A'ali Pasha, an eminent reforming
Turkish statesman (1815-1871).
Aalborg (19), a trading town
on the Liimfiord, in the N. of Jutland.
Aar, a large Swiss river about 200
m. long, which falls into the Rhine as it leaves Switzerland.
Aargau, a fertile Swiss canton
bordering on the Rhine.
Aarhuus (33), a port on the
E. of Jutland, with a considerable export and import trade,
and a fine old Gothic cathedral.
Aaron, the elder brother of Moses,
and the first high-priest of the Jews, an office he held for
Abaca, Manila hemp, or the plant,
native to the Philippines, which yield it in quantities.
Abacus, a tablet crowning a column
and its capital.
Abaddon, the bottomless pit,
or the angel thereof.
Abarim, a mountain chain in Palestine,
NE. of the Dead Sea, the highest point being Mount Nebo.
Abatement, a mark of disgrace
in a coat of arms.
Abauzit, Firmin, a French
Protestant theologian and a mathematician, a friend of Newton,
and much esteemed for his learning by Rousseau and Voltaire
Abbadie, two brothers of French
descent, Abyssinian travellers in the years 1837-1848; also
a French Protestant divine (1658-1727).
Abbas, uncle of Mahomet, founder
of the dynasty of the Abbasides (566-652).
Abbas Pasha, the khedive
of Egypt, studied five years in Vienna, ascended the throne
at eighteen, accession hailed with enthusiasm; shows at times
an equivocal attitude to Britain; b. 1874.
Abbas the Great, shah
of Persia, of the dynasty of the Sophis, great alike in conquest
and administration (1557-1628).
Abbas-Mirza, a Persian prince,
a reformer of the Persian army, and a leader of it, unsuccessfully,
however, against Russia (1783-1833).
Abbasides, a dynasty of 37
caliphs who ruled as such at Bagdad from 750 to 1258.
Ab`bati, Niccolo dell',
an Italian fresco-painter (1512-1571).
Abbé, name of a class of
men who in France prior to the Revolution prepared themselves
by study of theology for preferment in the Church, and who,
failing, gave themselves up to letters or science.
Abbeville (19), a thriving
old town on the Somme, 12 m. up, with an interesting house architecture,
and a cathedral, unfinished, in the Flamboyant style.
Abbot, head of an abbey. There
were two classes of abbots: Abbots Regular, as being such in
fact, and Abbots Commendatory, as guardians and drawing the
Abbot, George, archbishop
of Canterbury in the reigns of James I. and Charles I., and
one of the translators of King James's Bible; an enemy of Laud's,
who succeeded him (1562-1633).
Abbot of Misrule, a person
elected to superintend the Christmas revelries.
Abbotsford, the residence
of Sir Walter Scott, on the Tweed, near Melrose, built by him
on the site of a farm called Clarty Hole.
Abbott, Edwin, a learned
Broad Church theologian and man of letters; wrote, besides other
works, a volume of sermons "Through Nature to Christ";
esteemed insistence on miracles injurious to faith; b.
Abdal`lah, the father of Mahomet,
famed for his beauty (545-570); also a caliph of Mecca (622-692).
Abdalrah`man, the Moorish
governor of Spain, defeated by Charles Martel at Tours in 732.
Abdals (lit. servants
of Allah), a set of Moslem fanatics in Persia.
Abd-el-Ka`dir, an Arab
emir, who for fifteen years waged war against the French in
N. Africa, but at length surrendered prisoner to them in 1847.
On his release in 1852 he became a faithful friend of France
Abde`ra, a town in ancient Thrace,
proverbial for the stupidity of its inhabitants.
Abdications, of which the
most celebrated are those of the Roman Dictator Sylla, who in
70 B.C. retired to Puteoli; of Diocletian, who in A.D. 305 retired
to Salone; of Charles V., who in 1556 retired to the monastery
St. Yuste; of Christina of Sweden, who in 1654 retired to Rome,
after passing some time in France; of Napoleon, who in 1814
and 1815 retired first to Elba and then died at St. Helena;
of Charles X. in 1830, who died at Goritz, in Austria; and of
Louis Philippe, who in 1848 retired to end his days in England.
Abdiel, one of the seraphim,
who withstood Satan in his revolt against the Most High.
Abdul-Aziz, sultan of Turkey
from 1861, in succession to Abdul-Medjid (1830-1876).
Abdul-Aziz, sultan of Morocco,
was only fourteen at his accession; b. 1880.
Abdul-Ha`mid II., sultan
of Turkey in 1876, brother to Abdul-Aziz, and his successor;
under him Turkey has suffered serious dismemberment, and the
Christian subjects in Armenia and Crete been cruelly massacred;
father of the two preceding, in whose defence against Russia
England and France undertook the Crimean war (1823-1861).
Abdur-Rah`man, the ameer
of Afghanistan, subsidised by the English; b. 1830.
an English humourist, who contributed to Punch and other
organs; wrote the "Comic Blackstone" and comic histories
of England and Rome (1811-1856).
À'Becket, A. W., son
of the preceding, a littérateur and journalist; b.
Abel, the second son of Adam and
Eve; slain by his brother. The death of Abel is the subject
of a poem by Gessner and a tragedy by Legouvé.
Abel, Sir F. A., a chemist
who has made a special study of explosives; b. 1827.
Abel, Henry, an able Norwegian
mathematician, who died young (1802-1828).
Ab`elard, Peter, a theologian
and scholastic philosopher of French birth, renowned for his
dialectic ability, his learning, his passion for Héloïse,
and his misfortunes; made conceivability the test of credibility,
and was a great teacher in his day (1079-1142).
Abelli, a Dominican monk, the
confessor of Catharine de Medici (1603-1691).
Abencerra`ges, a powerful
Moorish tribe in Grenada, whose fate in the 15th century has
been the subject of interesting romance.
Aben-Ez`ra, a learned Spanish
Jew and commentator on the Hebrew scriptures (1090-1168).
Abera`von (6), a town and seaport
in Glamorganshire, with copper and iron works.
Abercrombie, Sir Ralph,
a distinguished British general of Scottish birth, who fell
in Egypt after defeating the French at Aboukir Bay (1731-1801).
Aberdeen (124), the fourth
city in Scotland, on the E. coast, between the mouths of the
Dee and Don; built of grey granite, with many fine public edifices,
a flourishing university, a large trade, and thriving manufactures.
Old Aberdeen, on the Don, now incorporated in the municipality,
is the seat of a cathedral church, and of King's College, founded
in 1404, united with the university in the new town.
Aberdeen, Earl of, a
shrewd English statesman, Prime Minister of England during the
Crimean war (1784-1860).—Grandson of the preceding, Gov.-Gen.
of Canada; b. 1847.
Aberdeenshire (281), a
large county in NE. of Scotland; mountainous in SW., lowland
N. and E.; famed for its granite quarries, its fisheries, and
its breed of cattle.
Abernethy, a small burgh in
S. Perthshire, with a Pictish round tower, and once the capital
of the Pictish kingdom.
Aberration of light,
an apparent motion in a star due to the earth's motion and the
progressive motion of light.
Aberyst`with (16), a town
and seaport in Cardiganshire, Wales, with a university.
Ab`gar XIV., a king of Edessa,
one of a dynasty of the name, a contemporary of Jesus Christ,
and said to have corresponded with Him.
Abhorrers, the Royalist and
High Church party in England under Charles II., so called from
their abhorrence of the principles of their opponents.
Abigail, the widow of Nabal,
espoused by David.
Abich, W. H., a German mineralogist
and traveller (1806-1886).
Abingdon (6), a borough in
Berks, 6 m. S. of Oxford.
Abiogenesis, the doctrine
of spontaneous generation.
Abipones, a once powerful warlike
race in La Plata, now nearly all absorbed.
Able man, man with "a heart
to resolve, a head to contrive, and a hand to execute"
Abner, a Hebrew general under
Saul; assassinated by Joab.
Abo, the old capital of Finland
and seat of the government, on the Gulf of Bothnia.
Ab`omey, the capital of Dahomey,
in W. Africa.
Abou`kir, village near Alexandria,
in Egypt, on the bay near which Nelson destroyed the French
fleet in 1799; where Napoleon beat the Turks, 1799; and where
Abercrombie fell, 1801.
About, Edmond, spirited
French littérateur and journalist (1828-1885).
Abraham, the Hebrew patriarch,
ancestor of the Jews, the very type of an Eastern pastoral chief
at once by his dignified character and simple faith.
Abraham, the plains of,
a plain near Quebec.
Abraham-men, a class of
lunatics allowed out of restraint, at one time, to roam about
and beg; a set of impostors who wandered about the country affecting
Abran`tes, a town in Portugal,
on the Tagus; taken by Marshal Junot, 1807, and giving the title
of Duke to him.
Abraxas stones, stones
with cabalistic figures on them used as talismans.
Abruz`zi, a highland district
in the Apennines, with a pop. of 100,000.
Absalom, a son of David, who
rebelled against his father, and at whose death David gave vent
to a bitter wail of grief. A name given by Dryden to the Duke
of Monmouth, son of Charles II.
Absolute, The, the philosophical
name for the uncreated Creator, or creating cause of all things,
dependent on nothing external to itself.
Absyrtus, a brother of Medea,
whom she cut in pieces as she fled with Jason, pursued by her
father, throwing his bones behind her to detain her father in
his pursuit of her by stopping to pick them up.
Abt, Franz, a German composer
of song-music (1819-1885).
Abu, a mountain (6000 ft.) in Rajputana,
with a footprint of Vishnu on the top, and two marble temples
half-way up, held sacred by the Jains.
Ab`ubekr, as the father of Ayesha,
the father-in-law of Mahomet, the first of the caliphs and the
founder of the Sunnites; d. 634.
Ab`u-klea, in the Soudan, where
the Mahdi's forces were defeated by Sir H. Stewart in 1885.
A`bul-faraj, a learned Armenian
Jew, who became bishop of Aleppo, and wrote a history of the
world from Adam onwards (1226-1286).
Abul-fazel, the vizier of
the great Mogul emperor Akbar, and who wrote an account of his
reign and of the Mogul empire; he was assassinated in 1604.
Abul-feda, a Moslem prince
of Hamat in Syria, who in his youth took part against the Crusaders,
and wrote historical works in Arabic (1273-1331).
Abu-Tha`leb, uncle of Mahomet,
and his protector against the plots of his enemies the Koreish.
Aby`dos, a town on the Asiatic
side of the Hellespont, famous as the home of Leander, who swam
the Hellespont every night to visit Hero in Sestos, and as the
spot where Xerxes built his bridge of boats to cross into Europe
in 480 B.C.; also a place of note in Upper Egypt.
Abyssin`ia, a mountainous
country SE. of Nubia, with an area of 200,000 sq. m., made up
of independent states, and a mixed population of some four millions,
the Abyssinians proper being of the Semite stock. It is practically
under the protectorate of Italy.
Acacia, a large group of trees
with astringent and gum-yielding properties, natives of tropical
Africa and Australia.
Academy, a public shady park
or place of groves near Athens, where Plato taught his philosophy
and whence his school derived its name, of which there are three
branches, the Old, the Middle, and the New,
represented respectively by Plato himself, Arcesilaos, and Carneades.
The French Academy, of forty members,
was founded by Richelieu in 1635, and is charged with the interests
of the French language and literature, and in particular with
the duty of compiling an authoritative dictionary of the French
language. Besides these, there are in France other four with
a like limited membership in the interest of other departments
of science and art, all now associated in the Institute of
France, which consists in all of 229 members. There are
similar institutions in other states of Europe, all of greater
or less note.
Acadia, the French name for Nova
Scotia and New Brunswick.
Acanthus, a leaf-like ornament
on the capitals of the columns of certain orders of architecture.
Acapul`co, a Mexican port in
the Pacific, harbour commodious, but climate unhealthy.
Acarna`nia, a province of
Greece N. of Gulf of Corinth; its pop. once addicted to piracy.
Acca`dians, a dark, thick-lipped,
short-statured Mongol race in Central Asia, displaced by the
Babylonians and Assyrians, who were Semitic.
Acca-Laurentia, the wife
of Faustulus, shepherd of Numitor, who saved the lives of Romulus
Acciaioli, a Florentine family
of 15th century, illustrious in scholarship and war.
Accolade, a gentle blow with
a sword on the shoulder in conferring knighthood.
Accol`ti, a Tuscan family, of
15th century, famous for their learning.
Accor`so, the name of a Florentine
family, of 12th and 13th centuries, great in jurisprudence.
Accra (16), capital and chief
port in British Gold Coast colony.
Accrington (39), a manufacturing
town 22 m. N. of Manchester.
Accum, Friedrich, a German
chemist, the first promoter of gas-lighting (1769-1838).
Accumulator, a hydraulic
press for storing up water at a high pressure; also a device
for storing up electric energy.
Acerra (14), an ancient city
9 m. NE. of Naples; is in an unhealthy district.
Acetic acid, the pure acid
of vinegar; the salts are called acetates.
Acetone, a highly inflammable
liquid obtained generally by the dry distillation of acetates.
Acet`ylene, a malodorous gaseous
substance from the incomplete combustion of hydro-carbons.
Achæan League, a
confederation of 12 towns in the Peloponnesus, formed especially
against the influence of the Macedonians.
Achæ`ans, the common
name of the Greeks in the heroic or Homeric period.
Achai`a, the N. district of the
Peloponnesus, eventually the whole of it.
Achard, a Prussian chemist, one
of the first to manufacture sugar from beetroot (1753-1821).
Achard`, Louis Amédée,
a prolific French novelist (1814-1876).
Acha`tes, the attendant of Æneas
in his wandering after the fall of Troy, remarkable for, and
a perennial type of, fidelity.
Achelo`üs, a river in
Greece, which rises in Mt. Pindus, and falls into the Ionian
Sea; also the god of the river, the oldest of the sons of Oceanus,
and the father of the Sirens.
Achen, an eminent German painter
Achenwall, a German economist,
the founder of statistic science (1719-1772).
Ach`eron, a river in the underworld;
the name of several rivers in Greece more or less suggestive
Ach`ery, a learned French Benedictine
of St. Maur (1609-1685).
Ach`ill, a rocky, boggy island,
sparsely inhabited, off W. coast of Ireland, co. Mayo, with
a bold headland 2222 ft. high.
Achille`id, an unfinished
poem of Statius.
Achil`les, the son of Peleus
and Thetis, king of the Myrmidons, the most famous of the Greek
heroes in the Trojan war, and whose wrath with the consequences
of it forms the subject of the Iliad of Homer. He was invulnerable
except in the heel, at the point where his mother held him as
she dipt his body in the Styx to render him invulnerable.
Achilles of Germany,
Albert, third elector of Brandenburg, "fiery, tough old
gentleman, of formidable talent for fighting in his day; a very
blazing, far-seen character," says Carlyle (1414-1486).
Achilles tendon, the
great tendon of the heel, where Achilles was vulnerable.
Achmed Pasha, a French adventurer,
served in French army, condemned to death, fled, and served
Austria; condemned to death a second time, pardoned, served
under the sultan, was banished to the shores of the Black Sea
Ach`met I., sultan of Turkey
from 1603 to 1617; A. II., from 1691 to 1695; A. III.,
from 1703 to 1730, who gave asylum to Charles XII. of Sweden
after his defeat by the Czar at Pultowa.
Achit`ophel, name given by
Dryden to the Earl of Shaftesbury of his time.
of light, undecomposed and free from colour, by means of a combination
of dissimilar lenses of crown and flint glass, or by a single
glass carefully prepared.
Acierage, coating a copper-plate
with steel by voltaic electricity.
A`ci-Rea`lë (38), a seaport
town in Sicily, at the foot of Mount Etna, in NE. of Catania,
with mineral waters.
A`cis, a Sicilian shepherd enamoured
of Galatea, whom the Cyclops Polyphemus, out of jealousy, overwhelmed
under a rock, from under which his blood has since flowed as
Ack`ermann, R., an enterprising
publisher of illustrated works in the Strand, a native of Saxony
Acland, Sir Henry, regius
professor of medicine in Oxford, accompanied the Prince of Wales
to America in 1860, the author of several works on medicine
and educational subjects, one of Ruskin's old and tried friends
Aclinic Line, the magnetic
equator, along which the needle always remains horizontal.
Acne, a skin disease showing hard
reddish pimples; Acne rosacea, a congestion of the skin
of the nose and parts adjoining.
Acoemetæ, an order of
monks in the 5th century who by turns kept up a divine service
day and night.
Aconca`gua, the highest peak
of the Andes, about 100 m. NE. of Valparaiso, 22,867 ft. high;
recently ascended by a Swiss and a Scotchman, attendants of
Aconite, monk's-hood, a poisonous
plant of the ranunculus order with a tapering root.
Aconitine, a most virulent
poison from aconite, and owing to the very small quantity sufficient
to cause death, is very difficult of detection when employed
in taking away life.
Acorn-shells, a crustacean
attached to rocks on the sea-shore, described by Huxley as "fixed
by its head," and "kicking its food into its mouth
with its legs."
Acoustics, the science of
sound as it affects the ear, specially of the laws to be observed
in the construction of halls so that people may distinctly hear
Acrasia, an impersonation in
Spenser's "Faërie Queen,"
of intemperance in the guise of a beautiful sorceress.
Acre, St. Jean d' (7), a
strong place and seaport in Syria, at the foot of Mount Carmel,
taken, at an enormous sacrifice of life, by Philip Augustus
and Richard Coeur de Lion in 1191, held out against Bonaparte
in 1799; its ancient name Ptolemaïs.
Acres, Bob, a coward in the "Rivals"
whose "courage always oozed out at his finger ends."
Acroamatics, esoteric lectures,
i. e. lectures to the initiated.
Acrolein, a light volatile
limpid liquid obtained by the destructive distillation of fats.
Acroliths, statues of which
only the extremities are of stone.
Acrop`olis, a fortified citadel
commanding a city, and generally the nucleus of it, specially
the rocky eminence dominating Athens.
Acrote`ria, pedestals placed
at the middle and the extremities of a pediment to support a
statue or other ornament, or the statue or ornament itself.
Acta diurna, a kind of gazette
recording in a summary way daily events, established at Rome
in 131 B.C., and rendered official by Cæsar in 50 B.C.
Acta Sanctorum, the lives
of the saints in 62 vols. folio, begun in the 17th century by
the Jesuits, and carried on by the Bollandists.
Actæon, a hunter changed
into a stag for surprising Diana when bathing, and afterwards
devoured by his own dogs.
Actinic rays, "non-luminous
rays of higher frequency than the luminous rays."
Actinism, the chemical action
Actinomycosis, a disease
of a fungous nature on the mouth and lower jaw of cows.
Actium, a town and promontory
at the entrance of the Ambracian Gulf (Arta), in Greece, where
Augustus gained his naval victory over Antony and Cleopatra,
Sept. 2, 31 B.C.
Acton, an adventurer of English
birth, who became prime minister of Naples, but was driven from
the helm of affairs on account of his inveterate antipathy to
the French (1737-1808).
Acton, Lord, a descendant
of the former, who became a leader of the Liberal Catholics
in England, M.P. for Carlow, and made a peer in 1869; a man
of wide learning, and the projector of a universal history by
experts in different departments of the field; b. 1834.
Acts of the Apostles,
a narrative account in the New Testament of the founding of
the Christian Church chiefly through the ministry of Peter and
Paul, written by Luke, commencing with the year 33, and concluding
with the imprisonment of Paul in Rome in 62.
Acun`ha, Tristram d',
a Portuguese navigator, companion of Albuquerque; Nuna d',
his son, viceroy of the Indies from 1528 to 1539; Rodrique
d', archbishop of Lisbon, who in 1640 freed Portugal from
the Spanish domination, and established the house of Braganza
on the throne.
Acupressure, checking hemorrhage
in arteries during an operation by compressing their orifices
with a needle.
Acupuncture, the operation
of pricking an affected part with a needle, and leaving it for
a short time in it, sometimes for as long as an hour.
Adair, Sir Robert, a
distinguished English diplomatist, and frequently employed on
the most important diplomatic missions (1763-1855).
Adal, a flat barren region between
Abyssinia and the Red Sea.
Adalbe`ron, the archbishop
of Rheims, chancellor of Lothaire and Louis V.; consecrated
Hugh Capet; d. 998.
Adalbert, a German ecclesiastic,
who did much to extend Christianity over the North (1000-1072).
Adalbert, St., bishop of
Prague, who, driven from Bohemia, essayed to preach the gospel
in heathen Prussia, where the priests fell upon him, and "struck
him with a death-stroke on the head," April 27, 997, on
the anniversary of which day a festival is held in his honour.
Ada`lia (30), a seaport on the
coast of Asia Minor, on a bay of the same name.
Adam (i. e. man), the first
father, according to the Bible, of the human race.
Adam, Alex., a distinguished
Latin scholar, rector for 40 years of the Edinburgh High School,
Scott having been one of his pupils (1741-1809).
Adam, Lambert, a distinguished
French sculptor (1700-1759).
Adam, Robert, a distinguished
architect, born at Kirkcaldy, architect of the Register House
and the University, Edinburgh (1728-1792).
Adam Bede, George Eliot's first
novel, published anonymously in 1859, took at once with both
critic and public.
Adam Kadmon, primeval man
as he at first emanated from the Creator, or man in his primeval
Adam of Bromen, distinguished
as a Christian missionary in the 11th century; author of a celebrated
Church history of N. Europe from 788 to 1072, entitled Gesta
Hammenburgensis Ecclesiæ Pontificum.
Adamas`tor, the giant spirit
of storms, which Camoëns, in his "Luciad," represents
as rising up before Vasco de Gama to warn him off from the Cape
of Storms, henceforth called, in consequence of the resultant
success in despite thereof, the Cape of Good Hope.
Adamawa, a region in the Lower
Soudan with a healthy climate and a fertile soil, rich in all
Adamites, visionaries in Africa
in the 2nd century, and in Bohemia in the 14th and 15th, who
affected innocence, rejected marriage, and went naked.
Adamnan, St., abbot of Iona,
of Irish birth, who wrote a life of St. Columba and a work on
the Holy Places, of value as the earliest written (625-704).
Adams, Dr. F., a zealous student
and translator of Greek medical works (1797-1861).
Adams, John, the second president
of the United States, and a chief promoter of their independence
Adams, John Quincy,
his eldest son, the sixth president (1767-1848).
Adams, John Couch, an English
astronomer, the discoverer simultaneously with Leverrier of
the planet Neptune (1819-1892).
Adams, Parson, a country
curate in Fielding's "Joseph Andrews," with a head
full of learning and a heart full of love to his fellows, but
in absolute ignorance of the world, which in his simplicity
he takes for what it professes to be.
Adams, Samuel, a zealous
promoter of American independence, who lived and died poor (1722-1803).
Adam's Bridge, a chain of
coral reefs and sandbanks connecting Ceylon with India.
Adam's Peak, a conical peak
in the centre of Ceylon 7420 ft. high, with a foot-like depression
5 ft. long and 2½ broad atop, ascribed to Adam by the
Mohammedans, and to Buddha by the Buddhists; it was here, the
Arabs say, that Adam alighted on his expulsion from Eden and
stood doing penance on one foot till God forgave him.
Ada`na (40), a town SE. corner
of Asia Minor, 30 m. from the sea.
Adanson, Michel, a French
botanist, born in Aix,
the first to attempt a natural classification of plants (1727-1806).
Ad`da, an affluent of the Po, near
Cremona; it flows through Lake Como; on its banks Bonaparte
gained several of his famous victories over Austria.
Addington, Henry, Lord
Sidmouth, an English statesman was for a short time Prime Minister,
throughout a supporter of Pitt (1757-1844).
Addison, Joseph, a celebrated
English essayist, studied at Oxford, became Fellow of Magdalen,
was a Whig in politics, held a succession of Government appointments,
resigned the last for a large pension; was pre-eminent among
English writers for the purity and elegance of his style, had
an abiding, refining, and elevating influence on the literature
of the country; his name is associated with the Tatler, Spectator,
and Guardian, as well as with a number of beautiful hymns
A`delaar, the name of honour
given to Cort Sivertsen, a famous Norse seaman, who rendered
distinguished naval services to Denmark and to Venice against
the Turks (1622-1675).
Adelaide (133), the capital
of S. Australia, on the river Torrens, which flows through it
into St. Vincent Gulf, 7 m. SE. of Port Adelaide; a handsome
city, with a cathedral, fine public buildings, a university,
and an extensive botanical garden; it is the great emporium
for S. Australia; exports wool, wine, wheat, and copper ore.
Adelaide, eldest daughter
of Louis XV. of France (1732-1806).
Adelaide, Port, the haven
of Adelaide, a port of call, with a commodious harbour.
Adelaide, Queen, consort
of William IV. of England (1792-1849).
Adelaide of Orleans,
sister of Louis Philippe, his Egeria (1771-1841).
Adelberg, a town of Carniola,
22 m. from Trieste, with a large stalactite cavern, besides
numerous caves near it.
Adelung, Johann Christoph,
a distinguished German philologist and lexicographer, born in
A`den (42), a fortified town on
a peninsula in British territory S. of Arabia, 105 m. E. of
Bab-el-Mandeb; a coaling and military station, in a climate
hot, but healthy.
Ad`herbal, son of Micipsa,
king of Numidia, killed by Jugurtha, 249 B.C.
Adi Granth, the sacred book
of the Sikhs.
who in 16th century maintained that certain practices of the
Romish Church, obnoxious to others of them, were matters of
indifference, such as having pictures, lighting candles, wearing
surplices, and singing certain hymns in worship.
Ad`ige, a river of Italy, which
rises in the Rhetian Alps and falls into the Adriatic after
a course of 250 m.; subject to sudden swellings and overflowings.
Adipocere, a fatty, spermaceti-like
substance, produced by the decomposition of animal matter in
Adipose tissue, a tissue
of small vesicles filled with oily matter, in which there is
no sensation, and a layer of which lies under the skin and gives
smoothness and warmth to the body.
a high-lying, picturesque, granite range in the State of New
York; source of the Hudson.
Adjutant, a gigantic Indian
stork with an enormous beak, about 5 ft. in height, which feeds
on carrion and offal, and is useful in this way, as storks are.
Adler, Hermann, son and
successor of the following, born in Hanover; a vigorous defender
of his co-religionists and their faith, as well as their sacred
Scriptures; was elected Chief Rabbi in 1891; b. 1839.
Adler, Nathan Marcus,
chief Rabbi in Britain, born in Hanover (1803-1890).
Adlercreutz, a Swedish general,
the chief promoter of the revolution of 1808, who told Gustavus
IV. to his face that he ought to retire (1759-1815).
Adme`tus, king of Pheræ
in Thessaly, one of the Argonauts, under whom Apollo served
for a time as neat-herd. See Alcestis.
Admirable Doctor, a
name given to Roger Bacon.
Admiral, the chief commander
of a fleet, of which there are in Britain three grades—admirals,
vice-admirals, and rear-admirals, the first displaying his flag
on the main mast, the second on the fore, and the third on the
Admiralty, Board of,
board of commissioners appointed for the management of naval
Admiralty Island, an
island off the coast of Alaska.
a group NE. of New Guinea, in the Pacific, which belong to Germany.
Adolf, Friedrich, king
of Sweden, under whose reign the nobles divided themselves into
the two factions of the Caps, or the peace-party, and the Hats,
or the war-party (1710-1771).
Adolph, St., a Spanish martyr:
festival, Sept. 27.
Adolph of Nassau, Kaiser
from 1291 to 1298, "a stalwart but necessitous Herr"
Carlyle calls him; seems to have been under the pay of Edward
Adolphus, John, an able
London barrister in criminal cases, and a voluminous historical
Adona`i, the name used by the
Jews for God instead of Jehovah, too sacred to be pronounced.
Adona`is, Shelley's name for
Ado`nis, a beautiful youth beloved
by Aphrodité (Venus), but mortally wounded by a boar
and changed by her into a flower the colour of his blood, by
sprinkling nectar on his body.
who in the 8th century maintained that Christ was the son of
God, not by birth, but by adoption, and as being one with Him
in character and will.
Ador`no, an illustrious plebeian
family in Genoa, of the Ghibelline party, several of whom were
Doges of the republic.
Adour, a river of France, rising
in the Pyrenees and falling into the Bay of Biscay.
Adowa`, a highland town in Abyssinia,
and chief entrepôt of trade.
Adras`tus, a king of Argos,
the one survivor of the first expedition of the Seven against
Thebes, who died of grief when his son fell in the second.
Adrets, Baron des, a
Huguenot leader, notorious for his cruelty; died a Catholic
A`dria, an ancient town between
the Po and the Adige; a flourishing seaport at one time, but
now 14 m. from the sea.
A`drian, name of six Popes:
A. I., from 772 to 795, did much to embellish Rome;
A. II., from 867 to 872, zealous to subject the sovereigns
of Europe to the Popehood; A. III., from 884 to 885;
A. V., from 1054 to 1059, the only Englishman who attained
to the Papal dignity; A. V., in 1276; A. VI.,
from 1222 to 1223. See Breakspeare.
Adrian, St., the chief military
saint of N. Europe for many ages, second only to St. George;
regarded as the patron of old soldiers, and protector against
Adriano`ple (60), a city
in European Turkey, the third in importance, on the high-road
between Belgrade and Constantinople.
Adria`tic, The, a sea 450
m. long separating Italy from Illyria, Dalmatia, and Albania.
Adullam, David's hiding-place
(1 Sam. xxii. 1), a royal Canaanitish city 10 m. NW. of Hebron.
Adullamites, an English
political party who in 1866 deserted the Liberal side in protest
against a Liberal Franchise Bill then introduced. John Bright
gave them this name. See 1 Sam. xxii.
Adumbla, a cow, in old Norse
mythology, that grazes on hoar-frost, "licking the rime
from the rocks—a Hindu cow transported north," surmises
Advocate, Lord, chief counsel
for the Crown in Scotland, public prosecutor of crimes, and
a member of the administration in power.
Advocates, Faculty of,
body of lawyers qualified to plead at the Scottish bar.
a library belonging to the Faculty of Advocates in Edinburgh,
founded in 1632; it alone of Scotch libraries still holds the
privilege of receiving a copy of every book entered at Stationers'
the devil's advocate, a functionary in the Roman Catholic Church
appointed to show reason against a proposed canonization.
Æacus, a Greek king renowned
as an administrator of distributive justice, after death appointed
one of the three judges in Hades. See
Ædiles, magistrates of
ancient Rome who had charge of the public buildings and public
Æe`tis, king of Colchis
and father of Medea.
Æge`an Sea, the Archipelago.
Ægeus, the father of Theseus,
who threw himself into the Ægean Sea, so called after
him, in the mistaken belief that his son, who had been to slay
the Minotaur, had been slain by him.
Ægi`na, an island 20 m.
SW. of Athens, in a gulf of the same name.
Ægir, the god of the sea
in the Norse mythology.
Ægis (lit. a goat's
skin), the shield of Zeus, made of the hide of the goat
Amalthea (q. v.), representing
originally the storm-cloud in which the god invested himself
when he was angry; it was also the attribute of Athena, bearing
in her case the Gorgon's head.
Æl`fric, a Saxon writer
of the end of the 10th century known as the "Grammarian."
an Italian rhetorician who wrote in Greek, and whose extant
works are valuable for the passages from prior authors which
they have preserved for us.
the Roman Consul who fell at Cannæ, 216 B.C.; also his
son, surnamed Macedonicus, so called as having defeated Perseus
at Pydna, in Macedonia.
Æne`as, a Trojan, the hero
of Virgil's "Æneid," who in his various wanderings
after the fall of Troy settled in Italy, and became, tradition
alleges, the forefather of the Julian Gens in Rome.
Æneas Silvius. See
Æ`neid, an epic poem by
Virgil, of which Æneas is the hero.
Ænesidemus, a sceptical
philosopher, born in Crete, who flourished shortly after Cicero,
and summed up under ten arguments the contention against dogmatism
in philosophy. See "Schwegler," translated by Dr.
Æolian action, action
of the wind as causing geologic changes.
the Lipari Islands (q.
Æo`lians, one of the
Greek races who, originating in Thessaly, spread north and south,
and emigrated into Asia Minor, giving rise to the Æolic
dialect of the Greek language.
Æolotropy, a change
in the physical properties of bodies due to a change of position.
Æ`olus, the Greek god of
Æon, among the Gnostics,
one of a succession of powers conceived as emanating from God
and presiding over successive creations and transformations
Æpyor`nis, a gigantic
fossil bird of Madagascar, of which the egg is six times larger
than that of an ostrich.
Æ`qui, a tribe on NE. of
Latium, troublesome to the Romans until subdued in 302 B.C.
Aerated bread, bread of
flour dough charged with carbonic acid gas.
Aerated waters, waters
aerated with carbonic acid gas.
Æs`chines, a celebrated
Athenian orator, rival of Demosthenes, who in the end prevailed
over him by persuading the citizens to believe he was betraying
them to Philip of Macedon, so that he left Athens and settled
in Rhodes, where he founded a school as a rhetorician (389-314
Æs`chylus, the father
of the Greek tragedy, who distinguished himself as a soldier
both at Marathon and Salamis before he figured as a poet; wrote,
it is said, some seventy dramas, of which only seven are extant—the "Suppliants,"
the "Persæ," the "Seven against Thebes,"
the "Prometheus Bound," the "Agamemnon,"
the "Choephori," and the "Eumenides," his
plays being trilogies; born at Eleusis and died in Sicily (525-456
Æscula`pius, a son
of Apollo and the nymph Coronis, whom, for restoring Hippolytus
to life, Zeus, at the prayer of Pluto, destroyed with a thunderbolt,
but afterwards admitted among the gods as god of medicine and
the healing art; the cock, the emblem of vigilance, and the
serpent, of prudence, were sacred to him.
Aeson, the father of Jason, was
restored to youth by Medea.
Æ`sop, a celebrated Greek
fabulist of the 6th century B.C., of whose history little is
known except that he was originally a slave, manumitted by Iadmon
of Samos, and put to death by the Delphians, probably for some
witticism at their expense.
Æso`pus, a celebrated
Roman actor, a friend of Pompey and Cicero.
Æsthetics, the science
of the beautiful in nature and the fine arts.
Ae`tius, a Roman general, who
withstood the aggressions of the Barbarians for twenty years,
and defeated Attila at Châlons, 451; assassinated out
of jealousy by the Emperor Valentinian III., 454.
Æto`lia, a country of
ancient Greece N. of the Gulf of Corinth.
Affre, archbishop of Paris, suffered
death on the barricades, as, with a green bough in his hand,
he bore a message of peace to the insurgents (1793-1848).
Afghan`istan` (5,000), a
country in the centre of Asia, between India on the east and
Persia on the west, its length about 600 m. and its breadth
about 500 m., a plateau of immense mountain masses, and high,
almost inaccessible, valleys, occupying 278,000 sq. m., with
extremes of climate, and a mixed turbulent population, majority
Afghans. The country, though long a bone of contention between
England and Russia, is now wholly under the sphere of British
Af`ghans, The, a fine and
noble but hot-tempered race of the Mohammedan faith inhabiting
Afghanistan. The Afghans proper are called
Pathans in India, and call themselves Beni Israel (sons
of Israel), tracing their descent from King Saul.
Afra`nius, a Latin comic poet
who flourished 100 B.C.; also a Roman Consul who played a prominent
part in the rivalry between Cæsar and Pompey, 60 B.C.
Africa, one of the five great
divisions of the globe, three times larger than Europe, seven-tenths
of it within the torrid zone, and containing over 200,000,000
inhabitants of more or less dark-skinned races. It was long
a terra incognita, but it is now being explored in all
directions, and attempts are everywhere made to bring it within
the circuit of civilisation. It is being parcelled out by European
nations, chiefly Britain, France, and Germany, and with more
zeal and appliance of resource by Britain than any other.
a Christian historian and chronologist of the 3rd century.
Afridis, a treacherous tribe
of eight clans, often at war with each other, in a mountainous
region on the North-Western frontier of India W. of Peshawar.
Afrikan`der, one born in
S. Africa of European parents.
Afrit`, a powerful evil spirit
in the Mohammedan mythology.
Aga`des, a once important depôt
of trade in the S. of the Sahara, much decayed.
Agag, a king of the Amalekites,
conquered by Saul, and hewn in pieces by order of Samuel.
Agamem`non, a son of Atreus,
king of Mycenæ and general-in-chief of the Greeks in the
Trojan war, represented as a man of stately presence and a proud
spirit. On the advice of the soothsayer Calchas sacrificed his
daughter Iphigenia (q. v.)
for the success of the enterprise he conducted. He was assassinated
by Ægisthus and Clytæmnestra, his wife, on his return
from the war. His fate and that of his house is the subject
of Æschylus' trilogy "Oresteia."
Agamogenesis, name given
to reproduction without sex, by fission, budding, &c.
Aganippe, a fountain in Boeotia,
near Helicon, dedicated to the Muses as a source of poetic inspiration.
Ag`ape, love-feasts among the
primitive Christians in commemoration of the Last Supper, and
in which they gave each other the kiss of peace as token of
Agar-agar, a gum extracted
from a sea-weed, used in bacteriological investigations.
Aga`sias, a sculptor of Ephesus,
famous for his statue of the "Gladiator."
Agass`iz, a celebrated Swiss
naturalist, in the department especially of ichthyology, and
in connection with the glaciers; settled as a professor of zoology
and geology in the United States in 1846 (1807-1873).
Ag`athe, St., a Sicilian virgin
who suffered martyrdom at Palermo under Decius in 251; represented
in art as crowned with a long veil and bearing a pair of shears,
the instruments with which her breast were cut off. Festival,
Aga`thias, a Byzantine poet
and historian (536-582).
Agath`ocles, the tyrant of
Syracuse, by the massacre of thousands of the inhabitants, was
an enemy of the Carthaginians, and fought against them; was
poisoned in the end (361-289 B.C.).
Ag`athon, an Athenian tragic
poet, a rival of Euripides (447-400 B.C.).
Ag`athon, St., pope from 676
Ag`de (6), a French seaport on
the Hérault, 3 m. from the Mediterranean.
A`gen (21), a town on the Garonne,
84 m. above Bordeaux.
Ages, in the Greek mythology four—the
Golden, self-sufficient; the Silver, self-indulgent; the Brazen,
warlike; and the Iron, violent; together with the Heroic, nobly
aspirant, between the third and fourth. In archeology, three—the
Stone Age, the Bronze, and the Iron. In history, the Middle
and Dark, between the Ancient and the Modern. In Fichte, five—of
Instinct, of Law, of Rebellion, of Rationality, of Conformity
to Reason. In Shakespeare, seven—Infancy, Childhood, Boyhood,
Adolescence, Manhood, Age, Old Age.
Agesan`der, a sculptor of
Rhodes of the first century, who wrought at the famous group
of the Laocoon.
Agesila`us, a Spartan king,
victorious over the Persians in Asia and over the allied Thebans
and Athenians at Coronea, but defeated by Epaminondas at Mantinea
after a campaign in Egypt; d. 360 B.C., aged 84.
Aggas, Ralph, a surveyor
and engraver of the 16th century, who first drew a plan of London
as well as of Oxford and Cambridge.
languages composed of parts which are words glued together,
so to speak, as cowherd.
Agincourt`, a small village
in Pas-de-Calais, where Henry V. in a bloody battle defeated
the French, Oct. 25, 1415.
A`gis, the name of several Spartan
kings, of whom the most famous were Agis III. and IV., the former
famous for his resistance to the Macedonian domination, d.
330 B.C.; and the latter for his attempts to carry a law for
the equal division of land, d. 240 B.C.
Ag`nadel, a Lombard village,
near which Louis XII. defeated the Venetians in 1509, and Vendôme,
Prince Eugène in 1705.
Agna`no, Lake of, a lake
near Naples, now drained; occupied the crater of an extinct
volcano, its waters in a state of constant ebullition.
Agnello, Col d', passage
by the S. of Monte Viso between France and Italy.
Agnes, an unsophisticated maiden
in Molière's L'École des Femmes, so unsophisticated
that she does not know what love means.
Agnes, St., a virgin who suffered
martyrdom, was beheaded because the flames would not touch her
body, under Diocletian in 303; represented in art as holding
a palm-branch in her hand and a lamb at her feet or in her arms.
Festival, Jan. 21.
Agnes de Méranie,
the second wife of Philip Augustus by a marriage in 1193, declared
null by the Church, who, being dismissed in consequence, died
broken-hearted in 1201.
Agnes Sorel, surnamed
Dame de beauté, mistress of Charles VII. of France
Agne`si, Maria Gætana,
a native of Milan, a woman of extraordinary ability and attainments,
prelected for her father in mathematics in the University of
Bologna under sanction of the Pope; died a nun at her birthplace
Ag`ni, the god of fire in the Vedic
mythology, begets the gods, organises the world, produces and
preserves universal life, and throughout never ceases to be
fire. One of the three terms of the Vedic trinity, Soma and
Indra being the other two.
Agnolo, a Florentine artist,
friend of Michael Angelo and Raphael, distinguished for his
carvings in wood (1460-1543).
Agnosticism, the doctrine
which disclaims all knowledge of the supersensuous, or denies
that we know or can know the absolute,
the infinite, or God.
Agnus Dei, the figure of a
lamb bearing a cross as a symbol of Christ, or a medal with
this device; also a prayer in the Mass beginning with the words, "Lamb
Agonic line, line along which
the needle points due north and south.
Agora, the forum of a Grecian
Agos`ta, a city on east coast
Agoult, Countess of, a French
authoress under the pseudonym of Daniel Stern (1805-1876).
Agoust, Capt. de, a "cast-iron"
captain of the Swiss Guards, who on May 4, 1788, by order of
the Court of Versailles, marched the Parliament of Paris out
of the Palais de Justice and carried off the key. See
Carlyle's "French Revolution,"
Bk. I. chap. viii.
Agou`ti, a rodent, native of
Brazil, Paraguay, and Guiana; very destructive to roots and
A`gra (168), a handsome city on
the Jumna, in NW. Province of India, famous for, among other
monuments, the Taj Mahal, a magnificent mausoleum erected near
it by the Emperor Shah Jehan for himself and his favourite wife;
it is a centre of trade, and seat of manufactures of Indian
Ag`ram, (37), a Hungarian town,
the capital of Croatia, with a fine Gothic cathedral and a university;
is subject to earthquakes.
Agrarian laws, laws among
the Romans regulating the division of lands.
Agric`ola, a Roman general,
father-in-law of Tacitus, who conquered Great Britain in 80,
recalled by the Emperor Domitian in 87, and retired into private
Agricola, Johann, a follower
and friend of Luther, who became his antagonist in the matter
of the binding obligation of the law on Christians (1492-1566).
a learned and accomplished Dutchman, much esteemed by Erasmus,
and much in advance of his time; his most important work, "Dialectics,"
being an attack on the scholastic system (1442-1485).
Agrigen`tum, an ancient considerable
city, now Girgenti, on the S. of Sicily, of various fortune,
and still showing traces of its ancient grandeur.
Agrippa, H. Cornelius,
a native of Cologne, of noble birth, for some time in the service
of Maximilian, but devoted mainly to the study of the occult
sciences, which exposed him to various persecutions through
Agrippa, Herod. See
Agrip`pa, M. Vipsanius,
a Roman general, the son-in-law and favourite of Augustus, who
distinguished himself at the battle of Actium, and built the
Pantheon of Rome (63-12 B.C.).
Agrippi`na, the daughter of
Vipsanius Agrippa and Julia, and thus the granddaughter of Augustus;
married Germanicus, accompanied him in his campaigns, and brought
his ashes to Rome on his death, but was banished from Rome by
Tiberius, and d. in 33.
Agrippina, the daughter
of Germanicus and the former, born at Cologne, and the mother
of Nero. Her third husband was her uncle, the Emperor Claudian,
whom she got to adopt her son, and then poisoned him, in order
to place her son on the throne; but the latter, resenting her
intolerable ascendancy, had her put to death in 59.
Agtelek, a village NE. of Pesth,
in Hungary with vast stalactite caverns, some of them of great
Agua`do, A. M., an enormously
wealthy banker of Spanish-Jewish descent, born in Seville, and
naturalised in France (1784-1842).
Aguas Calientes (31),
a high-lying inland trading town in Mexico.
Ague-cheek, Sir Andrew,
a silly squire in "Twelfth Night."
Aguesseau`, d', a French
magistrate under Louis XIV. and Louis XV., of unimpeachable
integrity and unselfish devotion, a learned jurist and law reformer,
and held high posts in the administration of justice (1668-1751).
Aguilar, Grace, a Jewess,
born at Hackney; authoress of "Magic Wreath," "Home
Influence," "Vale of Cedars"; of a delicate constitution,
died young (1816-1847).
A`gulhas, Cape (i. e.
the Needles), the most southerly point of Africa, 100 m. ESE.
of the Cape, and along with the bank of the whole south coast,
dangerous to shipping.
A`hab, a king of Israel fond of
splendour, and partial to the worship of Baal (918-896 B.C.).
Ahasue`rus, a traditionary
figure known as the Wandering Jew; also the name of several
kings of Persia.
Ahaz, a king of Judah who first
brought Judea under tribute to Assyria.
Ahlden, Castle of, a
castle in Lüneburg Heath, the nearly lifelong prison-house
of the wife of George I. and the mother of George II. and of
Sophie Dorothea of Prussia.
Ahmadabad (148), a chief town
of Guzerat, in the Bombay Presidency, a populous city and of
great splendour in the last century, of which gorgeous relics
Ahmed, a prince in the "Arabian
Nights," noted for a magic tent which would expand so as
to shelter an army, and contract so that it could go into one's
Ah`med Shah, the founder of
the Afghan dynasty and the Afghan power (1724-1773).
Ahmednug`ar (41), a considerable
Hindu town 122 m. E. of Bombay.
Aholibah, prostitution personified.
See Ezek. xxiii.
Aholibamah, a grand daughter
of Cain, beloved by a seraph, who at the Flood bore her away
to another planet.
Ah`riman, the Zoroastrian impersonation
of the evil principle, to whom all the evils of the world are
Aidan, St., the archbishop of
Lindisfarne, founder of the monastery, and the apostle of Northumbria,
sent thither from Iona on the invitation of King Oswald in 635.
Aignan, St., the bishop of Orleans,
defended it against Attila and his Huns in 451.
Aiguillon, Duke d', corrupt
minister of France, previously under trial for official plunder
of money, which was quashed, at the corrupt court of Louis XV.,
and the tool of Mme. Du Barry, with whom he rose and fell (1720-1782).
Aikin, Dr. John, a popular
writer, and author, with Mrs. Barbauld, his sister, of "Evenings
at Home" (1747-1822).
Aikman, W., an eminent Scotch
Ailly, Pierre d', a cardinal
of the Romish Church, and eminent as a theologian, presided
at the council of Constance which condemned Huss (1350-1420).
Ailsa Craig, a rocky islet
of Ayrshire, 10 m. NW. of Girvan, 2 m. in circumference, which
rises abruptly out of the sea at the mouth of the Firth of Clyde
to a height of 1114 ft.
Aimard, Gustave, a French
novelist, born in Paris; died insane (1818-1883).
Aimé, St., archbishop
of Sens, in France; d. 690; festival, 13th Sept.
Ain, a French river, has its source
in the Jura Mts., and falls into the Rhône; also a department
of France between the Rhône and Savoy.
Ainmiller, a native of Münich,
the reviver of glass-painting in Germany (1807-1870).
Ai`nos, a primitive thick-set,
hairy race, now confined to Yezo and the islands N. of Japan,
aboriginal to that quarter of the globe, and fast dying out.
Ainsworth, R., an English
Latin lexicographer (1660-1743).
Ainsworth, W. H., a popular
English novelist, the author of "Rookwood" and "Jack
Sheppard," as well as novels of an antiquarian and historical
Ain-Tab (20), a Syrian garrison
town 60 m. NE. of Aleppo; trade in hides, leather, and cotton.
Aird, Thomas, a Scottish
poet, author of the "Devil's Dream," the "Old
Bachelor," and the "Old Scotch Village"; for
nearly 30 years editor of the Dumfries Herald (1802-1876).
Airdrie (19), a town in Lanarkshire,
11 m. E. of Glasgow, in a district rich in iron and coal; is
of rapid growth; has cotton-mills, foundries, etc.
Airds Moss, a moor in Ayrshire,
between the rivers Ayr and Lugar.
Aire, a Yorkshire river which flows
into the Ouse; also a French river, affluent of the Aisne.
Airy, Sir G. B., an eminent
English astronomer, mathematician, and man of science, astronomer-royal
from 1836 to 1881, retired on a pension; was the first to enunciate
the complete theory of the rainbow.
Aisne, a French river which, after
a course of 150 m., falls into the Oise near Compiègne;
also a department in the N. of France.
Aïsse, Mlle., a Circassienne
brought to France about 1700; left letters on French society
in the eighteenth century, sparkling with wit and full of interest.
Aiton, Wm., a botanist, born
in Lanarkshire, the first director of the Royal Gardens at Kew
Aitzema, Leo, historian of
Aix (22), a town, the ancient capital
of Provence, 20 m. N. of Marseilles, the seat of an archbishop
and a university; founded by the Romans 123 B.C.; near it Marius
defeated the Teutons.
Aix, Isle of, island in the
Atlantic, at the mouth of the Charente.
in Rhenish Prussia, one of the oldest cities in Germany, made
capital of the German empire by Charlemagne; derives its name
from its mineral springs; is a centre of manufacturing industries
and an important trade; is celebrated for its octagonal cathedral
(in the middle of which is a stone marking the burial-place
of Charlemagne), for treaties of peace in 1668 and 1748, and
for a European congress in 1818.
Aix-les-Bains`, a small
town near Chambéry, in the dep. of Savoy, and much frequented
by invalids for its waters and baths.
Ajac`cio (18), the capital of
Corsica, the birthplace of the Bonaparte family, of Cardinal
Fesch, and Bacciochi.
Ajalon, Valley of, in
Palestine, scene of a battle between Joshua and five Canaanitish
kings, during which the sun and moon stood still at the prayer
of Joshua, to enable him to finish his victory.
A`jan Coast, a district on
the E. coast of Africa, from Cape Guardafui to the mouth of
the Juba, under the protectorate of Germany.
A`jax the name of two Greek heroes
in the Trojan war, and the synonym of a fiery and impetuous
warrior: Ajax, the son of Telamon of Sparta, one of the
bravest of the Greeks, who, on the death of Achilles, contended
with Ulysses for his arms, but was defeated, in consequence
of which he lost his reason and put an end to his life; and
Ajax, the son of Oïleus, swift of foot, like Achilles,
who suffered shipwreck on his homeward voyage, as a judgment
for an outrage he perpetrated on the person of Cassandra in
the temple of Athena in Troy.
Ajmere` (68), a city in a small
territory in the heart of Rajputana, under the rule of the Viceroy;
well built, and contains some famous edifices.
Ajodhya, an ancient city of
Oudh, 77 m. E. of Lucknow, once, on religious grounds, one of
the largest and most magnificent cities of India, now in ruins;
the modern town is an insignificant place, but has an annual
fair, attended by often 600,000 pilgrims.
Ak`aba, a gulf forming the NE.
inlet of the Red Sea.
Akakia, Doctor, a satire
of a very biting nature by Voltaire, directed against pretentious
pedants of science in the person of Maupertuis, the President
of the Royal Academy of Sciences at Berlin, which so excited
the anger of Frederick the Great, the patron of the Academy,
that he ordered it to be burnt by the common hangman, after
30,000 copies of it had been sold in Paris!
Akakia, Martin, physician
of Francis I., born at Châlons-sur-Marne, his real name
being Sans-Malice; d. 1551.
Ak`bar, the great Mogul emperor
of India, who, after a minority of a few years, assumed the
reins of government at the age of eighteen, and in ten or twelve
years, such was his power of conquest, had the whole of India
north of the Vindhya Mts. subject to his rule. He was wise in
government as well as powerful in war, and one of the most large-minded
and largest-hearted rulers recorded in history. He reigned half
a century (1542-1605).
Akenside, Mark, an English
physician, who wrote, among other productions and pieces, the "Hymn
to the Naiads," especially a poem entitled the "Pleasures
of Imagination," much quoted from at one time, and suggested
by the study of Addison on the Imagination in the Spectator
Akers, B. P., an able American
Akerman` (55), a fortified town
in Bessarabia, at the mouth of the Dniester.
Akiba, Ben Joseph, a
famous Jewish rabbi of the 2nd century, a great authority in
the matter of Jewish tradition, flayed alive by the Romans for
being concerned in a revolt in 135.
Akkas, a wandering race of negro
dwarfs in Central Africa, with large heads and slender necks,
who live by hunting.
Akron (27), a town in Ohio, U.S.,
seat of manufactures and centre of traffic.
Aksakof`, a Russian littérateur
and advocate of Panslavism (1823-1886).
Aksu (20), a trading town in E.
Turkestan, 250 m. NE. of Yarkand.
Ak`yab (37), the capital of Aracan,
in British Burmah, 90 m. SE. of Calcutta.
Al Rakim, the dog that guarded
the Seven Sleepers (q.
v.), and that stood by them all through their long sleep.
Alaba`ma (1,513), one of the
United States of N. America, traversed by a river of the name,
a little larger than England, highly fertile and a great cotton-growing
country, and abounding in iron, coal, and marble, bounded on
the W. by the Mississippi, on the N. by
Tennessee, and the E. by Georgia.
Alabama, The, a vessel built
in Birkenhead for the Confederates in the late American Civil
War, for the devastation done by which, according to the decision
of a court of arbitration, the English Government had to pay
heavy damages of three millions of money.
Alacoque, Marie, a French
nun of a mystic tendency, the founder of the devotion of the
Sacred Heart (1647-1690).
Alad`din, one of the chiefs
of the Assassins in the 13th century, better known by the name
of the Old Man of the Mountain.
Aladdin, a character in the "Arabian
Nights," who became possessed of a wonderful lamp and a
wonderful ring, by rubbing which together he could call two
evil genii to do his bidding.
among the Mohammedans.
Alago`as (397), a maritime province
of Brazil, N. of Pernambuco, with tropical products as well
as fine timber and dye-woods.
Alain de L'Isle, a professor
of theology in the University of Paris, surnamed the Doctor
Alais` (18), a town at the foot
of the Cévennes, in the centre of a mining district;
once the stronghold of French Protestantism.
Alaman`ni, Luigi, an Italian
poet and diplomatist, born at Florence (1495-1556).
Aland Isles, a group of 300
small islands in the Gulf of Bothnia, of which 80 are inhabited;
fortified by Russia.
Alans, a barbarous horde from
the East, who invaded W. Europe in the 4th and 5th centuries,
but were partly exterminated and partly ousted by the Visigoths.
Alar`con y Mendo`za,
Juan Ruiz de, a Spanish dramatist born in Mexico, who,
though depreciated by his contemporaries, ranks after 200 years
of neglect among the foremost dramatic geniuses of Spain, next
even to Cervantes and Lope de Vega; he was a humpback, had an
offensive air of conceit, and was very unpopular; he wrote at
least twenty dramas, some of which have been translated into
French; d. in 1639.
Al`aric I., the king of the
Visigoths, a man of noble birth, who, at the end of the 4th
and beginning of the 5th century, ravaged Greece, invaded Italy,
and took and pillaged Rome; died at Cosenza, in Calabria, in
412, at the early age of thirty-four.
Alaric II., king of the Visigoths,
whose dominions included all Gaul and most of Spain; defeated
by the Franks at Poitiers, and killed by the hand of Clovis,
their king, in 567.
Alaric Cotin, Voltaire's
nickname for Frederick the Great, the former in recognition
of him as a warrior, the latter as a would-be littérateur,
after an indifferent French poet of the name of Cotin.
Alas`co, John, the uncle
of Sigismund, king of Poland, and a zealous promoter in Poland
of the Reformation, the friend of Erasmus and Zwinglius (1499-1560).
Alas`ka (32), an immense territory
belonging to the U.S. by purchase from Russia, extending from
British N. America to Behring Strait; it is poor in resources,
and the inhabitants, who are chiefly Indians and Eskimos, live
by hunting and fishing, and by the export of salmon; seal fishery
Alasnam, a hero related of in
the "Arabian Nights" as having erected eight statues
of gold, and in quest of a statue for a ninth unoccupied pedestal,
finding what he wanted in the person of a beautiful woman for
Alas`tor, an avenging spirit,
given to torment families whose history has been stained by
A`lava (97), the southernmost
of the three Basque provinces of Spain, largest, but least populous;
rich in minerals, and fertile in soil.
Alava, Ricardo de, a
Spanish general, born in Vittoria, joined the national party,
and was aide-de-camp to the Duke of Wellington, and became eventually
ambassador to London and Paris (1771-1843).
Alba Longa, a city of Latium
older than Rome.
Albacete (229), a province
in Spain, with a capital (30) of same name, 173 m. SE. of Madrid.
Alban Lake, near Alban Mount,
6 m. in circuit, occupying the basin of an extinct volcano,
its surface 961 ft. above the sea-level.
Alban Mount, a small mountain
overlooking Alba Longa.
Alban, St., the first martyr
in Britain to the Christian faith in 303; represented in art
as carrying his head between his hands, having been beheaded.
Alba`ni, an Italian painter,
a disciple of Caracci, born at Bologna; surnamed the Anacreon
of painting; his pictures more distinguished for grace than
Alba`ni, an illustrious Roman
family, members of which attained the highest dignities in the
Church, one, Clement XI., having been Pope.
Albani, Mme., née
Emma la Jeunesse, a well-known and highly popular operatic singer
of French-Canadian descent; b. 1847.
Alba`nia, a region in Balkan
peninsula, on the Adriatic, extending from Servia to Greece.
Albano, Lake of, a small
crater-like lake 15 m. SE. of Rome, near which rises the Castel
Gandolfo, where the Pope has a villa.
Albany, the old Celtic name for
the Scottish highlands.
Albany, a town in W. Australia,
on King George Sound, 261 m. SE. of Perth, a port of call for
Australian liners; also the capital (94) of the State of New
York, on the Hudson River, a well-appointed city; seat of justice
for the State, with a large trade and numerous manufactures.
Albany, Countess of,
wife of English pretender, Prince Charles Stuart, a dissolute
Albany, the Duke of,
a title formerly given to a member of the royal family, and
revived in the present reign.
Albany, Duchess of,
daughter of Prince Waldeck Pyrmont and widow of Prince Leopold
of England; b. 1861, widow since 1884.
Albategni, a distinguished
Arabian astronomer, born in Mesopotamia in the 9th or 10th century
of our era; his observations extended over 50 years; he so improved
the methods and instruments of observation as to earn the title
of the Ptolemy of the Arabs.
Albatross, the largest and
strongest of sea-birds, that ranges over the southern seas,
often seen far from land; it is a superstition among sailors
that it is disastrous to shoot one.
Albero`ni, an Italian of humble
birth, became a Cardinal of the Church and Prime Minister to
Philip V. of Spain, wrought hard to restore Spain to its ancient
grandeur, was defeated in his project by the quadruple alliance
of England, France, Austria, and Holland, and obliged to retire
Albert, archbishop of Mainz,
a dignity granted him by Pope Leo X. at the ransom of £15,000,
which he was unable to pay, and which,
as the Pope needed it for building St. Peter's, he borrowed,
the Pope granting him the power to sell indulgences in order
to repay the loan, in which traffic Tetzel was his chief salesman,
a trade which roused the wrath of Luther, and provoked the German
Albert, the last Grandmaster
of the Teutonic knights, who being "religious in an eminent
degree and shaken in his belief" took zealously to Protestantism
and came under the influence of Luther, who advised him to declare
himself Duke of Prussia, under the wing of Sigismund of Poland,
in defiance of the Teutonic order as no longer worthy of bed
and board on the earth, and so doing, became founder of the
Prussian State (1490-1568).
Albert, markgrave of Brandenburg,
defined by Carlyle "a failure of a Fritz," with "features"
of a Frederick the Great in him, "but who burnt away his
splendid qualities as a mere temporary shine for the able editors,
and never came to anything, full of fire, too much of it wildfire,
not in the least like an Alcibiades except in the change of
fortune he underwent" (1522-1557).
Albert, Prince, second
son of Ernest, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, born Aug. 26, 1819,
an accomplished man with a handsome presence, who became the
consort of Queen Victoria in 1840, and from his prudence and
tact was held in the highest honour by the whole community,
but died at Windsor of typhoid fever, Dec. 14, 1861, to the
unspeakable sorrow of both Queen and country.
Albert, St., bishop of Liège,
was assassinated by the emissaries of the Emperor Henry VI.
in 1195. Festival, Nov. 21.
Albert Edward. See
Wales, Prince of.
Albert I., emperor of Germany
from 1298 to 1308, eldest son of Rudolf of Hapsburg, "a
most clutching, strong-fisted, dreadfully hungry, tough, and
unbeautiful man, whom his nephew at last had to assassinate,
and did assassinate, as he crossed the river Reuss with him
in a boat, May 1, 1308."
Albert II., a successor, "who
got three crowns—Hungary, Bohemia, and the Imperial—in
one year, and we hope a fourth," says the old historian, "which
was a heavenly and eternal one," for he died the next year,
Albert III., elector of Brandenburg.
See Achilles of Germany.
Albert Medal, a medal of
gold and of bronze, instituted in 1866, awarded to civilians
for acts of heroism by sea or land.
Albert the Bear, markgrave
of Brandenburg, called the Bear, "not from his looks or
qualities, for he was a tall handsome man, but from the cognisance
on his shield, an able man, had a quick eye as well as a strong
hand, and could pick what way was straightest among crooked
things, was the shining figure and the great man of the North
in his day, got much in the North and kept it, got Brandenburg
for one there, a conspicuous country ever since," says
Carlyle, "and which grows more so in our late times"
Albert Nyan`za, a lake
in Equatorial Africa, in the Nile basin, discovered by Sir Samuel
Baker in 1864, 150 m. long by 40 broad, and 2500 feet above
Alber`ta (26), a fertile region
with large forests in British America, on the E. slope of the
Rocky Mountains, the south abounding in cattle ranches, and
the mountainous districts in minerals.
Alberti, an illustrious Florentine
family, rivals of the Medicis and the Albrizzi.
Alber`tus Magnus, one
of the greatest of the scholastic philosophers and theologians
of the Middle Ages, teacher of Thomas Aquinas, supreme in knowledge
of the arts and sciences of the time, and regarded by his contemporaries
in consequence as a sorcerer (1190-1280).
Albi, a town of some antiquity
and note in S. of France, 22 m. NE. of Toulouse.
Albigen`ses, a religious
sect, odious, as heretical, to the Church, which sprung up about
Albi, in the S. of France, in the 12th century, against which
Pope Innocent III. proclaimed a crusade, which was carried on
by Simon de Montfort in the 13th century, and by the Inquisition
afterwards, to their utter annihilation.
Albinos, persons or animals
with preternaturally pale skin and fair hair, also with pupils
of a red or pink colour, and eyes too weak to bear full light.
Albinus, an able professor of
anatomy and therapeutics at Leyden (1696-1770).
Albion, a white cliff, the ancient
name of Great Britain.
Alboin, king of the Lombards
in the 6th century, from 561 to 573; invaded Italy as far as
the Tiber, and set up his capital in Pavia; incurred the resentment
of his wife, who had him assassinated for forcing her to drink
wine out of the skull of her father.
Alborak, a wonderful horse of
Mahomet, an impersonation of the lightning as his steed.
Albor`noz, a Spanish statesman,
archbishop of Toledo, a bold defender of the faith against the
Moor and a plain-spoken man in the interest of Christianity
Albrizzi, a powerful Florentine
family, rivals of the Medicis and the Alberti.
Albue`ra, a Spanish village
12 m. SE. of Badajoz, scene of a victory (May 16, 1811) of General
Beresford over Marshal Soult.
Albufe`ra, a lake on the coast
of Spain, 7 m. S. of Valencia, near which Marshal Suchet gained
a victory over the English in 1811.
Al`bula, Swiss mountain pass
in the canton of Grisons, 7595 ft. high.
Albumen, a glairy substance
a constituent of plants and animals, and found nearly pure in
the white of an egg or in the serum of the blood.
Albuquerque`, Alfonso d',
a celebrated Portuguese patriot and navigator, the founder of
the Portuguese power in India, who, after securing a footing
in India for Portugal that he sought for, settled in Goa, where
his recall at the instance of jealous rivals at home gave him
such a shock that he died of a broken heart just as he was leaving.
The Indians long remembered his benign rule, and used to visit
his tomb to pray him to deliver them from the oppression of
his successors (1453-1513).
Albyn, ancient Celtic name of
Alcæ`us of Mitylene,
a Greek lyric poet, an aristocrat by birth, a contemporary and
an alleged lover of Sappho, and much admired by Horace; flourished
about 600 B.C.
Alca`la de Hena`res
(14), a town in Spain, the birthplace of Cervantes, 21 m. E.
of Madrid, long the seat of a famous university founded by Cardinal
Alcan`tara, a town of Spain,
on the Tagus, near Portugal, with a bridge of six arches, 670
ft. long and 210 ft. high, built in honour of Trajan in 104.
The Order of Alcantara, a religious and military order, was
established in 1176 here, for defence against the Moors, and
was suppressed in 1835.
Alceste, the chief character
in Molière's Misanthrope.
Alces`tis, the wife of Admetus,
who gave herself up to death to save her husband. Hercules descended
to the lower world and brought her back. She is the subject
of one of the tragedies of Euripides.
Alchemy, the early analysis
of substances which has in modern times developed into chemistry,
and which aimed chiefly at the discovery of the philosopher's
stone, of a universal solvent, and of the elixir of life; it
has been defined to be "an art without art, which has its
beginning in falsehood, its middle in toil, and its end in poverty."
Alcibi`ades, an Athenian
of high birth, and related to Pericles, possessed of a handsome
person, brilliant abilities, and great wealth, but was of a
wayward temper and depraved, whom Socrates tried hard to win
over to virtue, but failed. He involved his country in a rash
expedition against Sicily, served and betrayed it by turns in
the Peloponnesian war, and died by assassination in exile (450-404
Alci`des, the grandson of Alcæus,
a patronymic of Hercules.
Alcin`ous, a king of the Phæacians,
the father of Nausicaa, who figures in the Odyssey as the host
of Ulysses, who had been shipwrecked on his shore.
Alci`ra (18), a walled town in
Spain, on an island 22 m. SW. of Valencia.
Alcman, an early Greek lyric
poet, born at Sardis.
Alcme`ne, the wife of Amphitryon
and the mother of Hercules.
Alcmeonidæ, a powerful
Athenian family, of which Pericles and Alcibiades were members,
who professed to be descended from Alcmæon, the grandson
Alcock, John, an eminent
ecclesiastic of the reign of Edward IV., distinguished for his
love of learning and learned men; d. 1500.
Alcohol, pure or highly rectified
spirit obtained from fermented saccharine solutions by distillation,
and the intoxicating principle of all spirituous liquors.
Alcoholism, the results,
acute or chronic, of the deleterious action of alcohol on the
Alcott, Louisa Mary,
a popular American authoress, who acted as a nurse to the wounded
during the Civil War; her works mostly addressed to the young
Alcoy (30), a town in Spain, N.
of Alicanti; staple manufacture, paper.
Al`cuin, a learned Englishman,
a disciple of Bede; invited by Charlemagne to introduce scholarly
culture into the empire and establish libraries and schools
of learning; was one of those men whose work lies more in what
they influence others to do than in what they do themselves
Alcy`one, daughter of Æolus,
who threw herself into the sea after her husband, who had perished
in shipwreck, and was changed into the kingfisher.
Alde`baran, the bull's-eye,
a star of the first magnitude in the eye of the constellation
Taurus; it is the sun in the Arabian mythology.
Aldehyde, a limpid, very volatile
liquid, of a suffocating odour, obtained from the oxidation
Al`derney (2), one of the Channel
Islands, 3 or 4 m. long by 2 broad, celebrated for its breed
of cows; separated from Cape de la Hogue by the dangerous Race
Al`dershot, a permanent camp,
established in 1855, for instruction in military manoeuvres,
on a moorland 35 m. SW. of London.
Aldine Editions, editions,
chiefly of the classics, issued from the press of Aldus Manutius
in Venice in the 16th century, and remarkable for the correctness
of the text and the beauty and clearness of the printing.
Aldingar, Sir, legendary
character, the steward of Eleanor, wife of Henry II., who accused
her of infidelity, and offered to substantiate the charge by
combat, when an angel in the form of a child appeared and certified
Aldobrandini, a Florentine
Al`dred, bishop of Worcester
in the reign of Edward the Confessor, made a pilgrimage to Jerusalem,
became archbishop of York, and crowned the last of the Saxon
and the first of the Norman kings of England; d. 1063.
Al`drich, dean of Oxford, an
accomplished ecclesiastic; was a skilful musician, and composed
many services for the Church; wrote a system of logic, long
in use in Oxford University (1647-1710).
a famous Italian naturalist of Bologna, who collected an immense
body of interesting facts in natural history, published partly
in his lifetime and partly after his death (1522-1607).
Aldus Manutius, or
Aldo Manuzio, an Italian printer, born at Bassano, established
a printing-office in Venice in 1488, issued the celebrated Aldine
Editions of the classics, and invented the italic type, for
the exclusive use of which for many years he obtained a patent,
though the honour of the invention is more probably due to his
typefounder, Franciso de Bologna, than to him (1447-1515).
Alec`to, one of the three Eumenides
Aleman`, a Spanish novelist,
author of the celebrated romance Guzman de Alfarache,
which in 6 years ran through 26 editions, was translated several
times into French; died in Mexico in 1610.
Aleman`ni, a confederacy of
tribes which appeared on the banks of the Rhine in the 3rd cent.,
and for long gave no small trouble to Rome, but whose incursions
were arrested, first by Maximinus, and finally by Clovis in
496, who made them subject to the Franks, hence the modern names
in French for Germany and the Germans.
Alemte`jo (369), a southern
province of Portugal; soil fertile to the east.
Alençon (17), a town
in the dep. of Orne, 105 m. W. of Paris, once famous for its
and Dukes of, a title borne by several members of the
house of Valois—e. g. Charles of Valois,
who fell at Crécy (1346); Jean IV., who fell at
Alep`po (130), a city in Northern
Syria, one of the finest in the East, once one of the greatest
trading centres in the world.
Ale`sia, a strong place in the
E. of Gaul, which, as situated on a hill and garrisoned by 80,000
Gauls, cost Cæsar no small trouble to take.
Alesius, or Alane, a
noted Reformer, born in Edinburgh, converted to Protestantism
by Patrick Hamilton; was driven first from Scotland and then
from England, till he settled as a theological professor in
Germany, and took an active part in the Reformation there (1500-1563).
Alessandria (78), a strongly
fortified and stirring town on the Tenaro, in Northern Italy,
the centre of 8 railways, 55 m. SE. of Turin.
Alessi, architect, born at Perugia,
architect of the monastery and church of the
Escurial, q. v. (1500-1572).
Aletsch Glacier, The,
the largest of the glaciers of the Alps, which descends round
the south of the Jungfrau into the valley of the Upper Rhône.
Aleu`tian Islands (2)
a chain of volcanic islands, 150 in number, stretching over
the N. Pacific from Alaska in N. America, to Kamchatka, in Asia.
Alexander the Great,
the king of Macedonia, son of Philip by Olympias, daughter of
Neoptolemus, king of Epirus; born at Pella, 356 B.C.; had the
philosopher Aristotle for tutor, and being instructed by him
in all kinds of serviceable knowledge, ascended the throne on
the death of his father, at the age of 20; after subduing Greece,
had himself proclaimed generalissimo of the Greeks against the
Persians, and in 2 years after his accession crossed the Hellespont,
followed by 30,000 foot and 5000 horse; with these conquered
the army of Darius the Persian at Granicus in 334 and at Issus
in 333; subdued the principal cities of Syria, overran Egypt,
and crossing the Euphrates and Tigris, routed the Persians at
Arbela; hurrying on farther, he swept everything before him,
till the Macedonians refusing to advance, he returned to Babylon,
when he suddenly fell ill of fever, and in eleven days died
at the early age of 32. He is said to have slept every night
with his Homer and his sword under his pillow, and the inspiring
idea of his life, all unconsciously to himself belike, is defined
to have been the right of Greek intelligence to override and
rule the merely glittering barbarity of the East.
Alexander, St., patriarch
of Alexandria from 311 to 326, contributed to bring about the
condemnation of Arius at the Council of Nice; festival, Feb
first Protestant bishop of Jerusalem, of Jewish birth, cut off
during a journey to Cairo (1799-1845).
Alexander III., pope, successor
to Adrian IV., an able man, whose election Barbarossa at first
opposed, but finally assented to; took the part of Thomas à
Becket against Henry II. and canonised him, as also St. Bernard.
Pope from 1159 to 1181.
Alexander VI., called Borgia
from his mother, a Spaniard by birth, obtained the popehood
by bribery in 1492 in succession to Innocent VIII., lived a
licentious life and had several children, among others the celebrated
Lucretia and the infamous Cæsar Borgia; d. in 1503,
after a career of crime, not without suspicion of poison. In
addition to Alexanders III. and VI., six of the name were popes:
Alexander I., pope from 108 to 117; Alexander II., pope from
1061 to 1073; Alexander IV., pope from 1254 to 1261; Alexander
V., pope from 1409 to 1410; Alexander VII., pope from 1653 to
1667, who was forced to kiss his hand to Louis XIV.; Alexander
VIII., pope from 1689 to 1691.
Alexander I., king of Scotland,
son of Malcolm Canmore and Margaret, sister of Edgar Atheling,
a vigorous prince, surnamed on that account The Fierce;
subdued a rising in the North, and stood stoutly in defence
of the independent rights of both Crown and Church against the
claim of supremacy over both on the part of England; d.
Alexander II., of Scotland,
successor of William the Lion, his father, a just and wise ruler,
aided the English barons against John, and married Joan, the
sister of Henry III.; d. 1249.
Alexander III., son of
the preceding, married a daughter of Henry III., sided with
him against the barons, successfully resisted the invasion of
Haco, king of Norway, and on the conclusion of peace gave his
daughter in marriage to Haco's successor Eric; accidentally
killed by falling over a cliff near Kinghorn when hunting in
Alexander I., emperor of
Russia, son and successor of Paul I., took part in the European
strife against the encroachments of Napoleon, was present at
the battle of Austerlitz, fought the French at Pultusk and Eylau,
was defeated at Friedland, had an interview with Napoleon at
Tilsit in 1813, entered into a coalition with the other Powers
against France, which ended in the capture of Paris and the
abdication of Napoleon in 1814. Under his reign Russia rose
into political importance in Europe (1777-1825).
Alexander II., emperor
of Russia, son and successor of Nicholas I., fell heir to the
throne while the siege of Sebastopol was going on; on the conclusion
of a peace applied himself to reforms in the state and the consolidation
and extension of the empire. His reign is distinguished by a
ukase decreeing in 1861 the emancipation of the serfs numbering
23 millions, by the extension of the empire in the Caucasus
and Central Asia, and by the war with Turkey in the interest
of the Slavs in 1877-78, which was ended by the peace of San
Stephano, revised by the treaty of Berlin. His later years were
clouded with great anxiety, owing to the spread of Nihilism,
and he was killed by a bomb thrown at him by a Nihilist (1818-1881).
Alexander III., emperor
of Russia, son of the preceding, followed in the footsteps of
his father, and showed a marked disposition to live on terms
of peace with the other Powers; his reign not distinguished
by any very remarkable event. The present Czar is his son and
Alexander I., king of Servia,
Alexander Nevsky, grand-duke
of Russia, conquered the Swedes, the Danes, and the Teutonic
Knights on the banks of the Neva, freed Russia from tribute
to the Mongols, is one of the saints of the Russian Church.
Alexander of Hales,
the Doctor irrefragabilis of the Schools, an English
ecclesiastic, a member of the Franciscan order, who in his "Summa
Universæ Theologiæ" formulated, by severe rigour
of Aristotelian logic, the theological principles and ecclesiastical
rites of the Romish Church; d. in 1222.
Alexander of Paris,
a Norman poet of the 16th century, who wrote a poem on Alexander
the Great in twelve-syllabled lines, called after him Alexandrines.
Alexander of the North,
Charles XII. of Sweden.
a Roman emperor, a wise, virtuous, and pious prince, conquered
Artaxerxes, king of Persia, in an expedition against him, but
setting out against the Germans, who were causing trouble on
the frontiers of the empire, fell a victim, along with his mother,
to an insurrection among his troops not far from Mainz (205-235).
Alexan`dria (230), a world-famous
city, the chief port of Egypt, founded by Alexander the Great
in 332 B.C., at one time a great centre of learning, and in
possession of the largest library of antique literature in the
world, which was burned by the Caliph Omar in 640; at one time
a place of great commerce, but that has very materially decayed
since the opening of the Suez Canal. Alexandria, from its intimate
connection with both East and West, gave birth in early times
to a speculative philosophy which drew its principles from eastern
as well as western sources, which was at its height on the first
encounter of these elements.
Alexandria (14), a town
on the Potomac, 7 m. S. of Washington, accessible to vessels
of the largest size; also a thriving town (7) on the river Leven,
3 m. N. of Dumbarton.
an MS. on parchment of the Septuagint Scriptures in Greek in
uncial letters, which belonged to the library of the patriarchs
the library burned by the Caliph Omar in 642, said to have contained
Alexandri`na Lake, a
lake in Australia into which the river Murray flows.
a Gnostic philosophy, combining eastern with western forms of
Alexander of Paris.
Alexan`dropol (22), the
largest town in the Erivan district of Russian Armenia, and
a fortress of great strength.
Alexis, St., the patron saint
of beggars and pilgrims, represented in art with a staff and
in a pilgrim's habit; sometimes lying on a mat, with a letter
in his hand, dying.
czar of Russia, the father of Peter the Great, the first czar
who acted on the policy of cultivating friendly relations with
other European states (1630-1677).
son of Peter the Great, conspired against his father as he had
broken the heart of his mother, was condemned to death; after
his trial by secret judges he was found dead in prison (1695-1718).
Alexius Comne`nus, emperor
of the East, began life as a soldier, was a great favourite
with the soldiers, who, in a period of anarchy, raised him to
the throne at the period of the first crusade, when the empire
was infested by Turks on the one hand and Normans on the other,
while the crusaders who passed through his territory proved
more troublesome than either. He managed to hold the empire
together in spite of these troubles, and to stave off the doom
that impended all through his reign of thirty-seven years (1048-1118).
Alfa, an esparto grass valuable
for making paper.
Al`fadur, the All-Father or
uncreated supreme in the Norse mythology.
Alfara`bi, an Arabian philosopher
of the 10th century, had Avicenna for a disciple, wrote on various
subjects, and was the first to attempt an encyclopedic work.
Alfie`ri, an Italian dramatist,
spent his youth in dissipation before he devoted himself to
the dramatic art; on the success of his first drama "Cleopatra,"
met at Florence with the Countess of Albany, the wife of Charles
Edward Stuart, on whose death he married her; was at Paris when
the Revolution broke out, and returned to Florence, where he
died and was buried. Tragedy was his forte as a dramatist
Alfonsine Tables, astronomical
tables drawn up at Toledo by order of Alfonso X. in 1252 to
correct the anomalies in the Ptolemaic tables; they divided
the year into 365 days, 5 hours, 49 minutes, 16 seconds.
Alfonso I., the "Conqueror,"
founder of the kingdom of Portugal, was the first king, originally
only count, as his father before him; in that capacity took
up arms against the Moors, and defeating them had himself proclaimed
king on the field of battle, a title confirmed to him by the
Pope and made good by his practically subjecting all Portugal
to his sway (1110-1185).
Alfonso X., the Wise, or the
Astronomer, king of Castile and Leon, celebrated as an astronomer
and a philosopher; after various successes over the Moors, first
one son and then another rose against him and drove him from
the throne; died of chagrin at Seville two years later. His
fame connects itself with the preparation of the Alfonsine Tables,
and the remark that "the universe seemed a crank machine,
and it was a pity the Creator had not taken advice." It
was a saying of his, "old wood to burn, old books to read,
old wine to drink, and old friends to converse with" (1226-1284).
Alfonso III., surnamed the
Great, king of Asturias, ascended the throne in 866, fought
against and gained numerous victories over the Moors; the members
of his family rose against him and compelled him to abdicate,
but on a fresh incursion of the Moors he came forth from his
retreat and triumphantly beat them back; died in Zamora, 910.
Alford, Henry, vicar of
Wymeswold and afterwards Dean of Canterbury; his works and writings
were numerous, and included poems and hymns. His great work,
however, was an edition of the Greek New Testament, with notes,
various readings, and comments (1810-1871).
Alford, Michael, a learned
English Jesuit, left two great works, "Britannia Illustrata"
and "Annales Ecclesiastici et Civiles Britannorum."
of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, son of Prince Albert and Queen
Victoria; b. 1844.
Alfred the Great, king
of the West Saxons, and the most celebrated and greatest of
all the Saxon kings. His troubles were with the Danes, who at
the time of his accession infested the whole country north of
the Thames; with these he fought nine battles with varied success,
till after a lull of some years he was surprised by Gunthrum,
then king, in 878, and driven to seek refuge on the island of
Athelney. Not long after this he left his retreat and engaged
Gunthrum at Edington, and after defeating him formed a treaty
with him, which he never showed any disposition to break. After
this Alfred devoted himself to legislation, the administration
of government, and the encouragement of learning, being a man
of letters himself. England owes much to him both as a man and
a ruler, and it was he who in the creation of a fleet laid the
first foundation of her greatness as monarch of the deep. His
literary works were translations of the "General History"
of Orosius, the "Ecclesiastical History" of Bede,
Boëthius's "Consolations of Philosophy," and
the "Cura Pastoralis" of Pope Gregory, all executed
for the edification of his subjects (849-901).
Algæ, sea-weeds and plants
of the same order under fresh water as well as salt; they are
flowerless, stemless, and cellular throughout.
Algar`di, an Italian sculptor
of note, born at Bologna; his greatest work is an alto-relievo,
the largest existing, of Pope Leo restraining Attila from marching
on Rome (1602-1654).
a clever Italian author, born at Venice, whom, for his wit,
Frederick the Great was attached to and patronised, "one
of the first beaux esprits of the age," according
to Wilhelmina, Frederick's sister. Except his wit, it does not
appear Frederick got much good out of him, for the want of the
due practical faculty, all the faculty he had having evaporated
in talk (1712-1764).
Algar`ve (240), the southernmost
province of Portugal, hilly, but traversed with rich valleys,
which yield olives, vines, oranges, &c.
Algebra, a universal arithmetic
of Arabian origin or Arabian transmission, in which symbols
are employed to denote operations, and letters to represent
number and quantity.
Alge`ria, in the N. of Africa,
belongs to France, stretches between Morocco on the W. and Tripoli
and Tunis on the E., the country being divided into the Tell
along the sea-coast, which is fertile,
the Atlas Highlands overlooking it on the S., on the southern
slopes of which are marshy lakes called "shotts,"
on which alfa grows wild, and the Sahara beyond, rendered habitable
here and there by the creation of artesian wells; its extent
nearly equal in area to that of France, and the population numbers
about four millions, of which only a quarter of a million is
French. The country is divided into Departments, of which Algiers,
Oran, and Constantine are the respective capitals. It has been
successively under the sway of the Carthaginians, the Romans,
the Vandals, the Arabs, the Byzantines, and the Berbers, which
last were in the 16th century supplanted by the Turks. At the
end of this period it became a nest of pirates, against whom
a succession of expeditions were sent from several countries
of Europe, but it was only with the conquest of it by the French
in 1830 that this state of things was brought to an end.
Algesi`ras (12), a town and
port in Spain on the Bay of Gibraltar, 5 m. across the bay;
for centuries a stronghold of the Moors, but taken from them
by Alfonso IX. after a siege of twenty months.
Algiers` (75), the capital of
Algeria, founded by the Arabs in 935, called the "silver
city," from the glistening white of its buildings as seen
sloping up from the sea, presenting a striking appearance, was
for centuries under its Bey the head-quarters of piracy in the
Mediterranean, which only began to cease when Lord Exmouth bombarded
the town and destroyed the fleet in the harbour. Since it fell
into the hands of the French the city has been greatly improved,
the fortifications strengthened, and its neighbourhood has become
a frequent resort of English people in winter.
Algine, a viscous gum obtained
from certain sea-weeds, used as size for textile fabrics, and
for thickening soups and jellies.
Algo`a Bay, an inlet at the
E. of Cape Colony, 20 m. wide, on which Port Elizabeth stands,
425 m. E. of the Cape of Good Hope.
Al`gol, a double star in the constellation
Perseus, of changing brightness.
Algonquins, one of the three
aboriginal races of N. American Indians, originally occupying
nearly the whole region from the Churchill and Hudson Bay southward
to N. Carolina, and from the E. of the Rocky Mts. to Newfoundland;
the language they speak has been divided into five dialects.
Alham`bra (Red Castle), an
ancient palace and stronghold of the Moorish kings of Granada,
founded by Muhammed II. in 1213, decorated with gorgeous arabesques
by Usuf I. (1345), erected on the crest of a hill which overlooks
Granada; has suffered from neglect, bad usage, and earthquake.
A`li, the cousin of Mahomet, and
one of his first followers at the age of sixteen, "a noble-minded
creature, full of affection and fiery daring. Something chivalrous
in him; brave as a lion; yet with a grace, a truth and affection
worthy of Christian knighthood." Became Caliph in 656,
died by assassination in the Mosque at Bagdad; the Sheiks yearly
commemorate his death. See Carlyle's "Heroes."
Ali Baba. See
A`li Pasha, pasha of Janina,
a bold and crafty Albanian, able man, and notorious for his
cruelty as well as craft; alternately gained the favour of the
Porte and lost it by the alliances he formed with hostile powers,
until the Sultan sentenced him to deposition, and sent Hassan
Pasha to demand his head; he offered violent resistance but
being overpowered at length surrendered, when his head was severed
from his body and sent to Constantinople (1741-1822).
Alican`te (40), the third seaport-town
in Spain, with a spacious harbour and strongly fortified, in
a province of the same name on the Mediterranean.
Aligarh` (61), a town with a
fort between Agra and Delhi, the garrison of which mutinied
Alighie`ri, the family name
Al`ima, an affluent on the right
bank of the Congo, in French territory.
Alimentary canal, a
passage 5 or 6 times the length of the body, lined throughout
with mucous membrane, extends from the mouth to the anus, and
includes mouth, fauces, pharynx, oesophagus, stomach, and small
and large intestines.
Alison, Archibald, an
Episcopal clergyman in Edinburgh, of which he was a native,
best known for his "Essay on the Nature and Principles
of Taste" (1757-1839).
Alison, Sir Archibald,
son of the preceding, a lawyer who held several prominent legal
appointments, and a historian, his great work being a "Modern
History of Europe from the French Revolution to the Fall of
Napoleon," afterwards extended to the "Accession of
Louis Napoleon" (1792-1867).
Alison, W. Pulteney,
brother of the preceding, professor of medicine in Edinburgh
University, and a philanthropist (1790-1859).
Aliwal`, a village in the Punjab,
on the Sutlej, where Sir Harry Smith gained a brilliant victory
over the Sikhs, who were provided with forces in superior numbers,
Al`kahest, the presumed universal
solvent of the alchemists.
Alkalies, bodies which, combining
with acids form salts, are soluble in water, and properly four
in number, viz., potash, soda, lithia, and ammonia.
Alkaline earths, earths
not soluble in water, viz., lime, magnesia, strontia, and baryta.
Alkaloids, bodies of vegetable
origin, similar in their properties, as well as toxicologically,
to alkalies; contain as a rule carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and
nitrogen; many of them are poisonous and invaluable in medicine.
Alkmaar` (14), the capital of
N. Holland, 25 m. NW. of Amsterdam, with a large trade in cattle,
grain, and cheese.
Alkmer, Henrik van,
the reputed author of the first German version of "Reynard
All the Talents,
Administration of, a ministry formed by Lord Grenville
on the death of Pitt in 1806.
Al`lah, the Adorable, the Arab
name for God, adopted by the Mohammedans as the name of the
Allahabad` (175), the City
of God, a central city of British India, on the confluence of
the Ganges and the Jumna, 550 m. from Calcutta, and on the railway
between that city and Bombay.
Allan, David, a Scottish
portrait and historical painter, born at Alloa; illustrated
Ramsay's "Gentle Shepherd"; his greatest work is the "Origin
of Painting," now in the National Gallery at Edinburgh
Allan, Sir William,
a distinguished Scottish historical painter, born at Edinburgh,
many of his paintings being on national subjects; he was a friend
of Scott, who patronised his work, and in succession to Wilkie,
president of the Royal Scottish Academy; painted "Circassian
Captives" and "Slave-Market at Constantinople"
Allantois, a membrane enveloping
the foetus in mammals, birds, and reptiles.
Allard`, a French general, entered
the service of Runjeet Singh at Lahore, trained his troops in
European war tactics, and served him against the Afghans; died
at Peshawar (1785-1839).
Allegha`ny (105), a manufacturing
city in Pennsylvania, on the Ohio, opposite Pittsburg, of which
it is a kind of suburb.
a range in the Appalachian system in U.S., extending from Pennsylvania
to N. Carolina; do not exceed 2400 ft. in height, run parallel
with the Atlantic coast, and form the watershed between the
Atlantic rivers and the Mississippi.
assigning a higher than a literal interpretation to the Scripture
record of things, in particular the Old Testament story.
Allegory, a figurative mode
of representation, in which a subject of a higher spiritual
order is described in terms of that of a lower which resembles
it in properties and circumstances, the principal subject being
so kept out of view that we are left to construe the drift of
it from the resemblance of the secondary to the primary subject.
Allegri, the family name of
Correggio; the name of an Italian composer, born at Rome, the
author of a still celebrated Miserere (1580-1652).
Al`leine, Joseph, a Puritan
writer, author of a book once, and to some extent still, much
in favour among religious people, entitled "Alarm to the
Allen, Bog of, a dreary expanse
of bogs of peat E. of the Shannon, in King's Co. and Kildare,
Ireland; Lough of, an expansion of the waters of the
Allen, Ethan, one of the
early champions of American independence, taken prisoner in
a raid into Canada; wrote a defence of deism and rational belief
Allen, Grant, man of letters,
born in Kingston, Canada, 1848, and a prolific writer; an able
upholder of the evolution doctrine and an expounder of Darwinism.
Allen, John, an M.D. of Scotch
birth, and a contributor to the Edinburgh Review (1771-1843).
Allen, Wm., a distinguished
chemist and philanthropist, son of a Spitalfields weaver, a
member of the Society of Friends, and a devoted promoter of
its principles (1770-1843).
Allentown (34), a town on
the Lehigh River, 50 m. NW. of Philadelphia, the great centre
of the iron trade in the U.S.
Alle`rion, in heraldry, an
eagle with expanded wings, the points turned downwards, and
without beak or feet.
Alleyn, Edward, a celebrated
actor in the reigns of Elizabeth and James I., the founder of
Dulwich College, and was voluntarily along with his wife one
of its first beneficiaries and inmates; was a contemporary of
Al`lia, a stream flowing into
the Tiber 11 m. from Rome, where the Romans were defeated by
the Gauls under Brennus, 387 B.C.
Alliance, the Triple,
in 1668, between England, Holland, and Sweden against Louis
XIV.; the Quadruple, in 1718, between France, England,
Holland, and the Empire to maintain the treaty of Utrecht; the
Holy, in 1815, between Russia, Austria, and Prussia against
Liberal ideas; the Triple, in 1872, between Germany,
Austria, and Russia, at the instigation of Bismarck, from which
Russia withdrew in 1886, when Italy stepped into her place.
Under it the signatories in 1887 guarantee the integrity of
their respective territories.
Allier, a confluent of the river
Loire, in France, near Nevers; also the department through which
Allies, the name generally given
to the confederate Powers who in 1814 and 1815 entered France
and restored the Bourbons.
Allies, Thomas William,
an English clergyman who turned Roman Catholic, and wrote, in
defence of the step, among others, the "See of St. Peter,
the Rock of the Church."
Alligator, a N. American fresh-water
crocodile, numerous in the Mississippi and the lakes and rivers
of Louisiana and Carolina; subsists on fish, and though timid,
is dangerous when attacked; is slow in turning, however, and
its attacks can be easily evaded.
a poet and journalist, born in Ireland, of English origin; his
most celebrated works are "Day and Night Songs" and "Lawerence
Bloomfield in Ireland"; was for a time editor of Fraser's
Allman, George J., M.D.,
Emeritus Professor of Natural History in Edinburgh, an eminent
naturalist; born in Ireland (1812-1898).
Alloa (12), a thriving seaport
on north bank of the Forth, in Clackmannan, 6 m. below Stirling,
famous for its ale.
Allob`roges, a Celtic race
troublesome to the Romans, who occupied the country between
the Rhône and the Lake of Geneva, corresponding to Dauphiné
Allopathy, in opposition to
homoeopathy, the treatment of disease by producing a condition
of the system different from or opposite to the condition essential
to the disease to be cured.
Allotropy, the capability
which certain compounds show of assuming different properties
and qualities, although composed of identical elements.
Alloway, the birthplace of Burns,
on the Doon, 2 m. from Ayr, the assumed scene of Tam o' Shanter's
Alloway Kirk, a ruin S.
of Ayr, celebrated as the scene of the witches' dance in "Tam
All-Saints' Day, the
1st of November, a feast dedicated to all the Saints.
All-Souls' Day, a festival
on the 2nd November to pray for the souls of the faithful deceased,
such as may be presumed to be still suffering in Purgatory.
Allspice, the berry of the
pimento, or Jamaica pepper.
an American painter and poet, whose genius was much admired
by Coleridge (1779-1843).
Alma, a river in the Crimea, half-way
between Eupatoria and Sebastopol, where the allied English,
French, and Turkish armies defeated the Russians under Prince
Menschikoff, Sept. 20, 1854.
Almack's, a suite of assembly
rooms, afterwards known as Willis's Rooms, where select balls
used to be given, admission to which was a certificate of high
Almaden (9), a town on the northern
slope of the Sierra Morena, in Spain, with rich mines of quicksilver.
Alma`gro, Diego d', a
confederate of Pizzaro in the conquest of Peru, but a quarrel
with the brothers of Pizzaro about the division of the spoil
on the capture of Cuzco, the capital of Chile, led to his imprisonment
and death (1475-1538).—Diego d', his son, who avenged
his death by killing Pizzaro, but being conquered by Vaca de
Castro, was himself put to death (1520-1542).
Al-mamoun, the son of Haroun-el-Raschid,
the 7th Abbaside caliph, a great promoter
of science and learning; b. 833.
Almanach de Gotha, a
kind of European peerage, published annually by Perthes at Gotha;
of late years extended so as to include statesmen and military
people, as well as statistical information.
Almansur, Abu Giafar,
the 2nd Abbaside caliph and the first of the caliphs to patronise
learning; founded Bagdad, and made it the seat of the caliphate;
Almansur, Abu Mohammed,
a great Moorish general in the end of the 10th century, had
overrun and nearly made himself master of all Spain, when he
was repulsed and totally defeated by the kings of Leon and Navarre
a distinguished artist of Dutch descent, settled in London;
famous for his highly-finished treatment of classic subjects;
Almaviva, a character in Beaumarchais'
Marriage de Figaro, representative of one of the old
noblesse of France, recalling all their manners and vices, who
is duped by his valet Figaro, a personification of wit, talent,
Almeida, a strong fortress in
the province of Beira, on the Spanish frontier of Portugal.
the first Portuguese viceroy of India, a firm and wise governor,
superseded by Albuquerque, and killed on his way home by the
Kaffirs at the Cape in 1510.—Lorenzo, his son,
acting under him, distinguished himself in the Indian seas,
and made Ceylon tributary to Portugal.
Almeria (37), a chief town and
seaport in the S. of Spain, an important and flourishing place,
next to Granada, under the Moors, and at one time a nest of
pirates more formidable than those of Algiers.
Almighty dollar, the
Almighty whom the Americans are charged with worshipping, first
applied to them, it would seem, by Washington Irving.
Almohades, a Moslem dynasty
which ruled in N. Africa and Spain from 1129 to 1273.
Almo`ra, a high-lying town at
the foot of the Himalayas, 85 m. N. of Bareilly.
Almoravides, a Moslem dynasty
which subdued first Fez and Morocco, and then S. Spain, from
1055 to 1147.
Alnwick, the county town of
Northumberland, on the Aln; at the north entrance is Alnwick
Castle, the seat of the Duke of Northumberland, one of the most
magnificent structures of the kind in England, and during the
Border wars a place of great strength.
Aloe, a genus of succulent plants
embracing 200 species, the majority natives of S. Africa, valuable
in medicine, in particular a purgative from the juice of the
leaves of several species.
Aloes wood, the heart of certain
tropical trees, which yields a fragrant resinous substance and
admits of high polish.
Alost (25), a Belgian town on
the Dender, 19 m. NW. from Brussels, with a cathedral, one of
the grandest in Belgium, which contains a famous painting by
Rubens, "St. Roche beseeching Christ to arrest the Plague
Aloysius, St., See
Aloysius, St., an Italian
nobleman, who joined the Society of Jesus; canonised for his
devotion to the sick during the plague in Rome, to which he
himself fell a victim, June 21, 1591.
Alpaca, a gregarious ruminant
of the camel family, a native of the Andes, and particularly
the tablelands of Chile and Peru; is covered with a long soft
silky wool, of which textile fabrics are woven; in appearance
resembles a sheep, but is larger in size, and has a long erect
neck with a handsome head.
Alp-Arslan (Brave Lion),
a sultan of the Seljuk dynasty in Persia, added Armenia and
Georgia to his dominions (1030-1072).
Alpes, three departments in SE.
France: the Basses-A, in NE. part of Provence, bounded
by Hautes-Alpes on the N. and Var on the S., sterile in the
N., fertile in the S., cap. Digne; Hautes-A., forming
part of Dauphiné, traversed by the Cottian Alps, climate
severe, cap. Gap; A. Maritimes, E. of the Basses-A.,
bordering on Italy and the Mediterranean, made up of the territory
of Nice, ceded by Italy, and of Monaco and Var; cap. Nice.
Alphe`us, a river in the Peloponnesus,
flowing west, with its source in Arcadia; also the name of the
river-god enamoured of the nymph Arethusa, and who pursued her
under the sea as far as Sicily, where he overtook her and was
wedded to her.
Alpine Club, a club of English
gentlemen devoted to mountaineering, first of all in the Alps,
members of which have successfully addressed themselves to attempts
of the kind on loftier mountains.
Alpine plants, plants whose
natural habitat approaches the line of perpetual snow.
Alps, The, the vastest mountain
system in Europe; form the boundary between France, Germany,
and Switzerland on the N. and W., and Italy on the S., their
peaks mostly covered with perpetual snow, the highest being
Mont Blanc, within the frontiers of France. According to height,
they have been distributed into Fore, Middle, and
High: the Fore rising to the limit of trees; the Middle,
to the line of perpetual snow; and the High, above the snow-line.
In respect of range or extent, they have been distributed into
Western, Middle, and Eastern: the Western, including
the Maritime, the Cottian, the Dauphiné, and the Graian,
extend from the Mediterranean to Mont Blanc; the Middle, including
the Pennine and Bernese, extend from Mont Blanc to the Brenner
Pass; and the Eastern, including the Dolomite, the Julian, and
the Dinaric, extend from the Brenner and Hungarian plain to
the Danube. These giant masses occupy an area of 90,000 sq.
m., and extend from the 44th to the 48th parallel of latitude.
Alpujar`ras, a rich and lovely
valley which stretches S. from the Sierra Nevada in Spain.
Alruna-wife, the household
goddess of a German family.
a territory originally of the German empire, ceded to Louis
XIV. by the peace of Westphalia in 1648, but restored to Germany
after the Franco-German war in 1870-71, by the peace of Frankfort;
is under a governor general bearing the title of "Statthalter";
is a great wine-producing country, yields cereals and tobacco,
its cotton manufacture the most important in Germany.
Alsa`tia, Whitefriars, London,
which at one time enjoyed the privilege of a debtors' sanctuary,
and had, till abolished in 1697, become a haunt of all kinds
of nefarious characters.
Alsen (25), a Danish island adjacent
to Sleswig, one of the finest in the Baltic, now ceded to Germany.
Al-Sirat, the hair-narrow hell-bridge
of the Moslem, which every Mohammedan must pass to enter Paradise.
Alsten, an island off the coast
of Northland, Norway, with seven snow-capped
hills, called the Seven Sisters.
Altai` Mountains, in
Central Asia, stretching W. from the Desert of Gobi, and forming
the S. boundary of Asiatic Russia, abounding, to the profit
of Russia, in silver and copper, as well as other metals.
a German painter and engraver, a distinguished pupil of Albert
Dürer, and as a painter, inspired with his spirit; his "Battle
of Arbela" adorns the Münich Picture Gallery (1488-1538).
Al`ten, Karl August,
a distinguished officer, native of Hanover, who entered the
British service, bore arms under Sir John Moore, was chief of
a division, under Wellington, in the Peninsular war, and closed
his military career at the battle of Waterloo (1763-1840).
Al`tenburg (33), capital of
Saxe-Altenburg, and 4 m. S. of Leipsic; its castle is the scene
of the famous "Prinzenraub"
(q. v.), related by Carlyle in his "Miscellanies."
Althen, a Persian refugee, who
introduced into France the cultivation of madder, which became
one of the most important products of the S. of France.
Alton Locke, a novel, by
Charles Kingsley, written in sympathy with the Chartist movement,
in which Carlyle is introduced as one of the personages.
Alto`na (148), a town and seaport
of Sleswig-Holstein, now belonging to Germany, close to Hamburg,
on the right bank of the Elbe, and healthier, and as good as
forming one city with it.
Alto-relievo, figures carved
out of a tablet so as to project at least one half from its
Al`torf, an old town in the canton
Uri, at the S. end of the Lake of Lucerne; associated with the
story of William Tell; a place of transit trade.
Altruism, a Comtist doctrine
which inculcates sacrifice of self for the good of others as
the rule of human action.
Alumbra`do, a member of a
Spanish sect that laid claim to perfect enlightenment.
Alured of Beverley,
an English chronicler of the 12th century; his annals comprise
the history of the Britons, Saxons, and Normans up to his own
time; d. 1129.
Alva, Duke of, a general
of the armies of Charles V. and Philip of Spain; his career
as a general was uniformly successful, but as a governor his
cruelty was merciless, especially as the viceroy of Philip in
the Low Countries, "very busy cutting off high heads in
Brabant, and stirring up the Dutch to such fury as was needful
for exploding Spain and him" (1508-1582).
Alvara`do, Pedro de,
one of the Spanish conquerors of Mexico, and comrade of Cortez;
was appointed Governor of Guatemala by Charles V. as a reward
for his valiant services in the interest of Spain; was a generous
man as well as a brave.
a Portuguese who, in the 15th century, visited Abyssinia and
wrote an account of it.
Alvarez, Don José,
the most distinguished of Spanish sculptors, born near Cordova,
and patronised by Napoleon, who presented him with a gold medal,
but to whom, for his treatment of his country, he conceived
so great an aversion, that he would never model a bust of him
Alviano, an eminent Venetian
general, distinguished himself in the defence of the republic
against the Emperor Maximilian (1455-1515).
Amadeus, Lake, a lake in
the centre of Australia, subject to an almost total drying-up
Amade`us V., count of Savoy,
surnamed the Great from his wisdom and success as a ruler (1249-1323).
Amadeus VIII., 1st duke
of Savoy, increased his dominions, and retired into a monastery
on the death of his wife; he was elected Pope as Felix V., but
was not acknowledged by the Church (1383-1451).
Amadeus I., of Spain, 2nd son
of Victor Emmanuel of Italy, elected king of Spain in 1870,
but abdicated in 1873 (1845-1890).
Am`adis de Gaul, a celebrated
romance in prose, written partly in Spanish and partly in French
by different romancers of the 15th century; the first four books
were regarded by Cervantes as a masterpiece. The hero of the
book, Amadis, surnamed the Knight of the Lion, stands for a
type of a constant and deferential lover, as well as a model
knight-errant, of whom Don Quixote is the caricature.
Amadou, a spongy substance, consisting
of slices of certain fungi beaten together, used as a styptic,
and, after being steeped in saltpetre, used as tinder.
Amaimon, a devil who could he
restrained from working evil from the third hour till noon and
from the ninth till evening.
Amalaric, king of the Visigoths,
married a daughter of Clovis; d. 581.
Amalekites, a warlike race
of the Sinaitic peninsula, which gave much trouble to the Israelites
in the wilderness; were as good as annihilated by King David.
Amal`fi, a port on the N. of
the Gulf of Salerno, 24 m. SE. of Naples; of great importance
in the Middle Ages, and governed by Doges of its own.
Amalfian Laws, a code of
maritime law compiled at Amalfi.
Ama`lia, Anna, the Duchess
of Weimar, the mother of the grand-duke; collected about her
court the most illustrious literary men of the time, headed
by Goethe, who was much attached to her (1739-1807).
Amalric, one of the leaders
in the crusade against the Albigenses, who, when his followers
asked him how they were to distinguish heretics from Catholics,
answered, "Kill them all; God will know His own;"
Amalthe`a, the goat that suckled
Zeus, one of whose horns became the cornucopia—horn of
Ama`ra Sinha, a Hindu Buddhist,
left a valuable thesaurus of Sanskrit words.
Ama`ri, Michele, an Italian
patriot, born at Palermo, devoted a great part of his life to
the history of Sicily, and took part in its emancipation; was
an Orientalist as well; he is famous for throwing light on the
true character of the Sicilian Vespers (1806-1889).
Amaryl`lis, a shepherdess
in one of Virgil's pastorals; any young rustic maiden.
Ama`sia (25), a town in Asia
Minor, once the capital of the kings of Pontus.
Ama`sis, king of Egypt, originally
a simple soldier, took part in an insurrection, dethroned the
reigning monarch and assumed the crown, proved an able ruler,
and cultivated alliances with Greece; reigned from 570 to 546
Ama`ti, a celebrated family of
violin-makers; Andrea and Niccolo, brothers, at Cremona, in
the 16th and 17th centuries.
Amatitlan (10), a town in
Guatemala, the inhabitants of which are mainly engaged in the
preparation of cochineal.
Amaurosis, a weakness or loss
of vision, the cause of which was at one time unknown.
Amazon, a river in S. America
and the largest on the globe, its basin nearly equal in extent
to the whole of Europe; traverses the continent at its greatest
breadth, rises in the Andes about 50 m. from the Pacific, and
after a course of 4000 m. falls by a delta into the Atlantic,
its waters increased by an immense number of tributaries, 20
of which are above 1000 m. in length, one 2000 m., its mouth
200 m. wide; its current affects the ocean 150 m. out; is navigable
3000 m. up, and by steamers as far as the foot of the Andes.
Amazons, a fabulous race of
female warriors, who had a queen of their own, and excluded
all men from their community; to perpetuate the race, they cohabited
with men of the neighbouring nations; slew all the male children
they gave birth to, or sent them to their fathers; burnt off
the right breasts of the females, that they might be able to
wield the bow in war.
Ambassador, "an honest
man sent to lie abroad for the commonwealth" (Wotton).
Amber, a fossil resin, generally
yellow and semi-transparent, derived, it is presumed, from certain
extinct coniferous trees; becomes electric by friction, and
gives name to electricity, the Greek word for it being electron;
has been fished up for centuries in the Baltic, and is now used
in varnishes and for tobacco pipes.
Amberger, a painter of Nürnberg
in the 16th century, a disciple of Holbein, his principal work
being the history of Joseph in twelve pictures.
Ambergris, an ashy-coloured
odorous substance used in perfumery, presumed to be a morbid
fragment of the intestines of the spermaceti whale, being often
found floating on the ocean which it frequents.
Amberley, Lord, son of
Lord John Russell, wrote an "Analysis of Religious Belief,"
which, as merely sceptical, his father took steps to secure
the suppression of, without success.
Ambleside, a small market-town
near the head of Lake Windermere, in the Wordsworth or so-called
Amblyopsis, a small fish
without eyes, found in the Mammoth Cave, U.S.
Amboise (5), a town on the Loire,
14 m. E. of Tours, with a castle, once the residence of the
French kings. The Conspiracy of A., the conspiracy of Condé
and the Huguenots in 1560 against Francis II., Catharine de
Medici, and the Guises. The Edict of A. (1563) conceded the
free exercise of their worship to the Protestants.
Amboise, George de,
Cardinal, the popular Prime Minister of Louis XII.,
who, as such, reduced the Public burdens, and as the Pope's
legate in France effected a great reform among the religious
orders; is said to have died immensely rich (1460-1510).
Amboyna (238), with a chief
city of the name, the most important of the Moluccas, in the
Malay Archipelago, and rich before all in spices; it belongs
to the Dutch, who have diligently fostered its capabilities.
Am`brose, St., bishop of Milan,
born at Trèves, one of the Fathers of the Latin Church,
and a zealous opponent of the Arian heresy; as a stern puritan
refused to allow Theodosius to enter his church, covered as
his hands were with the blood of an infamous massacre, and only
admitted him to Church privilege after a severe penance of eight
months; he improved the Church service, wrote several hymns,
which are reckoned his most valuable legacy to the Church; his
writings fill two vols. folio. He is the Patron saint of Milan;
his attributes are a scourge, from his severity; and
a beehive, from the tradition that a swarm of bees settled
on his mouth when an Infant without hurting him (340-397). Festival,
Ambro`sia, the fragrant food
of the gods of Olympus, fabled to preserve in them and confer
on others immortal youth and beauty.
Amelia, a character in one of
Fielding's novels, distinguished for her conjugal affection.
Amende honorable, originally
a mode of punishment in France which required the offender,
stripped to his shirt, and led into court with a rope round
his neck held by the public executioner, to beg pardon on his
knees of his God, his king, and his country; now used to denote
a satisfactory apology or reparation.
Amerbach, Johann, a celebrated
printer in Basel in the 15th century, the first who used the
Roman type instead of Gothic and Italian; spared no expense
in his art, taking, like a true workman, a pride in it; d.
America, including both North
and South, 9000 m. in length, varies from 3400 m. to 28 m. in
breadth, contains 16½ millions of sq. m., is larger than
Europe and Africa together, but is a good deal smaller than
Asia; bounded throughout by the Atlantic on the E. and the Pacific
on the W.
America, British N.,
is bounded on the N. by the Arctic Ocean, on the E. by the Atlantic,
on the S. by the United States, and on the W. by the Pacific;
occupies one-third of the continent, and comprises the Dominion
of Canada and Newfoundland.
America, Central, extends
from Mexico on the north to Panama on the south, and is about
six times as large as Ireland; is a plateau with terraces descending
to the sea on each side, and rich in all kinds of tropical vegetation;
consists of seven political divisions: Guatemala, San Salvador,
British Honduras, Honduras, Nicaragua, Mosquitia, and Costa
America, North, is 4560
m. in length, contains over 8½ millions sq. m., is less
than half the size of Asia, consists of a plain in the centre
throughout its length, a high range of mountains, the Rocky,
on the W., and a lower range, the Appalachian, on the E., parallel
with the coast, which is largely indented with gulfs, bays,
and seas; has a magnificent system of rivers, large lakes, the
largest in the world, a rich fauna and flora, and an exhaustless
wealth of minerals; was discovered by Columbus in 1492, and
has now a population of 80 millions, of which a fourth are negroes,
aborigines, and half-caste; the divisions are British North
America, United States, Mexico, Central American Republics,
British Honduras, the West Indian Republics, and the Spanish,
British, French, and Dutch West Indies.
America, Russian, now
called Alaska; belongs by purchase to the United States.
America, South, lies in
great part within the Tropics, and consists of a high mountain
range on the west, and a long plain with minor ranges extending
therefrom eastward; the coast is but little indented, but the
Amazon and the Plate Rivers make up for the defect of seaboard;
abounds in extensive plains, which go under the names of Llanos,
Selvas, and Pampas, while the river system is the vastest and
most serviceable in the globe; the vegetable and mineral wealth
of the continent is great, and it can match the world for the
rich plumage of its birds and the number and splendour of its
America, Spanish, the
islands of Cuba and Puerto Rico, till lately belonging to Spain,
though the designation is often applied to all the countries
in N. America where Spanish is the spoken language.
American Fabius, George
American Indians, a
race with a red or copper-coloured skin, coarse black straight
hair, high cheek-bones, black deep-set eyes, and tall erect
figure, limited to America, and seems for most part fast dying
out; to be found still as far south as Patagonia, the Patagonians
being of the race.
a Florentine navigator, who, under the auspices first of Spain,
and afterwards of Portugal, four times visited the New World,
just discovered by Columbus, which the first cartographers called
America, after his name; these visits were made between 1499
and 1505, while Columbus's discovery, as is known, was in 1492
Ames, Joseph, historian of
early British typography, in a work which must have involved
him in much labour (1689-1759).
Amha`ra, the central and largest
division of Abyssinia.
Amherst, Lord, a British
officer who distinguished himself both on the Continent and
America, and particularly along with General Wolfe in securing
for England the superiority in Canada (1717-1797).
Amice, a flowing cloak formerly
worn by pilgrims, also a strip of linen cloth worn over the
shoulder of a priest when officiating at mass.
Am`iel, a professor of æsthetics,
and afterwards of ethics at Geneva, who is known to the outside
world solely by the publication of selections from his Journal
in 1882-84, which teems with suggestive thoughts bearing on
the great vital issues of the day, and which has been translated
into English by Mrs. Humphrey Ward.
Amiens` (88), the old capital
of Picardy, on the Somme, with a cathedral begun in 1220, described
as the "Parthenon of Gothic architecture," and by
Ruskin as "Gothic, clear of Roman tradition and of Arabian
taint, Gothic pure, authoritative, unsurpassable, and unaccusable";
possesses other buildings of interest; was the birthplace of
Peter the Hermit, and is celebrated for a treaty of peace between
France and England concluded in 1802.
Amiran`tes, a group of small
coral islands NE. of Madagascar, belonging to Britain; are wooded,
are 11 in number, and only a few feet above the sea-level.
a Florentine architect and sculptor of note, was an admirer
of Michael Angelo, and executed several works in Rome, Venice,
and Padua (1511-1592).
a Greek who served as a soldier in the Roman army, and wrote
a history of the Roman Empire, specially valuable as a record
of contemporary events; d. 390.
Ammirato, an Italian historian,
author of a history of Florence (1531-1601).
Am`mon, an Egyptian deity, represented
with the head of a ram, who had a temple at Thebes and in the
Lybian Desert; was much resorted to as an oracle of fate; identified
in Greece with Zeus, and in Rome with Jupiter.
Ammonia, a pungent volatile
gas, of nitrogen and hydrogen, obtained from sal-ammonia.
Ammonio, Andrea, a Latin
poet born in Lucca, held in high esteem by Erasmus; sent to
England by the Pope, he became Latin secretary to Henry and
a prebendary of Salisbury; d. 1517.
Ammonites, a Semitic race
living E. of the Jordan; at continual feud with the Jews, and
a continual trouble to them, till subdued by Judas Maccabæus.
Ammonites, a genus of fossil
shells curved into a spiral form like the ram-horn on the head
of the image of Ammon.
Ammo`nius Saccas, a philosopher
of Alexandria, and founder of Neo-Platonism; Longinus, Origen,
and Plotinus were among his pupils; d. 243, at a great
Amnion, name given to the innermost
membrane investing the foetus in the womb.
Amoeba, a minute animalcule of
the simplest structure, being a mere mass of protoplasm; absorbs
its food at every point all over its body by means of processes
protruded therefrom at will, with the effect that it is constantly
changing its shape.
Amomum, a genus of plants, such
as the cardamom and grains of paradise, remarkable for their
pungency and aromatic properties.
Amorites, a powerful Canaanitish
tribe, seemingly of tall stature, NE. of the Jordan; subdued
by Joshua at Gibeon.
Amory, Thomas, an eccentric
writer of Irish descent, author of the "Life of John Buncle,
Esq.," and other semi-insane productions; he was a fanatical
Amos, a poor shepherd of Tekoa,
near Bethlehem, in Judah, who in the 8th century B.C. raised
his voice in solitary protest against the iniquity of the northern
kingdom of Israel, and denounced the judgment of God as Lord
of Hosts upon one and all for their idolatry, which nothing
Amoy` (96), one of the open ports
of China, on a small island in the Strait of Fukien; has one
of the finest harbours in the world, and a large export and
import trade; the chief exports are tea, sugar, paper, gold-leaf, &c.
Marie, a French mathematician and physicist, born at
Lyons; distinguished for his discoveries in electro-dynamics
and magnetism, and the influence of these on electro-telegraphy
and the general extension of science (1775-1836).
Ampère, Jean Jacques,
son of the preceding; eminent as a littérateur, and a
historian and critic of literature; attained to the rank of
a member of the French Academy (1800-1864).
a council consisting of representatives from several confederate
States of ancient Greece, twelve in number at length, two from
each, that met twice a year, sitting alternately at Thermopylæ
and Delphi, to settle any differences that might arise between
them, the decisions of which were several times enforced by
arms, and gave rise to what were called sacred wars,
of which there were three; it was originally instituted for
the conservation of religious interests.
Amphi`on, a son of Zeus and
Antiope, who is said to have invented the lyre, and built the
walls of Thebes by the sound of it, a feat often alluded to
as an instance of the miraculous power of music.
Amphisbæna, a genus
of limbless lizards; a serpent fabled to have two heads and
to be able to move backward or forward.
Am`phitrite, a daughter of
Oceanus or Nereus, the wife of Neptune, mother of Triton, and
goddess of the sea.
Amphit`ryon, the king of
Tiryns, and husband of Alcmene, who became by him the mother
of Iphicles, and by Zeus the mother of Hercules.
Amphitryon the True,
the real host, the man who provides the feast, as Zeus proved
himself to the household to be when he visited Alcmene.
Am`ran range, pronounced
the "scientific frontier" of India towards Afghanistan.
Amrit`sar (136), a sacred city
of the Sikhs in the Punjab, and a great centre of trade, 32
m. E. of Lahore; is second to Delhi in Northern India; manufactures
Am`ru, a Mohammedan general under
the Caliph Omar, conquered Egypt among other military achievements;
he is said to have executed the order of the Caliph Omar for
burning the library of Alexandria; d. 663.
Amsterdam (456), the capital
of Holland, a great trading city and port at the mouth of the
Amsel, on the Zuyder Zee, resting on 90 islands connected by
300 bridges, the houses built on piles of wood driven into the
marshy ground; is a largely manufacturing place, as well as
an emporium of trade, one special industry being the cutting
of diamonds and jewels; birthplace of Spinoza.
Amur`, a large eastward-flowing
river, partly in Siberia and partly in China, which, after a
course of 3060 m., falls into the Sea of Okhotsk.
Amurnath, a place of pilgrimage
in Cashmere, on account of a cave believed to be the dwelling-place
Amyot, Jacques, grand-almoner
of France and bishop of Auxerre; was of humble birth; was tutor
of Charles, who appointed him grand-almoner; he was the translator,
among other works, of Plutarch into French, which remains to-day
one of the finest monuments of the old literature of France,
it was much esteemed by Montaigne (1513-1593).
Amyot, Joseph, a French
Jesuit missionary to China, and a learned Orientalist (1713-1794).
Anabaptists, a fanatical
sect which arose in Saxony at the time of the Reformation, and
though it spread in various parts of Germany, came at length
to grief by the excesses of its adherents in Münster. See
Anab`asis, an account by Xenophon
of the ill-fated expedition of Cyrus the Younger against his
brother Artaxerxes, and of the retreat of the 10,000 Greeks
under Xenophon who accompanied him, after the battle of Cunaxa
in 401 B.C.
Anacharsis, a Scythian philosopher
of the 6th century B.C., who, in his roamings in quest of wisdom,
arrived at Athens, and became the friend and disciple of Solon,
but was put to death on his return home by his brother; he stands
for a Scythian savant living among a civilised people, as well
as for a wise man living among fools.
Anacon`da, a gigantic serpent
of tropical America.
Anac`reon, a celebrated Greek
lyric poet, a native of Teos, in Asia Minor; lived chiefly at
Samos and Athens; his songs are in praise of love and wine,
not many fragments of them are preserved (560-418 B.C.).
Anacreon of Painters,
Francesco Albani; A. of Persia, Häfiz; A. of
the Guillotine, Barère.
a name meaning "emerging," given to her in allusion
to her arising out of the sea; the name of a famous painting
of Apelles so representing her.
Anadyr, a river in Siberia, which
flows into Behring Sea.
Anag`ni, a small town 40 m. SE.
of Rome, the birthplace of several Popes.
Anahuac`, a plateau in Central
Mexico, 7580 ft. of mean elevation; one of the names of Mexico
prior to the conquest of it by the Spaniards.
An`akim, a race of giants that
lived in the S. of Palestine, called also sons of Anak.
a range of the W. Ghâts in Travancore.
Anamu`di, the highest point
in the Anamalah Mts., 7000 ft.
Anarchism, a projected social
revolution, the professed aim of which is that of the emancipation
of the individual from the present system of government which
makes him the slave of others, and of the training of the individual
so as to become a law to himself, and in possession, therefore,
of the right to the control of all his vital interests, the
project definable as an insane attempt to realise a social system
on the basis of absolute individual freedom.
Anasta`sius, the name of
four popes: A. I., the most eminent, pope from 398 to
401; A. II., pope from 496 to 498; A. III., pope
from 911 to 913; A. IV., pope from 1153 to 1154.
Anastasius, St., a martyr
under Nero; festival, April 15.
Anastasius I., emperor of
the East, excommunicated for his severities to the Christians,
and the first sovereign to be so treated by the Pope (430-515).
Anato`lia, the Greek name for
Anatomy of Melancholy,
a "mosaic" work by Burton, described by Professor
Saintsbury as "a wandering of the soul from Dan to Beersheba,
through all employments, desires, pleasures, and finding them
barren except for study, of which in turn the tædium
is not obscurely hinted."
Anaxag`oras, a Greek philosopher
of Clazomenæ, in Ionia, removed to Athens and took philosophy
along with him, i. e. transplanted it there, but being
banished thence for impiety to the gods, settled in Lampsacus,
was the first to assign to the nous, conceived of "as
a purely immaterial principle, a formative power in the origin
and organisation of things"; d. 425 B.C.
Anaxar`chus, a Greek philosopher
of the school of Democritus and friend of Alexander the Great.
Anaximander, a Greek philosopher
of Miletus, derived the universe from a material basis, indeterminate
and eternal (611-547 B.C.).
Anaxim`enes, also of Miletus,
made air the first principle of things; d. 500 B.C.;
A., of Lampsacus, preceptor and biographer of Alexander
Ancæus, a son of Neptune,
who, having left a flagon of wine to pursue a boar, was killed
Ancelot, a French dramatic poet,
distinguished both in tragedy and comedy; his wife also a distinguished
Ancenis (4), a town on the Loire,
23 m. NE. of Nantes.
worship of ancestors that prevails in primitive nations, due
to a belief in Animism (q. v.).
Anchieta, a Portuguese Jesuit,
born at Teneriffe, called the Apostle of the New World (1538-1597).
Anchi`ses, the father of Æneas,
whom his son bore out of the flames of Troy on his shoulders
to the ships; was buried in Sicily.
Anchitherium, a fossil
animal with three hoofs, the presumed original of the horse.
Anchovy, a small fish captured
for the flavour of its flesh and made into sauce.
Anchovy pear, fruit of a
W. Indian plant, of the taste of the mango.
Ancient Mariner, a mariner
doomed to suffer dreadful penalties for having shot an albatross,
and who, when he reaches land, is haunted by the recollection
of them, and feels compelled to relate the tale of them as a
warning to others; the hero of a poem by Coleridge.
a Prussian statesman, philosophic man of letters, and of French
Anco`na (56), a port of Italy
in the Adriatic, second to that of Venice; founded by Syracusans.
Ancre, Marshal, a profligate
minister of France during the minority of Louis XIII.
Ancus Marcius, 4th king
of Rome, grandson of Numa, extended the city and founded Ostia.
Andalusia (3,370), a region
in the S. of Spain watered by the Guadalquivir; fertile in grains,
fruits, and vines, and rich in minerals.
Andamans, volcanic islands
in the Bay of Bengal, surrounded by coral reefs; since 1858
used as a penal settlement.
Andelys, Les, a small town
on the Seine, 20 m. NE. of Evreux, divided into Great and Little.
Andermatt, a central Swiss
village in Uri, 18 m. S. of Altorf.
Andersen, Hans Christian,
a world-famous story-teller of Danish birth, son of a poor shoemaker,
born at Odense; was some time before he made his mark, was honoured
at length by the esteem and friendship of the royal family,
and by a national festival on his seventieth birthday (1805-1875).
Anderson, James, a Scotch
lawyer, famous for his learning and his antiquarian knowledge
Anderson, James, native
of Hermiston, near Edinburgh, a writer on agriculture and promoter
of it in Scotland (1739-1808).
Anderson, John, a native
of Roseneath, professor of physics in Glasgow University, and
the founder of the Andersonian College in Glasgow (1726-1796).
one of the chief reformers of religion in Sweden (1480-1552).
Anderson, Mary, a celebrated
actress, native of California; in 1890 married M. Navarro de
Viano of New York; b. 1859.
Anderson, Sir Edmund,
Lord Chief-Justice of Common Pleas under Elizabeth, sat as judge
at the trial of Mary, Queen of Scots. Anderson's Reports is
still a book of authority; d. 1605.
Andes, an unbroken range of high
mountains, 150 of them actively volcanic, which extend, often
in double and triple chains, along the west of South America
from Cape Horn to Panama, a distance of 4500 m., divided into
the Southern or Chilian as far as 23½° S., the Central
as far as 10° S., and the Northern to their termination.
Andocides, an orator and leader
of the oligarchical faction in Athens; was four times exiled,
the first time for profaning the Eleusinian Mysteries (467-393
Andor`ra (6), a small republic
in the E. Pyrenees, enclosed by mountains, under the protection
of France and the Bishop of Urgel, in Catalonia; cattle-rearing
is the chief occupation of the inhabitants, who are a primitive
people and of simple habits.
Andover, an old municipal borough
and market-town in Hampshire, 66 m. SW. of London; also a town
23 m. from Boston, U.S., famous for its theological seminary,
founded in 1807.
Andral, Gabriel, a distinguished
French pathologist, professor in Paris University (1797-1876).
An`drassy, Count, a Hungarian
statesman, was exiled from 1848 to 1851, became Prime Minister
in 1867, played a prominent part in diplomatic affairs on the
Continent to the advantage of Austria (1823-1890).
Andre, John, a brave British
officer, tried and hanged as a spy in the American war in 1780;
a monument is erected to him in Westminster Abbey.
André II., king of Hungary
from 1205 to 1235, took part in the fifth crusade.
Andrea del Sarto. See
Andrea Pisano, a sculptor
and architect, born at Pisa, contributed greatly to free modern
art from Byzantine influence (1270-1345).
Andreossy, Count, an
eminent French general and statesman, served under Napoleon,
ambassador at London, Vienna, and Constantinople, advocated
the recall of the Bourbons on the fall of Napoleon.
an eminent French engineer and mathematician (1633-1688).
Andrew, St., one of the Apostles,
suffered martyrdom by crucifixion, became patron saint of Scotland;
represented in art as an old man with long white hair and a
beard, holding the Gospel in his right hand, and leaning on
a transverse cross.
Andrew, St., Russian
Order of, the highest Order in Russia.
Andrew, St., the Cross
of, cross like a X, such having, it is said,
been the form of the cross on which St. Andrew suffered.
an English prelate, born in Essex, and zealous High Churchman
in the reign of Elizabeth and James I.; eminent as a scholar,
a theologian, and a preacher; in succession bishop of Ely, Chichester,
and Winchester; was one of the Hampton Court Conference, and
of the translators of the Authorised Version of the Bible; he
was fervent in devotion, but of his sermons the criticism of
a Scotch nobleman, when he preached at Holyrood once, was not
inappropriate: "He rather plays with his subject than preaches
on it" (1555-1626).
Andrews, Joseph, a novel
by Fielding, and the name of the hero, who is a footman, and
the brother of Richardson's Pamela.
Andrews, Thomas, an eminent
physicist, born and professor in Belfast (1813-1885).
Andrieux, St., a French littérateur
and dramatist, born at Strassburg, professor in the College
of France, and permanent secretary to the Academy (1759-1822).
Andro`clus, a Roman slave
condemned to the wild beasts, but saved by a lion, sent into
the arena to attack him, out of whose foot he had long before
sucked a thorn that pained him, and who recognised him as his
Androm`ache, the wife of
Hector and the mother of Astyanax, famous for her conjugal devotion;
fell to Pyrrhus, Achilles' son, at the fall of Troy, but was
given up by him to Hector's brother; is the subject of tragedies
by Euripides and Racine respectively.
Androm`eda, a beautiful Ethiopian
princess exposed to a sea monster, which Perseus slew, receiving
as his reward the hand of the maiden; she had been demanded
by Neptune as a sacrifice to appease the Nereids for an insult
offered them by her mother.
Androni`cus, the name of
four Byzantine emperors: A. I., Comnenus, killed his
ward, Alexis II., usurped the throne, and was put to death,
1183; A. II., lived to see the empire devastated by the
Turks (1282-1328); A. III., grandson of the preceding,
dethroned him, fought stoutly against the Turks without staying
their advances (1328-1341); A. IV. dethroned his father,
Soter V., and was immediately stripped of his possessions himself
the oldest dramatic poet in the Latin language (240 B.C.).
Andronicus of Rhodes,
a disciple of Aristotle in the time of Cicero, and to whom we
owe the preservation of many of Aristotle's works.
Andros (22), the most northern
of the Cyclades, fertile soil and productive of wine and silk.
Androuet du Cerceau`,
an eminent French architect who designed the Pont Neuf at Paris
Andujar (11), a town of Andalusia,
on the Guadalquivir, noted for the manufacture of porous clay
Anemometer, an instrument
for measuring the force, course, and velocity of the wind.
Aneroid, a barometer, consisting
of a small watch-shaped, air-tight, air-exhausted metallic box,
with internal spring-work and an index, affected by the pressure
of the air on plates exposed to its action.
Aneu`rin, a British bard at
the beginning of the 7th century, who took part in the battle
of Cattraeth, and made it the subject of a poem.
Aneurism, a tumour, containing
blood, on the coat of an artery.
Angara, a tributary of the Yenisei,
which passes through Lake Baikal.
Angel, an old English coin, with
the archangel Michael piercing the dragon on the obverse of
Angel-fish, a hideous, voracious
fish of the shark family.
Angelic Doctor, Thomas
Angel`ica, a faithless lady
of romance, for whose sake Orlando lost his heart and his senses.
Angelica draught, something
which completely changes the affection.
Angelico, Fra, an Italian
painter, born at Mugello, in Tuscany; became a Dominican monk
at Fiesole, whence he removed to Florence, and finally to Rome,
where he died; devoted his life to religious subjects, which
he treated with great delicacy, beauty, and finish, and conceived
in virgin purity and child-like simplicity of soul; his work
in the form of fresco-painting is to be found all over Italy
An`gelus, a devotional service
in honour of the Incarnation.
Angers` (77), on the Maine, the
ancient capital of Anjou, 160 m. SW. of Paris, with a fine cathedral,
a theological seminary, and a medical school; birthplace of
David the sculptor.
Angerstein, John, born
in St. Petersburg, a distinguished patron of the fine arts,
whose collection of paintings, bought by the British Government,
formed the nucleus of the National Gallery (1735-1822).
Angi`na pec`toris, an
affection of the heart of an intensely excruciating nature,
the pain of which at times extends to the left shoulder and
down the left arm.
Angler, a fish with a broad,
big-mouthed head and a tapering body, both covered with appendages
having glittering tips, by which, as it burrows in the sand,
it allures other fishes into its maw.
Angles, a German tribe from Sleswig
who invaded Britain in the 5th century and gave name to England.
An`glesea (50), i. e.
Island of the Angles, an island forming a county in Wales, separated
from the mainland by the Menai Strait, flat, fertile, and rich
Anglesey, Marquis of,
eldest son of the first Earl of Uxbridge, famous as a cavalry
officer in Flanders, Holland, the Peninsula, and especially
at Waterloo, at which he lost a leg, and for his services at
which he received his title; was some time viceroy in Ireland,
where he was very popular (1768-1854).
Anglia, East territory in
England occupied in the 6th century by the Angles, corresponding
to counties of Norfolk and Suffolk.
Ang`lican Church, the
body of Episcopal churches all over the British Empire and Colonies,
as well as America, sprung from the Church of England, though
not subject to her jurisdiction, the term Anglo-Catholic
being applied to the High Church section.
Anglo-Saxon, the name usually
assigned to the early inflected form of the English language.
Ango`la (2,400), a district on
the W. coast of Africa, between the Congo and Benguela, subject
to Portugal, the capital of which is St. Paul de Loando.
Ango`ra (20), a city in the centre
of Anatolia, in a district noted for its silky, long-haired
animals, cats and dogs as well as goats.
Angostu`ra, capital of the
province of Guayana, in Venezuela, 240 m. up the Orinoco; also
a medicinal bark exported thence.
Angoulême` (31), an
old French city on the Charente, 83 m. NE. of Bordeaux, with
a fine cathedral, the birthplace of Marguerite de Valois and
Charles de Valois, Duc d', natural son of Charles IX.,
gained great reputation as a military commander, left Memoirs
of his life (1575-1650).
Angoulême, Duc d',
the eldest son of Charles X., after the Revolution of 1830 gave
up his rights to the throne and retired to Goritz (1778-1844).
d', daughter of Louis XVI. and wife of the preceding
An`gra, the capital of the Azores,
on the island of Terceira, a fortified place.
An`gra Peque`na, a port
in SW. Africa, N. of the Orange River, and the nucleus of the
territory belonging to Germany.
Ang`strom, a Swedish physicist
and professor at Upsala, distinguished for his studies on the
solar spectrum; b. 1814.
Anguil`la (2), or Snake Island,
one of the Lesser Antilles, E. of Porto Rico, belonging to Britain.
Anguier, the name of two famous
French sculptors in the 17th century.
An`halt (293), a duchy of Central
Germany, surrounded and split up by Prussian Saxony, and watered
by the Elbe and Saale; rich in minerals.
Anhalt-Dessau, Leopold, Prince
of, a Prussian field-marshal, served and distinguished
himself in the war of the Spanish Succession and in Italy, was
wounded at Cassano; defeated Charles XII. at the Isle of Rügen,
and the Saxons and Austrians at Kesseldorf (1676-1747).
Anichini, an Italian medallist
of the 16th century; executed a medal representing the interview
of Alexander the Great with the High Priest of the Jews, which
Michael Angelo pronounced the perfection of the art.
Aniline, a colourless transparent
oily liquid, obtained chiefly from coal-tar, and extensively
used in the production of dyes.
Animal heat, the heat produced
by the chemical changes which go on in the animal system, the
intensity depending on the activity of the process.
Animal magnetism, a
name given to the alleged effects on the animal system, in certain
passive states, of certain presumed magnetic influences acting
Animism, a belief that there
is a psychical body within the physical body of a living being,
correspondent with it in attributes, and that when the connection
between them is dissolved by death the former lives on in a
ghostly form; in other words, a belief of a ghost-soul existing
conjointly with and subsisting apart from the body, its physical
An`io, an affluent of the Tiber,
4 m. above Rome; ancient Rome was supplied with water from it
by means of aqueducts.
Anise, an umbelliferous plant,
the seed of which is used as a carminative
and in the preparation of liqueurs.
Anjou`, an ancient province in
the N. of France, annexed to the crown of France under Louis
XI. in 1480; belonged to England till wrested from King John
by Philip Augustus in 1203.
Ankarström, the assassin
of Gustavus III. of Sweden, at a masked ball, March 15, 1792,
for which he was executed after being publicly flogged on three
Anklam (12), an old Hanse town
in Pomerania, connected by railway with Stettin.
Ankobar, capital of Shoa, in
Abyssinia; stands 8200 ft. above the sea-level.
Ann Arbor (10), a city of Michigan,
on the Huron, with an observatory and a flourishing university.
Anna Comne`na, a Byzantine
princess, who, having failed in a political conspiracy, retired
into a convent and wrote the life of her father, Alexius I.,
under the title of the "Alexiad" (1083-1148).
An`na Ivanov`na, niece
of Peter the Great, empress of Russia in succession to Peter
II. from 1730 to 1740; her reign was marred by the evil influence
of her paramour Biren over her, which led to the perpetration
of great cruelties; was famed for her big cheek, "which,
as shown in her portraits," Carlyle says, "was comparable
to a Westphalian ham" (1693-1740).
An`nam (6,000), an empire, of
the size of Sweden, along the east coast of Indo-China, under
a French protectorate since 1885; it has a rich well-watered
soil, which yields tropical products, and is rich in minerals.
An`nan (3), a burgh in Dumfries,
on river Annan; birthplace of Edward Irving, and where Carlyle
was a schoolboy, and at length mathematical schoolmaster.
Annap`olis (3), seaport of
Nova Scotia, on the Bay of Fundy; also the capital (7) of Maryland,
U.S., 28 m. E. of Washington.
Anne, Queen, daughter of James
II.; by the union of Scotland with England during her reign
in 1707 became the first sovereign of the United Kingdom; her
reign distinguished by the part England played in the war of
the Spanish succession and the number of notabilities, literary
and scientific, that flourished under it, though without any
patronage on the part of the Queen (1665-1714).
Anne, St., wife of St. Joachim,
mother of the Virgin Mary, and the patron saint of carpentry;
festival, July 26.
Anne of Austria, the daughter
of Philip III. of Spain, wife of Louis XIII., and mother of
Louis XIV., became regent on the death of her husband, with
Cardinal Mazarin for minister; during the minority of her son,
triumphed over the Fronde; retired to a convent on the death
of Mazarin (1610-1666).
Anne of Brittany, the
daughter of Francis II., Duke of Brittany; by her marriage,
first to Charles VIII. then to Louis XII., the duchy was added
to the crown of France (1476-1514).
Anne of Clèves,
daughter of Duke of Clèves, a wife of Henry VIII., who
fell in love with the portrait of her by Holbein, but being
disappointed, soon divorced her; d. 1577.
Annecy (11), the capital of Haute-Savoie,
in France, on a lake of the name, 22 m. S. of Geneva, at which
the Counts of Geneva had their residence, and where Francis
of Sales was bishop.
Annobon, a Spanish isle in the
Gulf of Guinea.
Annonay (14), a town in Ardèche,
France; paper the chief manufacture.
Annunciation Day, a
festival on the 25th of March in commemoration of the salutation
of the angel to the Virgin Mary on the Incarnation of Christ.
Anquetil`, Louis Pierre,
a French historian in holy orders, wrote "Précis
de l'Histoire Universelle" and a "Histoire de France"
in 14 vols.; continued by Bouillet in 6 more (1723-1806).
brother of the preceding, an enthusiastic Orientalist, to whom
we owe the discovery and first translation of the Zend-Avesta
and Schopenhauer his knowledge of Hindu philosophy, and which
influenced his own system so much (1731-1805).
Ansbach (14), a manufacturing
town in Bavaria, 25 m. SW. of Nürnberg, the capital of
the old margraviate of the name, and the margraves of which
were Hohenzollerns (q.
Anschar or Ansgar, St.,
a Frenchman born, the first to preach Christianity to the pagans
of Scandinavia, was by appointment of the Pope the first archbishop
of Hamburg (801-864).
Anselm, St., archbishop of
Canterbury, a native of Aosta, in Piedmont, monk and abbot;
visited England frequently, gained the favour of King Rufus,
who appointed him to succeed Lanfranc, quarrelled with Rufus
and left the country, but returned at the request of Henry I.,
a quarrel with whom about investiture ended in a compromise;
an able, high-principled, God-fearing man, and a calmly resolute
upholder of the teaching and authority of the Church (1033-1109).
See Carlyle's "Past and Present."
Anson, Lord, a celebrated
British naval commander, sailed round the world, during war
on the part of England with Spain, on a voyage of adventure
with a fleet of three ships, and after three years and nine
months returned to England, his fleet reduced to one vessel,
but with £500,000 of Spanish treasure on board. Anson's "Voyage
Round the World" contains a highly interesting account
of this, "written in brief, perspicuous terms," witnesses
Carlyle, "a real poem in its kind, or romance all fact;
one of the pleasantest little books in the world's library at
this time" (1697-1762).
Anstruther, East and West,
two contiguous royal burghs on the Fife coast, the former the
birthplace of Tennant the poet, Thomas Chalmers, and John Goodsir
Antæus, a mythical giant,
a terræ filius or son of the earth, who was strong
only when his foot was on the earth, lifted in air he became
weak as water, a weakness which Hercules discovered to his discomfiture
when wrestling with him. The fable has been used as a symbol
of the spiritual strength which accrues when one rests his faith
on the immediate fact of things.
Antal`cidas, a Spartan general,
celebrated for a treaty which he concluded with Persia whereby
the majority of the cities of Asia Minor passed under the sway
of the Persians, to the loss of the fruit of all the victories
gained over them by Athens (387 B.C.).
Antananari`vo (100), the
capital of Madagascar, in the centre of the island, on a well-nigh
inaccessible rocky height 5000 ft. above the sea-level.
Antar, an Arab chief of the 6th
century, a subject of romance, and distinguished as a poet.
Ant-eaters, a family of edentate
mammals, have a tubular mouth with a small aperture, and a long
tongue covered with a viscid secretion, which they thrust into
the ant-hills and then withdraw covered with ants.
Antelope, an animal closely
allied to the sheep and the goat, very like the latter in appearance,
with a light and elegant figure, slender,
graceful limbs, small cloven hoofs, and generally a very short
Anteque`ra (27), a town in
Andalusia, 22 m. N. of Malaga, a stronghold of the Moors from
712 to 1410.
Anthe`lia, luminous rings witnessed
in Alpine and Polar regions, seen round the shadow of one's
head in a fog or cloud opposite the sun.
Anthe`mius, the architect
of the church of St. Sophia in Constantinople; d. 534.
Anthon, Charles, a well-known
American classical scholar and editor of the Classics (1797-1867).
Anthrax, a disease, especially
in cattle, due to the invasion of a living organism which, under
certain conditions, breeds rapidly; called also splenic fever.
Anthropoid apes, a class
of apes, including the gorilla, chimpanzee, orang-outang, and
gibbon, without tails, with semi-erect figures and long arms.
Anthropology, the science
of man as he exists or has existed under different physical
and social conditions.
ascription of human attributes to the unseen author of things.
Anti`bes (5) a seaport and place
of ancient date on a peninsula in the S. of France, near Cannes
and opposite Nice.
Antichrist, a name given
in the New Testament to various incarnations of opposition to
Christ in usurpation of His authority, but is by St. John defined
to involve that form of opposition which denies the doctrine
of the Incarnation, or that Christ has come in the flesh.
Anticosti, a barren rocky
island in the estuary of St Lawrence, frequented by fishermen,
and with hardly a permanent inhabitant.
Antig`one`, the daughter of
Oedipus, king of Thebes, led about her father when he was blind
and in exile, returned to Thebes on his death; was condemned
to be buried alive for covering her brother's exposed body with
earth in defiance of the prohibition of Creon, who had usurped
the throne; Creon's son, out of love for her, killed himself
on the spot where she was buried. She has been immortalised
in one of the grandest tragedies of Sophocles.
Antigone, The Modern,
the Duchess of Angoulême, daughter of Louis XV. See the
parting scene in Carlyle's "French
Antig`onus, surnamed the Cyclops
or One-eyed, one of the generals of Alexander the Great, made
himself master of all Asia Minor, excited the jealousy of his
rivals; was defeated and slain at Ipsus, in Phrygia, 301 B.C.
Antigonus, the last king
of the Jews of the Asmonean dynasty; put to death in 77 B.C.
king of Macedonia, grandson of the preceding; twice deprived
of his kingdom, but recovered it; attempted to prevent the formation
of the Achæan League (275-240 B.C.).
Antigua, one of the Leeward
Islands, the seat of the government; the most productive of
them belongs to Britain.
Antilles, an archipelago curving
round from N. America to S. America, and embracing the Caribbean
Sea; the Greater A., on the N. of the sea, being Cuba,
Hayti, Jamaica, and Porto Rico; and the Lesser A., on
the E., forming the Leeward Islands, the Windward Islands, and
the Venezuelan Islands—the Leeward as far as Dominica,
the Windward as far as Trinidad, and the Venezuelan along the
coast of S. America.
Antimony, a brittle white metal,
of value both in the arts and medicine.
Antinomianism, the doctrine
that the law is superseded in some sense or other by the all-sufficing,
all-emancipating free spirit of Christ.
Antinomy, in the transcendental
philosophy the contradiction which arises when we carry the
categories of the understanding above experience and apply them
to the sphere of that which transcends it.
Antin`ous, a Bithynian youth
of extraordinary beauty, a slave of the Emperor Hadrian; became
a great favourite of his and accompanied him on all his journeys.
He was drowned in the Nile, and the grief of the emperor knew
no bounds; he enrolled him among the gods, erected a temple
and founded a city in his honour, while artists vied with each
other in immortalising his beauty.
An`tioch (23), an ancient capital
of Syria, on the Orontes, called the Queen of the East, lying
on the high-road between the E. and the W., and accordingly
a busy centre of trade; once a city of great splendour and extent,
and famous in the early history of the Church as the seat of
several ecclesiastical councils and the birthplace of Chrysostom.
There was an Antioch in Pisidia, afterwards called Cæsarea.
Anti`ochus, name of three
Syrian kings of the dynasty of the Seleucidæ: A. I.,
Soter, i. e. Saviour, son of one of Alexander's generals,
fell heir of all Syria; king from 281 to 261 B.C. A. II.,
Theos, i. e. God, being such to the Milesians in
slaying the tyrant Timarchus; king from 261 to 246. A. III.,
the Great, extended and consolidated the empire, gave harbour
to Hannibal, declared war against Rome, was defeated at Thermopylæ
and by Scipio at Magnesia, killed in attempting to pillage the
temple at Elymaïs; king from 223 to 187. A. IV., Epiphanes,
i. e. Illustrious, failed against Egypt, tyrannised over
the Jews, provoked the Maccabæan revolt, and died delirious;
king from 175 to 104. A. V., Eupator, king from 164 to
Anti`ope, queen of the Amazons
and mother of Hippolytus. The Sleep of Antiope, chef-d'oeuvre
of Correggio in the Louvre.
Antip`aros (2), one of the
Cyclades, W. of Paros, with a stalactite cavern.
Antip`ater, a Macedonian general,
governed Macedonia with great ability during the absence of
Alexander, defeated the confederate Greek states at Cranon,
reigned supreme on the death of Perdiccas (397-317 B.C.).
Antiph`ilus, a Greek painter,
contemporary and rival of Apelles.
An`tiphon, an Athenian orator
and politician, preceptor of Thucydides, who speaks of him in
terms of honour, was the first to formulate rules of oratory
Antipope, a pope elected by
a civil power in opposition to one elected by the cardinals,
or one self-elected and usurped; there were some 26 of such,
first and last.
to reduce the temperature in fever, of which the chief are quinine
and salicylate of soda.
Antipyrin, a febrifuge prepared
from coal-tar, and used as a substitute for quinine.
Antisa`na, a volcano of the
N. Andes, in Ecuador, 19,200 ft. high; also a village on its
flanks, 13,000 ft. high, the highest village in the world.
Antise`mites, a party in
Russia and the E. of Germany opposed to the Jews on account
of the undue influence they exercise in national affairs to
the alleged detriment of the natives.
used, particularly in surgery, to prevent or arrest putrefaction.
Antis`thenes, a Greek philosopher,
a disciple of Socrates, the master of Diogenes, and founder
of the Cynic school; affected to disdain the pride and pomp
of the world, and was the first to carry staff and wallet as
the badge of philosophy, but so ostentatiously as to draw from
Socrates the rebuke, "I see your pride looking out through
the rent of your cloak, O Antisthenes."
Anti-Taurus, a mountain
range running NE. from the Taurus Mts.
Antium, a town of Latium on a
promontory jutting into the sea, long antagonistic to Rome,
subdued in 333 B.C.; the beaks of its ships, captured in a naval
engagement, were taken to form a rostrum in the Forum at Home;
it was the birthplace of Caligula and Nero.
Antiva`ri, a fortified seaport
lately ceded to Montenegro.
Antofagas`ta (7), a rising
port in Chile, taken from Bolivia after the war of 1879; exports
silver ores and nitrate of soda.
attached physician at St. Helena, wrote "The Last Moments
of Napoleon" (1780-1838).
the chief adviser and Prime Minister of Pope Pius IX., accompanied
the Pope to Gaeta, came back with him to Rome, acting as his
foreign minister there, and offered a determined opposition
to the Revolution; left immense wealth (1806-1876).
Antonel`lo, of Messina, Italian
painter of the 15th century, introduced from Holland oil-painting
into Italy (1414-1493).
Antoni`nus, Itinerary of,
a valuable geographical work supposed of date 44 B.C.
Antoni`nus, Marcus Aurelius,
Roman emperor, successor to the following, and who surpassed
him in virtue, being also of the Stoic school and one of its
most exemplary disciples, was surnamed the "philosopher,"
and has left in his "Meditations" a record of his
religious and moral principles (121-180).
Antoni`nus Pius, a Roman
emperor, of Stoic principles, who reigned with justice and moderation
from 138 to 161, during which time the Empire enjoyed unbroken
Antoni`nus, Wall of,
an earthen rampart about 36 m. in length, from the Forth to
the Clyde, in Scotland, as a barrier against invasion from the
north, erected in the year 140 A.D.
Anto`nius, Marcus, a
famous Roman orator and consul, slain in the civil war between
Marius and Sulla, having sided with the latter (143-87 B.C.).
Anto`nius, Marcus (Mark
Antony), grandson of the preceding and warm partisan of Cæsar;
after the murder of the latter defeated Brutus and Cassius at
Philippi, formed a triumvirate with Octavius and Lepidus, fell
in love with the famous Cleopatra, was defeated by Octavius
in the naval battle of Actium, and afterwards killed himself
An`tony, St., a famous anchorite
of the Thebaïd, where from the age of thirty he spent 20
years of his life, in a lonely ruin by himself, resisting devils
without number; left his retreat for a while to institute monasteries,
and so became the founder of monachism, but returned to die;
festival, Jan. 17 (251-351).
Antony of Padua, a Minorite
missionary to the Moors in Africa; preached to the fishes, who
listened to him when no one else would; the fishes came in myriads
to listen, and shamed the pagans into conversion, says the fable;
festival, June 13 (1195-1234)
Antraigues, Count d',
one of the firebrands of the French Revolution; "rose into
furor almost Pythic; highest where many were high," but
veered round to royalism, which he at length intrigued on behalf
of—to death by the stiletto (1765-1812).
Ant`rim (471), a maritime county
in the NE. of Ulster, in Ireland; soil two-thirds arable, linen
the chief manufacture, exports butter, inhabitants mostly Protestant.
Antwerp (240), a large fortified
trading city in Belgium, on the Scheldt, 50 m. from the sea,
with a beautiful Gothic cathedral, the spire 402 ft. high; the
burial-place of Rubens; has a large picture-gallery full of
the works of the Dutch and Flemish artists.
Anu`bis, an Egyptian deity with
the body of a man and the head of a jackal, whose office, like
that of Hermes, it was to see to the disposal of the souls of
the dead in the nether world, on quitting the body.
Anwari, a Persian lyric poet
who flourished in the 12th century.
An`ytus, the most vehement accuser
of Socrates; banished in consequence from Athens, after Socrates'
Aos`ta (5), a town of Italy, N.
of Turin, in a fertile Alpine level valley, but where goitre
and cretinism prevail to a great extent; the birthplace of Anselm.
Apa`ches, a fierce tribe of
American Indians on the S. and W. of the United States; long
a source of trouble to the republic.
Apel`les, the most celebrated
painter of antiquity; bred, if not born, at Ephesus; lived at
the court of Alexander the Great; his great work "Aphrodité
Anadyomene" (q. v.); a man conscious, like Dürer,
of mastery in his art, as comes out in his advice to the criticising
shoemaker to "stick to his last."
Ap`ennines, a branch of the
Alps extending, with spurs at right angles, nearly through the
whole length of Italy, forming about the middle of the peninsula
a double chain which supports the tableland of Abruzzi.
Apes, Dead Sea, dwellers
by the Dead Sea who, according to the Moslem tradition, were
transformed into apes because they turned a deaf ear to God's
message to them by the lips of Moses, fit symbol, thinks Carlyle,
of many in modern time to whom the universe, with all its serious
voices, seems to have become a weariness and a humbug See "Past
and Present," Bk. iii. chap. iii.
Aph`ides, a family of insects
very destructive to plants by feeding on them in countless numbers.
Aphrodi`te, the Greek goddess
of love and beauty, wife of Hephæstos and mother of Cupid;
sprung from sea-foam; as queen of beauty had the golden apple
awarded her by Paris, and possessed the power of conferring
beauty, by means of her magic girdle, the cestus, on others.
Api`cius, the name of three
famous Roman epicures, the first of whom was contemporary with
Sulla, the second with Augustus, and the third with Trajan.
A`pion, an Alexandrian grammarian
of the 1st century, and an enemy of the Jews, and hostile to
the privileges conceded them in Alexandria.
A`pis, the sacred live bull of
the Egyptians, the incarnation of Osiris; must be black all
over the body, have a white triangular spot on the forehead,
the figure of an eagle on the back, and under the tongue the
image of a scarabæus; was at the end of 25 years drowned
in a sacred fountain, had his body embalmed, and his mummy regarded
as an object of worship.
writings composed among the Jews in the 2nd century B.C., and
ascribed to one and another of the early prophets of Israel,
forecasting the judgments ordained of God to overtake the nation,
and predicting its final deliverance at the hands of the Messiah.
Apocrypha, The, a literature
of sixteen books composed by Jews, after the close of the Hebrew
canon, which though without the unction of the prophetic books
of the canon, are instinct, for most part, with the wisdom which
rests on the fear of God and loyalty to His law. The word Apocrypha
means hidden writing, and it was given to it by the Jews to
distinguish it from the books which they accepted as canonical.
Apol`da (20), a town in Saxe-Weimar
with extensive hosiery manufactures; has mineral springs.
Apollina`ris, bishop of
Laodicea, denied the proper humanity of Christ, by affirming
that the Logos in Him took the place of the human soul, as well
as by maintaining that His body was not composed of ordinary
flesh and blood; d. 390.
Apollo, the god par excellence
of the Greeks, identified with the sun and all that we owe to
it in the shape of inspiration, art, poetry, and medicine; son
of Zeus and Leto; twin brother of Artemis; born in the island
of Delos (q. v.), whither
Leto had fled from the jealous Hera; his favourite oracle at
Appllodo`rus (1), an Athenian
painter, the first to paint figures in light and shade, 408
B.C.; (2) a celebrated architect of Damascus, d. A.D.
129; and (3), an Athenian who wrote a well-arranged account
of the mythology and heroic age of Greece.
Apollonius of Rhodes,
a grammarian and poet, flourished in the 3rd century B.C., author
of the "Argonautica," a rather prosaic account of
the adventures of the Argonauts.
Apollonius of Tyana,
a Pythagorean philosopher, who, having become acquainted with
some sort of Brahminism, professed to have a divine mission,
and, it is said, a power to work miracles; was worshipped after
his death, and has been compared to Christ; d. 97.
Apol`los, a Jew of Alexandria,
who became an eloquent preacher of Christ, and on account of
his eloquence rated above St. Paul.
Apollyon, the destroying angel,
the Greek name for the Hebrew Abaddon.
Apologetics, a defence of
the historical verity of the Christian religion in opposition
to the rationalist and mythical theories.
Apostate, an epithet applied
to the Emperor Julian, from his having, conscientiously however,
abjured the Christian religion established by Constantine, in
favour of paganism.
Apostle of Germany,
St. Boniface; A. of Ireland, St. Patrick; of the English,
St. Augustine; of the French, St. Denis; of the Gauls,
Irenæus; or the Gentiles, St. Paul; of the Goths,
Ulfilas; of the Indian, John Eliot; of the Scots,
Columba; of the North, Ansgar; of the Picts, St.
Ninian; of the Indies, Francis Xavier; of Temperance,
Apostles, The Four,
picture of St. John, St. Peter, St. Mark, and St. Paul, in the
museum at Münich, painted by Albert Dürer.
Fathers of the Church who lived the same time as the Apostles:
Clemens, Barnabas Polycarp, Ignatius, and Hermas.
the derivation of episcopal power in an unbroken line from the
Apostles, a qualification believed by High Churchmen to be essential
to the discharge of episcopal functions and the transmission
of promised divine grace.
Appala`chians, a mountainous
system of N. America that stretches NE. from the tablelands
of Alabama to the St. Lawrence, and includes the Alleghanies
and the Blue Mountains; their utmost height, under 7000 feet;
do not reach the snow-line; abound in coal and iron.
Appenzell` (67), a canton
in the NE. of Switzerland, enclosed by St. Gall, divided into
Outer Rhoden, which is manufacturing and Protestant, and Inner
Rhoden, which is agricultural and Catholic; also the name of
Ap`pian, an Alexandrian Greek,
wrote in 2nd century a history of Rome in 24 books, of which
Ap`pian Way, a magnificent
highway begun by Appius Claudius, 312 B.C., and finished by
Augustus, from Rome to Brundusium.
Apple of Discord, a golden
apple inscribed with the words, "To the most Beautiful,"
thrown in among the gods of Olympus on a particular occasion,
contended for by Hera, Athena, and Aphrodité, and awarded
by Paris of Troy, as referee, to Aphrodité, on promise
that he would have the most beautiful woman of the world for
Appleby, the county town of
Westmorland, on the Eden; is a health resort.
inventor of the vertical printing-press (1788-1871).
Appleton (11), a city of Wisconsin,
U.S., on the Fox River.
Appleton, Ch. Edward,
founder and editor of the Academy (1841-1879).
a village in Virginia, U.S., where Gen. Lee surrendered to Gen.
Grant in 1865.
Apraxen, Count, a celebrated
naval commander under Peter the Great and his right-hand man
in many enterprises (1671-1728).
April, the fourth month of the
year, the month of "opening of the light in the days, and
of the life of the leaves, and of the voices of the birds, and
of the hearts of men."
Ap`teryx, a curious New Zealand
bird with rudimentary wings, plumage like hair, and no tail.
Apule`ius, a student of Plato,
of N. African birth, lived in the 2nd century; having captivated
a rich widow, was charged at one time with sorcery; his most
celebrated work was the "Golden Ass," which contains,
among other stories, the exquisite apologue or romance of
Cupid (q. v.).
Apu`lia (1,797), an ancient province
in SE. of Italy, which extends as far N. as Monte Gargano, and
the scene of the last stages in the second Punic war.
Apu`re, a river in Venezuela,
chief tributary of the Orinoco, into which it falls by six branches.
Aqua Tofa`na, Tofana's poison,
some solution of arsenic with which a Sicilian woman called
Tofana, in 17th century, poisoned, it is alleged, 600 people.
Aqua`rius, the Water-bearer,
11th sign of the Zodiac, which the sun enters Jan. 21.
Aquaviva, a general of the
Jesuits of high authority (1543-1615).
A`quila (20), capital of the
province of Abruzzo Ulteriora, on the Alterno, founded by Barbarossa;
a busy place.
A`quila, a Judaised Greek of
Sinope, in Pontus, executed a literal translation of the Old
Testament into Greek in the interest of Judaism versus Christianity
in the first half of the 2nd century A.D.
A`quila, Gaspar, a friend
of Luther who aided him in the translation of the Bible.
Aquileia, an Italian village,
22 m. W. of Trieste, once a place of great
importance, where several councils of the Church were held.
Aqui`nas, Thomas, the
Angelic Doctor, or Doctor of the Schools, an Italian of noble
birth, studied at Naples, became a Dominican monk despite the
opposition of his parents, sat at the feet of Albertus Magnus,
and went with him to Paris, was known among his pupils as the "Dumb
Ox," from his stubborn silence at study, prelected at his
Alma Mater and elsewhere with distinguished success, and being
invited to assist the Council at Lyons, fell sick and died.
His "Summa Theologiæ," the greatest of his many
works, is a masterly production, and to this day of standard
authority in the Romish Church. His writings, which fill 17
folio vols., along with those of Duns Scotus, his rival, constitute
the high-water mark of scholastic philosophy and the watershed
of its divergence into the philosophico-speculative thought
on the one hand, and the ethico-practical or realism of modern
times on the other, q. v. (1226-1274).
Aquitaine`, a division of
ancient Gaul between the Garonne and the Pyrenees, was from
the time of Henry II. till 1453 an appanage of the English crown.
Arabella Stuart, a cousin
of King James I., the victim all her days of jealousy and state
policy, suspected of aspiring to the crown on the death of Queen
Elizabeth, was shut up in the Tower of London, where she died
bereft of reason in 1615 at the age of 38.
Arabesque, an ornamentation
introduced by the Moors, consisting of imaginary, often fantastic,
mathematical or vegetable forms, but exclusive of the forms
of men and animals.
Ara`bi, Ahmed Pasha,
leader of an insurrectionary movement in Egypt in 1882; he claimed
descent from the Prophet; banished to Ceylon; b. 1839.
Arabia (12,000), the most westerly
peninsula of Asia and the largest in the world, being one-third
the size of the whole of Europe, consisting of (a) a
central plateau with pastures for cattle, and fertile valleys;
(b) a ring of deserts, the Nefud in the N., stony, the
Great Arabian, a perfect Sahara, in the S., sandy, said sometimes
to be 600 ft. deep, and the Dahna between; and (c) stretches
of coast land, generally fertile on the W. and S.; is divided
into eight territories; has no lakes or rivers, only wadies,
oftenest dry; the climate being hot and arid, has no forests,
and therefore few wild animals; a trading country with no roads
or railways, only caravan routes, yet the birthland of a race
that threatened at one time to sweep the globe, and of a religion
that has been a life-guidance to wide-scattered millions of
human beings for over twelve centuries of time.
Arabia Felix, the W. coast
of Arabia, contains Yemen and
El Hejaz (q. v.), and is
subject to Turkey.
Arabian Desert. See
Arabian Nights, or the
Thousand and One Nights, a collection of tales of various origin
and date, traceable in their present form to the middle of the
15th century, and first translated into French by Galland in
1704. The thread on which they are strung is this: A Persian
monarch having made a vow that he would marry a fresh bride
every night and sacrifice her in the morning, the vizier's daughter
obtained permission to be the first bride, and began a story
which broke off at an interesting part evening after evening
for a thousand and one nights, at the end of which term the
king, it is said, released her and spared her life.
Arabs, The, "a noble-gifted
people, swift-handed, deep-hearted, something most agile, active,
yet most meditative, enthusiastic in their character; a people
of wild, strong feelings, and iron restraint over these. In
words too, as in action, not a loquacious people, taciturn rather,
but eloquent, gifted when they do speak, an earnest, truthful
kind of men, of Jewish kindred indeed, but with that deadly
terrible earnestness of the Jews they seem to combine something
graceful, brilliant, which is not Jewish." Such is Carlyle's
opinion of the race from whom Mahomet sprang, as given in his "Heroes."
Arach`ne, a Lydian maiden, who
excelled in weaving, and whom Athena changed into a spider because
she had proudly challenged her ability to weave as artistic
a work; she had failed in the competition, and previously hanged
herself in her despair.
Arad (42), a fortified town in
Hungary, seat of a bishop, on the right bank of the Maros; manufactures
tobacco, trades in cattle and corn.
Araf, the Mohammedan sheol or borderland
between heaven and hell for those who are from incapacity either
not morally bad or morally good.
Arafat`, a granite hill E. of
Mecca, a place of pilgrimage as the spot where Adam received
his wife after 200 years separation from her on account of their
disobedience to the Lord in deference to the suggestion of Satan.
an eminent physicist and astronomer, born in the S. of France,
entered the Polytechnic School of Paris when seventeen, elected
a member of the Academy of Sciences at the early age of twenty-three,
nominated Director of the Observatory in 1830, was member of
the Provisional Government in 1848, refused to take the oath
to Louis Napoleon after the coup d'état, would
rather resign his post at the Observatory, but was retained,
and at his death received a public funeral (1786-1853).
Arago, Jacques, a brother
of the preceding, a littérateur and a traveller, author
of a "Voyage Round the World" (1790-1855).
Ar`agon (925), a territory in
the NE. of Spain, traversed by the Ebro, and divided as you
proceed southward into the provinces of Huesca, Saragossa, and
Teruel, mountainous in the N.; with beautiful fertile valleys,
rather barren, in the S; was a kingdom till 1469.
Araguay, an affluent of the
Tocantins, in Brazil, which it joins after a course of 1000
m., augmented by subsidiary streams.
Arakan (671), a strip of land
in British Burmah, on the E. of the Bay of Bengal, 400 m. long
and from 90 to 15 m. broad, a low, marshy country; produces
and exports large quantities of rice, as well as sugar and hemp.
The natives belong to the Burman stock, and are of the Buddhist
faith, though there is a sprinkling of Mohammedans among them.
Aral, The Sea of, a lake
in Turkestan, 265 m. long and 145 broad, larger than the Irish
Sea, 150 m. E. of the Caspian; has no outlet, shallow, and is
said to be drying up.
Aram, Eugene, an English
school-usher of scholarly attainments, convicted of murder years
after the act and executed 1759, to whose fate a novel of Bulwer
Lytton's and a poem of Hood's have lent a romantic and somewhat
Aramæa, the territories
lying to NE. of Palestine, the inhabitants of which spoke a
Semitic dialect called Aramaic, and improperly Chaldee.
Arama`ic, the language of Palestine
in the days of Christ, a Semitic dialect that has now almost
entirely died out.
Aramæ`ans, a generic
name given to the Semitic tribes that dwelt in the NE. of Palestine,
also to those that dwelt at the mouths of the Euphrates and
Aran, Val d', a Pyrenean valley,
source of the Garonne, and one of the highest of the Pyrenees.
Aran Islands, three islands
with antique relics across the mouth of Galway Bay, to which
they form a breakwater.
Aranda, Count of, an eminent
Spanish statesman, banished the Jesuits, suppressed brigandage,
and curtailed the power of the Inquisition, was Prime Minister
of Charles IV., and was succeeded by Godoy (1719-1798).
Aranju`ez (8), a town 28 m.
SE. of Madrid, long the spring resort of the Spanish Court.
Ar`any, Janos, a popular
Hungarian poet of peasant origin, attained to eminence as a
man of letters (1819-1882).
Ar`arat, a mountain in Armenia
on which Noah's ark is said to have rested, 17,000 ft. high,
is within Russian territory, and borders on both Turkey and
Ara`tus, native of Sicyon, in
Greece, promoter of the Achæan League, in which he was
thwarted by Philip of Macedon, was poisoned, it is said, by
his order (271-213 B.C.); also a Greek poet, author of two didactic
poems, born in Cilicia, quoted by St Paul in Acts xvii. 28.
Arauca`nia (88), the country
of the Araucos, in Chile, S. of Concepcion and N. of Valdivia,
the Araucos being an Indian race long resistant but now subject
to Chilian authority, and interesting as the only one that has
proved itself able to govern itself and hold its own in the
presence of the white man.
Arauca`ria, tall conifer trees,
natives of and confined to the southern hemisphere.
Arbe`la, a town near Mosul, where
Alexander the Great finally defeated Darius, 331 B.C.
Arbroath (22), a thriving seaport
and manufacturing town on the Forfarshire coast, 17 m. N. of
Dundee, with the picturesque ruins of an extensive old abbey,
of which Cardinal Beaton was the last abbot. It is the "Fairport"
of the "Antiquary."
Arbuthnot, John, a physician
and eminent literary man of the age of Queen Anne and her two
successors, born in Kincardineshire, the friend of Swift and
Pope and other lights of the time, much esteemed by them for
his wit and kind-heartedness, joint-author with Swift, it is
thought, of the "Memoirs of Martinus Scriblerus" and
the "History of John Bull" (1667-1735).
Ar`cachon (7), a popular watering-place,
with a fine beach and a mild climate, favourable for invalids
suffering from pulmonary complaints, 34 m. SW. of Bordeaux.
Arca`dia, a mountain-girt pastoral
tableland in the heart of the Morea, 50 m. long by 40 broad,
conceived by the poets as a land of shepherds and shepherdesses,
and rustic simplicity and bliss, and was the seat of the worship
of Artemis and Pan.
Arca`dius, the first emperor
of the East, born in Spain, a weak, luxurious prince, leaving
the government in other hands (377-405).
Arcesila`us, a Greek philosopher,
a member of the Platonic School and founder of the New Academy,
who held in opposition to the Stoics that perception was not
knowledge, denied that we had any accurate criterion of truth,
and denounced all dogmatism in opinion.
Archæology, the study
or the science of the monuments of antiquity, as distinct from
palæontology, which has to do with extinct organisms or
Archangel (19), the oldest
seaport of Russia, on the Dvina, near its mouth, on the White
Sea, is accessible to navigation from July to October, is connected
with the interior by river and canal, and has a large trade
in flax, timber, tallow, and tar.
Archangels, of these, according
to the Korân, there are four: Gabriel, the angel who reveals;
Michael, the angel who fights; Azrael, the angel of death; Azrafil,
the angel of the resurrection.
Archela`us, king of Macedonia,
and patron of art and literature, with whom Euripides found
refuge in his exile, d. 400 B.C.; a general of Mithridates,
conquered by Sulla twice over; also the Ethnarch of Judea, son
of Herod, deposed by Augustus, died at Vienne.
Archer, James, portrait-painter,
born in Edinburgh, 1824.
Archer, Wm., dramatic critic,
born in Perth, 1856.
Ar`ches, Court of, an
ecclesiastical court of appeal connected with the archbishopric
of Canterbury, the judge of which is called the dean.
Ar`chil, a purple dye obtained
Archil`ochus, a celebrated
lyric poet of Greece; of a satiric and often bitter vein, the
inventor of iambic verse (714-676 B.C.).
Archima`go, a sorcerer in
Spenser's "Faërie Queene," who in the disguise
of a reverend hermit, and by the help of Duessa or Deceit, seduces
the Red-Cross Knight from Una or Truth.
Archime`des of Syracuse,
the greatest mathematician of antiquity, a man of superlative
inventive power, well skilled in all the mechanical arts and
sciences of the day. When Syracuse was taken by the Romans,
he was unconscious of the fact, and slain, while busy on some
problem, by a Roman soldier, notwithstanding the order of the
Roman general that his life should be spared. He is credited
with the boast: "Give me a fulcrum, and I will move the
world." He discovered how to determine the specific weight
of bodies while he was taking a bath, and was so excited over
the discovery that, it is said, he darted off stark naked on
the instant through the streets, shouting "Eureka! Eureka!
I have found it! I have found it!" (287-212 B.C.).
Archimed`es screw, in
its original form a hollow spiral placed slantingly to raise
water by revolving it.
the Ægean Sea, now the name of any similar sea interspersed
with islands, or the group of islands included in it.
Architrave, the lowest part
of an entablature, resting immediately on the capital.
Ar`chon, a chief magistrate of
Athens, of which there were nine at a time, each over a separate
department; the tenure of office was first for life, then for
ten years, and finally for one.
Archy`tas of Tarentum,
famous as a statesman, a soldier, a geometrician, a philosopher,
and a man; a Pythagorean in philosophy, and influential in that
capacity over the minds of Plato, his contemporary, and Aristotle;
was drowned in the Adriatic Sea, 4th century B.C.; his body
lay unburied on the shore till a sailor humanely cast a handful
of sand on it, otherwise he would have had to wander on this
side the Styx for a hundred years, such the virtue of a little
dust, munera pulveris, as Horace calls it.
a town 17 m. N. of Troyes, in France, birthplace of Danton;
scene of a defeat of Napoleon, March 1814.
Ar`cot, the name of two districts,
N. and S., in the Presidency of Madras; also chief town (11)
in the district, 65 m. SW. of Madras; captured by Clive in 1787;
once the capital of the Carnatic.
Arctic Ocean, a circular
ocean round the N. Pole, its diameter 40°, with low, flat
shores, covered with ice-fields, including numerous islands;
the Gulf Stream penetrates it, and a current flows out of it
into the Atlantic.
Arctu`rus, star of the first
magnitude and the chief in the N. constellation Boötes.
Ardèche, an affluent
of the Rhône, source in the Cévennes; gives name
to a department traversed by the Cévennes Mountains.
Arden, a large forest at one time
in England, E. of the Severn.
Arden, Enoch, hero of a poem
by Tennyson, who finds, on his return from the sea, after long
absence, his wife, who believed him dead, married happily to
another; does not disclose himself, and dies broken-hearted.
Ardennes, a forest, a tract
of rugged woodland on the confines of France and Belgium; also
department of France (325), on the borders of Belgium.
Ar`doch, a place in Perthshire,
7 m. from Crieff, with the remains of a Roman camp, the most
complete in Britain.
Arends, Leopold, a Russian
of literary ability, inventor of a system of stenography extensively
used on the Continent (1817-1882).
Areopagitica, a prose work
of Milton's, described by Prof. Saintsbury as "a magnificent
search for the Dead Truth."
Areop`agus, the hill of Ares
in Athens, which gave name to the celebrated council held there,
a tribunal of 31 members, charged with judgment in criminal
offences, and whose sentences were uniformly the awards of strictest
Arequi`pa (35), a city in Peru,
founded by Pizarro in 1536, in a fruitful valley of the Andes,
8000 ft. above the sea, 30 m. inland; is much subject to earthquakes,
and was almost destroyed by one in 1868.
A`rés, the Greek god of
war in its sanguinary aspects; was the son of Zeus and Hera;
identified by the Romans with Mars, was fond of war for its
own sake, and had for sister Eris, the goddess of strife, who
used to pander to his passion.
Aretæ`us, a Greek physician
of 1st century; wrote a treatise on diseases, their causes,
symptoms, and cures, still extant.
Arethu`sa, a celebrated fountain
in the island of Ortygia, near Syracuse, transformed from a
Nereid pursued thither from Elis, in Greece, by the river-god
Alphæus, so that the waters of the river henceforth mingled
with those of the fountain.
Areti`no, Pietro, called
the "Scourge of Princes," a licentious satirical writer,
born at Arezzo, in Tuscany, alternately attached to people and
repelled from them by his wit, moved from one centre of attraction
to another; settled in Venice, where he died after an uncontrollable
fit of laughter which seized him at the story of the adventure
of a sister (1492-1557).
Arezzo (44), an ancient Tuscan
city, 38 m. SE. of Florence, and eventually subject to it; the
birthplace of Mæcenas, Michael Angelo, Petrarch, Guido,
Ar`gali, a sheep of Siberia,
as large as a moderately-sized ox, with enormous grooved curving
horns, strong-limbed, sure-footed, and swift.
Argan`, the hypochondriac rich
patient in Molière's "Le Malade Imaginaire."
Argand, a Swiss physician and
chemist, born at Geneva; inventor of the argand lamp, which,
as invented by him, introduced a circular wick (1755-1803).
Argelan`der, a distinguished
astronomer, born at Memel, professor at Bonn; he fixed the position
of 22,000 stars, and recorded observations to prove that the
solar system was moving through space (1799-1874).
Ar`gens, Marquis d',
a French soldier who turned to letters, author of sceptical
writings, of which the best known is entitled "Lettres
Marquis d', French statesman, who left "Memoirs"
of value as affecting the early and middle part of Louis XV.'s
or Argentina (4,000), a confederation like that of the
United States of 14 states and 9 territories, occupying the
eastern slopes of the Andes and the vast level plain extending
from them to the Atlantic, bounded on the N. by Bolivia and
Paraguay; its area ten times that of Great Britain and Ireland;
while the population includes 600,000 foreigners, Italians,
French, Spaniards, English, and Germans.
Ar`go, the fifty-oared ship of
the Argonauts (q. v.).
Ar`golis, the north-eastern
peninsula of the Morea of Greece, and one of the 13 provinces
of Greece, is 12 m. long by 5 m. broad.
Ar`gon, a new element lately discovered
to exist in a gaseous form in the nitrogen of the air.
Argonautica, the title of
a poem on the Argonautic expedition by Apollonius of Rhodes.
Ar`gonauts, the Greek heroes,
sailors in the Argo, who, under the command of Jason,
sailed for Colchis in quest of the golden fleece, which was
guarded by a dragon that never slept, a perilous venture, but
it proved successful with the assistance of Medea, the daughter
of the king, whom, with the fleece, Jason in the end brought
away with him to be his wife.
Argonne`, Forest of, "a
long strip of rocky mountain and wild wood" in the NE.
of France, within the borders of which the Duke of Brunswick
was outwitted by Dumouriez in 1792.
Ar`gos (9), the capital of Argolis,
played for long a prominent part in the history of Greece, but
paled before the power of Sparta.
Ar`gus, surnamed the "All-seeing,"
a fabulous creature with a hundred eyes, of which one half was
always awake, appointed by Hera to watch over Io, but Hermes
killed him after lulling him to sleep by the sound of his flute,
whereupon Hera transferred his eyes to the tail of the peacock,
her favourite bird. Also the dog of Ulysses, immortalised by
Homer; he was the only creature that recognised Ulysses under
his rags on his return to Ithaca after twenty years' absence,
under such excitement, however, that immediately after he dropped
Argus, a pheasant, a beautiful
Oriental game-bird, so called from the eye-like markings on
Argyll (74), a large county in
the W. of Scotland, consisting of deeply indented mainland and
islands, and abounding in mountains, moorlands, and lochs, with
scenery often picturesque as well as wild and savage.
Argyll, a noble family or clan
of the name of Campbell, the members of which have held successively
the title of Earl, Marquis, and Duke, their first patent of
nobility dating from 1445, and their earldom from 1453.
Archibald Campbell, 1st Marquis of, sided with the Covenanters,
fought against Montrose, disgusted with the execution of Charles
I., crowned Charles II. at Scone, after the Restoration committed
to the Tower, was tried and condemned, met death nobly (1598-1661).
Campbell, 9th Earl of, son of the preceding, fought
for Charles II., was taken prisoner, released at the Restoration
and restored to his estates, proved rebellious at last, and
was condemned to death; escaped to Holland, made a descent on
Scotland, was captured and executed in 1685.
George John Douglas Campbell, 8th Duke of, as Marquis
of Lorne took a great interest in the movement which led to
the Disruption of the Church of Scotland in 1843, a Whig in
politics, was a member of the Cabinets of Aberdeen, Palmerston,
and Gladstone; of late has shown more Conservative tendencies;
takes a deep interest in the scientific theories and questions
of the time; wrote, among other works, a book in 1866 entitled "The
Reign of Law," in vindication of Theism, and another in
the same interest in 1884 entitled "The Unity of Nature";
Argyll, John Campbell,
2nd Duke of, favoured the Union, was created an English
peer, fought under Marlborough, opposed the return of the Stuarts,
defeated Mar at Sheriffmuir, ruled Scotland under Walpole (1678-1743).
Ariad`ne, daughter of Minos,
king of Crete, gave to Theseus a clue by which to escape out
of the labyrinth after he had slain the Minotaur, for which
Theseus promised to marry her; took her with him to Naxos and
left her there, where, according to one tradition, Artemis killed
her, and according to another, Dionysos found her and married
her, placing her at her death among the gods, and hanging her
wedding wreath as a constellation in the sky.
Arianism, the heresy of
Arius (q. v.).
Aria`no (12), a city with a fine
cathedral, 1500 ft. above the sea-level, NE. of Naples; has
a trade in wine and butter.
Ari`ca, a seaport connected with
Tacna, S. of Peru, the chief outlet for the produce of Bolivia;
suffers again and again from earthquakes, and was almost destroyed
Ariège, a department of
France, at the foot of the northern slopes of the Pyrenees;
has extensive forests and is rich in minerals.
A`riel, in Shakespeare's "Tempest,"
a spirit of the air whom Prospero finds imprisoned by Sycorax
in the cleft of a pine-tree, and liberates on condition of her
serving him for a season, which she willingly engages to do,
Ariel, an idol of the Moabites,
an outcast angel.
Aries, the Ram. the first of the
signs of the Zodiac, which the sun enters on March 21, though
the constellation itself, owing to the precession of the equinoxes,
is no longer within the limits of the sign.
Ari`on, a lyrist of Lesbos, lived
chiefly at the court of Periander, Corinth; returning in a ship
from a musical contest in Sicily laden with prizes, the sailors
plotted to kill him, when he begged permission to play one strain
on his lute, which being conceded, dolphins crowded round the
ship, whereupon he leapt over the bulwarks, was received on
the back of one of them, and carried to Corinth, arriving there
before the sailors, who, on their landing, were apprehended
an illustrious Italian poet, born at Reggio, in Lombardy; spent
his life chiefly in Ferrara, mostly in poverty; his great work "Orlando
Furioso" (q. v.), published the first edition,
in 40 cantos, in 1516, and the third in 46 cantos, in 1532;
the work is so called from the chief subject of it, the madness
of Roland induced by the loss of his lady-love through her marriage
to another (1474-1532).
Ariovistus, a German chief,
invaded Gaul, and threatened to overrun it, but was forced back
over the Rhine by Cæsar.
Aristæ`us, a son of
Apollo, the guardian divinity of the vine and olive, of hunters
and herdsmen; first taught the management of bees, some of which
stung Eurydice to death, whereupon the nymphs, companions of
Orpheus, her husband, set upon his bees and destroyed them.
In this extremity Aristæus applied to Proteus, who advised
him to sacrifice four bullocks to appease the manes of Eurydice;
this done, there issued from the carcasses of the victims a
swarm of bees, which reconciled him to the loss of the first
Aristar`chus of Samos,
a Greek astronomer, who first conceived the idea of the rotundity
of the earth and its revolution both on its own axis and round
the sun, in promulgating which idea he was accused of impiously
disturbing the serenity of the gods (280 B.C.).
Aristarchus of Samothrace,
a celebrated Greek grammarian and critic, who devoted his life
to the elucidation and correct transmission of the text of the
Greek poets, and especially Homer (158-88 B.C.).
Ariste`as, a sort of Wandering
Jew of Greek fable, who turns up here and there in Greek tradition,
and was thought to be endowed with a soul that could at will
leave and enter the body.
Aristi`des, an Athenian general
and statesman, surnamed The Just; covered himself with glory
at the battle of Marathon; was made archon next year, in the
discharge of the duties of which office he received his surname;
was banished by ostracism at the instance of his rival, Themistocles;
recalled three years after the invasion of Xerxes, was reconciled
to Themistocles, fought bravely at Salamis, and distinguished
himself at Platæa; managed the finances of the State with
such probity that he died poor, was buried at the public charges,
and left the State to provide for his children.
Aristion, a philosopher, tyrant
of Athens, put to death by order of Sylla, 86 B.C.
Aristip`pus of Cyrene,
founder of the Cyrenaic school of philosophy, a disciple of
Socrates; in his teaching laid too much emphasis on one principle
of Socrates, apart from the rest, in insisting too exclusively
upon pleasure as the supreme good and ultimate aim of life.
Aristobu`lus I., son of
John Hyrcanus, first of the Asmonæan dynasty in Judea
to assume the name of king, which he did from 104-102 B.C.,
a pronounced Helleniser; A. II., twice carried captive
to Rome, assassinated 50 B.C.; A. III., last of Asmonæan
dynasty, drowned by Herod in the Jordan, 34 B.C.
Aristode`mus, king of Messenia,
carried on for 20 years a war with Sparta, till at length finding
resistance hopeless he put an end to his life on the tomb of
his daughter, whom he had sacrificed to ensure the fulfilment
of an oracle to the advantage of his house; d. 724 B.C.
Also a Greek sculptor, 4th century B.C.
Aristom`enes, a mythical
king of Messenia, celebrated for his struggle with the Spartans,
and his resistance to them on Mount Ira for 11 years, which
at length fell to the enemy, while he escaped and was snatched
up by the gods; died at Rhodes.
Aristophanes, the great
comic dramatist of Athens, lived in the 5th century B.C.; directed
the shafts of his wit, which were very keen, against all of
whatever rank who sought in any way to alter, and, as it was
presumed, amend, the religious, philosophical, social, political,
or literary creed and practice of the country, and held up to
ridicule such men as Socrates and Euripides, as well as Cleon
the tanner; wrote 54 plays, of which 11
have come down to us; of these the "Clouds" aim
at Socrates, the "Acharnians" and the "Frogs"
at Euripides, and the "Knights" at Cleon; d.
Ar`istotle, a native of Stagira,
in Thrace, and hence named the Stagirite; deprived of his parents
while yet a youth; came in his 17th year to Athens, remained
in Plato's society there for 20 years; after the death of Plato,
at the request of Philip, king of Macedon, who held him in high
honour, became the preceptor of Alexander the Great, then only
13 years old; on Alexander's expedition into Asia, returned
to Athens and began to teach in the Lyceum, where it was his
habit to walk up and down as he taught, from which circumstance
his school got the name of Peripatetic; after 13 years he left
the city and went to Chalcis, in Euboea, where he died. He was
the oracle of the scholastic philosophers and theologians in
the Middle Ages; is the author of a great number of writings
which covered a vast field of speculation, of which the progress
of modern science goes to establish the value; is often referred
to as the incarnation of the philosophic spirit (385-322 B.C.).
Aristox`enus of Tarentum,
a Greek philosopher, author of the "Elements of Harmony,"
the only one of his many works extant, and one of the oldest
writers on music; contemporary of Aristotle.
A`rius, a presbyter of Alexandria
in the 4th century, and founder of Arianism, which denied the
consubstantiality of the Son with the Father in the so-called
Trinity, a doctrine which hovered for a time between acceptance
and rejection throughout the Catholic Church; was condemned
first by a local synod which met at Alexandria in 321, and then
by a General Council at Nice in 325, which the Emperor Constantine
attended in person; the author was banished to Illyricum, his
writings burned, and the possession of them voted to be a crime;
after three years he was recalled by Constantine, who ordered
him to be restored; was about to be readmitted into the Church
when he died suddenly, by poison, alleged his friends—by
the judgment of God, said his enemies (280-336).
Arizo`na (59), a territory of
the United States N. of Mexico and W. of New Mexico, nearly
four times as large as Scotland, rich in mines of gold, silver,
and copper, fertile in the lowlands; much of the surface a barren
plateau 11,000 ft. high, through which the cañon of the
Colorado passes. See Cañon.
Ark of the Covenant,
a chest of acacia wood overlaid with gold, 2½ cubits
long and 1½ in breadth; contained the two tables of stone
inscribed with the Ten Commandments, the gold pot with the manna,
and Aaron's rod; the lid supported the mercy-seat, with a cherub
at each end, and the shekinah radiance between.
Arkans`as (1,128), one of the
Southern States of America, N. of Louisiana and W. of the Mississippi,
a little larger than England; rich in metals, grows cotton and
Arkwright, Sir Richard,
born at Preston, Lancashire; bred to the trade of a barber;
took interest in the machinery of cotton-spinning; with the
help of a clockmaker, invented the spinning frame; was mobbed
for threatening thereby to shorten labour and curtail wages,
and had to flee; fell in with Mr. Strutt of Derby, who entered
into partnership with him; prospered in business and died worth
half a million. "French Revolutions were a-brewing; to
resist the same in any way, Imperial Cæsars were impotent
without the cotton and cloth of England; and it was this man,"
says Carlyle, "that had to give to England the power of
Arlberg, a mountain mass between
the Austrian provinces of Vorarlberg and Tyrol, pierced by a
tunnel, one of the three that penetrate the Alps, and nearly
four miles in length.
Arles (14), a city, one of the
oldest in France, on the Rhône, 46 m. N. of Marseilles,
where Constantine built a palace, with ruins of an amphitheatre
and other Roman works; the seat of several Church Councils.
Ar`lincourt, Viscount d',
a French romancer, born near Versailles (1789-1856).
Bennet, Earl of, served under Charles I., and accompanied
Charles II. in his exile; a prominent member of the famous Cabal;
being impeached when in office, lost favour and retired into
private life (1618-1685).
Ar`lon (8), a prosperous town
in Belgium, capital of Luxemburg.
Arma`da, named the Invincible,
an armament fitted out in 1588 by Philip II. of Spain against
England, consisting of 130 war-vessels, mounted with 2430 cannon,
and manned by 20,000 soldiers; was defeated in the Channel on
July 20 by Admiral Howard, seconded by Drake, Hawkins, and Frobisher;
completely dispersed and shattered by a storm in retreat on
the coasts of Scotland and Ireland, the English losing only
one ship; of the whole fleet only 53 ships found their way back
to Spain, and these nearly all hors de combat.
Armageddon, a name given
in Apocalypse to the final battlefield between the powers of
good and evil, or Christ and Antichrist.
Armagh (143), a county in Ulster,
Ireland, 32 m. long by 20 m. broad; and a town (18) in it, 33
m. SW. of Belfast, from the 5th to the 9th century the capital
of Ireland, as it is the ecclesiastical still; the chief manufacture
Armagnac, a district, part
of Gascony, in France, now in dep. of Gers, celebrated for its
wine and brandy.
Armagnacs, a faction in France
in time of Charles VI. at mortal feud with the Bourguignons.
Armato`les, warlike marauding
tribes in the mountainous districts of Northern Greece, played
a prominent part in the War of Independence in 1820.
Armed soldier of Democracy,
Arme`nia, a country in Western
Asia, W. of the Caspian Sea and N. of Kurdistan Mts., anciently
independent, now divided between Turkey, Russia, and Persia,
occupying a plateau interspersed with fertile valleys, which
culminates in Mt. Ararat, in which the Euphrates and Tigris
have their sources.
Armenians, a people of the
Aryan race occupying Armenia, early converted to Christianity
of the Eutychian type; from early times have emigrated into
adjoining, and even remote, countries, and are, like the Jews,
mainly engaged in commercial pursuits, the wealthier of them
especially in banking.
a manufacturing and trading town in France, 12 m. N. of Lille.
Armi`da, a beautiful enchantress
in Tasso's "Jerusalem Delivered," who bewitched Rinaldo,
one of the Crusaders, by her charms, as Circe did Ulysses, and
who in turn, when the spell was broken, overpowered her by his
love and persuaded her to become a Christian. The Almida
Palace, in which she enchanted Rinaldo, has become a synonym
for any merely visionary but enchanting palace of pleasure.
Armin`ius, or Hermann,
the Deliverer of Germany from the Romans
by the defeat of Varus, the Roman general, in 9 A.D., near Detmold
(where a colossal statue has been erected to his memory); killed
in some family quarrel in his 37th year.
Arminius, Jacobus, a
learned Dutch theologian and founder of Arminianism, an assertion
of the free-will of man in the matter of salvation against the
necessitarianism of Calvin (1560-1609).
Armor`ica, a district of Gaul
from the Loire to the Seine.
Armstrong, John, a Scotch
doctor and poet, born in Roxburghshire, practised medicine in
London; friend of poet Thomson, as well as of Wilkes and Smollett,
and author of "The Art of Preserving Health" (1709-1779).
George, Lord, born at Newcastle, produced the hydraulic
accumulator and the hydraulic crane, established the Elswick
engine works in the suburbs of his native city, devoted his
attention to the improvement of heavy ordnance, invented the
Armstrong gun, which he got the Government to adopt, knighted
in 1858, and in 1887 raised to the peerage; b. 1810.
Ar`naud, Henri, a pastor
of the Vaudois, turned soldier to rescue, and did rescue, his
co-religionists from their dispersion under the persecution
of the Count of Savoy; but when the Vaudois were exiled a second
time, he accompanied them in their exile to Schomberg, and acted
pastor to them till his death (1641-1721).
Arnauld, Antoine, the "great
Arnauld," a French theologian, doctor of the Sorbonne,
an inveterate enemy of the Jesuits, defended Jansenism against
the Bull of the Pope, became religious director of the nuns
of Port Royal des Champs, associated here with a circle of kindred
spirits, among others Pascal; expelled from the Sorbonne and
banished the country, died at Brussels (1612-1694).
Arnauld, Marie Ange`lique,
La Mère Angelique as she was called, sister of
the preceding and abbess of the Port Royal, a victim of the
persecutions of the Jesuits to very death (1624-1684).
Arndt, Ernst Moritz,
a German poet and patriot, whose memory is much revered by the
whole German people, one of the first to rouse his countrymen
to shake off the tyranny of Napoleon; his songs and eloquent
appeals went straight to the heart of the nation and contributed
powerfully to its liberation; his "Geist der Zeit"
made him flee the country after the battle of Jena, and his "Was
ist des Deutschen Vaterland?" strikes a chord in the breast
of every German all the world over (1710-1860).
Arndt, John, a Lutheran theologian,
the author of "True Christianity," a work which, in
Germany and elsewhere, has contributed to infuse a new spirit
of life into the profession of the Christian religion, which
seemed withering away under the influence of a lifeless dogmatism
Arne, Thomas Augustine,
a musical composer of versatile genius, produced, during over
40 years, a succession of pieces in every style from songs to
sonatas and oratorios, among others the world-famous chorus "Rule
Britannia"; Mrs. Cibber was his sister (1719-1778).
Arn`heim (51), the capital of
Guelderland, is situated on the right bank of the Rhine, and
has a large transit trade.
Arnim, Bettine von,
sister of Clemens Brentano, wife of Ludwig Arnim, a native of
Frankfort; at 22 conceived a passionate love for Goethe, then
in his 60th year, visited him at Weimar, and corresponded with
him afterwards, part of which correspondence appeared subsequently
under the title of "Goethe's Correspondence with a Child"
Arnim, Count, ambassador
of Germany, first at Rome and then at Paris; accused in the
latter capacity of purloining State documents, and sentenced
to imprisonment; died in exile at Nice (1824-1881).
Arnim, Ludwig Achim von,
a German poet and novelist (1781-1831).
Arno, a river of Italy, rises in
the Apennines, flows westward past Florence and Pisa into the
Mediterranean, subject to destructive inundations.
Arnobius, an African rhetorician
who, in the beginning of the 4th century, embraced Christianity,
and wrote a book in its defence, still extant, and of great
value, entitled "Disputations against the Heathen."
Arnold, Benedict, an
American military general, entered the ranks of the colonists
under Washington during the War of Independence, distinguished
himself in several engagements, promoted to the rank of general,
negotiated with the English general Clinton to surrender an
important post entrusted to him, escaped to the English ranks
on the discovery of the plot, and served in them against his
country; d. in England in 1801.
Arnold, Matthew, poet and critic,
eldest son of Thomas Arnold of Rugby; professor of Poetry in
Oxford from 1857 to 1867; inspector of schools for 35 years
from 1851; commissioned twice over to visit France, Germany,
and Holland, to inquire into educational matters there; wrote
two separate reports thereon of great value; author of "Poems,"
of a highly finished order and showing a rich poetic gift, "Essays
on Criticism," "Culture and Anarchy," "St.
Paul and Protestantism," "Literature and Dogma," &c.;
a man of culture, and especially literary culture, of which
he is reckoned the apostle; died suddenly at Liverpool. He was
more eminent as a poet than a critic, influential as he was
in that regard. "It is," says Swinburne, "by
his verse and not his prose he must be judged," and is
being now judged (1822-1888).
Arnold, Sir Edwin, poet
and journalist, familiar with Indian literature; author of the "Light
of Asia," "Light of the World," and other works
in prose and verse; b. 1832, at Gravesend.
Arnold, Thomas, head-master
of Rugby, and professor of Modern History at Oxford; by his
moral character and governing faculty effected immense reforms
in Rugby School; was liberal in his principles and of a philanthropic
spirit; he wrote a "History of Rome" based on Niebuhr,
and edited Thucydides; his "Life and Correspondence"
was edited by Dean Stanley (1795-1842).
Arnold of Brescia, an
Italian monk, and disciple of Abelard; declaimed against the
temporal power of the Pope, the corruptions of the Church, and
the avarice of the clergy; headed an insurrection against the
Pope in Rome, which collapsed under the Pope's interdict; at
last was burned alive in 1156, and his ashes thrown into the
Arnold of Winkelried,
the Decius of Switzerland, a peasant of the canton of Unterwald,
who, by the voluntary sacrifice of his life, broke the lines
of the Austrians at Sempach in 1386 and decided the fate of
Arnott, Dr. Neil, a native
of Arbroath, author of the "Elements of Physics" and
of several hygienic inventions (1788-1874).
Arou`et, the family name of Voltaire;
his name formed by an ingenious transposition he made of the
letters of his name, Arouet l. j. (jeune).
Ar`pad, the national hero of Hungary;
established for the Magyars a firm footing
in the country; was founder of the Arpad dynasty, which became
extinct in 1301; d. 907.
an ancient town in Latium, S. of Rome, birthplace of Cicero
Arqua, a village 12 m. SW. of
Padua, where Petrarch died and was buried.
Arrack, a spirituous liquor,
especially that distilled from the juice of the cocoa-nut tree
and from fermented rice.
Ar`rah, a town in Bengal, 36 m.
from Patna; famous for its defence by a handful of English and
Sikhs against thousands during the Mutiny.
Arran (4), largest island in the
Firth of Clyde, in Buteshire; a mountainous island, highest
summit Goatfell, 2866 ft, with a margin of lowland round the
coast; nearly all the property of the Duke of Hamilton, whose
seat is Brodick Castle.
Arras (20), a French town in the
dep. of Pas-de-Calais, long celebrated for its tapestry; the
birthplace of Damiens and Robespierre.
Ar`ria, a Roman matron, who, to
encourage her husband in meeting death, to which he had been
sentenced, thrust a poniard into her own breast, and then handed
it to him, saying, "It is not painful," whereupon
he followed her example.
Ar`rian, Flavius, a Bithynian,
a friend of Epictetus the Stoic, edited his "Enchiridion";
wrote a "History of Alexander the Great," and "Periplus,"
an account of voyages round the Euxine and round the Red Sea;
b. 100, and died at an advanced age.
the same as the Cuneiform (q.
Arru Islands (15), a group
of 80 coralline islands, belonging to Holland, W. of New Guinea;
export mother-of-pearl, pearls, tortoise-shell, &c.
Ar`saces I., the founder of
the dynasty of the Arsacidæ, by a revolt which proved
successful against the Seleucidæ, 250 B.C.
Arsacidæ, a dynasty
of 31 Parthian kings, who wrested the throne from Antiochus
II., the last of the Seleucidæ, 250 B.C.
Arsin`oë, the name of several
Egyptian princesses of antiquity; also a prude in Molière's "Misanthrope."
Arta, Gulf of, gulf forming
the NW. frontier of Greece.
Arts, The. There are three classes
of these, the Liberal, the Fine, and the Mechanical: the Liberal,
implying scholarship, graduation in which is granted by universities,
entitling the holder to append M.A. to his name; the Mechanical,
implying skill; and the Fine, implying the possession of a soul,
discriminated from the mechanical by the word spiritual, as
holding of the entire, undivided man, heart as well as brain.
Artaxer`xes, the name of
several Persian monarchs: A. I., called the "Long-handed,"
from his right hand being longer than his left; son of Xerxes
I.; concluded a peace with Greece after a war of 52 years;
entertained Themistocles at his court; king from 465 to 424
B.C. A. II., Mnemon, vanquished and killed his brother
Cyrus at Cunaxa in 401, who had revolted against him; imposed
in 387 on the Spartans the shameful treaty of
Antalcidas (q. v.); king from
405 to 359 B.C. A. III., Ochus, son of the preceding,
slew all his kindred on ascending the throne; in Egypt slew
the sacred bull Apis and gave the flesh to his soldiers, for
which his eunuch Bagsas poisoned him; king from 359 to 338 B.C.
A. IV., grandson of Sassan, founder of the dynasty Sassanidæ;
restored the old religion of the Magi, amended the laws, and
promoted education; king from A.D. 223 to 232.
Arte`di, a Swedish naturalist,
assisted Linnæus in his "Systema Naturæ";
his own great work, "Ichthyologia," published by Linnæus
after his death (1703-1735).
Ar`tegal, the impersonation
and champion of Justice in Spenser's "Faërie Queene."
Ar`temis, in the Greek mythology
the daughter of Zeus and Leto, twin sister of Apollo, born in
the Isle of Delos, and one of the great divinities of the Greeks;
a virgin goddess, represented as a huntress armed with bow and
arrows; presided over the birth of animals, was guardian of
flocks, the moon the type of her and the laurel her sacred tree,
was the Diana of the Romans, and got mixed up with deities in
Artemi`sia, queen of Halicarnassus,
joined Xerxes in his invasion of Greece, and fought with valour
at Salamis, 440 B.C. A. II., also queen, raised a tomb
over the grave of her husband Mausolus, regarded as one of the
seven wonders of the world, 355 B.C.
Artemi`sium, a promontory
N. of Euboea, near which Xerxes lost part of his fleet, 480
Artemus Ward. See
C. F. Browne.
Artesian wells, wells
made by boring for water where it is lower than its source,
so as to obtain a constant supply of it.
Ar`tevelde, Jacob van,
a wealthy brewer of Ghent, chosen chief in a revolt against
Count Louis of Flanders, expelled him, made a treaty with Edward
III. as lord-superior of Flanders, was massacred in a popular
Artevelde, Philip van,
son of the preceding, defeated Louis II. and became king; but
with the help of France Louis retaliated and defeated the Flemings,
and slew him in 1382.
Artful Dodger, a young
thief, an expert in the profession in Dickens' "Oliver
Ar`thur, a British prince of
wide-spread fame, who is supposed to have lived at the time
of the Saxon invasion in the 6th century, whose exploits and
those of his court have given birth to the tradition of the
Round Table, to the rendering of which Tennyson devoted so much
of his genius.
Arthur, Chester Alan,
twenty-first president of the United States, a lawyer by profession,
and a prominent member of the Republican party (1830-1886).
Arthur, Prince, Duke
of Brittany, heir to the throne of England by the death
of his uncle Richard I.; supplanted by King John.
Arthur Seat, a lion-shaped
hill 822 ft., close to Edinburgh on the E., from the top of
which the prospect is unrivalled; "the blue, majestic,
everlasting ocean, with the Fife hills swelling gradually into
the Grampians behind it on the N.; rough crags and rude precipices
at our feet ('where not a hillock rears its head unsung'), with
Edinburgh at their base, clustering proudly over her rugged
foundations, and covering with a vapoury mantle the jagged,
black, venerable masses of stone-work, that stretch far and
wide, and show like a city of fairyland"—such the
view Carlyle had in a clear atmosphere of 1826, whatever it
may be now.
Articles, The Thirty-Nine,
originally Forty-Two, a creed framed in 1562, which every clergyman
of the Church of England is bound by law to subscribe to at
his ordination, as the accepted faith of the Church.
Artist, according to a definition
of Ruskin, which he prints in small caps., "a person who
has submitted to a law which it was painful to obey, that he
may bestow a delight which it is gracious to bestow."
Artists, Prince of,
Albert Dürer, so called by his countrymen.
Ar`tois, an ancient province
of France, comprising the dep. of Pas-de-Calais, and parts of
the Somme and the Nord; united to the crown in 1659.
Artois, Monseigneur d',
famed, as described in Carlyle's "French Revolution,"
for "breeches of a new kind in this world"; brother
of Louis XVI., and afterwards Charles
X. (q. v.).
Ar`undel (2), a municipal town
in Sussex, on the Arun, 9 m. E. of Chichester, with a castle
of great magnificence, the seat of the Earls of Arundel.
Arundel, Thomas, successively
bishop of Ely, Lord Chancellor, archbishop of York, and archbishop
of Canterbury; a persecutor of the Wickliffites, but a munificent
benefactor of the Church (1353-1414).
Arundel marbles, ancient
Grecian marbles collected at Smyrna and elsewhere by the Earl
of Arundel in 1624, now in the possession of the University
of Oxford, the most important of which is one from Paros inscribed
with a chronology of events in Grecian history from 1582 to
264 B.C.; the date of the marbles themselves is 263 B.C.
Aruns, son of Tarquinus Superbus,
who fell in single combat with Brutus.
Aruwi`mi, an affluent of the
Congo on the right bank below the Stanley Falls.
Arva`tes, Fratres, a
college of twelve priests in ancient Rome whose duty it was
to make annual offerings to the Lares for the increase of the
fruits of the field.
Arve, a river that flows through
the valley of Chamouni and falls into the Rhône below
Arveyron, an affluent of the
Arve from the Mer de Glace.
Ar`yans, or Indo-Europeans, a
race that is presumed to have had its primitive seat in Central
Asia, E. of the Caspian Sea and N. of the Hindu-Kush, and to
have branched off at different periods north-westward and westward
into Europe, and southward into Persia and the valley of the
Ganges, from which sprung the Greeks, Latins, Celts, Teutons,
Slavs, on the one hand, and the Persians and Hindus on the other,
a community of origin that is attested by the comparative study
of their respective languages.
Ar`zew, a seaport in Algeria,
22 m. from Oran, with Roman remains; exports grain and salt.
Asafoe`tida, a fetid inspissated
sap from an Indian umbelliferous tree, used in medicine.
Asaph, a musician of the temple
Asaph, St., a town in Flintshire,
20 m. from Chester; seat of a bishopric.
Asbes`tos, an incombustible
mineral of a flax-like fibrous texture, which has been manufactured
into cloth, paper, lamp-wick, steam-pipes, gas-stoves, &c.
Asbjörn`sen, a Dane,
distinguished as a naturalist, and particularly as a collector
of folk-lore, as well as an author of children's stories (1812-1885).
As`bury, Francis, a zealous,
assiduous Methodist preacher and missionary, sent to America,
was consecrated the first bishop of the newly organised Methodist
Church there (1745-1816).
As`calon, one of the five cities
of the Philistines, much contested for during the Crusades.
Asca`nius, the son of Æneas,
who trotted non passibus æquis ("with unequal
steps") by the side of his father as he escaped from burning
Troy; was founder of Alba Longa.
As`capart, a giant conquered
by Bevis of Southampton, though so huge as to carry Bevis, his
wife, and horse under his arm.
Ascension, a bare volcanic
island in the Atlantic, rising to nearly 3000 ft., belonging
to Britain, 500 m. NW. of St. Helena, and 900 m. from the coast
of Africa; a coaling and victualling station for the navy.
Aschaf`fenburg (14), an
ancient town of Bavaria, on the Main, 20 m. from Frankfort,
with an old castle and cathedral.
Ascham, Roger, a Yorkshireman,
Fellow of Cambridge, a good classical, and particularly Greek,
scholar; wrote a book on archery, deemed a classic, entitled "Toxophilus,"
for which Henry VIII. settled a pension on him; was tutor and
Latin secretary to Queen Elizabeth, and much esteemed by her;
his chief work, the "Schoolmaster," an admirable treatise
on education, held in high regard by Dr. Johnson, the sum of
which is docendo discas, "learn by teaching"
Aschersle`ben (22), a manufacturing
town in the Magdeburg district of Prussia.
Asclepi`ades, a Bithynian
who practised medicine with repute at Rome in Cicero's time,
and was great in hygiene.
As`cot, a racecourse in Berks,
6 m. SW. of Windsor, the races at which, instituted by Queen
Anne, take place a fortnight after the Derby.
As`gard, the garden or heaven
of the Asen or gods in the Norse mythology, in which each had
a separate dwelling, and who held intercourse with the other
spheres of existence by the bridge Bifröst, i. e.
Asgill, John, an eccentric
Englishman, wrote a book to prove that death was due to want
of faith, and to express his belief that he would be translated,
and translated he was, to spend 30 years, apparently quite happily,
writing pamphlets, and end his days in the debtors' prison.
Ash, John, a dissenting divine,
author of an English dictionary, valuable for the number of
obsolete and provincial words contained in it (1724-1779).
Ash`anti, or Ashantee,
a negro inland kingdom in the Upper Soudan, N. of Gold Coast
territory, wooded, well watered, and well cultivated; natives
intelligent, warlike, and skilful; twice over provoked a war
with Great Britain, and finally the despatch of a military expedition,
which led to the submission of the king and the appointment
of a British Resident.
Ashburnham, John, a member
of the Long Parliament, a faithful adherent and attendant of
Charles I., and assistant to him in his troubles (1603-1671).
Ashburnham, 5th Earl of,
collected a number of valuable MSS. and rare books known as
the Ashburnham Collection; d. 1878.
Ashburton, Alexander Baring, Lord,
second son of Sir Francis Baring, a Liberal politician, turned
Conservative, member of Peel's administration in 1834-35, sent
special ambassador to the United States in 1842; concluded the
boundary treaty of Washington, known as the Ashburton Treaty;
in his retirement "a really good, solid, most cheery, sagacious,
simple-hearted old man" (1774-1848).
Bingham Baring, son of the preceding, "a very worthy
man," an admirer, and his wife, Lady Harriet, still more,
of Thomas Carlyle (1797-1844).
a small market-town 17 m. W. of Leicester, figures in "Ivanhoe,"
with the ruins of a castle in which Queen Mary was immured.
Ashdod, a maritime Philistine
city 20 m. S. of Jaffa, seat of the Dagon worship.
Ashe`ra, an image of
Astarte (q. v.), and associated
with the worship of that goddess.
Ash`mole, Elias, a celebrated
antiquary and authority on heraldry; presented to the University
of Oxford a collection of rarities bequeathed to him, which
laid the foundation of the Ashmolean Collection there (1617-1692).
Ashmun, Jehudi, an American
philanthropist, founder of the Negro Republic of Liberia, on
the W. coast of Africa (1794-1828).
(47), a cotton-manufacturing town near Manchester.
Asia, the largest of the four quarters
of the globe, and as good as in touch with the other three;
contains one-third of all the land, which, from a centre of
high elevations, extensive plains, and deep depressions, stretches
southward into three large peninsulas separated by three immense
arms of the sea, and eastward into three bulging masses and
three pronounced peninsulas forming seas, protected by groups
of islands; with rivers the largest in the whole world, of which
four flow N., two SE., and eight S.; with a large continental
basin, also the largest in the world, and with lakes which though
they do not match those of America and Africa, strikingly stand
at a higher level as we go E.; with every variety of climate,
with a richly varied flora and fauna, with a population of 840,000,000,
being the half of that of the globe, of chiefly three races,
Caucasian, Mongolian, and Malay, at different stages of civilisation,
and as regards religion, by far the majority professing the
faith of Brahma, Buddha, Mahomet, or Christ.
Asia Minor, called also
Anatole`, a peninsular extension westward of the Armenian
and Kurdistan highlands in Asia, bounded on the N. by the Black
Sea, on the W. by the Archipelago, and on the S. by the Levant;
indented all round, mainland as well as adjoining islands, with
bays and harbours, all more or less busy centres of trade; is
as large as France, and consists of a plateau with slopes all
round to the coasts; has a population of over 28,000,000.
Askew, Anne, a lady of good
birth, a victim of persecution in the time of Henry VIII. for
denying transubstantiation, tortured on the rack and burnt at
the stake, 1546.
Askew, Antony, a physician
and classical scholar, a collector of rare and curious books
Asmode`us, a mischievous demon
or goblin of the Jewish demonology, who gloats on the vices
and follies of mankind, and figures in Le Sage's "Le Diable
Boiteux," or the "Devil on Two Sticks," as lifting
off the roofs of the houses of Madrid and exposing their inmost
interiors and the secret doings of the inhabitants.
Asmonæ`ans, a name
given to the Maccabees, from Asmon, the place of their origin.
Aso`ka, a king of Behar, in India;
after his accession in 264 B.C. became an ardent disciple of
Buddha; organised Buddhism, as Constantine did Christianity,
into a State religion; convened the third great council of the
Church of that creed at Patna; made a proclamation of this faith
as far as his influence extended, evidence of which is still
extant in pillars and rocks inscribed with his edicts in wide
districts of Northern India; d. 223 B.C.
Asp, a poisonous Egyptian viper
of uncertain species.
Aspa`sia, a woman remarkable
for her wit, beauty, and culture, a native of Miletus; being
attracted to Athens, came and settled in it; became the wife
of Pericles, and her home the rendezvous of all the intellectual
and wise people of the city, Socrates included; her character
was often both justly and unjustly assailed.
As`pern, a village in Austria,
on the Danube, 4 m. NE. of Vienna, where a charge of the Austrians
under the Archduke Charles was defeated by Napoleon, May 21,
1809, and Marshal Lannes killed.
Asphalt, a mineral pitch of
a black or brownish-black colour, consisting chiefly of carbon;
also a limestone impregnated with bitumen, and more or less
in every quarter of the globe.
Asphaltic Lake, the
Dead Sea (q. v.), so called
from the asphalt on its surface and banks.
As`phodel, a lily plant appraised
by the Greeks for its almost perennial flowering, and with which
they, in their imagination, covered the Elysian fields, called
hence the Asphodel Meadow.
Asphyx`ia, suspended respiration
in the physical life; a term frequently employed by Carlyle
to denote a much more recondite, but a no less real, corresponding
phenomenon in the spiritual life.
Aspinwall, a town founded
by an American of the name in 1800, at the Atlantic extremity
of the Panama railway; named Colon, since the Empress Eugenie
presented it with a statue of Columbus.
Aspromon`te, a mountain close
by Reggio, overlooking the Strait of Messina, near which Garibaldi
was defeated and captured in 1862.
Asquini, Count, a rural
economist who did much to promote silk culture in Italy (1726-1818).
Assab Bay, a coaling-station
belonging to Italy, on the W. coast of the Red Sea.
Assam` (5,500), a province E.
of Bengal, ceded to Britain after the Burmese war in 1826; being
an alluvial plain, with ranges of hills along the Brahmapootra,
450 m. long and 50 broad; the low lands extremely fertile and
productive, and the hills covered with tea plantations, yielding
at one time, if not still, three-fourths of the tea raised in
Assarotti, an Italian philanthropist,
born at Genoa; the first to open a school for deaf-mutes in
Italy, and devoted zealously his fortune and time to the task
As`sas, Nicolas, captain
of the French regiment of Auvergne, whose celebrity depends
on a single act of defiance: having entered a wood to reconnoitre
it the night before the battle of Kloster Kampen, was suddenly
surrounded by the enemy's (the English) soldiers, and defied
with bayonets at his breast to utter a cry of alarm; "Ho,
Auvergne!" he exclaimed, and fell dead on the instant,
pierced with bayonets, to the saving of his countrymen.
Assassins, a fanatical Moslem
sect organised in the 11th century, at the time of the Crusades,
under a chief called the Old Man of the Mountain, whose stronghold
was a rock fortress at Alamut, in Persia, devoted to the assassination
of all enemies of the Moslem faith, and so called because they
braced their nerves for their deeds of blood by draughts of
an intoxicating liquor distilled from hashish (the hemp-plant).
A Tartar force burst upon the horde in their stronghold in 1256,
and put them wholesale to the sword.
Assaye`, a small town 46 m. NE.
of Aurungabad, where Sir Arthur Wellesley gained a victory over
the Mahrattas in 1803.
Assegai, a spear or javelin
of wood tipped with iron, used by certain S. African tribes
with deadly effect in war.
Assembly, General, the
chief court of the Presbyterian Church, a representative body,
half clergymen and half laymen, which
sits in Edinburgh for ten days in May, disposes of the general
business of the Church, and determines appeals.
the Commons section of the States-General of France which met
on May 5, 1789, constituted itself into a legislative assembly,
and gave a new constitution to the country.
a body composed of 140 members, of which 117 were clergymen,
convened at Westminster to determine questions of doctrine,
worship, and discipline in the National Church, and which held
its sittings, over 1100 of them, from July 1, 1643, to Feb.
22, 1649, with the result that the members of it were unanimous
in regard to doctrine, but were divided in the matter of government.
a learned Syrian Maronite, librarian of the Vatican, wrote an
account of Syrian writers (1687-1768); Stephano, nephew,
held the same office, wrote "Acta Sanctorum Martyrum"
Asser, John, monk of St. David's,
in Wales, tutor, friend, and biographer of Alfred the Great;
is said to have suggested the founding of Oxford University;
Assien`to, a treaty with Spain
to supply negroes for her colonies, concluded in succession
with the Flemings, the Genoese, a French company, the English,
and finally the South Sea Company, who relinquished their rights
in 1750 on compensation by Spain.
As`signats, bills or notes,
to the number of 45 thousand million, issued as currency by
the revolutionary government of France in 1790, and based on
the security of Church and other lands appropriated by it, and
which in course of time sunk in value, to the ruin of millions.
Assiniboi`a, a province in
Canada between Saskatchewan and the United States.
Assiniboines, certain aborigines
of Canada; the few of whom that remain do farming on the banks
of the Saskatchewan.
Assi`si (3), a town in Central
Italy, 12 m. SE. of Perugia, the birthplace and burial-place
of St. Francis, and the birthplace of Metastasio; it was a celebrated
place of resort of pilgrims, who sometimes came in great numbers.
Association of ideas,
a connection in the mind between two ideas, such that the consciousness
of one tends to recall the other, a fact employed to explain
certain recondite psychological phenomena.
Assouan`, the ancient Syene,
the southernmost city of Egypt, on the right bank of the Nile,
near the last cataract.
Assoucy, D', a French burlesque
poet ridiculed by Boileau (1604-1679).
Assumption, Feast of the,
festival in honour of the translation of the Virgin Mary to
heaven, celebrated on the 15th of August, the alleged day of
Assur, mythical name of the founder
Assyr`ia, an ancient kingdom,
the origin and early history of which is uncertain, between
the Niphates Mountains of Armenia on the N. and Babylonia on
the S., 280 m. long and 150 broad, with a fertile soil and a
population at a high stage of civilisation; became a province
of Media, which lay to the E., in 606 B.C., and afterwards a
satrapy of the Persian empire, and has been under the Turks
since 1638, in whose hands it is now a desert.
Assyriology, the study of
the monuments of Assyria, chiefly in a Biblical interest.
Astar`te, or Ashtoreth,
or Ist`ar, the female divinity of the Phoenicians, as
Baal was the male, these two being representative respectively
of the conceptive and generative powers of nature, and symbolised,
the latter, like Apollo, by the sun, and the former, like Artemis
or Diana, by the moon; sometimes identified with Urania and
sometimes with Venus; the rites connected with her worship were
of a lascivious nature.
Aster, of Amphipolis, an archer
who offered his services to Philip of Macedon, boasting of his
skill in bringing down birds on the wing, and to whom Philip
had replied he would accept them when he made war on the birds.
Aster, to be revenged, sped an arrow from the wall of a town
Philip was besieging, inscribed, "To the right eye of Philip,"
which took effect; whereupon Philip sped back another with the
words, "When Philip takes the town, Aster will hang for
it," and he was true to his word.
As`teroids, or Planetoids,
small planets in orbits between those of Mars and Jupiter, surmised
in 1596, all discovered in the present century, the first on
Jan. 1, 1801, and named Ceres; gradually found to number more
As`ti (33), an ancient city in
Piedmont, on the Tanaro, 26 m. SE. from Turin, with a Gothic
cathedral; is noted for its wine; birthplace of Alfieri.
Astley, Philip, a famous
equestrian and circus manager, along with Franconi established
the Cirque Olympique in Paris (1742-1814).
Astolfo, a knight-errant in
mediæval legend who generous-heartedly is always to do
greater feats than he can perform; in "Orlando Furioso"
he brings back Orlando's lost wits in a phial from the moon,
and possesses a horn that with a blast can discomfit armies.
Aston, Luise, German authoress,
championed the rights of women, and went about in male attire;
Aston Manor (54), a suburb
Astor, John Jacob, a
millionaire, son of a German peasant, who made a fortune of
four millions in America by trading in furs (1763-1848). His
son doubled his fortune; known as the "landlord of New
Astor, William Waldorf,
son of the preceding, devoted to politics; came to London, 1891;
became proprietor of the Pall Mall Gazette and Budget
in 1893; b. 1848.
Asto`ria, in Oregon, a fur-trading
station, with numerous salmon-tinning establishments.
Astræ`a, the daughter
of Zeus and Themis, the goddess of justice; dwelt among men
during the Golden Age, but left the earth on its decline, and
her sister Pudicitia along with her, the withdrawal explained
to mean the vanishing of the ideal from the life of man on the
earth; now placed among the stars under the name of Virgo.
Astræa Redux, the
name given to an era which piques itself on the return of the
reign of justice to the earth.
As`trakhan (43), a Russian
trading town on the Volga, 40 m. from its mouth in the Caspian
Sea, of which it is the chief port.
Astral body, an ethereal
body believed by the theosophists to invest the animal, to correspond
to it, and to be capable of Bilocation
Astral spirits, spirits
believed to animate or to people the heavenly bodies, to whom
worship was paid, and to hover unembodied through space exercising
demonic influence on embodied spirits.
Astrology, a science founded
on a presumed connection between the heavenly bodies and human
destiny as more or less affected by them, a science at one time
believed in by men of such intelligence as Tacitus and Kepler,
and few great families at one time but
had an astrologer attached to them to read the horoscope of
any new member of the house.
Astruc, Jean, a French physician
and professor of medicine in Paris, now noted as having discovered
that the book of Genesis consists of Elohistic and Jehovistic
portions, and who by this discovery founded the modern school
called of the Higher Criticism (1681-1766).
Astu`rias (579), an ancient
province in the N. of Spain, gives title to the heir to the
crown, rich in minerals, and with good fisheries; now named
Oviedo, from the principal town.
Asty`ages, last king of the
Medes; dethroned by Cyrus, 549 B.C.
Asty`anax, the son of Hector
and Andromache; was cast down by the Greeks from the ramparts
after the fall of Troy, lest he should live and restore the
Asun`cion, or Assumption
(18), the capital of Paraguay, on the left bank of the Paraguay,
so called from having been founded by the Spaniards on the Feast
of the Assumption in 1535.
Asuras, The, in the Hindu
mythology the demons of the darkness of night, in overcoming
whom the gods asserted their sovereignty in the universe.
Asymptote, a line always approaching
some curve but never meeting it.
Ataca`ma, an all but rainless
desert in the N. of Chile, abounding in silver and copper mines,
as well as gold in considerable quantities.
Atahualpa, the last of the
Incas of Peru, who fell into Pizarro's hands through perfidy,
and was strangled by his orders in 1533, that is, little short
of a year after the Spaniards landed in Peru.
Atalan`ta, a beautiful Grecian
princess celebrated for her agility, the prize of any suitor
who could outstrip her on the racecourse, failure being death;
at last one suitor, Hippomenes his name, accepted the risk and
started along with her, but as he neared the goal, kept dropping
first one golden apple, then another, provided him by Venus,
stooping to lift which lost her the race, whereupon Hippomenes
claimed the prize.
At`avism, name given to the
reappearance in progeny of the features, and even diseases,
of ancestors dead generations before.
Atba`ra, or Black River, from
the Highlands of Abyssinia, the lowest tributary of the Nile,
which it joins near Berber.
Ate`, in the Greek mythology the
goddess of strife and mischief, also of vengeance; was banished
by her father Zeus, for the annoyance she gave him, from heaven
to earth, where she has not been idle since.
Athaba`sca, a province, a
river, and a lake in British N. America.
Athalia, the queen of Judah,
daughter of Ahab and Jezebel, celebrated for her crimes and
impiety, for which she was in the end massacred by her subjects,
9th century B.C.
Athanasian Creed, a
statement, in the form of a confession, of the orthodox creed
of the Church as against the Arians, and damnatory of every
article of the heresy severally; ascribed to Athanasius at one
time, but now believed to be of later date, though embracing
his theology in affirmation of the absolute co-equal divinity
of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost in the Trinity.
Athanasius, Christian theologian,
a native of Alexandria, and a deacon of the Church; took a prominent
part against Arius in the Council at Nice, and was his most
uncompromising antagonist; was chosen bishop of Alexandria;
driven forth again and again from his bishopric under persecution
of the Arians; retired into the Thebaïd for a time; spent
the last 10 years of his life as bishop at Alexandria, where
he died; his works consist of treatises and orations bearing
on the Arian controversy, and in vindication of the doctrine
of the Trinity viewed in the most absolute sense (296-373).
Atheism, disbelief in the existence
of God, which may be either theoretical, in the intellect, or
practical, in the life, the latter the more common and the more
fatal form of it.
Atheism, Modern, ascribed
by Ruskin to "the unfortunate persistence of the clergy
in teaching children what they cannot understand, and in employing
young consecrate persons to assert in pulpits what they do not
Athelney, Isle of, an
island in a marsh near the confluence of the Tone and Parret,
Somerset; Alfred's place of refuge from the Danes.
Athe`na, the Greek virgin goddess
of wisdom, particularly in the arts, of war as of peace, happily
called by Ruskin the "'Queen of the Air,' in the heavens,
in the earth, and in the heart"; is said to have been the
conception of Metis, to have issued full-armed from the brain
of Zeus, and in this way the child of both wisdom and power;
wears a helmet, and bears on her left arm the ægis with
the Medusa's head; the olive among trees, and the owl among
animals, were sacred to her.
Athenæum, a school of
learning established in Rome about 133 by Hadrian.
Athenæus, a Greek writer
of the 3rd century, wrote a curious miscellany of a book entitled "Deipnosophistæ,
or the Suppers of the Learned," extant only in an imperfect
Athenag`oras, an able Christian
apologist of the 2nd century, was Athenian and a pagan by birth,
but being converted to Christianity, wrote an apology in its
defence, and a treatise on the resurrection of the dead.
Ath`ens, the capital of Attica,
and the chief city of ancient Greece, at once the brain and
the heart of it; the resort in ancient times of all the able
and wise men, particularly in the domain of literature and art,
from all parts of the country and lands beyond; while the monuments
of temple and statue that still adorn it give evidence of a
culture among the citizens such as the inhabitants of no other
city of the world have had the genius to surpass, though the
name Athens has been adopted by or applied to several cities,
Edinburgh in particular, that have been considered to rival
it in this respect, and is the name of over twenty places in
the United States. The two chief monuments of the architecture
of ancient Athens, both erected on the Acropolis, are the
Parthenon (q. v.), dedicated
to Athena, the finest building on the finest site in the world,
and the Erechtheum, a temple dedicated to Poseidon close by;
is the capital (100) of modern Greece, the seat of the government,
and the residence of the king.
Athlone (7), a market-town on
the Shannon, which divides it, and a chief military station.
Athole, a district in the N.
of Perthshire, which gives name to a branch of the Murray family.
honey, and whisky mixed.
Athole, Sir John James Hugh Stewart-Murray, 7th Duke of,
honourably distinguished for having devoted years of his life
to editing the records of the family and the related history;
A`thos, Mount, or Monte
Santo (6), a mountain 6780 ft. high at the southern extremity
of the most northerly peninsula of Salonica, in Turkey,
covered with monasteries, inhabited exclusively by monks of
the Greek Church, and rich in curious manuscripts; the monks
devote themselves to gardening, bee-culture, and other rural
occupations, the more devout among them at one time celebrated
for the edification they derived from the study of their own
Atlanta (65), the largest city
in Georgia, U.S.; a large manufacturing and railway centre.
Atlantes, figures of men used
in architecture instead of pillars.
Atlantic, The, the most
important, best known, most traversed and best provided for
traffic of all the oceans on the globe, connecting, rather than
separating, the Old World and the New; covers nearly one-fifth
of the surface of the earth; length 9000 m., its average breadth
2700 m.; its average depth 15,000 ft., or from 3 to 5 m., with
waves in consequence of greater height and volume than those
of any other sea.
Atlan`tis, an island alleged
by tradition to have existed in the ocean W. of the Pillars
of Hercules; Plato has given a beautiful picture of this island,
and an account of its fabulous history. The New, a Utopia
figured as existing somewhere in the Atlantic, which Lord Bacon
began to outline but never finished.
At`las, a Titan who, for his audacity
in attempting to dethrone Zeus, was doomed to bear the heavens
on his shoulders; although another account makes him a king
of Mauritania whom Perseus, for his want of hospitality, changed
into a mountain by exposing to view the head of the Medusa.
Atlas Mountains, a range
in N. Africa, the highest 11,000 feet, the Greater in
Morocco, the Lesser extending besides through Algeria
and Tunis, and the whole system extending from Cape Nun, in
Morocco, to Cape Bon, in Tunis.
Atman, The, in the Hindu philosophy,
the divine spirit in man, conceived of as a small being having
its seat in the heart, where it may be felt stirring, travelling
whence along the arteries it peers out as a small image in the
eye, the pupil; it is centred in the heart of the universe,
and appears with dazzling effect in the sun, the heart and eye
of the world, and is the same there as in the heart of man.
At`oll, the name, a Polynesian
one, given to a coral island consisting of a ring of coral enclosing
Atomic theory, the theory
that all compound bodies are made up of elementary in fixed
Atomic weight, the weight
of an atom of any body compared with that of hydrogen, the unit.
Atra`to, a river in Colombia
which flows N. into the Gulf of Darien; is navigable for 200
m., proposed, since the failure of the Panama scheme, to be
converted, along with San Juan River, into a canal to connect
the Atlantic and the Pacific.
A`treus, a son of Pelops and
king of Mycenæ, who, to avenge a wrong done him by his
brother Thyestes, killed his two sons, and served them up in
a banquet to him, for which act, as tradition shows, his descendants
had to pay heavy penalties.
Atri`des, descendants of Atreus,
particularly Agamemnon and Menelaus, a family frequently referred
to as capable of and doomed to perpetrating the most atrocious
At`ropos, one of the three Fates,
the one who cut asunder the thread of life; one of her sisters,
Clotho, appointed to spin the thread, and the other, Lachesis,
to direct it.
At`talus, the name of three
kings of Pergamos: A. I., founded the library of Pergamos
and joined the Romans against Philip and the Achæans (241-197
B.C.); A. II., kept up the league with Rome (157-137);
A. III., bequeathed his wealth to the Roman people (137-132).
an English prelate, in succession dean of Christ Church, bishop
of Rochester, and dean of Westminster; a zealous Churchman and
Jacobite, which last brought him into trouble on the accession
of the House of Hanover and led to his banishment; died in Paris.
He was a scholarly man, an eloquent preacher, and wrote an eloquent
Attic Bee, Sophocles, from
the sweetness and beauty of his productions.
Attic faith, inviolable faith,
opposed to Punic.
Attic Muse, Xenophon, from
the simplicity and elegance of his style.
Attic salt, pointed and delicate
Attic style, a pure, classical,
and elegant style.
At`tica, a country in ancient
Greece, on the NE. of the Peloponnesus, within an area not larger
than that of Lanarkshire, which has nevertheless had a history
of world-wide fame and importance.
Atticism, a pure and refined
style of expression in any language, originally the purest and
most refined style of the ancient literature of Greece.
Atticus, Titus P., a wealthy
Roman and a great friend of Cicero's, devoted to study and the
society of friends, took no part in politics, died of voluntary
starvation rather than endure the torture of a painful and incurable
disease (110-33 B.C.).
At`tila, or Etzel, the king of
the Huns, surnamed "the Scourge of God," from the
terror he everywhere inspired; overran the Roman Empire at the
time of its decline, vanquished the emperors of both East and
West, extorting heavy tribute; led his forces into Germany and
Gaul, was defeated in a great battle near Châlons-sur-Marne
by the combined armies of the Romans under Aëtius and the
Goths under Theodoric, retreated across the Alps and ravaged
the N. of Italy; died of hemorrhage, it is alleged, on the day
of his marriage, and was buried in a gold coffin containing
immense treasures in 453, the slaves who dug the grave having,
it is said, been killed, lest they should reveal the spot.
At`tock (4), a town and fortress
in the Punjab, on the Indus where the Kabul joins it—a
river beyond which no Hindu must pass; it was built by Akbar
name given the first law officer and legal adviser of the Crown
in England and Ireland.
Attwood, George, a mathematician,
invented a machine for illustrating the law of uniformly accelerated
motion, as in falling bodies (1745-1807).
Attwood, Thomas, an eminent
English musician and composer, wrote a few anthems (1767-1836).
A`tys, a beautiful Phrygian youth,
beloved by Cybele, who turned him into a pine, after she had,
by her apparition at his marriage to forbid the banns, driven
Aube (255), a dep. in France, formed
of Champagne and a small part of Burgundy, with Troyes for capital.
Au`ber, a popular French composer
of operas, born at Caen; his operas included "La Muette
de Portici," "Le Domino Noir," "Fra Diavolo," &c.
Au`bert, The Abbé,
a French fabulist, born at Paris (1731-1814).
Aub`rey, John, an eminent
antiquary, a friend of Anthony Wood's; inherited estates in
Wilts, Hereford, and Wales, all of which he lost by lawsuits
and bad management; was intimate with all the literary men of
the day; left a vast number of MSS.; published
one work, "Miscellanies," being a collection of popular
superstitions; preserved a good deal of the gossip of the period
Aub`riot, a French statesman,
born at Dijon, provost of Paris under Charles V.: built the
famous Bastille; was imprisoned in it for heresy, but released
by a mob; died at Dijon, 1382.
Aubry de Montdidier,
French knight murdered by Robert
Macaire (q. v.), the sole witness of the crime and
the avenger of it being his dog.
Aubusson, a French town on
the Creuse, manufactures carpets and tapestry.
Aubusson, Pierre d',
grand-master of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem, of French
descent, who in 1480 gallantly defended Rhodes when besieged
by Mahomet II., and drove the assailants back, amounting to
no fewer than 100,000 men (1423-1503).
Auch (12), capital of the dep.
of Gers, France, 14 m. W. of Toulouse, with a splendid cathedral
perched on a hill, and accessible only by a flight of 200 steps;
has a trade in wine and brandy.
Auchinleck, a village 15
m. E. of Ayr, with the mansion of the Boswell family.
Auchterar`der, a village
in Perthshire, where the forcing of a presentee by a patron
on an unwilling congregation awoke a large section in the Established
Church to a sense of the wrong, and the assertion of the rights
of the people and led to the disruption of the community, and
the creation of the Free Church in 1843.
Auck`land (60), the largest
town in New Zealand, in the N. island, with an excellent harbour
in the Gulf of Hauraki, and the capital of a district of the
name, 400 m. long, and 200 m. broad, with a fertile soil and
a fine climate, rich in natural products of all kinds; was the
capital of New Zealand till the seat of government was transferred
Auckland, Bishop (11),
a town on the Wear, 10 m. SW. of Durham and in the county of
Durham, with the palace of the bishop.
Auckland, George Eden,
Lord, son of the following, a Whig in politics, First
Lord of the Admiralty, Governor-General of India; gave name
to Auckland; returned afterwards to his post in the Admiralty
Auckland, William Eden,
Lord, diplomatist, and an authority on criminal law
Auckland Islands, a
group of small islands 180 m. S. of New Zealand, with some good
harbours, and rich in vegetation.
Aude (317), a maritime dep. in
the S. of France, being a portion of Languedoc; yields cereals,
wine, &c., and is rich in minerals.
Audebert, Jean Baptiste,
a French artist and naturalist; devoted himself to the illustration
in coloured plates of objects of natural history, such especially
as monkeys and humming-birds, all exquisitely done (1759-1800).
Audhumbla, the cow, in the
Norse mythology, that nourished Hymir, and lived herself by
licking the hoar-frost off the rocks.
Audley, Sir Thomas, Lord,
born in Essex, son of a yeoman; became Speaker of the House
of Commons and Lord Chancellor of England; the selfish, unscrupulous
tool of Henry VIII. (1488-1554).
Au`douin, Jean Victor,
an eminent French entomologist; was employed by the French Government
to inquire into and report on the diseases of the silkworm,
and the insects that destroy the vines (1797-1841).
Audran, Gerard, an engraver,
the most eminent of a family of artists, born at Lyons; engraved
the works of Lebrun, Mignard, and Poussin; he did some fine
illustrations of the battles of Alexander the Great (1640-1703).
Au`dubon, John James,
a celebrated American ornithologist of French Huguenot origin;
author of two great works, the "Birds of America"
and the "Quadrupeds of America," drawn and illustrated
by himself, the former characterised by Cuvier as "the
most magnificent monument that Art up to that time had raised
to Nature" (1780-1851).
Au`enbrugger, an Austrian
physician, discoverer of the method of investigating diseases
of the chest by percussion (1722-1809).
a German poet and novelist of Jewish birth, born in the Black
Forest; his novels, which have been widely translated, are in
the main of a somewhat philosophical bent, he having been early
led to the study of Spinoza, and having begun his literary career
as editor of his works; his "Village Tales of the Black
Forest" were widely popular (1812-1882).
Au`ersperg, Count von,
an Austrian lyrical and satirical poet, of liberal politics,
and a pronounced enemy of the absolutist party headed by Metternich
eminent Sanskrit scholar, born in Silesia; was professor of
Sanskrit in Edinburgh University; returning to Germany, became
professor at Bonn; b. 1822.
Aufklärung, The, or
Illuminationism, a movement, conspicuously of the present time,
the members of which pique themselves on ability to disperse
the darkness of the world, if they could only persuade men to
forego reason, and accept sense, common-sense, as the only test
of truth, and who profess to settle all questions of reason,
that is, of faith, by appeal to private judgment and majorities,
or as Dr. Stirling defines it, "that stripping of us naked
of all things in heaven and upon earth, at the hands of the
modern party of unbelief, and under the guidance of so-called
Auge`as, a legendary king of
Elis, in Greece, and one of the Argonauts; had a stable with
3000 oxen, that had not been cleaned out for 30 years, but was
cleansed by Hercules turning the rivers Peneus and Alpheus through
it; the act a symbol of the worthless lumber a reformer must
sweep away before his work can begin, the work of reformation
Auger, a French littérateur,
born at Paris, renowned as a critic (1772-1829).
François Charles, marshal of France and duke
of Castiglione, born at Paris; distinguished in the campaigns
of the Republic and Napoleon; executed the coup d'état
of the 4th Sept. 1797; his services were rejected by Napoleon
on his return from Elba, on account of his having supported
the Bourbons during his absence. He was simply a soldier, rude
and rough-mannered, and with no great brains for anything else
but military discipline (1757-1816).
Au`gier, Émile, able
French dramatist, produced brilliant comedies for the French
stage through a period of 40 years, all distinctly on the side
of virtue. His only rivals were Dumas fils and M. Sardou
Augs`burg (75), a busy manufacturing
and trading town on the Lech, in Bavaria, once a city of great
importance, where in 1531 the Protestants presented their Confession
to Charles V., and where the peace of Augsburg was signed in
1555, ensuring religious freedom.
a document drawn up by Melanchthon in name of the Lutheran reformers,
headed by the Elector of Saxony in statement
of their own doctrines, and of the doctrines of the Church of
Rome, against which they protested.
Augurs, a college of priests
in Rome appointed to forecast the future by the behaviour or
flight of birds kept for the purpose, and which were sometimes
carried about in a coop to consult on emergencies.
August, originally called Sextilis,
as the sixth month of the Roman year, which began in March,
and named August in honour of Augustus, as being the month identified
with remarkable events in his career.
Augusta (33), a prosperous town
in Georgia, U.S., on the Savannah, 231 m. from its mouth; also
a town (10) the capital of Maine, U.S.
Augustan Age, the time in
the history of a nation when its literature is at its best.
Augusti, a German rationalist
theologian of note, born near Gotha (1771-1841).
Augustin, or Austin, St.,
the apostle of England, sent thither with a few monks by Pope
Gregory in 596 to convert the country to Christianity; began
his labours in Kent; founded the see, or rather archbishopric,
of Canterbury; d. 605.
Au`gustine, St., the bishop
of Hippo and the greatest of the Latin Fathers of the Church;
a native of Tagaste, in Numidia; son of a pagan father and a
Christian mother, St. Monica; after a youth of dissipation,
was converted to Christ by a text of St. Paul (Rom. xiii. 13,
14), which his eyes first lit upon, as on suggestion of a friend
he took up the epistle to read it in answer to an appeal he
had made to him to explain a voice that was ever whispering
in his ears, "Take and read"; became bishop in 396,
devoted himself to pastoral duties, and took an active part
in the Church controversies of his age, opposing especially
the Manichæans, the Donatists, and the Pelagians; his
principal works are his "Confessions," his "City
of God," and his treatises on Grace and Free-Will. It is
safe to say, no Churchman has ever exercised such influence
as he has done in moulding the creed as well as directing the
destiny of the Christian Church. He was especially imbued with
the theology of St. Paul (354-430).
Canons, called also Black Cenobites, under a less severe discipline
than monks, had 200 houses in England and Wales at the Reformation;
(b) Friars, mendicant, a portion of them barefooted;
(c) Nuns, nurses of the sick.
Augustus, called at first
Caius Octavius, ultimately Caius Julius Cæsar
Octavianus, the first of the Roman Emperors or Cæsars,
grand-nephew of Julius Cæsar, and his heir; joined the
Republican party at Cæsar's death, became consul, formed
one of a triumvirate with Antony and Lepidus; along with Antony
overthrew the Republican party under Brutus and Cassius at Philippi;
defeated Antony and Cleopatra at Actium, and became master of
the Roman world; was voted the title of "Augustus"
by the Senate in 27 B.C.; proved a wise and beneficent ruler,
and patronised the arts and letters, his reign forming a distinguished
epoch in the history of the ancient literature of Rome (63 B.C.-A.D.
Augustus, the name of several
princes of Saxony and Poland in the 16th and 17th centuries.
Augustus I., Elector of Saxony,
a Lutheran prince, whose reign was peaceful comparatively, and
he was himself both a good man and a good ruler, a monarch surnamed
the "pious" and the "Justinian of Saxony"
Augustus II., Elector of
Saxony and King of Poland; forced himself on Poland; had twice
to retire, but was reinstated; is known to history as "The
Strong"; "attained the maximum," says Carlyle, "in
several things,—of physical strength, could break horse-shoes,
nay, half-crowns with finger and thumb; of sumptuosity, no man
of his means so regardless of expense; and of bastards, three
hundred and fifty-four of them (Marshal Saxe one of the lot);
baked the biggest bannock on record, a cake with 5000 eggs and
a tun of butter." He was, like many a monarch of the like
loose character, a patron of the fine arts, and founded the
Dresden Picture Gallery (1670-1733).
Augustus III., son of the
preceding; beat Stanislaus Leszcynski in the struggle for the
crown of Poland; proved an incompetent king (1696-1763).
Aulic Council, supreme
council in the old German Empire, from which there was no appeal,
of date from 1495 to 1654; it had no constitution, dealt with
judicial matters, and lived and died with the emperor.
Aulis, a port in Boeotia, where
the fleet of the Greeks assembled before taking sail for Troy,
and where Iphigeneia, to procure a favourable wind, was sacrificed
by her father Agamemnon, an event commemorated in the "Iphigeneia
in Aulis" of Euripides.
Aumale, Duc d', one of the
chiefs of the League, became governor of Paris, which he held
against Henry IV., leagued with the Spaniards, was convicted
of treason, and having escaped, was burned in effigy; died an
exile at Brussels (1556-1631).
Aumale, Duc d', fourth
son of Louis Philippe, distinguished himself in Algiers, and
was governor of Algeria, which he resigned when his father abdicated;
lived in England for twenty years after, acknowledged the Republic,
and left his estate and valuables to the French nation (1822-1897).
or Richard de Bury, tutor to Edward III., bishop of Durham,
sent on embassies to various courts, was a lover and collector
of books, and left a curious work called "Philobiblon"
Aunoy, Comtesse d', a
French authoress, known and appreciated for her fairy tales
Domitius, powerful in physique, and an able Roman emperor;
son of a peasant of Pannonia; distinguished as a skilful and
successful general; was elected emperor, 270; drove the barbarians
out of Italy; vanquished Zenobia, queen of Palmyra, carrying
her captive to Rome; subdued a usurper in Gaul, and while on
his way to crush a rebellion in Persia was assassinated by his
Aure`lius, Marcus. See
Aure`lius, Victor Sextus,
a Roman consul and a Latin historian of the 4th century.
Aureola, a wreath of light represented
as encircling the brows of the saints and martyrs.
Aurillac (14), capital of the
dep. of Cantal, on the Jourdanne, affluent of the Dordogne,
built round the famous abbey of St. Geraud, now in ruins.
Au`rochs, a German wild ox,
Auro`ra, the Roman goddess of
the dawn, charged with opening for the sun the gates of the
East; had a star on her forehead, and rode in a rosy chariot
drawn by four white horses. See Eos.
Aurora (19), a city in Illinois,
U.S., 35 m. SW. of Chicago, said to have been the first town
to light the streets with electricity.
Aurora Borealis, or Northern
Lights, understood to be an electric discharge through the atmosphere
connected with magnetic disturbance.
Aurun`gabad` (50), a city
in Hyderabad, in the Nizam's dominions; once the capital, now
much decayed, with the ruins of a palace of Aurungzebe.
Au`rungzebe, Mogul emperor
of Hindustan, third son of Shah Jehan; ascended the throne by
the deposition of his father, the murder of two brothers and
of the son of one of these; he governed with skill and courage;
extended his empire by subduing Golconda, the Carnatic, and
Bengal, and though fanatical and intolerant, was a patron of
letters; his rule was far-shining, but the empire was rotten
at the core, and when he died it crumbled to pieces in the hands
of his sons, among whom he beforehand divided it (1615-1707).
by the sound whether there is or is not disease in the interior
organs of the body.
Auscultator, name in "Sartor
Resartus," the hero as a man qualified for a profession,
but as yet only expectant of employment in it.
Ausonia, an ancient name of
Ausonius, Decimus Magnus,
a Roman poet, a native of Gaul, born in Bordeaux; tutor to the
Emperor Gratian, who, on coming to the throne, made him prefect
of Latium and of Gaul, and consul of Rome. He was a good versifier
and stylist, but no poet (300-394).
Austen, Jane, a gifted English
novelist, daughter of a clergyman in N. Hampshire; member of
a quiet family circle, occupied herself in writing without eye
to publication, and only in mature womanhood thought of writing
for the press. Her first novel, "Sense and Sensibility,"
was published in 1811, and was followed by "Pride and Prejudice,"
her masterpiece, "Persuasion," and others, her interest
being throughout in ordinary quiet cultured life, and the delineation
of it, which she achieved in an inimitably charming manner. "She
showed once for all," says Professor Saintsbury, "the
capabilities of the very commonest and most ordinary life, if
sufficiently observed and selected, and combined with due art,
to furnish forth prose fiction not merely that would pass, but
that should be of the absolutely first quality as literature.
She is the mother of the English 19th-century novel, as Scott
is the father of it" (1775-1816).
Aus`terlitz (3), a town in
Moravia, near Brünn, where Napoleon defeated the emperors
of Russia and of Austria, at "the battle of the three emperors,"
Dec. 2, 1805; one of Napoleon's most brilliant victories, and
thought so by himself.
Austin (14), the capital of Texas,
on the Colorado River, named after Stephen Austin, who was chiefly
instrumental in annexing Texas to the States.
Austin, Alfred, poet-laureate
in succession to Tennyson, born near Leeds, bred for the bar,
but devoted to literature as journalist, writer, and poet; has
written "The Golden Age, a Satire," "Savonarola," "English
Lyrics," and several works in prose; b. 1835.
Austin, John, a distinguished
English jurist, professor of Jurisprudence in London University;
mastered the science of law by the study of it in Germany, but
being too profound in his philosophy, was unsuccessful as professor;
his great work, "The Province of Jurisprudence Determined,"
and his Lectures, were published by his widow after his death
Austin, Mrs. J., (née
Sarah Taylor), wife of the preceding, executed translations
from the German, "Falk's Characteristics of Goethe"
for one; was, like her husband, of the utilitarian school; was
introduced to Carlyle when he first went up to London; he wrote
to his wife of her, "If I 'swear eternal friendship' with
any woman here, it will be with her" (1793-1867)
Austin Friars. See
Australasia (i. e.
Southern Asia), a name given to Australia, New Zealand, and
the islands adjoining.
Australia, a continent entirely
within the Southern Hemisphere, about one-fourth smaller than
Europe, its utmost length from E. to W. being 2400 m., and breadth
1971; the coast has singularly few inlets, though many and spacious
harbours, only one great gulf, Carpentaria, on the N., and one
bight, the Great Australian Bight, on the S.; the interior consists
of a low desert plateau, depressed in the centre, bordered with
ranges of various elevation, between which and the sea is a
varying breadth of coast-land; the chief mountain range is in
the E., and extends more or less parallel all the way with the
E. coast; the rivers are few, and either in flood or dried up,
for the climate is very parching, only one river, the Murray,
2345 m. long, of any consequence, while the lakes, which are
numerous, are shallow and nearly all salt; the flora is peculiar,
the eucalyptus and the acacia the most characteristic, grains,
fruits, and edible roots being all imported; the fauna is no
less peculiar, including, in the absence of many animals of
other countries, the kangaroo, the dingo, and the duck-bill,
the useful animals being likewise all imported; of birds, the
cassowary and the emu, and smaller ones of great beauty, but
songless; minerals abound, both the precious and the useful;
the natives are disappearing, the colonists in 1904 numbering
close upon 4,000,000; and the territory divided into Victoria,
New South Wales, Queensland, S. Australia, and W. Australia,
which with Tasmania federated in 1900 and became the Commonwealth.
Austrasia, or the East Kingdom,
a kingdom on the E. of the possessions of the Franks in Gaul,
that existed from 511 to 843, capital of which was Metz; it
was celebrated for its rivalry with the kingdom of Neustria,
or the Western Kingdom.
Austria, or Austro-Hungary,
is a country of every variety of surface and scenery; is inhabited
by peoples of different races and nationalities, speaking different
languages, as many as 20, and composed of 50 different states,
5 of them kingdoms; occupies the centre of Europe, yet has free
communication with the seas on all sides of it; is the third
country for size in it; is divided by the Leitha, a tributary
of the Danube, into Cis-Leithan on the W. and Trans-Leithan
on the E.; has next to no coast-line; its chief seaport, Trieste;
is watered by rivers, the Danube in chief, all of which have
their mouths in other countries; has three zones of climate
with corresponding zones of vegetation; is rich in minerals;
is largely pastoral and agricultural, manufacturing chiefly
in the W.; the capital Vienna, and the population over 40,000,000.
Austrian lip, a thick under-lip
characteristic of the House of Hapsburg.
Auteuil, a village in the dep.
of the Seine, now included in Paris.
of the Bible was executed between the years 1604 and
1610 at the instance of James I., so that it is not undeservedly
called King James's Bible, and was the work of 47 men selected
with marked fairness and discretion, divided into three groups
of two sections each, who held their sittings for three years
severally at Westminster, Cambridge, and Oxford, the whole being
thereafter revised by a committee of six, who met for nine months
in Stationers' Hall, London, and received thirty pounds each,
the rest being done for nothing. The result was a translation
that at length superseded every other, and that has since woven
itself into the affectionate regard of the whole
English-speaking people. The men who executed it evidently felt
something of the inspiration that breathes in the original,
and they have produced a version that will remain to all time
a monument of the simplicity, dignity, grace, and melody of
the English language; its very style has had a nobly educative
effect on the national literature, and has contributed more
than anything else to prevent it from degenerating into the
merely frivolous and formal.
Autochthons, Greek for aborigines.
Auto-da-fé, or Act
of Faith, a ceremony held by the court of the Inquisition in
Spain, preliminary to the execution of a heretic, in which the
condemned, dressed in a hideously fantastic robe, called the
San Benito, and a pointed cap, walked in a procession of monks,
followed by carts containing coffins with malefactors' bones,
to hear a sermon on the true faith, prior to being burned alive;
the most famous auto-da-fé took place in Madrid in 1680.
Autol`ycus, in the Greek mythology
a son of Hermes (q. v.),
and maternal grandfather of Ulysses by his daughter Anticlea;
famed for his cunning and robberies; synonym for thief.
Autom`edon, the charioteer
Autonomy (i. e. Self-law),
in the Kantian metaphysics denotes the sovereign right of the
pure reason to be a law to itself.
Autran`, Joseph, a French
poet and dramatist, born at Marseilles; he was of the school
of Lamartine, and attained distinction by the production of
the tragedy "La Fille d'Eschyle" (1813-1877).
Autun` (15), an ancient city in
the dep. of Saône-et-Loire, on the Arroux, 28 m. NW. from
Châlons, where Talleyrand was bishop, with a fine cathedral
and rich in antiquities; manufactures serges, carpets, velvet, &c.
Auvergne`, an ancient province
of France, united to the crown under Louis XIII. in 1610, embracing
the deps. of Puy-de-Dôme, Cantal, and part of Haute-Loire,
the highlands of which separate the basin of the Loire from
that of the Garonne, and contain a hardy and industrious race
of people descended from the original inhabitants of Gaul; they
speak a strange dialect, and supply all the water-carriers and
street-sweepers of Paris.
Auxerre` (15), an ancient city,
capital of the dep. of Yonne, 90 m. SE. of Paris; has a fine
cathedral in the Flamboyant style; drives a large trade in wine.
Ava, capital of the Burmese empire
from 1364 to 1740 and from 1822 to 1835; now in ruins from an
earthquake in 1839.
Av`alon, in the Celtic mythology
an island of faërie in the region where the sun sinks to
rest at eventide, and the final home of the heroes of chivalry
when their day's work was ended on earth.
Avars, a tribe of Huns who, driven
from their home in the Altai Mts. by the Chinese, invaded the
E. of Europe about 553, and committed ravages in it for about
three centuries, till they were subdued by Charlemagne, and
all but exterminated in 827.
Avatar`, or Descent, the incarnation
and incarnated manifestation of a Hindu deity, a theory both
characteristic of Vishnuism and marking a new epoch in the religious
development of India.
Ave Maria, an invocation to
the Virgin, so called as forming the first two words of the
salutation of the angel in Luke i. 28.
Avebury, or Abery, a
village in Wiltshire, 6 m. W. of Marlborough, in the middle
of a so-called Druidical structure consisting of 100 monoliths,
surmised to have been erected and arranged in memory of some
Avelli`no (26), chief town
in a province of the name in Campania, 59 m. E. of Naples, famous
for its trade in hazel-nuts and chestnuts; manufactures woollens,
paper, macaroni, &c.; has been subject to earthquakes.
Aventine Hill, one
of the seven hills of Rome, the mount to which the plebs sullenly
retired on their refusal to submit to the patrician oligarchy,
and from which they were enticed back by Menenius Agrippa by
the well-known fable of the members of the body and the stomach.
Aventi`nus, a Bavarian historian,
author of the "Chronicon Bavariæ" (Annals of
Bavaria), a valuable record of the early history of Germany
Avenzo`ar, an Arabian physician,
the teacher of Averroës (1073-1103).
Avernus, a deep lake in Italy,
near Naples, 1½ m. in circumference, occupying the crater
of an extinct volcano, at one time surrounded by a dark wood,
and conceived, from its gloomy appearance, as well as from the
mephitic vapours it exhaled, to be the entrance to the infernal
world, and identified with it.
Aver`roës, an Arabian
physician and philosopher, a Moor by birth and a native of Cordova;
devoted himself to the study and the exposition of Aristotle,
earning for himself the title of the "Commentator,"
though he appears to have coupled with the philosophy of Aristotle
the Oriental pantheistic doctrine of emanations (1126-1198).
Aversa (24), an Italian town
8 m. from Naples, amid vineyards and orange groves; much resorted
to by the Neapolitans.
Aveyron`, a mountainous dep.
in the S. of France, with excellent pastures, where the Roquefort
cheese is produced.
Avicen`na, an illustrious Arabian
physician, surnamed the prince of physicians, a man of immense
learning and extensive practice in his art; of authority in
philosophy as well as in medicine, his philosophy being of the
school of Aristotle with a mixture of Neoplatonism, his "Canon
of Medicine," being the supreme in medical science for
Avie`nus, Rufus Festus,
a geographer and Latin poet, or versifier rather, of the 4th
Avign`on (37), capital of the
dep. of Vaucluse, France; an ancient city beautifully situated
on the left bank of the Rhône, near the confluence of
the Durance, of various fortune from its foundation by the Phocæans
in 539 B.C.; was the seat of the Papacy from 1305 to 1377, purchased
by Pope Clement VI. at that period, and belonged to the Papacy
from that time till 1797, when it was appropriated to France;
it contains a number of interesting buildings, and carries on
a large trade in wine, oil, and fruits; grows and manufactures
silk in large quantities.
A`vila (10), a town in Spain,
in a province of the name, in S. of Old Castile, 3000 ft. above
the sea-level, with a Gothic cathedral and a Moorish castle;
birthplace of St. Theresa.
Avila, Juan d', a Spanish
priest, surnamed the Apostle of Andalusia, for his zeal in planting
the Gospel in its mountains; d. 1569.
Avila y Zinuga, a soldier,
diplomatist, and historian under Charles V.
Avlo`na (6), or Valona,
a port of Albania, on an inlet of the Adriatic.
Av`ola (12), a seaport on the
E. coast of Sicily, ruined by an earthquake in 1693, rebuilt
since; place of export of the Hybla honey.
A`von, the name of several English
rivers, such as Shakespeare's in Warwickshire, of Salisbury
in Wiltshire, and of Bristol, rising in Wiltshire.
Avranches` (7), a town in
dep. of Manche, Normandy; the place, the spot marked by a stone,
where Henry II. received absolution for the murder of Thomas à
Becket; lace-making the staple industry, and trade in agricultural
Awe, Loch, in the centre of
Argyllshire, overshadowed by mountains, 25 m. in length, the
second in size of Scottish lakes, studded with islands, one
with the ruin of a castle; the scenery gloomily picturesque;
its surface is 100 ft. above the sea-level.
Axel, archbishop of Lund; born
in Zealand; a Danish patriot with Norse blood; subdued tribes
of Wends, and compelled them to adopt Christianity.
Axholme, Isle of, a tract
of land in NW. Lincolnshire, 17 m. long and 5 m. broad; once
a forest, then a marsh; drained in 1632, and now fertile, producing
hemp, flax, rape, &c.
Axim, a trading settlement on the
Gold Coast, Africa, belonging to Britain; belonged to Holland
Ax`olotl, a batrachian, numerous
in Mexico and the Western States, believed to be in its preliminary
or tadpole state of existence.
Ax`um, capital of an Ethiopian
kingdom in Abyssinia, now in ruins, where Christianity was introduced
in the 4th century, and which as the outpost of Christendom
fell early before the Mohammedan power.
Ayacu`cho, a thriving town
in Peru, founded by Pizarro in 1539, where the Peruvians and
Colombians achieved their independence of Spain in 1824, and
ended the rule of Spain in the S. American continent.
Aya`la, Pedro Lopez d',
a Spanish soldier, statesman, and diplomatist, born in Murcia;
wrote a "History of the Kings of Castile," which was
more than a chronicle of wars, being also a review of them;
and a book of poems entitled the "Rhymes of the Court"
Aye-aye, a lemur found in the
woods of Madagascar.
Ayesha, the daughter of Abubekr,
and favourite wife of Mahomet, whom he married soon after the
death of Kadijah; as much devoted to Mahomet as he was to her,
for he died in her arms. "A woman who distinguished herself
by all manner of qualities among the Moslems," who is styled
by them the "Mother of the Faithful" (see
Kadijah). She was, it is said,
the only wife of Mahomet that remained a virgin. On Mahomet's
death she opposed the accession of Ali, who defeated her and
took her prisoner, but released her on condition that she should
not again interfere in State matters (610-677).
Ayles`bury (9), a borough
and market-town in Buckinghamshire, 40 m. NW. of London, in
an agricultural district; supplies the London market with ducks.
Aylmer, John, tutor to Lady
Jane Grey, bishop of London, a highly arbitrary man, and a friend
to neither Papist nor Puritan; he is satirised by Spenser in
the "Shepherd's Calendar" (1521-1594).
Ayloffe, Sir Joseph,
English antiquary, born in Sussex (1708-1781).
Ayma`ras, the chief native race
of Peru and Bolivia, from which it would appear sprang the Quinchuas,
the dominant people of Peru at the time of the Spanish conquest;
attained a high degree of civilisation, and number to-day 500,000.
Aymon, the Count of
Dordogne, the father of four sons, Renaud, Guiscard,
Alard, and Richard, renowned in the legends of chivalry, and
particularly as paladins of Charlemagne.
Ay`mar-Ver`nay, a peasant
of Dauphiné, who in the 17th century professed to discover
springs and treasures hid in the earth by means of a divining
Ayr (23), the county town of Ayrshire,
at the mouth of a river of the same name, a clean, ancient town,
its charter, granted by William the Lion, dating from 1200;
well built, with elegant villas in the suburbs, a good harbour
and docks for shipping; famous in early Scottish history, and
doubly so among Scottish towns as the birthplace near it of
Ayr`er, Jacob, a German dramatist
in the 16th century, of the style of
Hans Sachs (q. v.).
Ayrshire (226), a large and
wealthy county in the W. of Scotland, bordered on the W. by
the Firth of Clyde, agricultural and pastoral, with a large
coal-field and thriving manufactures; its divisions, Carrick,
to the S. of the Doon; Kyle, between the Doon and the Irvine,
and Cunningham, on the N.; concerning which there is an old
rhyme: "Kyle for a man, Carrick for a coo, Cunningham for
butter and cheese, Galloway for 'oo."
Ayton, Sir Robert, a
poet of considerable merit, a native of Fife, born at Kinaldie,
who made his fortune by a Latin panegyric to King James I. on
his accession; was on friendly terms with the eminent literary
men of his time, Ben Jonson in particular; his poems are written
in pure and even elegant English, some in Latin, and have only
recently been collected together (1571-1638).
Aytoun, William Edmondstoune,
poet and critic, a native of Edinburgh, professor of Rhetoric
and English Literature in Edinburgh University, author of the "Lays
of the Scottish Cavaliers"; he was also editor, along with
Sir Theodore Martin, of the "Gaultier Ballads," an
admirable collection of light verse (1813-1865).
Azeglio, Marchese d',
an Italian patriot and statesman, native of Turin; wounded at
Vicenza in 1848, fighting for Italian independence; entered
the Piedmontese Parliament, was Victor Emanuel's right-hand
man, retired in favour of Cavour; he was not altogether engrossed
with politics, being an amateur in art (1798-1866).
Azerbijan (2,000), prov. of
Armenian Persia, S. of the river Aras, with fertile plains,
cattle-breeding, and rich in minerals.
Azores, i. e. Hawk Islands
(250), a group of nine volcanic islands in the Atlantic, 800
m. W. of Portugal, and forming a province of it; are in general
mountainous; covered with orange groves, of which the chief
are St. Michael's and Fayal; and 900 m. W. of it, in the latitude
of Lisbon; the climate is mild, and good for pulmonary complaints;
they were known to the Carthaginian mariners, but fell out of
the map of Europe till rediscovered in 1431.
Azov, Sea of, an opening from
the Black Sea, very shallow, and gradually silting up with mud
from the Don.
Az`rael, the angel of death according
to Rabbinical tradition.
Az`tecs, a civilised race of
small stature, of reddish-brown skin, lean, and broad featured,
which occupied the Mexican plateau for some centuries before
the Spaniards visited it, and were overthrown by the Spaniards
Azuni, Dominico Alberto,
an Italian jurist, born in Sardinia; president of the Court
of Appeal at Genoa; made a special study of maritime law;
author of "Droit Maritime de l'Europe"
Azymites, the name given to
a party in the Church who insisted that only unleavened bread
should be used in the Eucharist, and the controversy hinged
on the question whether the Lord's Supper was instituted before
the Passover season was finished, or after, as in the former
case the bread must have been unleavened, and in the latter