history, and Poussin, Lorraine, Lebrun, Perault, &c.,
in art (1636-1715).
Louis XV., Bien-Aimé
(i. e. Well-Beloved), great-grandson of the preceding,
and only five at his death, the country during his minority
being under the regency of Philip, Duke of Orleans; the regency
was rendered disastrous by the failure of the Mississippi Scheme
of Law and a war with Spain, caused by the rejection of a Spanish
princess for Louis, and by his marriage to Maria Lesczynski,
the daughter of Stanislas of Poland; Louis was crowned king
in 1722 and declared of age the following year; in 1726 Cardinal
Fleury, who had been his tutor, became his minister, and under
him occurred the war of the succession to Poland, concluded
by the treaty of Vienna, and the war of the Austrian succession,
concluded by the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle; with the death of
his minister Louis gave way to his licentious propensities,
and in all matters of state allowed himself to be swayed by
unworthy favourites who pandered to his lusts, the most conspicuous
among them being Madame de Pompadour and Dame de Barry, her
successor in crime; under them, and the corrupt court they presided
over, the country went step by step to ruin, and she was powerless
to withstand the military ascendency of England, which deprived
her of all her colonies both in the East and in the West; though
Choiseul, his last "substantial" minister, tried hard
by a family compact of the Bourbons to collect her scattered
strength; the situation did not trouble Louis; "it will
last all my time," he said, and he let things go; suffering
from a disease contracted by vice, he was seized with confluent
smallpox, and died in misery, to the relief of the nation, which
could not restrain its joy (1710-1774).
Louis XVI., the grandson of
the preceding and his successor; had in 1770 married Marie Antoinette,
the youngest daughter of Maria Theresa of Austria, and a woman
young, beautiful, and accomplished, in high esteem for the purity
of her character; his accession was hailed with enthusiasm,
and he set himself to restore the ruined finances of the country
by taking into his counsel those who could best advise him in
her straitened state, but these one and all found the problem
an impossible one, owing to the unwillingness of the nobility
to sacrifice any of their privileges for the public good; this
led to the summoning of the States-General in 1789, and the
outbreak of the Revolution by the fall of the Bastille in July
of that year; in the midst of this Louis, well-intentioned but
without strength of character, was submissive to the wishes
of his court and the queen, lost his popularity by his hesitating
conduct, the secret support he gave to the
Emigrants (q. v.), his
attempt at flight, and by his negotiations with foreign enemies,
and subjected himself to persecution at the hands of the nation;
he was therefore suspended from his functions, shut up in the
Temple, arraigned before the Convention, and condemned to death
as "guilty of conspiracy against the liberty of the nation
and a crime against the general safety of the State"; he
was accordingly guillotined on the 21st January; he protested
his innocence on the scaffold, but his voice was drowned by
the beating of drums; he was accompanied by the Abbé
Edgeworth, his confessor, who, as he laid his head on the block,
exclaimed, "Son of St. Louis, ascend to heaven" (1754-1793).
Louis XVII., second son of
the preceding, shut up in the Temple, was, after the execution
of his mother, proclaimed king by the Emigrants, and handed
over in his prison to the care of one Simon, a shoemaker, in
service about the prison, to bring him up in the principles
of Sansculottism; Simon taught him to drink, dance, and sing
the carmagnole; he died in prison "amid
squalor and darkness," his shirt
not changed for six months (1785-1796).
Louis XVIII., brother of
Louis XVI., and called Monsieur during his brother's reign,
flew from Paris and joined the Emigrants along with his brother,
Count d'Artois, and took up arms, which he was compelled to
forego, to wander from one foreign Court to another and find
refuge at last in England; on Napoleon's departure for Elba
he returned to France and was installed on the throne as
Louis le Desiré, but by the reappearance of the former
on the scene he was obliged to seek refuge in Belgium, to return
for good after the battle of Waterloo, July 9, 1815, with Talleyrand
for minister and Fouché as minister of police; he reigned
but a few years, his constitution being much enfeebled by a
Louis Napoleon (Napoleon
III.), nephew of the first emperor, born at Paris, brought up
at Augsburg and in Switzerland; became head of the family in
1832; he began a Bonapartist propaganda, and set himself to
recover the throne of France; an abortive attempt in 1836 ended
in a short exile in America and London, and a second at Boulogne
in 1840 landed him in the fortress of Ham under sentence of
perpetual imprisonment; escaping in 1846 he spent two years
in England, returning to France after the Revolution of 1848;
elected to the Constituent Assembly and the same year to the
Presidency he assumed the headship of the Republic, and posed
as the protector of popular liberties and national prosperity;
struggles with the Assembly followed; he won the favour of the
army, filled the most important posts with his friends, dissolved
the Constitution in 1851 (Dec. 2), was immediately re-elected
President for ten years, and a year later assumed the title
of Emperor; he married the Spanish Countess Eugénie in
1853, and exerted himself by public works, exhibitions, courting
of the clergy, gagging of the press, and so on to strengthen
his hold on the populace; in the Crimean War (1854-56) and the
Lombardy campaign (1859) he was supported by Britain; in 1860
he annexed Savoy and Nice; ten years later suspecting the enthusiasm
of the army, he plunged into war with Germany to rekindle its
ardour, on a protest arising from the scheme to put Leopold
of Hohenzollern on the Spanish throne; France was unprepared,
disaster followed disaster; the Emperor surrendered to the Germans
at Sedan, Sept. 2, 1870; a prisoner till the close of the war,
he came to England in 1871 and resided with the Empress at Chislehurst
till his death (1808-1873).
Louis Philippe, king of
the French from 1830 till 1848, born at Paris, eldest son of
the Duke of Orleans, renounced his titles along with his father,
and joined the National Guard and the Jacobins at the Revolution
as M. Egalité; after the defeat of Neerwinden 1793, where
he commanded the centre, he fled to Austria and Switzerland
and supported himself by teaching; after three years in the
United States he came to London in 1800, and on the fall of
Napoleon repaired to Paris and recovered his estates; he gained
popularity with the bourgeoisie, and when the Revolution
of July 1830 overthrew Charles X. he succeeded to the throne
as the elected sovereign of the people; under the "citizen
king" France prospered; but his government gradually became
reactionary and violent; he used his great wealth in giving
bribes, tampered with trial by jury and the freedom of the press,
and so raised against him both the old aristocracy and the working-classes;
political agitation culminated in the Revolution of February
1848; he was forced to abdicate and escaped with his queen to
England, where he died (1773-1850).
Louis-d'Or, an old French
gold coin which ranged in value from 16s. 7d. to 18s. 9¾d.,
and ceased to be issued in 1795.
Louisiana (1,119), an American
State on the Gulf of Mexico, between the Mississippi and Sabine
Rivers, with Arkansas on the N. and traversed diagonally by
the Red River, is half upland and half alluvial; much of the
lower level in the S. is marshy, subject to tidal flow or river
inundation, and is covered by swampy woods, but is being reclaimed
and planted with rice; on the uplands cattle are grazed, there
are pine and oak forests, while the arable land is under cotton,
sugar, oranges, and figs; the principal manufactures are shingles
and tanks, cotton-seed oil, tobacco, and clothing; there is
a State University and agricultural and mechanical college at
Baton Rouge; the Southern and Tulane Universities are in New
Orleans; free schools are throughout the State. Founded by France,
but held by Spain from 1762 till 1800, ceded again to France
and sold to the United States by Napoleon, it was admitted to
the Union in 1812. In the Civil War a hundred battles were fought
within the State and New Orleans was captured, which left ruin
behind; but since 1880 prosperity has returned, property is
increasing fast, and finances are healthy.
Louisville (205), on the
left bank of the Ohio River, the largest city in Kentucky, is
well built and regular, with a Roman Catholic cathedral, many
colleges and charitable institutions; it is the largest tobacco
market in the world, has pork packing, distilling, tanning,
and many other industries.
Lourdes, a French town in the
dep. of the Hautes-Pyrénées, with a grotto near
by in which the Virgin Mary, as is alleged, appeared to a girl
of the place in 1858, and to which multitudes have since resorted
in the hope of being healed of their maladies from the waters
which spring up on the spot.
Louth (71), the smallest Irish
county, in Leinster, stretches from Carlingford Bay to the estuary
of the Boyne, washed by the Irish Sea; the country is flat and
the soil fertile, potatoes, oats, and barley are grown; there
are coarse linen manufactures and oyster fisheries; rich in
antiquities, its chief towns are Dundalk (12), Drogheda (12),
and Ardee (2).
Louvet, French romancer, born
in Paris; author of the "Chevalier de Faublas," which
gives a picture of French society on the eve of the Revolution,
in which the author played a part (1760-1797).
Louvois, Marquis of,
War Minister of Louis XIV., born in Paris; was a man of great
administrative ability in his department, but for the glory
of France and his own was savage for war and relentless in the
conduct of it, till one day in his obstinate zeal, as he threatened
to lay the cathedral city of Trèves in ashes, the king,
seizing the tongs from the chimney, was about to strike him
therewith, and would have struck him, had not Madame de Maintenon,
his mistress, interfered and stayed his hand; he died suddenly,
to the manifest relief of his royal master (1641-1691).
Louvre, an open turret or lantern
on ancient roofs for the escape of smoke or foul air.
Louvre, a great art museum
and gallery in Paris, containing Egyptian, Assyrian, classic,
mediæval, and modern relics and art treasures of priceless
value; here is housed the Venus of Milo.
Lovat, Simon Fraser, Lord,
a Highland chief connected with Inverness, who, being outlawed,
fled to France and got acquainted with the Pretender,
in whose interest he returned to Scotland to excite a rising,
but betraying the secret to the government was imprisoned in
the Bastille on his going back to France; on his release and
return he opposed the Pretender in 1715, but in 1745 espoused
the cause of Prince Edward; was arrested for treason, convicted,
and beheaded on Tower Hill (1667-1747).
Lovedale, a mission station
in South Africa, 650 m. NE. of Cape Town, founded in 1841, and
supported by the Free Church of Scotland.
Lovelace, one of the principal
characters in Richardson's "Clarissa Harlowe"; is
the type of a young heartless seducer.
Lovelace, Richard, English
cavalier and poet, born at Woolwich, heir of great wealth, but
lost his all in supporting the royal cause, and died a ruined
man; was the handsomest man of his time, and the author of a
collection of poems entitled "Lucasta" (1618-1658).
Lover, Samuel, an Irish
novelist and poet, born in Dublin; started as a painter, but
soon gave himself to literature; was the author of "Rory
O'More" and "Handy Andy," as also of some lyrics
and ballads of a stirring character (1797-1868).
Low Church, that section of
the Church of England which, in contrast with the High Church
party, is not exclusive in its assertion of Church authority
and observances, and in contrast with the Broad Church party
is narrowly evangelical in its teaching.
Low Latin, Latin as spoken
and written in the Middle Ages, being a degeneration of the
classical which began as early as the time of Cicero and developed
unchecked with the dismemberment of the Roman empire.
Low Mass, mass performed by
a single priest and without musical accompaniment.
Low Sunday, name given in
Catholic countries to the next Sunday after Easter, in contrast
with the style of the festival just closed.
Lowe, Sir Hudson, English
general, born in Ireland; served with credit in various military
enterprises, and was appointed governor of St. Helena in 1815,
and held that office during Napoleon's incarceration there;
a much abused-man for his treatment of his prisoner, particularly
by the French, who dub him "Napoleon's jailer"; died
in London in poor circumstances; wrote a defence of his conduct
Lowell, James Russell,
American essayist, poet, and diplomatist, born in Cambridge,
Massachusetts, son of a clergyman; graduated at Harvard in 1838,
studied law, but acquiring extensive scholarship devoted himself
to literature; volumes of poems were published by him in 1840
and 1844, but the Mexican War of 1846 and the Civil War of 1861-65
called forth respectively the first and second series of "Biglow
Papers," in rustic dialect, the highest expression of his
genius and the finest modern English satire; he was an ardent
abolitionist; succeeding Longfellow in the chair of Modern Languages
and Literature in Harvard in 1855, he visited Europe to study,
returned as U.S. minister to Spain in 1877, was transferred
to England 1880-1885; of his prose work "My Study Windows"
and "Among my Books" are essays on literary subjects, "Fireside
Travels" contain reminiscences, and his last work was a "Life
of Hawthorne"; he died at Cambridge in the house of his
Lower Empire, name given
to the Byzantine empire.
Lowestoft (23), seaport and
watering-place at the mouth of the Waveney, in Suffolk, 120
m. NE. of London, the most easterly town in England; has a good
harbour, an old parish church, and a large fish-market; the
Dutch were defeated off Lowestoft in 1665.
Lowth, Robert, a distinguished
English prelate, born in Hants; was professor of Poetry in Oxford,
and bishop in succession of St. Davids, Oxford, and London;
wrote "Prelectiones" on the poetry of the Hebrews,
a celebrated work, and executed a translation of Isaiah (1710-1787).
Loyola, Ignatius, the founder
of the Order of the Jesuits, born in the castle of Loyola, in
the Basque Provinces of Spain, of a noble Spanish family; entered
the army, and served with distinction, but being severely wounded
at the siege of Pampeluna, he gave himself up to a life of austere
religious devotion, and conceived the idea of enlisting and
organising a spiritual army for the defence of the Church at
home and the propagation of the faith in the realms of heathendom;
it seemed to him a time when such an organisation should be
formed, and he by-and-by got a number of kindred spirits to
join him, with the result that he and his confederates did,
on Ascension Day, 1534, solemnly pledge themselves in the subterranean
chapel of the Abbey of Montserrat to, through life and death,
embark in this great undertaking; the pledge thus given was
confirmed by the pope, Pope Pius III., the Order formed, and
Ignatius, in 1547, installed as general, with absolute authority
subject only to the Pope, to receive canonisation by Gregory
XV. in 1622 (1481-1566).
Lubbock, Sir John, scientist,
born in London; banker by profession; as a member of Parliament
has accomplished several economic reforms; is author of "Prehistoric
Times," "The Origin of Civilisation and the Primitive
Condition of Man," and various books on natural science;
his "Pleasures of Life" has been very popular, and
gone through between 30 and 40 editions; b. 1834.
Lübeck (64), a German free
city on the Trave, an old-fashioned place, but with wide, open
streets, 12 m. from the Baltic, 40 m. NE. of Hamburg; joined
the North German Federation in 1866, and the Customs Union in
1868. It has a 12th-century cathedral, some fine old churches,
scientific and art collections; with unimportant industries;
its Baltic and German transit trade is extensive.
Lucan, a Latin poet, born at Corduba
(Cordova), in Spain; was a nephew of Seneca, and brought early
to Rome; gave offence to Nero, and was banished from the city;
joined in a conspiracy against the tyrant, and was convicted,
whereupon he caused his veins to be opened and bled to death,
repeating the while the speech he had composed of a wounded
soldier on the battlefield dying a like death; he was the author
of a poem entitled "Pharsalia" on the civil war between
Cæsar and Pompey (39-65).
Lucaris, Cyril, eminent
ecclesiastic in the Greek Church, born in Crete, who embraced
and propagated Protestantism; became a victim of persecution,
and had a mysterious fate (1572-1637).
Lucca (20), cap. of the Italian
prov. of Lucca (309), on the Serchio, 12 m. NE. of Pisa; has
an extensive trade in olive-oil, silk, and capers, the specialty
of the province. Its cathedral has a very ancient cedar crucifix,
fine paintings, and valuable archives. There are other ancient
churches, scientific and artistic institutes, and a wonderful
aqueduct of 459 arches. The natives are known over Europe as
stucco figure-sellers and organ-grinders.
Lucerne (36), a Swiss canton
E. of Berne, mountainous in the S., where cattle are pastured
and much cheese made; in the N. and in the valleys fertile with
corn and fruit crops; is German speaking,
and Roman Catholic; its highest elevation, Mount Pilatus, is
7000 ft. Stretching from the eastern corner is Lake Lucerne,
one of the most beautiful in Europe. The cap. Lucerne (20),
on the shores of the lake, is a busy tourist centre; outside
its walls is the famous Lion of Lucerne, designed by Thorwaldsen,
in memory of the Swiss Guard slain while defending the Tuileries
in Paris in 1792, and cut out of the solid rock.
Lucian, a Greek writer, born
in Samosata, in Syria, in the early part of the 2nd century;
he travelled much in his youth; acquired a cynical view of the
world, and gave himself to ridicule the philosophical sects
and the pagan mythology; his principal writings consist of "Dialogues,"
of which the "Dialogues of the Dead" are the best
known, the subject being one affording him scope for exposing
the vanity of human pursuits; he was an out and out sceptic,
found nothing worthy of reverence in heaven or on earth.
Lucifer (i. e. light-bringer),
name given to Venus as the morning star, and by the Church Fathers
to Satan in interpretation of Isaiah xiv. 12.
German theologian, professor first at Bonn and then at Göttingen;
wrote commentaries on John's Gospel and the Apocalypse (1791-1855).
Lucknow (273), fourth city in
India, cap. of the prov. of Oudh, on the Gumti, a tributary
of the Ganges, 200 m. NW. of Benares; is a centre of Indian
culture and Mohammedan theology, an industrial and commercial
city. It has many magnificent buildings, Canning and Martinière
Colleges, various schools and Government offices. It manufactures
brocades, shawls, muslins, and embroideries, and trades in country
products, European cloth, salt, and leather. Its siege from
July 1857 to March 1858, its relief by Havelock and Outram,
and final deliverance by Sir Colin Campbell, form the most stirring
incidents of the Indian Mutiny.
Lucretia, a Roman matron, the
wife of Collatinus, whose rape by a son of Tarquinus Superbus
led to the dethronement of the tyrant, the expulsion of his
family from Rome, and the establishment of the Roman republic.
Lucretius, Titus Carus,
a Roman poet of whose personal history nothing is known, only
that he was the author of a poem entitled "De Rerum Naturâ,"
a philosophic, didactic composition in six books, in which he
expounds the atomic theory of Leucippus, and the philosophy
of Epicurus; the philosophy of the work commends itself only
to the atheist and the materialist, but the style is the admiration
of all scholars, and has ensured its translation into most modern
languages (about 95-31 B.C.).
Lucullus, Lucius, a Roman
general, celebrated as conqueror of Mithridates, king of Pontus,
and for the luxurious life he afterwards led at Rome on the
wealth he had amassed in Asia and brought home with him; one
day as he sat down to dine alone, and he observed his servant
had provided for him a less sumptuous repast than usual, he
took him sharply to task, and haughtily remarked, "Are
you not aware, sirrah, that Lucullus dines with Lucullus to-day?"
Luddism, fanatical opposition
to the introduction of machinery as it originally manifested
itself among the hand-loom weavers of the Midlands.
Luddites name assumed by the
anti-machinery rioters of 1812-1861, after a Leicestershire
idiot, Ned Ludd, of 1780; appearing first at Nottingham, the
agitation spread through Derby, Leicester, Cheshire, Lancashire,
and Yorkshire, finally merging in the wider industrial and political
agitations and riots that marked the years that followed the
peace after Waterloo.
Ludlow, Edmund, a republican
leader in the Civil War against Charles I., born in Wiltshire
of good family; entered the army of the Parliament, and was
present in successive engagements, but opposed Cromwell on his
assumption of the Protectorate, and was put under arrest; reasserted
his republicanism on Cromwell's death, but died in exile after
the Restoration; left "Memoirs" (1630-1693).
Ludovicus Vives, a humourist,
born in Valentia, Spain; studied at Paris, wrote against scholasticism,
taught at Oxford, was imprisoned for opposing Henry VIII.'s
divorce; died at Bruges (1472-1540).
Luga`no, a lake partly in the
Swiss canton of Ticino and partly in the Italian province of
Como, 15 m. by 2 m., in the midst of picturesque grand scenery,
with a town of the name on the NW. side amid vineyards and olive
Luini, Bernardino, a
painter of the Lombard school, born at Luino, in the territory
of Milan, and a pupil of Leonardo da Vinci, so that some of
his works, which though they show a grace and delicacy of their
own, pass for those of his master; is famed for his works in
oil as well as in fresco; is, in Ruskin's regard, one of the
master painters of the world (1460-1540).
Luke or Lucanus, author
of the third Gospel, as well as the Acts, born in Antioch, a
Greek by birth and a physician by profession, probably a convert,
as he was a companion, of St. Paul; is said to have suffered
martyrdom and been buried at Constantinople; is the patron saint
of artists, and represented in Christian art with an ox lying
near him, or in the act of painting; his Gospel appears to have
been written before the year 63, and shows a Pauline interest
in Christ, who is represented as the Saviour of Jew and Gentile
alike; it was written for a Gentile Christian and in correspondence
with eye-witnesses of Christ's life and death.
Lulli, a composer of operatic
music, born in Provence; was director of the French opera in
the reign of Louis XIV. (1633-1687).
Lully, Raymond, the
Doctor Illuminatus, as he was called, born at Palma, in
Majorca, who was early smitten with a zeal for the conversion
of the Mohammedans, in the prosecution of which mission he invented
a new method of dialectic, called after him Ars Lullia;
held public discussions with the Mohammedans, who showed themselves
as zealous to convert him as he was to convert them, till he
ventured in his over-zeal when in Africa among them to threaten
them with divine judgment if they did not abjure their faith,
upon which they waxed furious, dragged him out of the city,
and stoned him to death in the year 1315; his works, several
on alchemy, fill 16 volumes.
Lunar Cycle, a period of
time at the close of which the new moons return on the same
days of the year.
Lunar Month, a month of 29
days, the time of the revolution of the moon, a lunar year consisting
of 12 times the number.
Lunar Theory, an explanation
by mathematical reasoning of perturbations in the movements
of the moon founded on the law of gravitation.
Lunar Year, a period of 12
synodic lunar months, being about 354.5 days.
Lund (14), a city in the S. of
Sweden, 10 m. NE. of Malmö, once the capital of the Danish
kingdom, the seat of an archbishop, with a Romanesque cathedral
and a flourishing university.
Lundy Island, a precipitous
rugged island 3 m. long by 1 m. broad, belonging to Devon, with
the remains of an old castle, and frequented by myriads of sea-fowl.
Lüneburg (21), on the
Ilmenau, 30 m. SE. of Hamburg, an ancient German city with old
Gothic churches, once the capital of an independent duchy, now
in Hanover; has salt and gypsum mines, iron and chemical manufactures;
the British royal house is descended from the princes of Brunswick-Lüneburg.
Lupercalia, a Roman festival
held on Feb. 15 in honour of Lupercus, regarded as the god of
fertility, in the celebration of which dogs and goats were sacrificed
and their skins cut up into thongs, with which the priests ran
through the city striking every one, particularly women, that
threw themselves in their way.
Lupercus, an ancient Italian
god, worshipped by shepherds as the protector of their flocks
Lupus, a chronic disease of the
skin, characterised by the tuberculous eruptions which eat into
the skin, particularly of the face, and disfigure it.
Lusatia, a district of Germany,
between the Elbe and the Oder, originally divided into Upper
and Lower, belongs partly to Saxony and partly to Prussia; it
swarmed at one time with Wends.
Lusiad or Lusiades, a
poem of Camoëns in ten cantos, in celebration of the discoveries
of the Portuguese in the East Indies, and in which Vasco da
Gama is the principal figure; it is a genuine national epic,
in which the poet passes in review all the celebrated exploits
and feats that glorify the history of Portugal.
Lusitania, the ancient name
of Portugal, still used as the name of it in modern poetry.
Lustrum, a sacrifice for expiation
and purification offered by one of the censors of Rome in name
of the Roman people at the close of the taking of the census,
and which took place after a period of five years, so that the
name came to denote a period of that length.
Lutetia, the ancient name of
Paris, Lutetia Parisiorum, mud-town of the borderers,
as Carlyle translates it.
Luther, Martin, the great
Protestant Reformer, born at Eisleben, in Prussian Saxony, the
son of a miner, was born poor and brought up poor, familiar
from his childhood with hardship; was sent to study law at Erfurt,
but was one day at the age of 19 awakened to a sense of higher
interests, and in spite of remonstrances became a monk; was
for a time in deep spiritual misery, till one day he found a
Bible in the convent, which taught him for the first time that "a
man was not saved by singing masses, but by the infinite grace
of God"; this was his awakening from death to life, and
to a sense of his proper mission as a man; at this stage the
Elector of Saxony was attracted to him, and he appointed him
preacher and professor at Wittenberg; on a visit to Rome his
heart sank within him, but he left it to its evil courses to
pursue his own way apart; if Rome had let him alone he would
have let it, but it would not; monk Tetzel arrived at Wittenberg
selling indulgences, and his indignation was roused; remonstrance
after remonstrance followed, but the Pope gave no heed, till
the agitation being troublesome, he issued his famous "fire-decree,"
condemning Luther's writings to the flames; this answer fired
Luther to the quick, and he "took the indignant step of
burning the decree in 1520 at the Elster Gate of Wittenberg,
Wittenberg looking on with shoutings, the whole world looking
on"; after this Luther was summoned to the Diet of Worms,
and he appeared there before the magnates, lay and clerical,
of the German empire on April 17, 1521; how he demeaned himself
on that high occasion is known to all the world, and his answer
as well: "Here stand I; I can do no other; so help me God"; "it
was the grandest moment in the modern history of man";
of the awakening this produced Luther was the ruling spirit,
as he had been the moving one, and he continued to be so to
the end of his life; his writings show the man as well as his
deeds, and amid all the turmoil that enveloped him he found
leisure to write and leave behind him 25 quarto volumes; it
is known the German Bible in use is his work, executed by him
in the Castle of Wartburg; it was begun by him with his back
to the wall, as it were, and under the protestation, as it seemed
to him, of the prince of darkness himself, and finished in this
obstructive element pretty much throughout, the New Testament
in 1522, the Pentateuch in 1523, and the whole, the Apocrypha
included, in 1534; he was fond of music, and uttered many an
otherwise unutterable thing in the tones of his flute; "the
devils fled from his flute," he says; "death-defiance
on the one hand, and such love of music on the other, I could
call these," says Carlyle, "the two opposite poles
of a great soul, between these two all great things had room....
Luther," he adds, "was a true great man, great in
intellect, in courage, in affection, and integrity,... great
as an Alpine mountain, but not setting up to be great at all—his,
as all greatness is, an unconscious greatness" (1488-1546).
Lutheranism, that form of
Protestantism which prevails in Norway, Sweden, Denmark, and
Northern Germany. See Lutherans.
Lutherans, the name given
to that school of the Protestant Church which accepted Luther's
doctrine, especially that of the Eucharist, in opposition to
that of the members of the Reformed Church, who assented to
the views in that matter of Zwingli, the Swiss Reformer; the
former maintaining the presence of Christ in the Eucharist,
and that the grace of Christ is communicated in the celebration
of it, and the latter maintaining that it is a merely commemorative
ordinance, and the means of grace to the believing recipient
Lutterworth, a small town
in Leicestershire, on the Swift, 8 m. NE. of Rugby, of the church
of which Wiclif was rector, and where he was buried, though
his bones were afterwards, in 1428, dug up and burned, and the
ashes cast into the river.
Lützen, a small town in
Prussian Saxony, the vicinity of it the scene of a victory of
Gustavus Adolphus in 1632, and of another by Napoleon over the
combined forces of Russia and Prussia in 1813.
Lux, the name given to the unit
of the intensity of electric light.
Lux, Adam, a young Parisian;
smitten with love for Charlotte Corday, proposed a statue to
her with the inscription "Greater than Brutus," which
brought him to the guillotine.
Luxemburg (211), grand-duchy,
a small, independent territory at the corner where Belgium,
France, and Rhenish Prussia meet, is a plateau watered by the
Moselle on its eastern boundary, and the tributary Sauer; is
well wooded and fertile, yielding wheat, flax, hemp, and wine.
Iron ore is mined and smelted; leather, pottery, sugar, and
spirits manufactured. The population is Low-German and Roman
Catholic; the language of the educated,
French. The government is in the hands of a grand-duke, the
Duke of Nassau, and a house of 42 representatives. For commercial
purposes Luxemburg belongs to the German Customs Union. The
capital is Luxemburg (18). There is a Belgian province
of Luxemburg (212), until 1839 part of the grand-duchy.
Luzon (3,200), the largest of
the Philippines; about one-half larger than Ireland; is the
most northerly of the group; is clad with forests, and yields
grain, sugar, hemp, and numerous tropical products. The capital
Lycaon, a king of Arcadia; changed
into a wolf for offering human flesh to Zeus, who came, disguised
as mortal, to his palace on the same errand as the angels who
visited Lot in Sodom. According to another tradition he was
consumed, along with his sons, by fire from heaven.
Lyceum, a promenade in Athens
where Aristotle taught his pupils as he walked to and fro within
Lycias, an Athenian orator, who
flourished in the 4th century B.C.; assisted in the expulsion
of the Thirty Tyrants, and distributed among the citizens his
large fortune which the Tyrants had confiscated.
Lycidas, the name of an exquisite
dirge by Milton over the death by drowning of his friend Edward
Lycurgus, the legislator of
Sparta, who lived in the 9th century B.C.; in the interest of
it as king visited the wise in other lands, and returned with
the wise lessons he had learned from them to frame a code of
laws for his country, which was fast lapsing into a state of
anarchy; when he had finished his work under the sanction of
the oracle at Delphi he set put again on a journey to other
lands, but previously took oath of the citizens that they would
observe his laws till his return; it was his purpose not to
return, and he never did, in order to bind his countrymen to
maintain the constitution he gave them inviolate for ever.
Lydgate, John, an early
English poet; was a monk of Bury St. Edmunds in the end of the
14th and beginning of the 15th centuries; was a teacher of rhetoric
as well as a poet, and a man of some note in his day.
Lydia, a country of Asia Minor;
seat of an early civilisation, and a centre of influences which
affected both the religion and culture of Greece; was noted
for its music and purple dyes.
Lyell, Sir Charles,
celebrated English geologist, born at Kinnordy, in Forfarshire;
bred for and called to the bar; he left his practice, and gave
himself to the study of geology, to which he had been attracted
by Alexander Buckland's lectures when he was at Oxford; his
great work was his "Principles of Geology," which,
published in 1830, created quite a revolution in the science;
it was followed by his "Student's Elements of Geology,"
which was modified by his conversion to Darwin's views, and
by "Antiquity of Man," written in defence of Darwin's
Lyly, John, English dramatist,
born in Kent; was the author of nine plays on classical subjects,
written for the court, which were preceded in 1579 by his once
famous "Euphues, or Anatomy of Wit," followed by a
second part next year, and entitled "Euphues and his England,"
and that from the fantastic, pompous, and affected style in
which they were written gave a new word, Euphuism, to the English
Lynch Law, the name given in
America to the trial and punishment of offenders without form
of law, or by mob law; derived from the name of a man Lynch,
dubbed Judge, who being referred to used to administer justice
in the far West in this informal way.
John Singleton Copley, Baron, thrice Lord Chancellor
of England, born at Boston, Massachusetts, son of an artist;
was brought up in London, educated at Cambridge, and called
to the bar in 1804; acquiring fame in the treason trials of
the second decade, he entered Parliament in 1808, was Solicitor-General
1819, Attorney-General 1819, Master of the Rolls 1826, and Lord
Chancellor in three governments 1827-30; Chief Baron of the
Exchequer 1830-34; he was Lord Chancellor in Peel's administrations
of 1834-35 and 1841-46; he was great as a debater, and a clear-headed
lawyer, but not earnest enough for a statesman (1772-1863).
Lynedoch, Thomas Graham,
Lord, soldier, born in Perthshire; raised in 1793 the
90th Regiment of Foot, and served with it at Quibéron
and Isle Dieu; thereafter distinguished himself in various ways
at Minorca 1798, and Malta 1800, in the Peninsular wars, and
in Holland; founded the Senior United Service Club in 1817;
was created baron and general 1821, and died in London (1748-1843).
Lyon Court, the Herald's College
of Scotland, consisting of three heralds and three pursuivants.
Lyon King of Arms, the
legal heraldic officer of Scotland, who presides over the Lyon
Lyons (398), the second city of
France, at the junction of the Rhône and Saône,
250 m. S. of Paris; has a Roman Catholic university, and valuable
museum, library, and art collections, many old churches and
buildings, and schools of art and industries; the staple industry
is silk, weaving, dyeing, and printing; there are also chemical,
machinery, and fancy ware manufactures, and it is an emporium
of commerce between Central and Southern Europe; of late years
Lyons has been a hot-bed of ultra-republicanism.
Lyric Poetry, poetry originally
accompanied by the lyre, in which the poet sings his own passions,
sure of a sympathetic response from others in like circumstances
Lysander, a Spartan general
and admiral who put an end to the Peloponnesian War by defeat
of the Athenian fleet off Ægospotami, and of whom Plutarch
says in characterisation of him, he knew how to sew the skin
of the fox on that of the lion; fell in battle in 395 B.C.
Lysimachus, one of the generals
of Alexander the Great, who became king of Thrace and afterwards
of Macedonia; d. 281 B.C.
Lytton, Edward Robert,
Earl of, statesman and novelist, under the nom de
plume of Owen Meredith; entered the diplomatic service at
an early age, became viceroy of India in 1876, and ambassador
at Paris in 1892.
Edward Bulwer, Lord, statesman and novelist, born in
London; entered Parliament at the age of 26, began his parliamentary
career as a Whig, but became a Conservative and ranked in that
party for the greater part of his life; "Pelham,"
published in 1828, was his first novel, and this was followed
by a long list of others of endless variety, all indicative
of the conspicuous ability of the author, and to the last giving
no sign of decay in power; he was the author of plays as well
as novels (1803-1873).