Dacca (82), a city 150 m. NE.
of Calcutta, on a branch of the Brahmaputra, once the capital
of Bengal, and a centre of Mohammedanism; famous at one time
for its muslins; the remains of its former grandeur are found
scattered up and down the environs and half buried in the jungle;
it is also the name of a district (2,420), well watered, both
for cultivation and commerce.
Dacia, a Roman province, N. of
the Danube and S. of the Carpathians.
Dacier, André, a
French scholar and critic, born at Castres, in Languedoc; assisted
by his wife, executed translations of various classics, and
produced an edition of them known as the "Delphin Edition"
Dacier, Madame, distinguished
Hellenist and Latinist, wife of the preceding, born in Saumur
Dacoits, gangs of semi-savage
Indian brigands and robbers, often 40 or 50 in a gang.
Da Costa, Isaac, a Dutch
poet, born at Amsterdam, of Jewish parents; turned Christian,
and after the death of Bilderdijk was chief poet of Holland
Dædalus, an architect
and mechanician in the Greek mythology; inventor and constructor
of the Labyrinth of Crete, in which the Minotaur was confined,
and in which he was also imprisoned himself by order of Minos,
a confinement from which he escaped by means of wings fastened
on with wax; was regarded as the inventor of the mechanic arts.
Daghestan (529), a Russian
province W. of the Caspian Sea, traversed by spurs of the Caucasus
Mountains; chief town Derbend.
Dago, a marshy Russian island,
N. of the Gulf of Riga, near the entrance of the Gulf of Finland.
Dagobert I., king of the Franks,
son of Clotaire II., reformed the laws of the Franks; was the
last of the Merovingian kings who knew how to rule with a firm
hand; the sovereign power as it passed from his hands was seized
by the mayor of the palace; d. 638.
Dagon, the national god of the
Philistines, represented as half-man, sometimes half-woman,
and half-fish; appears to have been a symbol to his worshippers
of the fertilising power of nature, familiar to them in the
fruitfulness of the sea.
Daguerreotype, a process
named after its inventor, Louis Daguerre, a Frenchman, of producing
pictures by means of the camera on a surface sensitive to light
and shade, and interesting as the first step in photography.
Dahl, a Norwegian landscape-painter,
born at Bergen; died professor of Painting at Dresden (1788-1857).
Dahlgren, John Adolph,
a U.S. naval officer and commander; invented a small heavy gun
named after him; commanded the blockading squadron at Charleston
Christoph, a German historian and politician, born at
Wismar; was in favour of constitutional government; wrote a "History
of Denmark," "Histories of the French Revolution and
of the English Revolution"; left an unfinished "History
of Frederick the Great" (1785-1860).
Dahn, Felix, a German jurist,
historian, novelist, and poet, born in Hamburg; a man of versatile
ability and extensive learning; became professor of German jurisprudence
at Königsberg; b. 1834.
Dahna Desert, the central
division of the Arabian Desert.
Dahomey (150), a negro kingdom
of undefined limits, and under French protectorate, in W. Africa,
N. of the Slave Coast; the religious rites of the natives are
sanguinary, they offer human victims in sacrifice; is an agricultural
country, yields palm-oil and gold dust, and once a great centre
of the slave-trade.
Daïri, the Mikado's palace
or his court, and sometimes the Mikado himself.
Dako`ta, North and South
(400), three times as large as England, forming two States of
the American Union; consist of prairie land, and extend N. from
Nebraska as far as Canada, traversed by the Missouri; yield
cereals, especially wheat, and raise cattle.
Dalai-Lama, chief priest
of Lamaism, reverenced as a living incarnation of deity, always
present on earth in him. See Lamaism.
Dalayrac, celebrated French
composer; author of a number of comic operas (1753-1809).
Dalberg, Baron de, an
eminent member of a noble German family; trained for the Church;
was a prince-bishop; a highly cultured man, held in high esteem
in the Weimar Court circles, and a friend of Goethe and Schiller;
an ecclesiastic, as one might suppose, only in name (1744-1817).
Dalberg, Duc de, nephew
of the preceding; contributed to political changes in France
in 1814, and accompanied Talleyrand to the Congress of Vienna
D'Albret, Jeanne, queen
of Navarre, and mother of Henry IV. of France; came to Paris
to treat about the marriage of her son to Charles IX.'s sister;
died suddenly, not without suspicion of foul-play, after signing
the treaty; she was a Protestant (1528-1572).
D'Alembert, a French philosopher,
devoted to science, and especially to mathematics; along with
Diderot established the celebrated "Encyclopédie,"
wrote the Preliminary Discourse, and contributed largely to
its columns, editing the mathematical portion of it; trained
to quiet and frugality, was indifferent to wealth and honour,
and a very saint of science; no earthly bribe could tear him
away from his chosen path of life (1717-1783).
Dalgarno, Lord, a heartless
profligate in the "Fortunes of Nigel."
Dalgetty, Dugald, a swaggering
soldier of fortune in the "Legend of Montrose," who
let out his services to the highest bidder.
James Andrew Broun-Ramsay, Marquis of, Governor-General
of India, third son of the ninth Earl; as Lord Ramsay served
in Parliament as member for Haddingtonshire; on his father's
death in 1838 entered the House of Lords; held office under
Sir Robert Peel and Lord Russell; went to India as Governor-General
in 1848; ruled vigorously, annexed territory, developed the
resources of the country, projected and carried out important
measures for its welfare; his health, however, gave way at the
end of eight years, and he came home to receive the thanks of
the Parliament, elevation in the peerage,
and other honours, but really to end his days in pain and
prostration; dying without male issue, he was succeeded in the
earldom by Fox Maule, Lord Panmure (1812-1860).
Dalkeith (7), a grain-market
town in Midlothian, 6 m. SE. of Edinburgh, with a palace adjoining,
a seat of the Duke of Buccleuch.
Dallas, George Mifflin,
an American diplomatist, born in Philadelphia; represented the
United States as ambassador at St. Petersburg and at London,
and was from 1844 to 1849 Vice-President (1792-1864).
Dalmatia (527), a crownland
of Austria, lying along the NE. coast of the Adriatic, and bounded
on the land side by Croatia, Bosnia, and Herzegovina; half the
land is pasture, only one-ninth of it arable, which yields cereals,
wine, oil, honey, and fruit.
Dalri`ads, a Celtic race who
came over from Ireland to Argyllshire, and established a kingdom
in the SW. of Scotland, till King Kenneth Macalpin succeeded
in 843, who obtained rule both over it and the northern kingdom
of the Picts, and became the first king of Scotland.
hydrographer to the Admiralty and the East India Company, born
at New Hailes, and brother of Lord Hailes; produced many good
Dalton, John, chemist and
physicist, born near Cockermouth, of a Quaker family; took early
an interest in meteorology, and kept through life a record of
meteorological observations; taught mathematics and physics
in Manchester; made his first appearance as an author in 1793
in a volume of his observations and essays, and in 1808 published "A
New System of Chemical Philosophy," which he finished in
1810; famous for his experiments on the elastic force of steam,
for his researches on the proportional weights of simple bodies,
for his discovery of the atomic theory, as also for his investigations
on colour-blindness by experimenting on himself and his brother,
who along with himself was colour-blind (1766-1844).
v.). See Dalton, John.
Dalziel, Thomas, general,
born in Linlithgowshire; being hand-idle at home, entered the
Russian service against the Turks; returning at the request
of Charles II., was appointed commander-in-chief in Scotland;
suppressed a rising of the Covenanters at Pentland in 1666;
never once shaved his beard after the execution of Charles I.
Daman, a Portuguese settlement
with a port of the same name in Gujarat, India, 100 m. N. of
Dam`araland, a territory
on the W. coast of South Africa, N. of Namaqualand; the chief
industry is pastoral; the mountain districts, which are rich
in minerals, particularly copper, are inhabited by Damaras,
who are nomads and cattle-rearers; it is a German protectorate
Damas, Colonel Comte de,
a devoted adherent of Louis XVI., and one of his convoys on
his attempt at flight.
Damascus (220), the capital
of Syria, one of the oldest cities in the world; stands 2260
ft. above the sea-level; is a great centre of the caravan trade;
is embosomed in the midst of gardens and orchards, hence its
appearance as the traveller approaches it is most striking;
its history goes as far back as the days of Abraham; it was
the scene of two great events in human destiny—the conversion
of St. Paul, and, according to Moslem tradition, a great decisive
moment in the life of Mahomet, when he resolutely turned his
back once for all on the pleasures of the world.
Damasus, St., Pope from 366
to 384, a Spaniard; a zealous opponent of the Arians and a friend
of St. Jerome, who, under his sanction, executed his translation
of the Bible into the Vulgate; there was a Damasus II., Pope
Dame aux Camélias,
La, a romance and a drama by Alexander Dumas fils,
one of his best creations.
Damien, Father, a French
priest, born at Louvain; devoted his life to nurse and instruct
the lepers in an island of the Hawaian group, and, though after
12 years infected with the disease himself, continued to minister
to them till his death (1841-1889).
Damiens, Robert François,
the would-be assassin of Louis XV., born near Arras; aimed at
the king as he was entering his carriage at Trianon, but failed
to wound him mortally; was mercilessly tortured to death; was
known before as Robert le Diable; his motive for the
act was never known (1715-1757).
Damietta (36), a town, the
third largest, in Egypt, on an eastern branch of the Nile, 8
m. from its mouth; has a trade in grain, rice, hides, fish, &c.;
was taken by St. Louis in 1249, and restored on payment of his
ransom from captivity.
Damocles, a flatterer at the
court of the elder Dionysius, tyrant of Syracuse, whom, after
one day extravagantly extolling the happiness of kings, Dionysius
set down to a magnificent banquet, but who, when seated at it,
looked up and saw a sword hanging over his head suspended by
a single hair; a lesson this which admonished him, and led him
to change his views of the happiness of kings.
Damon and Pythias, two
Pythagoreans of Syracuse of the days of Dionysius I., celebrated
for their friendship; upon the latter having been condemned
to death, and having got leave to go home to arrange his affairs
beforehand, the former pledged his life for his return, when
just as, according to his promise, he presented himself at the
place of execution, Pythias turned up and prepared to put his
head on the block; this behaviour struck the tyrant with such
admiration, that he not only extended pardon to the offender,
but took them both into his friendship.
Dampier, William, an
English navigator and buccaneer; led a roving and adventurous
life, and parting company with his comrades, set off on a cruise
in the South Seas; came home and published a "Voyage Round
the World"; this led to his employment in further adventures,
in one of which Alexander Selkirk accompanied him, but was wrecked
on Juan Fernandez; in his last adventure, it is said, he rescued
Selkirk and brought him home (1652-1715).
Dana, Charles Anderson,
American journalist, member of Brook
Farm (q. v.), and became editor of the New York
Tribune, the Sun, and a cyclopædia: b.
Dana, James Dwight,
American mineralogist and geologist, born at Utica, New York
State; was associated as scientific observer with Commodore
Wilkes on his Arctic and Antarctic exploring expeditions, on
the results of which he reported; became geological professor
in Yale College; author of works on mineralogy and geology,
as also on South Sea volcanoes (1813-1895).
Dana, Richard Henry,
an American poet and critic; editor of the North American
Review, author of the "Dying Raven," the "Buccaneer,"
and other poems (1787-1879).
Dana, Richard Henry,
a son of the preceding, lawyer; author of "Two Years before
the Mast" (1815-1882).
Danaë, daughter of Acrisius,
king of Argos, confined by her father in an inaccessible tower
of brass to prevent the fulfilment of an oracle that she should
be the mother of a son who would kill him, but Zeus found access
to her in the form of a shower of gold, and she became the mother
of Perseus, by whose hand Acrisius met his fate. See
Dana`ides, daughters of Danaüs,
who, for murdering their husbands on the night after marriage,
were doomed in the nether world to the impossible task of filling
with water a vessel pierced with holes. See
Danaüs, son of Belus, and
twin-brother of Ægyptus, whom fearing, he fled from with
his fifty daughters to Argos, where he was chosen king; by-and-by
the fifty sons of Ægyptus, his brother, came to Argos
to woo, and were wedded to, their cousins, whom their father
provided each with a dagger to murder her husband, which they
did, all except Hypermnestra, whose husband, Lynceus, escaping,
succeeded her father as king, to the defeat of the old man's
purpose in the crime.
Danby, Francis, painter,
born near Wexford; settled for a time in Bristol, then in Switzerland,
and finally at Exmouth; his works are mostly landscape, instinct
with feeling, but some of them are historical, the subjects
being taken from Scripture, as the "Passage of the Red
Sea," or from pagan sources, as "Marius among the
Ruins of Carthage" (1793-1861).
Dance, George, English architect;
was architect to the City of London, and designed the Mansion
House, his chief work (1700-1768). George, his son, built
Newgate Prison (1740-1825).
Dance of Death, an allegorical
representation in a dramatic or pictorial form of Death, figuring,
originally as a skeleton, and performing his part as a chief
actor all through the drama of life, and often amid the gayest
scenes of it; a succession of woodcuts by Holbein in representation
of this dance is well known.
Dancing Mania, an epidemic
of frequent occurrence, especially in German towns, during the
Middle Ages, of the nature of hysteria, showing itself in convulsive
movements beyond the control of the will, and in delirious acts,
sometimes violently suicidal; the most signal occurrence of
the mania was at Aix-la-Chapelle in July 1374.
Dancourt, Florent Carton,
French dramatist, a prolific author; a favourite of Louis XIV.;
wrote comedies, chiefly on the follies of the middle classes
of the time (1661-1725).
Dandie Dinmont, a humorous,
jovial store-farmer in "Guy Mannering."
Dandin, George, one of
Molière's comedies, illustrative of the folly a man commits
when he marries a woman of higher rank than his own, George
being his impersonation of a husband who has patiently to endure
all the extravagant whims and fancies of his dame of a wife.
Dandin, Perrin, a simple
citizen in the "Pantagruel" of Rabelais, who seats
himself judge-wise on the first stump that offers, and passes
offhand a sentence in any matter of litigation; a character
who figures similarly in a comedy of Racine's, and in a fable
of La Fontaine's.
Dan`dolo, a Venetian family
that furnished four Doges to the Republic, Enrico being
the most illustrious; chosen Doge in his eighty-fourth year,
assisted the Crusaders of the Fourth Crusade with ships; joined
them, when blind and aged 90, in laying siege to Constantinople;
led the attack by sea, and was the first to leap ashore; was
offered the imperial crown, but declined it; died instead "despot"
of Roumania in 1205, at 97.
Danegelt, originally a tax
imposed on land to buy off the Danes from the shores of England,
and subsequently for other objects, such as the defence of the
coast; abolished by Henry II., though re-imposed subsequently
under other names.
Danelagh, a district in the
E. of England, N. of the Thames; dominated at one time more
or less by the Danes; of vague extent.
Dangeau, Marquis, author
of "Memoirs" affecting the court of Louis XIV. and
its manners (1638-1720).
daughter of Louis XVI. and Marie Antoinette; was released from
restraint after the execution of her parents in exchange for
prisoners in the Royalist's hands; fled to Vienna, where she
was driven forth; married her cousin, to whom she was early
betrothed; could find no place of safe refuge but in England;
returned to France on Napoleon's exile to Elba, and headed a
body of troops against him on his return; after Waterloo, returned
to France and stayed till July 1830, and lived to see Louis
Philippe, in 1848, driven from the throne; Napoleon called her "the
only man of her family"; left "Memoirs" (1778-1851).
Dangs, The, a forest district
in the N. of the Presidency of Bombay, occupied by fifteen wild
tribes, each under a chief.
Daniel, a Hebrew of fine physique
and rare endowment, who was, while but a youth, carried captive
to Babylon, and trained for office in the court of the king;
was found, after three years' discipline, to excel "in
wisdom and understanding" all the magicians and enchanters
of the realm, of which he gave such proof that he rose step
by step to the highest official positions, first in the Babylonian
and then in the Persian empire. He was a Hebrew prophet of a
new type, for whereas the old prophet had, for the most part,
more regard to the immediate present and its outlooks, his eye
reached forth into the future and foresaw in vision, as his
book has foretold in symbol, the fulfilment of the hope for
which the fathers of his race had lived and died.
Daniel, Samuel, English
poet, born near Taunton; wrote dramas and sonnets; his principal
production a "History of the Civil Wars" of York and
Lancaster, a poem in seven books; is called the "Well-Englished
Daniel," and is much admired for his style; in prose he
wrote a "History of England," and a "Defence
of Rhyme," which Swinburne pronounces to be "one of
the most perfect examples of sound sense, of pure style, and
of just judgment in the literature of criticism"; he is
associated with Warner and Drayton as having given birth to "a
poetry which has devoted itself to extol the glory of England"
Daniell, John Frederick,
a distinguished chemist, born in London; professor of Chemistry
in King's College, London; wrote "Meteorological Essays,"
and "Introduction to Chemical Philosophy"; invented
a hygrometer and an electric battery (1790-1845).
Daniell, William, an
eminent draughtsman; spent his early life in India; author of "Oriental
Scenery," in six folio vols. (1769-1837).
Danites, or Destroying Angels,
a band of Mormons organised to prevent the entrance into Mormon
territory of other than Mormon immigrants, but whose leader,
for a massacre they perpetrated, was in 1827 convicted and shot.
Heinrich von, a distinguished German sculptor, born
near Stuttgart, and educated by the Duke of Würtemberg,
who had become his patron; became professor of Sculpture in
the Academy at Stuttgart; his earlier subjects were from the
Greek mythology, and his later Christian, the principal of the
latter being a colossal "Christ," which he took eight
years to complete; he executed besides busts of contemporaries,
which are wonderful in expression, such as those of Schiller,
Lavater, and Glück; "Ariadne on the Panther"
is regarded as his masterpiece (1758-1841).
Dante Alighieri, the great poet
of Italy, "the voice of ten silent centuries," born
in Florence; was of noble birth; showed early a great passion
for learning; learned all that the schools and universities
of the time could teach him "better than most"; fought
as a soldier; did service as a citizen; at thirty-five filled
the office of chief magistrate of Florence; had, while but a
boy of ten, "met a certain Beatrice Portinari, a beautiful
girl of his own age and rank, and had grown up in partial sight
of her, in some distant intercourse with her," who became
to him the ideal of all that was pure and noble and good; "made
a great figure in his poem and a great figure in his life";
she died in 1290; he married another, "not happily, far
from happily; in some civic Guelf-Ghibelline strife he was expelled
the city, and his property confiscated; tried hard to recover
it, even 'with arms in his hand,' but could not, and was doomed,
'whenever caught, to be burned alive'; invited to confess his
guilt and return, he sternly answered: 'If I cannot return without
calling myself guilty, I will never return.'" From this
moment he was without home in this world; and "the great
soul of Dante, homeless on earth, made its home more and more
in that awful other world ... over which, this time-world, with
its Florences and banishments, flutters as an unreal shadow."
Dante's heart, long filled with this, brooding over it in speechless
thought and awe, bursts forth at length into "mystic unfathomable
song," and this, his "Divine
Comedy" (q. v.), the most remarkable of all
modern Books, is the result. He died after finishing it, not
yet very old, at the age of 56. He lies buried in his death-city
Ravenna, "shutout from my native shores." The Florentines
begged back his body in a century after; the Ravenna people
would not give it (1265-1321). See
Carlyle's "Heroes and Hero-Worship," and Dean
Danton, Georges Jacques, "The
Titan of the Forlorn Hope" of the French Revolution, born
at Arcis-sur-Aube, "of good farmer people ... a huge, brawny,
black-browed man, with a waste energy as of a Hercules";
an advocate by profession, "esurient, but with nothing
to do; found Paris and his country in revolt, rose to the front
of the strife; resolved to do or die"; the cause threatened,
he threw himself again and again into the breach defiant, his
motto "to dare, and to dare, and again to dare," so
as to put and keep the enemy in fear; "Let my name be blighted,"
he said, "what am I? The cause alone is great, and will
live and not perish"; but the "Sea-green"
(q. v.) viewed him with jealousy, held him suspect, had
him arrested, brought before the Revolutionary Tribunal, the
severity of whose proceedings under him he had condemned, and
sentenced to the guillotine; a reflection of his in prison has
been recorded: "Oh, it were better to be a poor fisherman
than to meddle with governing of men." "No weakness,
Danton," he said to himself on the scaffold, as his heart
began to sink within him as he thought of his wife. His last
words were to Samson the headsman: "Thou wilt show my head
to the people, it is worth showing"; words worthy of the
brother of Mirabeau, who died saying, "I wish I could leave
my head behind me, France needs it just now"; a man fiery-real,
as has been said, genuine to the core, with many sins, yet lacking
that greatest of sins, cant. "He was," says Mr. Belloc, "the
most French, the most national, the nearest to the mother of
all the Revolutionary group. He summed up France ... when we
study him, we see France" (1759-1794). See
Carlyle's "French Revolution."
Dantzig (116), the capital of
W. Prussia, once a Hanse town, on the Vistula, 4 m. from the
mouth; one of the great ports and trading centres of Germany
and in the N. of Europe; it is traversed by canals, and many
of the houses are built on piles of wood; exports grain brought
down the river on timber rafts from the great grain country
in the S.; it is one of the chief stations of the German navy.
Danube, The, the great south-eastward-flowing
river of Europe, 1750 m. in length, rises in the Black Forest,
and is divided into Upper, Middle, and Lower; the Upper extends
as far as Pressburg, begins to be navigable to Ulm, flows NE.
as far as Ratisbon, and then bends SE. past Vienna; the Middle
extends from Pressburg to the Iron Gate, enclosing between its
gorges a series of rapids, below Orsova; and the Lower extends
from the Iron Gate to the Black Sea. It receives numerous tributary
rivers, 60 of them navigable, in its course; forms with them
the great water highway of the SE. of Europe, and is of avail
for traffic to all the races and nations whose territories it
traverses; the navigation of the river is free indeed to all
Moldavia and Wallachia.
Danville, the name of several
towns in the United States.
D'Anville, geographer to the
king of France; left numerous valuable maps and geographical
Daphne (lit. a laurel),
a nymph chased by Apollo, transformed into a laurel as he attempts
to seize her; henceforth sacred to the god.
Daphnis, a Sicilian shepherd,
the mythical inventor of pastoral poetry.
Dapsang, the highest of the
D'Arblay, Madame, a distinguished
novelist, daughter of Dr. Burney, the historian of music; authoress
of "Evelina" and "Cecilia," the first novels
of the time, which brought her into connection with all her
literary contemporaries, Johnson in chief; left "Diary
and Letters" (1752-1840).
Darboy, Georges, archbishop
of Paris: was a defender of the Gallican liberties of the Church;
had been assiduous in offices of benevolence during the siege
of Paris; was arrested as a hostage by the Communists, and shot
Darby and Joan, a married
couple celebrated for their mutual attachment.
Plymouth Brethren (q.
v.), from the name of one of their founders, a man of scholarly
ability and culture, and the chief expounder of their views
Dardanelles, a strait extending
between the Archipelago and the Sea of Marmora, anciently called
the Hellespont, 40 m. long, from 1 to 4 broad; commanded by
Turkey, both sides of the strait being strongly fortified.
Dardanus, a son of Zeus and
Electra, mythical ancestor of the Trojans;
originally a king in Greece.
Darfur (500), a district in the
Egyptian Soudan, in which vegetation is for the most part dormant
all the year round, except from June to September, when it is
rank and rich; was snatched from Egypt by the Mahdi, but is
D'Argens, Marquis, born
at Aix; disinherited owing to his misconduct; turned author,
and became a protégé of Frederick the Great, but
lost caste with him too, and was deprived of his all once more
D'Argenson, Comte, an
eminent French statesman, head of the police in Paris; introduced
lettres de cachet, and was a patron of the French philosophes;
had the "Encyclopédie" dedicated to him; fell
out of favour at Court, and had to leave Paris, but returned
to die there (1696-1764).
Daric, a gold coin current in
ancient Persia, stamped with an archer kneeling, and weighing
little over a sovereign.
Darien, Gulf of, an inlet
of the Caribbean Sea, NW. of S. America. For isthmus of, see
Darien Scheme, a project
to plant a colony on the Atlantic side of the Isthmus, which
was so far carried out that some 1200 left Scotland in 1698
to establish it, but which ended in disaster, and created among
the Scotch, who were the chief sufferers, an animus against
the English, whom they blamed for the disaster, an animus which
did not for long die out.
Darius I., eldest son of Hystaspes,
king of the Persians; subdued subject places that had revolted,
reorganised the empire, carried his conquests as far as India,
subdued Thrace and Macedonia, declared war against the Athenians;
in 492 B.C. sent an expedition against Greece, which was wrecked
in a storm off Athos; sent a second, which succeeded in crossing
over, but was defeated in a famous battle at Marathon, 490 B.C.
Darius II., called Ochus
or Nothus, king of the Persians; subject to his eunuchs
and his wife Parysatis; his reign was a succession of insurrections;
he supported the Spartans against the Athenians, to the ascendency
of the former in the Peloponnesus; d. 405 B.C.
Darius III., surnamed Codomannus,
king of the Persians, a handsome man and a virtuous; could not
cope with Alexander of Macedon, but was defeated by him in successive
engagements at Granicus, Issus, and Arbela; was assassinated
on his flight by Bessus (q.
v.), one of his satraps, in 330 B.C.; with him the Persian
empire came to an end.
Darjeeling (14), a sanitary
station and health resort in the Lower Himalayas, and the administrative
head-quarters of the district, 7167 ft. above the level of the
sea; it has greatly increased of late years.
Darley, George, poet and
critic, born in Dublin; author of "Sylvia" and "Nepenthe";
wrote some good songs, among them "I've been Roaming,"
once very popular; much belauded by Coleridge; contributed to
the Athenæum (1795-1846).
Darling, a tributary of the
Murray River, in Australia, now stagnant, now flooded.
Darling, Grace, a young
maiden, daughter of the lighthouse keeper of one of the Farne
Islands, who with her father, amid great peril, saved the lives
of nine people from the wreck of the Forfarshire, on
Sept. 7, 1838; died of consumption (1815-1842).
Darlington (38), a town in
S. of Durham, on the Tees, with large iron and other works;
a considerable number of the inhabitants belong to the Society
Orientalist, born in Lorraine, of Jewish descent; a distinguished
Zend scholar and authority in Zend literature; in the interpretation
of the Zend and other ancient literatures was of the modern
critical school (1849-1894).
Darmstadt (55), the capital
of the grand-duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt, on the Darm, an affluent
of the Rhine, 15 m. S. of Frankfort; is divided into an old
and a new town; manufactures tobacco, paper, carpets, chemicals, &c.
Darnley, Henry Stuart,
Lord, eldest son of the Earl of Lennox and grand-nephew
of Henry VIII.; husband of Queen Mary; was murdered on Feb.
5, 1567, in Kirk-o'-Field, which stood on the site of the present
University of Edinburgh.
Dartmoor, moor in Devonshire,
a tableland of an average height of 1200 ft. above the sea-level,
and of upwards of 120,000 acres in extent, incapable of cultivation,
but affording pasturage for sheep, of which it breeds a small
hardy race; it has rich veins of minerals; abounds in British
remains, and contains a large convict prison.
Daru, Comte, a French administrator
and littérateur, born at Montpellier; translated Horace
when in prison during the Reign of Terror; served as administrator
under Napoleon; on the return of the Bourbons devoted himself
to letters, and wrote the "History of the Republic of Venice"
Darwin, Charles Robert, great
English naturalist and biologist, born at Shrewsbury, grandson
of Erasmus Darwin on his father's side, and of Josiah Wedgwood
on his mother's; studied at Edinburgh and Cambridge; in 1831
accompanied as naturalist without salary the Beagle in
her voyage of exploration in the Southern Seas, on the condition
that he should have the entire disposal of his collections,
all of which he got, and which he ultimately distributed among
various public institutions; he was absent from England for
five years, and on his return published in 1836 his "Naturalist's
Voyage Round the World," in 1839-43 accounts of the fruits
of his researches and observations in the departments of geology
and natural history during that voyage, in 1842 his treatise
on the "Structure and Distribution of Coral Reefs,"
and in 1859 his work on the "Origin of Species by Means
of Natural Selection," a work which has proved epoch-making
and gone far to revolutionise thought in the scientific study
of, especially, animated nature, and is being applied to higher
spheres of being; this work was followed by others more or less
confirmatory, finishing off with "The Descent of Man"
in 1871, in which he traces the human race to an extinct quadrumanous
animal related to that which produced the orang-outang, the
chimpanzee, and the gorilla. He may be said to have taken evolution
out of the region of pure imagination, and by giving it a basis
of fact, to have set it up as a reasonable working hypothesis.
Prof. A. R. Wallace claims for Darwin "that he is the Newton
of natural history, and has ... by his discovery of the law
of natural selection and his demonstration of the great principles
of the preservation of useful variations in the struggle for
life, not only thrown a flood of light on the process of development
of the whole organic world, but also established a firm foundation
for the future study of nature." He was buried in Westminster
Darwin, Erasmus, physician
and natural philosopher, born in Nottinghamshire; studied at
Cambridge and Edinburgh; practised medicine in Lichfield, and
finally settled in Derby; occupied his mind with the study of
fanciful analogies in the different spheres
of nature, and committed his views, often not without genuine
poetic sentiment and melody of expression, to verse, while in
the views themselves there have been recognised occasional glimpses
of true insight, and at times a foreshadow of the doctrine developed
on strict scientific lines by his illustrious grandson. His
chief poetic works were the "Botanic Garden" and the "Zoonomia;
or, The Laws of Organic Life," deemed, in the philosophy
of them, not unworthy of criticism by such sane thinkers as
Paley and Dugald Stewart (1731-1802).
Darwinian Theory, the
theory established by Darwin that the several species of plants
and animals now in existence were not created in their present
form, but have been evolved by natural law of descent, with
modifications of structure, from cruder forms. See
Darwin, C. R.
Dasent, Sir George Webbe,
Icelandic scholar, born at St. Vincent, West Indies; studied
at Oxford; from 1845 to 1870 was assistant-editor of the
Times; has translated "The Prose, or Younger, Edda"
and Norse tales and sagas; written also novels, and contributed
to reviews and magazines; b. 1817.
Dash, Countess, the
nom de plume of the Viscountess de Saint-Mars, a French
novelist, born at Poitiers; in straits for a living, took desperately
to writing; treated of aristocratic life and its hollow artificialities
and immoralities (1804-1872).
Dashkoff, a Russian princess
of note; played a part in the conspiracy which ended in the
elevation of Catharine II. to the throne; was a woman of culture;
founded the Russian Academy; projected and assisted in the compilation
of a Russian dictionary; died at Moscow (1744-1810).
Dates of Epoch-making
Events, the Ascendency in Athens of Pericles (445 B.C.);
the Fall of the Persian Empire (330 B.C.); the Death of Alexander
the Great (323 B.C.); the Reduction of Greece to a Roman province,
and the Ruin of Carthage (146 B.C.); the Battle of Actium (31
B.C.); Birth of Christ, 14th year of Augustus; Commencement
of the Middle Ages (395); Ruin of the Roman Empire by the Barbarians
(476); Clovis, ruler of Gaul (509); the Flight of Mahomet (622);
Charlemagne, Emperor of the West (800); Treaty of Verdun (843);
the Crusades (1096-1291); Employment of Cannon at Crécy
(1346); Invention of Printing (1436); Taking of Constantinople
by Mahomet II. (1453); Discovery of America by Columbus (1492);
Copernican System published (1500); Accession of Leo X. as Pope
(1513); the Reformation of Luther (1517); Publication of Bacon's "Novum
Organon" (1620); Publication of Descartes's "Discourse
on Method" (1637); the Peace of Westphalia (1648); Reign
of Louis XIV. at its Height, and Peace of Nimeguen (1678); Publication
of Newton's Theory of Gravitation (1682); Watt's Invention of
the Steam-Engine (1769); Independence of the United States (1776);
Coup d'état of 10th Brumaire (1799); Waterloo,
and Congress of Vienna (1815); Introduction of Railroads into
England (1830); First Attempt at Electric Telegraphy in France
(1837); Africa traversed by Livingstone (1852-1854); Publication
of Darwin's "Origin of Species" (1859); Opening of
the Suez Canal (1869); Proclamation of the German Empire (1871);
Congress of Berlin (1878).
Daubenton, Louis Jean
Marie, a French naturalist, born at Montbard; associated
with Buffon in the preparation of the first 15 vols. of his "Histoire
Naturelle," and helped him materially by the accuracy of
his knowledge, as well as his literary qualifications; contributed
largely to the "Encyclopédie," and was 50 years
curator of the Cabinet of Natural History at Paris (1716-1799).
Daubeny, Charles, English
chemist and botanist, author of "A Description of Active
and Extinct Volcanoes," an "Introduction to the Atomic
Theory," and other works, all like the latter more or less
related to chemistry (1795-1867).
a popular Church historian, born near Geneva; studied under
Neander at Berlin; became pastor at Hamburg, court-preacher
at Brussels, and professor of Church History at Geneva; his
reputation rests chiefly on his "History of the Reformation
in the Sixteenth Century" (1794-1872).
Agrippa, a historian, bred to the military profession;
held appointments under Henry IV., on whose assassination he
returned to Geneva, where he wrote his "Histoire Universelle,"
which had the honour to be burned by the common hangman in Paris;
was a satirical writer; grandfather to Mme. de Maintenon (1550-1630).
Daubigny, Charles François,
a French landscape painter and skilful etcher, born in Paris,
attained distinction as an artist late in life (1817-1878).
grand-master of the order of St. John of Jerusalem, of French
origin; served under the Emperor Sigismund against the Turks;
went to Rhodes; became a knight of St. John, and was chosen
grand-master; defended Rhodes against 100,000 Turks, and thus
stayed the career of Mahomet II., who, after establishing himself
in Constantinople, was threatening to overrun Europe (1423-1503).
Daudet, Alphonse, a noted
French novelist of great versatility, born at Nîmes, of
poor parents; early selected literature as his career in life;
wrote poems and plays, and contributed to the Figaro
and other journals; worked up into his novels characters and
situations that had come under his own observation, often in
too satirical a vein to become universally popular; has been
likened to Dickens in his choice of subjects and style of treatment;
died suddenly (1840-1897).
D'Aulnoy, the Countess,
authoress of charmingly-written "Contes des Fées"
(Fairy Tales), and on which her reputation rests (1650-1705).
Daumier, Henri, a French
caricaturist of great fertility and playfulness of genius, born
at Marseilles; became blind in his old age (1808-1879).
Daun, Karl, German theologian,
born at Cassel, professor at Heidelberg, sought to ground theology
on a philosophic basis, and found what he sought in the philosophy
of Hegel (1765-1836).
Daun, Leopold, Graf von,
an able Austrian general, born at Vienna; distinguished himself
by his prudence and valour in the Seven Years' War, gained a
victory over Frederick the Great at Kolin in 1757, and another
at Hochkirch in 1758; could prevail little or not at all against
Frederick afterwards as soon as Frederick saw through his tactics,
which he was not long in doing (1705-1766).
Dauphin, a name originally given
to the Seigneurs of the province of Dauphiné,
in allusion to the dolphin which several members of the family
wore as a badge, but in 1349 given to the heir-presumptive to
the crown of France, when Humbert II., dauphin of Vienne, ceded
Dauphiné to Philippe of Valois, on condition that the
eldest son of the king of France should assume the title, a
title which was abolished after the Revolution of 1830. The
word signifies dolphin in French.
Dauphiné, a SW. province
of France, of which the capital was Grenoble;
annexed to the French crown under Philippe II. in 1349.
Daurat, Jean, French scholar,
a member of the Pléiade
(q. v.), and who figures as one of the leading spirits
in the fraternity (1507-1588).
Davenant, Sir William,
an English playwright, born at Oxford, who succeeded Ben Jonson
as poet-laureate, and was for a time manager of Drury Lane;
was knighted by Charles I. for his zeal in the Royalist cause;
his theatrical enterprise had small success during the Commonwealth,
but interest in it revived with the Restoration, at which time "the
drama broke loose from the prison of Puritanism to indulge in
a shameless license" (1606-1668).
a French composer, born at Vaucluse; author, among other compositions,
of the "Desert," a production which achieved an instant
and complete triumph; was in his youth an ardent disciple of
St. Simon (1810-1876).
David, Gerhard, a Flemish
painter; painted religious subjects, several from the life of
David, King of Israel,
11th century B.C., born in Bethlehem; tended the flocks of his
father; slew Goliath with a stone and a sling; was anointed
by Samuel, succeeded Saul as king; conquered the Philistines;
set up his throne in Jerusalem, and reigned thirty-three years;
suffered much from his sons, and was succeeded by Solomon; the
book of Psalms was till recently accepted as wholly his by the
Church, but that hypothesis no longer stands the test of criticism.
David, Louis, a French historical
painter, born in Paris; studied in Rome and settled in Paris;
was carried away with the Revolution; joined the Jacobin Club,
swore eternal friendship with Robespierre; designed "a
statue of Nature with two mammelles spouting out water"
for the deputes to drink to, and another of the sovereign people, "high
as Salisbury steeple"; was sentenced to the guillotine,
but escaped out of regard for his merit as an artist; appointed
first painter by Napoleon, but on the Restoration was banished
and went to Brussels, where he died; among his paintings are "The
Oath of the Horatii," "The Rape of the Sabines," "The
Death of Socrates," and "The Coronation of Napoleon"
David d'Angers, a French
sculptor, born at Angers; came to Paris and became a pupil of
the preceding, afterwards proceeded to Rome and associated with
Canova; executed in Paris a statue of the Great Condé,
and thereafter the pediment of the Pantheon, his greatest work,
as well as numerous medallions of great men; on a visit to Weimar
he modelled a bust of Goethe (1788-1856).
David I., king of Scotland, youngest
son of Malcolm Canmore and Queen Margaret; was brought up at
the English court; was prince of Cumbria under the reign of
his brother Alexander, on whose decease he succeeded to the
throne in 1124; on making a raid in England to avenge an insult
offered to his son Henry, was defeated at Northallerton in the
Battle of the Standard; addressed himself after this to the
unification of the country and civilisation of his subjects;
founded and endowed bishoprics and abbeys at the expense of
the crown, on account of which he was called St. David, and
characterised by James VI., a successor of his, as a "sair
saunt to the croon"; the death of his son Henry was a great
grief to him, and shortened his days (1084-1153).
David II., king of Scotland,
son of King Robert the Bruce, born at Dunfermline; succeeded
his father when a boy of four; spent from 1334 to 1341 in France;
was taken prisoner by the English at the battle of Neville's
Cross, and was afterwards, till his death, dependent on England
David, St., or Dewi,
the patron saint of Wales, lived about the 5th century; archbishop
of Caerleon; transferred his see to St. David's; founded churches,
opposed Pelagianism, and influenced many by the odour of his
Davids, Rhys, professor of
Pâli and Buddhist literature, born in Colchester; author
of "Buddhism: a Sketch of the Life and Teachings of Gautama,
the Buddha," and of other works in that department of literature;
Davidson, Andrew Bruce,
Hebrew scholar and professor, born in Aberdeenshire; a most
faithful, clear, and effective interpreter of the spirit of
Hebrew literature, and influential for good as few men of the
time have been in matters of biblical criticism; b. 1831.
Davidson, John, poet and
journalist, born at Barrhead, Renfrewshire; has written novels
and plays as well as poems; b. 1859.
Davidson, Samuel, biblical
scholar and exegete, born near Ballymena; wrote Introductions
to the Old and the New Testaments; was pioneer in the higher
Davies, Ben, a popular tenor
vocalist, born near Swansea in 1858.
Davies, Sir John, poet
and statesman, born in Wiltshire; wrote two philosophic poems, "The
Orchestra," a poem in which the world is exhibited as a
dance, and "Nosce Teipsum" (Know Thyself), a poem
on human learning and the immortality of the soul; became a
favourite with James I., and was sent Attorney-General to Ireland
Davila, a celebrated historian,
born near Padua, brought up in France; served in the French
army under Henry IV.; did military and other service in Venice;
was assassinated; his great work "The History of the Civil
War in France" (1576-1631).
Davis, Jefferson, President
of the Confederate States, born in Kentucky; entered the army;
fought against the Indians; turned cotton-planter; entered Congress
as a Democrat; distinguished himself in the Mexican war; defended
slave-holding and the interests of slave-holding States; was
chosen President of the Confederate States; headed the conflict
with the North; fled on defeat, which he was the last to admit;
was arrested and imprisoned; released after two years; retired
into private life, and wrote a "History of the Rise and
Fall of the Confederate Government" (1808-1889).
Davis, John, an English navigator,
born near Dartmouth; took early to the sea; conducted (1585-1587)
three expeditions to the Arctic Seas in quest of a NW. passage
to India and China, as far N. as 73°; discovered the strait
which bears his name; sailed as pilot in two South Sea expeditions,
and was killed by Japanese pirates near Malacca; wrote the "Seaman's
Davis, Thomas, an Irish
patriot, born at Mallow; educated at Trinity College, Dublin,
and called to the Irish bar; took to journalism in the interest
of Irish nationality; founded the Nation newspaper, and
by his contributions to it did much to wake up the intelligence
of the country to national interests; died young; was the author
of "Songs of Ireland" and "Essays on Irish Songs"
Davis Strait, strait connecting
Baffin's Bay with the Atlantic, discovered by
John Davis (q. v.).
Davitt, Michael, a noted Irish
patriot, born in co. Mayo, son of a peasant, who, being evicted,
settled in Lancashire; joined the Fenian movement,
and was sentenced to 15 years' penal servitude; released on
ticket-of-leave after seven years; founded the Land League;
was for over a year imprisoned again for breaking his ticket-of-leave;
published in 1885 "Leaves from a Prison Diary"; entered
Parliament in 1895 for co. Mayo; b. 1846.
Davos-Platz, a village 5105
ft. above the sea-level, in a valley of the East Grisons; a
place frequented in winter by invalids suffering from chest
disease, the dry air and sunshine that prevail being favourable
for patients of that class.
Davout, Duke of Auerstädt,
Prince of Eckmühl, marshal of France, born at Annoux, in
Burgundy; was fellow-student with Napoleon at the military school
in Brienne; entered the army in 1788, served in the Revolutionary
wars under Dumouriez and Desaix, and became general; served
under Bonaparte in Egypt; distinguished himself at Austerlitz,
Auerstädt, Eckmühl, and Wagram; was made governor
of Hamburg; accompanied Napoleon to Moscow; returned to Hamburg,
and defended it during a siege; was made Minister of War in
1815, and assisted Napoleon in his preparations for the final
struggle at Waterloo; commanded the remains of the French army
which capitulated under the walls of Paris; adhered to the Bourbon
dynasty on its return, and was made a peer; was famous before
all the generals of Napoleon for his rigour in discipline (1770-1823).
Davy, Sir Humphry, a
great English chemist, born at Penzance; conceived early in
life a passion for the science in which he made so many discoveries;
made experiments on gases and the respiration of them, particularly
nitrous oxide and carbonic acid; discovered the function of
plants in decomposing the latter in the atmosphere, and the
metallic bases of alkalies and earths; proved chlorine to be
a simple substance and its affinity with iodine, which he discovered;
invented the safety-lamp, his best-known achievement; he held
appointments and lectured in connection with all these discoveries
and their applications, and received knighthood and numerous
other honours for his services; died at Geneva (1778-1829).
Davy Jones's Locker,
the sailors' familiar name for the sea as a place of safe-keeping,
though why called of Davy Jones is uncertain.
Davy-Lamp, a lamp encased
in gauze wire which, while it admits oxygen to feed the flame,
prevents communication between the flame and any combustible
or explosive gas outside.
Dawkins, William Boyd,
geologist and palæontologist, born in Montgomeryshire;
has written "Cave Hunting," "Early Man in Britain," &c.;
Dawson, George, a popular
lecturer, born in London; educated in Aberdeen and Glasgow;
bred for the ministry by the Baptist body, and pastor of a Baptist
church in Birmingham, but resigned the post for ministry in
a freer atmosphere; took to lecturing on a purely secular platform,
and was for thirty years the most popular lecturer of the day;
no course of lectures in any institute was deemed complete if
his name was not in the programme; did much to popularise the
views of Carlyle and Emerson (1821-1876).
Dawson, Sir John William,
geologist and naturalist, born in Pictou, Nova Scotia; studied
in Edinburgh; distinguished himself as a palæontologist;
published in 1872, "Story of the Earth and Man"; in
1877, "Origin of the World"; and recently, "Geology
and History"; called in question the Darwinian theory as
to the origin of species; b. 1820.
Day, John, an English dramatist,
contemporary of Ben Jonson; author of the "Parliament of
Bees," a comedy in which all the characters are bees.
Day, Thomas, an eccentric
philanthropist, born in London; author of "Sandford and
Merton"; he was a disciple of Rousseau; had many a ludicrous
adventure in quest of a model wife, and happily fell in with
one to his mind at last; was a slave-abolitionist and a parliamentary
Dayton (85), a prosperous town
in Ohio, U.S.; a great railway centre, with a court-house of
marble, after the Parthenon in Athens.
D'Azara, a Spanish naturalist,
born in Aragon; spent 20 years in South America; wrote a "Natural
History of the Quadrupeds in Paraguay" (1781-1811).
Dead Sea, called also the Salt
Sea and 'the Asphalt Lake, a sea in Palestine, formed by the
waters of the Jordan, 46 m. long, 10 m. broad, and in some parts
1300 ft. deep, while its surface is 1312 ft. below the level
of the Mediterranean, just as much as Jerusalem is above it;
has no outlet; its waters, owing to the great heat, evaporate
rapidly, and are intensely salt; it is enclosed E. and W. by
steep mountains, which often rise to a height of 6000 ft.
Deák, Francis, an
eminent Hungarian statesman, born at Kehida, of an ancient noble
Magyar family; his aim for Hungary was the same as that of
Cavour (q. v.) for Italy,
the establishment of constitutional government, and he succeeded;
standing all along as he did from Hungarian republicanism on
the one hand, and Austrian tyranny on the other, he urged on
the Emperor of Austria the demand of the Diet, of which he had
become leader, at first without effect, but after the humiliation
of Austria in 1866, all that he asked for was conceded, and
the Austrian Emperor received the Hungarian crown (1803-1876).
Deal (9), a town, one of the old
Cinque ports, oil the E. of Kent, opposite the Goodwin Sands,
89 m. from London, with a fine sea-beach; much resorted to for
Dean, Forest of, a forest
of 22,000 acres in the W. of Gloucestershire, between the Severn
and the Wye; the property of the Crown for the most part; the
inhabitants are chiefly miners, who at one time enjoyed special
Dean of Guild, a burgh magistrate
in Scotland who has the care of buildings, originally the head
of the Guild brethren of the town.
Dean of St. Patrick's,
Jonathan Swift, who held that post from 1713 till his death.
Deans, Davie, Effie,
and Jeanie, characters in the "Heart of Midlothian."
Débats, Journal des,
a daily paper, established in 1789; it defends at present the
Conservative Republican policy, and publishes often remarkable
Debenture, a deed acknowledging
a debt on a specified security.
Debo`rah, a Hebrew prophetess;
reckoned one of the judges of Israel by her enthusiasm to free
her people from the yoke of the Canaanites; celebrated for her
song of exultation over their defeat, instinct at once with
pious devotion and with revengeful feeling; Coleridge calls
her "this Hebrew Boadicea."
Debreczen (56), a Hungarian
town, 130 m. E. of Buda-Pesth; is the head-quarters of Protestantism
in the country, and has an amply equipped
and a largely attended Protestant College; is a seat of
manufactures and a large trade.
Decameron, a collection of
a hundred tales, conceived of as rehearsed in ten days at a
country-house during the plague at Florence; are of a licentious
character, but exquisitely told; were written by Boccaccio;
published in 1352; the name comes from deka, ten, and
hemera, a day.
Decamps, Alexandra Gabriel,
a distinguished French painter, born in Paris; brought up as
a boy among the peasants of Picardy; represented nature as he
in his own way saw it himself, and visited Switzerland and the
East, where he found materials for original and powerful pictures;
his pictures since his death have brought great prices (1803-1860).
De Candolle, Augustin Pyrame,
an eminent botanist, born at Geneva, of Huguenot descent; studied
in Paris; attracted the attention of Cuvier and Lamarck, whom
he assisted in their researches; published his "Flore Française,"
in six vols.; became professor at Montpellier, and then at Geneva;
is the historical successor of Jussieu; his great contribution
to botanical science is connected with the classification of
Deca`tur, Stephen, an
American naval commodore; distinguished for his feats of valour
displayed in the war with Tripoli and with England (1779-1820).
Deccan, a triangular plateau
of from 2000 to 3000 ft. of elevation in the Indian peninsula,
extending S. of the Vindhya Mountains; is densely peopled, and
contains some of the richest soil in the globe.
December, the twelfth month
of the year, so called, i. e. tenth, by the Romans, as
their year began with March.
Dec`emvirs, the patricians
of Rome, with Consular powers, appointed in 450 B.C. to prepare
a code of laws for the Republic, which, after being agreed upon,
were committed first to ten, then to twelve tables, and set
up in the Forum that all might read and know the law they lived
Decius, Roman emperor from 249
to 251; was a cruel persecutor of the Christians; perished in
a morass fighting with the Goths, who were a constant thorn
in his side all through his reign.
Decius Mus, the name of three
Romans, father, son, and grandson, who on separate critical
emergencies (340, 295, 279 B.C.) devoted themselves in sacrifice
to the infernal gods in order to secure victory to the Roman
arms; the name is mostly employed ironically.
Decline and Fall
of the Roman Empire, the immortal work of Gibbon, of
which the first volume was published in 1776.
Decretals, The, a collection
of laws added to the canon law of the Church of Rome, being
judicial replies of the Popes to cases submitted to them from
time to time for adjudication.
Dee, John, an alchemist, born
in London; a man of curious learning; earned the reputation
of being a sorcerer; was imprisoned at one time, and mobbed
at another, under this imputation; died in poverty; left 79
works, the majority of which were never printed, though still
extant in MS. in the British Museum and other places of safe-keeping
Defauconpret, French littérateur;
translator of the novels of Sir Walter Scott and Fenimore Cooper
Defender of the Faith,
a title conferred by Pope Leo X. in 1521 upon Henry VIII. for
his defence of the Catholic faith in a treatise against Luther,
and retained ever since by the sovereigns of England, though
revoked by Pope Paul III. in 1535 in consequence of Henry's
Deffand, Marie, Marquise du,
a woman of society, famed for her wit and gallantry; corresponded
with the eminent philosophes of the time, in particular Voltaire,
as well as with Horace Walpole; her letters are specially brilliant,
and display great shrewdness; she is characterised by Prof.
Saintsbury as "the typical French lady of the eighteenth
century"; she became blind in 1753, but retained her relish
for society, though at length she entered a monastery, where
she died (1697-1780).
Defoe, Daniel, author of "Robinson
Crusoe," born in London; bred for the Dissenting ministry;
turned to business, but took chiefly to politics; was a zealous
supporter of William III.; his ironical treatise, "The
Shortest Way with Dissenters" (1703), which, treated seriously,
was burned by order of the House of Commons, led to his imprisonment
and exposed him for three days to the pillory, amidst the cheers,
however, not the jeers, of the mob; in prison wrote a "Hymn
to the Pillory," and started his Review; on his
release he was employed on political missions, and wrote a "History
of the Union," which he contributed to promote. The closing
years of his life were occupied mainly with literary work, and
it was then, in 1719, he produced his world-famous "Robinson
Crusoe"; has been described as "master of the art
of forging a story and imposing it on the world for truth." "His
circumstantial invention," as Stopford Brooke remarks, "combined
with a style which exactly fits it by its simplicity, is the
root of the charm of his great story" (1661-1731).
Dege`rando, Baron, a
French philanthropist and philosopher, born at Lyons, of Italian
descent; wrote "History of Philosophy," long in repute
as the best French work on the subject (1772-1842).
Deianeira, the wife of Hercules,
whose death she had been the unwitting cause of by giving him
the poisoned robe which Nessus
(q. v.) had sent her as potent to preserve her husband's
love; on hearing the fatal result she killed herself in remorse
Deiphobus, a son of Priam
and Hecuba, second in bravery to Hector; married Helen after
the death of Paris, and was betrayed by her to the Greeks.
Deir-al-Kamar, a town
in Syria, once the capital of the Druses, on a terrace in the
heart of the Lebanon Mountains.
Deism, belief on purely rational
grounds in the existence of God, and distinguished from theism
as denying His providence.
Deists, a set of free-thinkers
of various shades, who in England, in the 17th and 18th centuries,
discarded revelation and the supernatural generally, and sought
to found religion on a purely rational basis.
a celebrated French actress, born in Paris; made her début
at five years of age (1797-1875).
Dekker, Thomas, a dramatist,
born in London; was contemporary of Ben Jonson, between whom
and him, though they formerly worked together, a bitter animosity
arose; wrote lyrics as well as dramas, which are light comedies,
and prose as well as poetry; the most famous among his prose
works, "The Gull's Hornbook," a pamphlet, in which
he depicts the life of a young gallant; his pamphlets are valuable
De la Beche, Sir Henry
Thomas, geologist, born in London; wrote the "Depth
and Temperature of the Lake of Geneva," and published a "Manual
of Geology" and the "Geological Observer";
was appointed head of the Geological Survey in England (1796-1855).
a French painter, born at Charenton, dep. of Seine; one of the
greatest French painters of the 19th century; was the head of
the French Romantic school, a brilliant colourist and a daring
innovator; his very first success, "Dante crossing Acheron
in Charon's Boat," forms an epoch in the history of contemporary
art; besides his pictures, which were numerous, he executed
decorations and produced lithographic illustrations of "Hamlet," "Macbeth,"
and Goethe's "Faust" (1799-1863).
Delagoa Bay, an inlet in
the SE. of Africa, E. of the Transvaal, subject to Portugal;
stretches from 25° 30' to 26° 20' S.; extends 52 m.
inland, where the Transvaal frontier begins, and between which
and it a railway of 52 m., constructed by an English company,
Delaistre, a French statuary,
born in Paris (1836-1891).
Delambre, Jean Joseph,
an eminent French astronomer, born at Amiens, a pupil of Lalande;
measured with Méchain the arc of the meridian between
Dunkirk and Barcelona towards the establishment of the metric
system; produced numerous works of great value, among others "Theoretical
and Practical Astronomy" and the "History of Astronomy"
Delane, John Thadeus,
editor of the Times, born in London; studied at Oxford;
after some experience as a reporter was put on the staff of
the Times, and in 1841 became editor, a post he continued
to hold for 36 years; was the inspiring and guiding spirit of
the paper, but wrote none of the articles (1817-1879).
Delaroche, Paul, a French
historical painter and one of the greatest, born in Paris; was
the head of the modern Eclectic school, so called as holding
a middle place between the Classical and Romantic schools of
art; among his early works were "St. Vincent de Paul preaching
before Louis XIII." and "Joan of Arc before Cardinal
Beaufort"; the subjects of his latest pictures are from
history, English and French, such as "The Princes in the
Tower" and "Cromwell contemplating the corpse of Charles
I.," a great work; but the grandest monument of his art
is the group of paintings with which he adorned the wall of
the semicircle of the Palais des Beaux Arts in Paris, which
he completed in 1841 (1797-1856).
Delaunay, Le Vicomte,
the nom de plume of Mme. Delphine, under which she published
her "Parisian Letters."
Delaunay, Louis Arsène,
a great French actor, born in Paris; made his début
in 1846, retired 1887.
a popular French lyric poet and dramatist, born at Havre; his
verse was conventional and without originality (1793-1843).
Delaware (168), one of the
Atlantic and original States of the American Union, as well
as the smallest of them; the soil is rather poor, but porcelain
French Minister of Foreign Affairs, born at Pamiers; began life
as a journalist; was elected to the Chamber in 1889; became
Colonial Minister; advocated colonial expansion; dealt skilfully
with the Fashoda affair as Foreign Minister; b. 1852.
mountains covered with sheep in the "Pilgrim's Progress,"
from which the pilgrim obtains a view of the Celestial City.
Delescluze, a French Communist,
born at Dreux; was imprisoned and transported for his extreme
opinions; started a journal, the Rèveil, in 1868,
to advocate the doctrines of the International; was mainly answerable
for the atrocities of the Paris Commune; was killed in the barricades
Delft (27), a Dutch town, S m.
NW. of Rotterdam, once famous for its pottery; is intersected
by canals; has an important polytechnic school.
Delgado, a cape of E. Africa,
on the border between Zanzibar and Mozambique.
Delhi (192), on the right bank
of the Jumna, once the capital of the Mogul empire and the centre
of the Mohammedan power in India; it is a great centre of trade,
and is situated in the heart of India; it contains the famous
palace of Shah Jahan, and the Jama Masjid, which occupies the
heart of the city, and is the largest and finest mosque in India,
which owes its origin to Shah Jahan; it is walled, is 51 m.
in circumference, and divided into Hindu, Mohammedan, and European
quarters; it was captured by Lord Lake in 1803, and during the
Mutiny by the Sepoys, but after a siege of seven days retaken
Delight of Mankind,
the Roman Emperor Trajan.
Delilah, the Philistine woman
who beguiled and betrayed Samson.
Delille, Jacques, a French
poet, born at Aigues Perse, in Auvergne; translator of the "Georgics"
of Virgil into verse, afterwards the "Æneid"
and "Paradise Lost," besides producing also certain
didactic and descriptive works; was a good versifier, but properly
no poet, and much overrated; died blind (1738-1813).
Delitzsch, Franz, a learned
biblical scholar and exegete, born at Leipzig; his commentaries,
which are numerous, were of a conservative tendency; he wrote
on Jewish antiquities, biblical psychology, and Christian apologetics;
was professor at Erlangen and Leipzig successively, where his
influence on the students was distinctly marked (1813-1899).
Delius, Nicolaus, a German
philologist, born at Bremen; distinguished especially as a student
of Shakespeare and for his edition of Shakespeare's works, which
is of transcendent merit (1813-1888).
Delia Cruscans, a set
of English sentimental poetasters, the leaders of them hailing
from Florence, that appeared in England towards the close of
the 18th century, and that for a time imposed on many by their
extravagant panegyrics of one another, the founder of the set
being one Robert Merry, who signed himself Della Crusca;
he first announced himself by a sonnet to Love, in praise of
which Anne Matilda wrote an incomparable piece of nonsense; "this
epidemic spread for a term from fool to fool," but was
soon exposed and laughed out of existence.
Dellys (3), a seaport in Algeria,
49 m. E. of Algiers.
Delolme, John Louis,
a writer on State polity, born at Geneva, bred to the legal
profession; spent some six years in England as a refugee; wrote
a book on the "Constitution of England," and in praise
of it, which was received for a time with high favour in the
country, but is now no longer regarded as an authority; wrote
a "History of the Flagellants," and on "The Union
of Scotland with England" (1740-1806).
Delorme, a French architect,
born at Lyons; studied in Rome; was patronised by Catherine
de Medici; built the palace of the Tuileries, and contributed
to the art of building (1518-1577).
Delorme, Marion, a Frenchwoman
celebrated for her wit and fascination, born at Châlons-sur-Marne;
came to Paris in the reign of Louis XIII., where her drawing-room
became the rendezvous of all the celebrities
of the time, many of whom were bewitched by her charms; she
gave harbour to the chiefs of the Fronde, and was about to be
arrested when she died; the story that her death was a feint,
and that she had subsequent adventures, is distrusted; she is
the subject of a drama by Victor Hugo (1612-1650).
Delos, the smallest and central
island of the Cyclades, the birthplace of Apollo and Artemis,
and where the former had a famous oracle; it was, according
to the Greek mythology, a floating island, and was first fixed
to the spot by Zeus to provide Leda with a place, denied her
elsewhere by Hera, in which to bring forth her twin offspring;
it was at one time a centre of Apollo worship, but is now uninhabited,
and only frequented at times by shepherds with their flocks.
Delphi, a town of ancient Greece
in Phocis, at the foot of Parnassus, where Apollo had a temple,
and whence he was wont to issue his oracles by the mouth of
his priestess the Pythia, who when receiving the oracle used
to sit on a tripod over an opening in the ground through which
an intoxicating vapour exhaled, deemed the breath of the god,
and that proved the vehicle of her inspiration; the Pythian
games were celebrated here.
Delphin Classics, an
edition of the Greek and Roman classics, edited by Bossuet and
Huet, assisted by thirty-nine scholars, for the use of the dauphin
of Louis XIV.; of little use now.
Delphine, a novel by Mme. de
Staël; presumed to be an idealised picture of herself.
Delta, the signature of D. Macbeth
Moir in Blackwood's Magazine.
Deluc, Jean André,
geologist, born in Geneva; lived in England; was reader to Queen
Charlotte, and author of several works (1727-1817).
Deluge, name given to the tradition,
common to several races, of a flood of such universality as
to sweep the land, if not the earth, of all its inhabitants,
except the pair by whom the land of the earth was repeopled.
Dem`ades, an Athenian orator,
a bitter enemy of Demosthenes, in the interest of Philip of
Macedon; put to death for treason by Antipater, 318 B.C.; was
a man of no principle, but a great orator.
Demara`tus, king of Sparta
from 510 to 491 B.C.; dispossessed of his crown, fled to Persia
and accompanied Xerxes into Greece.
Demavend, Mount, an extinct
volcano, the highest peak (18,600 ft.) of the Elburz chain,
Dembea, a lake, the largest in
Abyssinia, being 60 m. long and 6000 ft. above the sea-level,
from which the Blue Nile issues.
Dembinski, Henry, a Polish
general, born near Cracow; served under Napoleon against Russia,
under Kossuth against Austria; fled to Turkey on the resignation
of Kossuth; died in Paris (1791-1864).
Demerara, a division of British
Guiana; takes its name from the river, which is 200 m. long,
and falls into the Atlantic at Georgetown.
Demeter (lit. Earth-mother),
the great Greek goddess of the earth, daughter of Kronos and
Rhea and sister of Zeus, and ranks with him as one of the twelve
great gods of Olympus; is specially the goddess of agriculture,
and the giver of all the earth's fruits; the Latins call her
Demetrius, the name of two
kings of Macedonia who ruled over the country, the first from
290 to 289 B.C., and the second from 240 to 229 B.C.
Demetrius, or Dimitri,
the name of several sovereigns of Russia, and of four adventurers
called the four false Dimitri.
Demetrius I., Soter (i.
e. saviour), king of Syria from 162 to 150 B.C.; was grandson
of Antiochus the Great. D. II., Nicator (i. e.
conqueror), king of Syria from 143 to 125 B.C. D. III.,
Eucæros (i. e. the happy), king of Syria in 95,
died in 84 B.C.
an eminent Athenian orator, statesman, and historian, born at
Phalerus, a seaport of Athens; was held in high honour in Athens
for a time as its political head, but fell into dishonour, after
which he lived retired and gave himself up to literary pursuits;
died from the bite of an asp; left a number of works (345-283
Demidoff, a Russian family
distinguished for their wealth, descended from a serf of Peter
the Great, and who amassed a large fortune by manufacturing
firearms for him, and were raised by him to the rank of nobility;
they were distinguished in the arts, in arms, and even literature;
Anatol in particular, who travelled over the SE. of Europe,
and wrote an account of his travels, a work magnificently illustrated.
Demigod, a hero elevated in
the imagination to the rank of a divinity in consequence of
the display of virtues and the achievement of feats superior
to those of ordinary men.
Demi-monde, a class in Parisian
society dressing in a fashionable style, but of questionable
Demiurgus, a name employed
by Plato to denote the world-soul, the medium by which the idea
is made real, the spiritual made material, the many made one,
and it was adopted by the Gnostics to denote the world-maker
as a being derived from God, but estranged from God, being environed
in matter, which they regarded as evil, and so incapable as
such of redeeming the soul from matter, from evil, such as the
God of the Jews, and the Son of that God, conceived of as manifest
Democracy has been defined
to be government of the people by the people and for the people,
or as a State in which the government rests directly with the
majority of the citizens, but this under the protest of some
that it is not an end but a means "to the attainment of
a truer and truer aristocracy, or government again by the Best."
Democrats, a political party
in the United States that contends for the rights of the several
States to self-government as against undue centralisation.
Democritus, a Greek philosopher,
born in Abdera, Thrace, of wealthy parents; spent his patrimony
in travel, gathered knowledge from far and near, and gave the
fruits of it in a series of writings to his contemporary compatriots,
only fragments of which remain, though they must have come down
comparatively entire to Cicero's time, who compares them for
splendour and music of eloquence to Plato's; his philosophy
was called the Atomic, as he traced the universe to its
ultimate roots in combinations of atoms, in quality the same
but in quantity different, and referred all life and sensation
to movements in them, while he regarded quiescence as the
summum bonum; he has been called the Laughing Philosopher
from, it is alleged, his habit of laughing at the follies of
mankind; b. 460 B.C.
a pseudonym under which Burton published his "Anatomy of
Demogeot, French littérateur,
born at Paris; wrote a history of literature, chiefly French
Demogorgon, a terrible deity,
the tyrant of the elves and fairies, who must all appear before
him once every five years to give an
account of their doings.
Demoivre, Abraham, a
mathematician, born in Champagne; lived most of his life in
England to escape, as a Protestant, from persecution in France;
became a friend of Newton, and a Fellow of the Royal Society,
and was of such eminence as a mathematician that he was asked
to arbitrate between the claims of Newton and Leibnitz to the
invention of fluxions (1667-1754).
Demon, or Daimon, a name
which Socrates gave to an inner divine instinct which corresponds
to one's destiny, and guides him in the way he should go to
fulfil it, and is more or less potent in a man according to
his purity of soul.
De Morgan, Augustus,
an eminent mathematician, born in Madura, S. India; was professor
of Mathematics in London University from 1828 till his death,
though he resigned the appointment for a time in consequence
of the rejection of a candidate, James Martineau, for the chair
of logic, on account of his religious opinions; wrote treatises
on almost every department of mathematics, on arithmetic, algebra,
trigonometry, differential and integral calculus, the last pronounced
to be "the most complete treatise on the subject ever produced
in England"; wrote also "Formal Logic" (1806-1871).
Demosthenes, the great Athenian
orator, born in Athens; had many impediments to overcome to
succeed in the profession, but by ingenious methods and indomitable
perseverance he subdued them all, and became the first orator
not of Greece only, but of all antiquity; a stammer in his speech
he overcame by practising with pebbles in his mouth, and a natural
diffidence by declaiming on the sea-beach amid the noise of
the waves; while he acquired a perfect mastery of the Greek
language by binding himself down to copy five times over in
succession Thucydides' "History of the Peloponnesian War";
he employed 15 years of his life in denunciation of Philip of
Macedon, who was bent on subjugating his country; pronounced
against him his immortal "Philippics" and "Olynthiacs";
took part in the battle of Cheronea, and continued the struggle
even after Philip's death; on the death of Alexander he gave
his services as an orator to the confederated Greeks, and in
the end made away with himself by poison so as not to fall into
the hands of Autipater (385-322 B.C.). See
Dempster, Thomas, a learned
Scotchman, born in Aberdeenshire; held several professorships
on the Continent; was the author of "Historia Ecclesiastica
Gentis Scotorum," a work of great learning, but of questionable
veracity; has been reprinted by the Bannatyne Club; his last
days were embittered by the infidelity of his wife (1579-1625).
Denarius, a silver coin among
the Romans, first coined in 269 B.C., and worth 8½ d.
Denbigh (6), the county town
of Denbighshire, in the Vale of the Clwyd, 30 m. W. of Chester;
manufactures shoes and leather.
Denbighshire (117), a county
in North Wales, of rugged hills and fertile vales, 40 m. long
and 17 m. on an average broad, with a coal-field in the NE.,
and with mines of iron, lead, and slate.
Dendera, a village in Upper
Egypt, on the left bank of the Nile, 28 m. N. of Thebes, on
the site of ancient Tentyra, with the ruins of a temple in almost
perfect preservation; on the ceiling of a portico of which there
was found a zodiac, now in the museum of the Louvre in Paris,
and dates from the period of Cleopatra and the early Roman emperors,
and has sculptured portraits of that queen and her son Cæsarion.
Dengue, a disease peculiar to
the tropics, occurs in hot weather, and attacks one suddenly
with high fever and violent pains, and after a relapse returns
in a milder form and leaves the patient very weak.
Denham, Dixon, an English
traveller, companion of Clapperton; visited Bornu and Lake Tchad
Denham, Sir John, an English
poet, born at Dublin, the son of an Irish judge; took to gambling
and squandered his patrimony; was unhappy in his marriage, and
his mind gave way; is best known as the author of "Cooper's
Hill," a descriptive poem, interspersed with reflections,
and written in smooth flowing verse (1615-1669).
Denina, Carlo, an Italian
historian, born in Piedmont; banished from Italy for a cynical
remark injurious to the monks; paid court to Frederick the Great
in Berlin, where he lived a good while, and became eventually
imperial librarian in Paris under Napoleon (1731-1813).
Denis, a king of Portugal from
1279 to 1325; the founder of the University of Coimbra and the
Order of Christ.
Denis, St., the apostle of the
Gauls, the first bishop of Paris, and the patron saint of France;
suffered martyrdom in 270.
Denis, St., a town 6 m. N.
of Paris, within the line of the fortifications, with an abbey
which contains the remains of St. Denis, and became the mausoleum
of the kings of France.
Denison, Edward, philanthropist;
distinguished by his self-denying benevolent labours in the
East End of London (1840-1870).
Denison, George Anthony,
archdeacon of Taunton, born in Notts; was charged with holding
views on the eucharist inconsistent with the teaching of the
Church of England, first condemned and then acquitted on appeal;
a stanch High Churchman, and equally opposed to Broad Church
and Low; b. 1805.
Denison, John Evelyn,
Speaker of the House of Commons from 1858 to 1872, brother of
the above (1800-1873).
Denman, Lord, Lord Chief-Justice
of England from 1832 to 1850, born in London; was along with
Brougham counsel for Queen Caroline (1779-1854).
Denmark (2,182), the smallest
of the three Scandinavian kingdoms, consisting of Jutland and
an archipelago of islands in the Baltic Sea, divided into 18
counties, and is less than half the size of Scotland; is a low-lying
country, no place in it more above the sea-level than 500 ft.,
and as a consequence has no river to speak of, only meres or
lakes; the land is laid out in cornfields and grazing pastures;
there are as good as no minerals, but abundance of clay for
porcelain; while the exports consist chiefly of horses, cattle,
swine, hams, and butter; it has 1407 m. of railway, and 8686
of telegraph wires; the government is constitutional, and the
established religion Lutheran.
Dennewitz, a village in Brandenburg,
40 m. SW. of Berlin, where Marshal Ney with 70,000 was defeated
by Marshal Bülow with 50,000.
Dennis, John, a would-be
dramatist and critic, born in London, in constant broils with
the wits of his time; his productions were worth little, and
he is chiefly remembered for his attacks on Addison and Pope,
and for the ridicule these attacks brought down at their hands
on his own head, from Pope in "Narrative of the Frenzy
of John Dennis," and "damnation to everlasting fame"
in "Dunciad"; he became blind, and was sunk in poverty,
when Pope wrote a prologue to a play produced for his benefit
Dens, Peter, a Catholic theologian,
born at Boom near Antwerp; author of a work entitled "Theologia
Moralis et Dogmatica," a minute and casuistic vindication
in catechetical form of the tenets of the Catholic Church, and
in use as a text-book in Catholic colleges (1690-1775).
Dentatus, M. Curius,
a Roman of the old stamp; as consul gained two victories over
rival States and two triumphs in one year; drove Pyrrhus out
of Italy (275 B.C.), and brought to Rome immense booty, of which
he would take nothing to himself; in his retirement took to
tilling a small farm with his own hand.
Denver (134), the capital of
Colorado, U.S., on a plain 5196 ft. above the sea-level; originally
founded as a mining station in 1858, now a large and flourishing
and well-appointed town; is the centre of a great trade, and
a great mining district.
Deodar (25), a small protected
independent State in the NW. of Gujarat, India.
Deodoraki, a glacier in the
Deparcieux, French mathematician,
born at Cessoux, dep. of Gard; known for the "Tables"
which bear his name, containing a reckoning of the chances of
longevity for different ages (1703-1768).
Department, a territorial
division in France instituted in 1790, under which the old division
into provinces was broken up; each department, of which there
are now 87, is broken up into arrondissements.
Depping, a learned French historian,
born at Münster; wrote a "History of Normandy,"
and on "Trade of Europe with the Levant" (1784-1853).
Deptford (101), a town on the
S. bank of the Thames, partly in Kent and partly in Surrey,
now forming part of London; once with an extensive Government
dockyard and arsenal, the site of it purchased by the Corporation
of London as a market for foreign cattle; is now the central
station for the Electric Light Company.
De Quincey, Thomas, a great
English prose writer, born in Manchester; son of a merchant
called Quincey; his father dying, he was under a guardian, who
put him to school, from which in the end he ran away, wandered
about in Wales for a time, and by-and-by found his way to London;
in 1803 was sent to Oxford, which in 1807 he left in disgust;
it was here as an anodyne he took to opium, and acquired that
habit which was the bane of his life; on leaving Oxford he went
to Bath beside his mother, where he formed a connection by which
he was introduced to Wordsworth and Southey, and led to settle
to literary work at Grasmere, in the Lake District; here he
wrote for the reviews and magazines, particularly Blackwood's,
till in 1821 he went up to London and published his "Confessions"
under the nom de plume of "The English Opium-Eater";
leaving Grasmere in 1828 he settled in Edinburgh, and at Polton,
near Lasswade, where he died; is characterised by Stopford Brooke
as "owing to the overlapping and involved melody of his
style one of our best, as he is one of our most various miscellaneous
writers"; he was a writer of very miscellaneous ability
and acquirement (1785-1859).
Derbend (14), capital of Russian
Daghestan, on the W. of the Caspian Sea, 140 m. NW. of Baku.
Derby (94), county town of Derbyshire,
on the Derwent, with manufactures of silk, cotton hosiery, lace,
porcelain, &c.; it is the centre of a great railway system.
Derby, Charlotte Countess
of, wife of the 7th Earl who was taken prisoner at Worcester
in 1651, and was beheaded at Bolton; famous for her gallant
defence of Lathom House against the Parliamentary forces, which
she was obliged to surrender; lived to see the Restoration;
Derby, 14th Earl of,
British statesman, born at Knowsley Hall, Lancashire; entered
Parliament in 1820 in the Whig interest, and was hailed as an
accession to their ranks by the Whigs; supported the cause of
reform; in 1830 became Chief Secretary for Ireland under Earl
Grey's administration; introduced a coercive measure against
the Repeal agitation of O'Connell; contributed to the passing
of the Reform Bill in 1832; seceded from the Whigs in 1834,
and became Colonial Secretary in 1845 under a Conservative administration,
but when Sir Robert Peel brought in a bill to repeal the Corn
Laws, he retired from the Cabinet, and in 1848 became the head
of the Protectionist party as Earl of Derby, to which title
he succeeded in 1851; was after that Prime Minister three times
over, and it was with his sanction Disraeli carried his Reform
Act of 1867, though he spoke of it as "a leap in the dark";
he resigned his Premiership in 1868, and the last speech he
made was against the Irish Disestablishment Bill; was distinguished
for his scholarship as well as his oratory, and gave proof of
this by his scholarly translation of the "Iliad" of
Derby, 15th Earl of,
eldest son of the preceding; entered Parliament as Lord Stanley
in 1848; was a member of the three Derby administrations, in
the first and third in connection with foreign affairs, and
in the second as Secretary for India, at the time when the government
of India passed from the Company to the Crown; became Earl in
1869; was Foreign Secretary under Mr. Disraeli in 1874, but
retired in 1878; in 1885 joined the Liberal party, and held
office under Mr. Gladstone, but declined to follow him in the
matter of Home Rule, and joined the Unionist ranks; was a man
of sound and cool judgment, and took a deep interest in economical
Derby Day, the last Wednesday
in May, or, as may happen, the 1st of June, being the second
day of the Summer Meeting at Epsom, on which the Derby Stakes
for colts and fillies three years old are run for, so called
as having been started by the 12th Earl of Derby in 1780; the
day is held as a great London holiday, and the scene is one
to which all London turns out. The stakes run for are £6000,
of which the winner gets £5000.
Derbyshire (520), a northern
midland county of England, hilly in the N., undulating and pastoral
in the S., and with coal-fields in the E.; abounds in minerals,
and is more a manufacturing and mining county than an agricultural.
Derg, Lough, an expansion
of the waters of the Shannon, Ireland, 24 m. long, from 2 to
6 broad; also a small lake in the S. of Donegal, with small
islands, one of which, Station Island, was, as the reputed entrance
to St. Patrick's Purgatory, a place of pilgrimage to thousands
at one time.
Dervishes, a name given to
members of certain mendicant orders connected with the Mohammedan
faith in the East. Of these there are various classes, under
different regulations, and wearing distinctive costumes, with
their special observances of devotion, and all presumed to lead
an austere life, some of whom live in monasteries, and others
go wandering about, some of them showing their religious fervour
in excited whirling dances, and others in howlings; all are
religious fanatics in their way, and held sacred by the Moslems.
Derwentwater, one of the
most beautiful of the Cumberland lakes,
in the S. of the county; extends S. from Keswick; is over 3
m. long, and over 1 m. broad; is dotted with wooded islands,
and is overlooked by Skiddaw; it abounds with perch.
Derwentwater, Earl of,
a Jacobite leader; was 3rd Earl and the last; several warrants
were issued for his apprehension in 1714; he joined the Jacobite
rising in 1715; was taken prisoner at Preston, and beheaded
on Tower Hill, London, next year, after trial in Westminster
Hall, confession of guilt, and pleadings on his behalf with
a Russian lyric poet, born at Kasan; rose from the ranks as
a common soldier to the highest offices in the State under the
Empress Catharine II. and her successors; retired into private
life, and gave himself up to poetry; the ode by which he is
best known is his "Address to the Deity" (1743-1816).
Desaix, Louis Charles
Antoine, a distinguished French general, born at the
Château d'Ayat, Auvergne, of a noble family; entered the
army at 15; commanded a division of the Army of the Rhine in
1796, and after the retreat of Moreau defended Kehl against
the Austrians for two months; accompanied Bonaparte to the East,
and in 1799 conquered Upper Egypt; contributed effectively to
the success at Marengo, and fell dead at the moment of victory,
shot by a musket-ball; he was an upright and a chivalrous man,
known in Egypt as "the just Sultan," and in Germany
as "the good general" (1768-1800).
Desaugiers, Marc, a celebrated
French composer of songs and vaudevilles; "stands second
to Béranger as a light song-writer," and is by some
preferred to him (1772-1827).
Desault, a French surgeon, born
in dep. of Haute-Saône; his works contributed largely
to the progress of surgery (1714-1795).
Desbarres, Joseph Frederick,
military engineer and hydrographer, aide-de-camp of General
Wolfe at Quebec; fortified Quebec; surveyed the St. Lawrence;
revised the maps of the American coast at the outbreak of the
American war; died at Halifax, Nova Scotia, aged 102 (1722-1824).
Descamps, a French painter,
born at Dunkirk; painted village scenes (1714-1791).
Descartes, René, the
father of modern philosophy, born at La Haye, in Touraine; was
educated at the Jesuit College of La Flèche, where he
made rapid progress in all that his masters could teach him,
but soon grew sceptical as to their methods of inquiry; "resolved,
on the completion of his studies, to bid adieu to all school
and book learning, and henceforth to gain knowledge only from
himself, and from the great book of the world, from nature and
the observation of man"; in 1616 he entered the army of
the Prince of Orange, and after a service of five years quitted
it to visit various centres of interest on the Continent; made
a considerable stay in Paris; finally abandoned his native land
in 1629, and betook himself to seclusion in Holland in order
to live there, unknown and undisturbed, wholly for philosophy
and the prosecution of his scientific projects; here, though
not without vexatious opposition from the theologians, he lived
twenty years, till in 1649, at the invitation of Christina of
Sweden, he left for Stockholm, where, the severe climate proving
too much for him, he was carried off by pneumonia next year;
Descartes' philosophy starts with Doubt, and by one single step
it arrives at Certainty; "if I doubt, it is plain I exist,"
and from this certainty, that is, the existence of the thinking
subject, he deduces his whole system; it all comes from the
formula Cogito, ergo sum, "I think, therefore I
exist," that is, the thinking ego exists; in which
thinking philosophy ere long sums the universe up, regarding
it as a void, without thought; Descartes' philosophy is all
comprehended in two works, his "Discourse on Method,"
and his "Meditations" (1596-1650).
a French poet, born at Bourges, one of the chiefs of the Romantic
a French poet, born at Vertus, in Champagne; studied in Orleans
University; travelled over Europe; had his estate pillaged by
the English, whom, in consequence, he is never weary of abusing;
his poems are numerous, and, except one, all short, consisting
of ballads, as many as 1175 of them, a form of composition which
he is said to have invented; he deals extensively in satire,
and if he wields the shafts of it against the plunderers of
his country, he does no less against the oppressors of the poor
Desdemona, the wife of Othello
the Moor, who, in Shakespeare's play of that name, kills her
on a groundless insinuation of infidelity, to his bitter remorse.
Desèze, a French advocate,
had the courage, along with advocate Tronchet, to defend Louis
XVI. when dragged to judgment by the Convention, and who, honourably
fulfilling his perilous office, pled for the space of three
hours, an honourable pleading "composed almost overnight;
courageous, yet discreet; not without ingenuity, and soft pathetic
eloquence"; he was imprisoned for a time, but escaped the
scaffold; on the return of the Bourbons he was made a peer (1750-1828).
Desmond, Earldom of,
an Irish title long extinct by the death of the last earl in
1583; he had rebelled against Elizabeth's government, been proclaimed,
and had taken refuge in a peasant's cabin, and been betrayed.
Des Moines (62), the largest
city in Iowa, U.S., and the capital, founded in 1846.
one of the most striking figures in the French Revolution, born
at Guise, in Picardy; studied for the bar in the same college
with Robespierre, but never practised, owing to a stutter in
his speech; was early seized with the revolutionary fever, and
was the first to excite the same fever in the Parisian mob,
by his famous call "To arms, and, for some rallying sign,
cockades—green ones—the colour of Hope, when,"
as we read in Carlyle, "as with the flight of locusts,
the green tree-leaves, green ribbons from the neighbouring shops,
all green things, were snatched to make cockades of"; was
one of the ablest advocates of the levelling principles of the
Revolution; associated himself first with Mirabeau and then
with Danton in carrying them out, and even supported Robespierre
in the extreme course he took; but his heart was moved to relent
when he thought of the misery the guillotine was working among
the innocent families, the wives and the children, of its victims,
would, along with Danton, fain have brought the Reign of Terror
to a close; for this he was treated as a renegade, put under
arrest at the instance of Robespierre, subjected to trial, sentenced
to death, and led off to the place of execution; while his young
wife, for interfering in his behalf, was arraigned and condemned,
and sent to the guillotine a fortnight after him (1762-1794).
De Soto, a Spanish voyager, was
sent to conquer Florida, penetrated as far as the Mississippi;
worn out with fatigue in quest of gold, died of fever, and was
buried in the river (1496-1542).
Des Periers, Bonaventure,
a French humanist and story-teller, born at Autun, in Burgundy;
valet-de-chamber of Margaret of Valois; wrote "Cymbalum
Mundi," a satirical production, in which, as a disciple
of Lucian, he holds up to ridicule the religious beliefs of
his day; also "Novelles Recréations et Joyeux Devis,"
a collection of some 129 short stories admirably told; was one
of the first prose-writers of the century, and is presumed to
be the author of the "Heptameron," ascribed to Margaret
of Valois; d. 1544.
Dessalines, Jean Jacques,
emperor of Hayti, born in Guinea, W. Africa, a negro imported
into Hayti as a slave; on the emancipation of the slaves there
he acquired great influence among the insurgents, and by his
cruelties compelled the French to quit the island, upon which
he was raised to the governorship, and by-and-by was able to
declare himself emperor, but his tyranny provoked a revolt,
in which he perished (1760-1806).
Dessau (34), a North German town,
the capital of the Duchy of Anhalt, on the Mulde, affluent of
the Elbe, some 70 m. SW. of Berlin; it is at once manufacturing
Dessauer, the old. See
Leopold of Dessau.
Destouches, a French dramatist,
born at Tours; his plays were comedies, and he wrote 17, all
excellent (1680-1754); also a French painter (1790-1884).
Detmold (9), capital of Lippe,
47 m. SW. of Hanover, with a bronze colossal statue of
Arminius (q. v.) near
Detroit (285), the largest city
in Michigan, U.S., a great manufacturing and commercial centre,
situated on a river of the same name, which connects Lake St.
Clair with Lake Erie; is one of the oldest places in the States,
and dates from 1670, at which time it came into the possession
of the French; is a well-built city, with varied manufactures
and a large trade, particularly in grain and other natural products.
Dettingen, a village in Bavaria,
where an army of English, Hanoverians, and Austrians under George
II., in 1743 defeated the French under Duc de Noailles.
Deucalion, son of Prometheus,
who, with his wife Pyrrha, by means of an ark which he built,
was saved from a flood which for nine days overwhelmed the land
of Hellas. On the subsidence of the flood they consulted the
oracle at Delphi as to re-peopling the land with inhabitants,
when they were told by Themis, the Pythia at the time, to throw
the bones of their mother over their heads behind them. For
a time the meaning of the oracle was a puzzle, but the readier
wit of the wife found it out; upon which they took stones and
threw them over their heads, when the stones he threw were changed
into men and those she threw were changed into women.
Deus ex machina, the introduction
in high matters of a merely external, material, or mechanical
explanation instead of an internal, rational, or spiritual one,
which is all a theologian does when he simply names God, and
all a scientist does when he simply says
Evolution (q. v.).
Deuteronomy (i. e.
the Second Law), the fifth book of the Pentateuch, and so called
as the re-statement and re-enforcement, as it were, by Moses
of the Divine law proclaimed in the wilderness. The Mosaic authorship
of this book is now called in question, though it is allowed
to be instinct with the spirit of the religion instituted by
Moses, and it is considered to have been conceived at a time
when that religion with its ritual was established in Jerusalem,
in order to confirm faith in the Divine origin and sanction
of observances there.
Deutsch, Emanuel, a distinguished
Hebrew scholar, born at Neisse, in Silesia, of Jewish descent;
was trained from his boyhood to familiarity with the Hebrew
and Chaldea languages; studied under Boeckh at the university
of Berlin; came to England, and in 1855 obtained a post in the
library of the British Museum; had made a special study of the "Talmud,"
on which he wrote a brilliant article for the Quarterly Review,
to the great interest of many; his ambition was to write an
exhaustive treatise on the subject, but he did not live to accomplish
it; died at Alexandria, whither he had gone in the hope of prolonging
his days (1829-1873).
Deutz (17), a Prussian town on
the right bank of the Rhine, opposite Cologne.
Deux Ponts, French name for
Zweibrücken (q. v.).
Deva, the original Hindu name for
the deity, meaning the shining one, whence deus, god,
Devanag`ari, the character
in which Sanskrit works are printed.
Development, the biological
doctrine which ascribes an innate expansive power to the organised
universe, and affirms the deviation of the most complex forms
through intermediate links from the simplest, without the intervention
of special acts of creation. See
Dev`enter (25), a town in Holland,
in the province of Overyssel, 55 m. SE. of Amsterdam; has carpet
manufactures; is celebrated for its gingerbread; was the locality
of the Brotherhood of Common Life, with which the life and work
of Thomas à Kempis are associated.
De Vere, Thomas Aubrey,
poet and prose writer, born in co. Limerick, Ireland; educated
at Trinity College, Dublin; wrote poetical dramas of "Alexander
the Great" and "St. Thomas of Canterbury"; his
first poem "The Waldenses"; also critical essays;
Devil, The, a being regarded in
Scripture as having a personal existence, and, so far as this
world is concerned, a universal spiritual presence, as everywhere
thwarting the purposes of God and marring the destiny of man;
only since the introduction of Christianity, which derives all
evil as well as good from within, he has come to be regarded
less as an external than an internal reality, and is identified
with the ascendency in the human heart of passions native to
it, which when subject ennoble it, but when supreme debase it.
He is properly the spirit that deceives man, and decoys him
to his eternal ruin from truth and righteousness.
Devil, The, is an Ass,
a farce by Ben Jonson, full of vigour, but very coarse.
Devil-worship, a homage
paid by primitive tribes to the devil or spirit of evil in the
simple-hearted belief that he could be bribed from doing them
Devonport (70), a town in
Devonshire, adjoining Plymouth to the W., and the seat of the
military and naval government of the three towns, originally
called Plymouth Dock, and established as a naval arsenal by
Devonshire, a county in the
S. of England, with Exmoor in the N. and Dartmoor in the S.;
is fertile in the low country, and enjoys a climate favourable
to vegetation; it has rich pasture-grounds, and abounds in orchards.
Devonshire, Duke of.
Devrient, Ludwig, a popular
German actor, born in Berlin, of exceptional dramatic ability,
the ablest of a family with similar gifts (1784-1832).
D'Ewes, Sir Simonds,
antiquary, born in Dorsetshire; bred
for the bar; was a member of the Long Parliament; left notes
on its transactions; took the Puritan side in the Civil War;
his "Journal of all the Parliaments of Elizabeth"
is of value; left an "Autobiography and Correspondence"
De Wette, Wilhelm Martin Leberecht,
a German theologian, born near Weimar; studied at Jena, professor
of Theology ultimately at Basel; was held in high repute as
a biblical critic and exegete; contributed largely to theological
literature; counted a rationalist by the orthodox, and a mystic
by the rationalists; his chief works "A Critical Introduction
to the Bible" and a "Manual to the New Testament"
De Witt, Jan, a Dutch statesman,
born at Dort; elected grand pensionary in 1652; like his father,
Jacob de Witt, before him, was a declared enemy of the House
of Orange, and opposed the Stadtholdership, and for a time he
carried the country along with him, but during a war with England
his influence declined, the Orange party prevailed, and elected
the young Prince of Orange, our William III., Stadtholder. He
and his brother Cornelius were murdered at last by the populace
Dewsbury (73), a town in the
West Riding of Yorkshire, 8 m. SW. of Leeds; engaged in the
manufacture of woollens, blankets, carpets, and yarns.
Dextrine, a soluble matter
into which the interior substance of starch globules is converted
by acids or diastase, so called because when viewed by polarised
light it has the property of turning the plane of polarisation
to the right.
Deyster, Louis de, a
Flemish painter, born at Bruges; was of a deeply religious temper,
and his character was reflected in his choice of subjects, such
as the "Death of the Virgin," "The Resurrection
of Christ," &c.; he was a recluse (1656-1711).
Dezobry, Charles, a French
writer, born at St. Denis; author of "Rome in the Time
of Augustus" (1798-1871).
Dhagoba, a mound with a dome-shaped
top, found to contain Buddhist relics.
Dharma, the name given to the
law of Buddha, as distinct from the Sangha, which is the Church.
Dharwar (32), a town in the
S. of the Bombay Presidency, a place of considerable trade in
a district noted for its cotton growing.
Dhwalagiri, one of the peaks
of the Himalayas, the third highest, 26,826 ft. high.
Diabetes, a disease characterised
by an excessive discharge of urine, and accompanied with great
thirst; there are two forms of this disease.
Diab`lerets, a mountain of
the Bernese Alps, between the Cantons de Vaud and de Valois.
Diafoirus, Thomas, the
name of two pedantic doctors, father and son, who figure in
Molière's "Malade Imaginaire."
Diagoras, a Greek philosopher,
born in Melos, one of the Cyclades, 5th century B.C., surnamed
the Atheist, on account of the scorn with which he treated the
gods of the popular faith, from the rage of whose devotees he
was obliged to seek safety by flight; died in Corinth.
Dialectic, in the Hegelian
philosophy the logic of thought, and, if of thought, the logic
of being, of essential being.
Dialogues of Plato,
philosophical dialogues, in which Socrates figures as the principal
interlocutor, although the doctrine expounded is rather Plato's
than his master's; they discuss theology, psychology, ethics, æsthetics,
politics, physics, and related subjects.
Dialysis, the process of separating
the crystalloid or poisonous ingredients in a substance from
the colloid or harmless ingredients.
Diamante, a Spanish dramatic
poet, who plagiarised Corneille's "Cid" and passed
it off as original; b. 1826.
Diamantina (13), a district
in Brazil, in the province of Minas Geraes, rich in diamonds.
Diamond, the name of Newton's
favourite dog that, by upsetting a lamp, set fire to MSS. containing
notes of experiments made over a course of years, an irreparable
Diamond Necklace, a
necklace consisting of 500 diamonds, and worth £80,000,
which one Madame de la Motte induced the jeweller who "made"
it to part with for Marie Antoinette, on security of Cardinal
de Rohan, and which madame made away with, taking it to pieces
and disposing of the jewels in London; the swindle was first
discovered when the jeweller presented his bill to the queen,
who denied all knowledge of the matter; this led to a trial
which extended over nine months, gave rise to great scandal,
and ended in the punishment of the swindler and her husband,
and the disgrace of the unhappy, and it is believed innocent,
queen. See Carlyle's "Miscellanies."
Diamond Net, a name given
in the Hegelian philosophy to "the connective tissue,
so to speak, that not only supports, but even in a measure constitutes,
the various organs" of the universe. See
Diamond State, Delaware,
U.S., from its small size and great wealth.
Diana, originally an Italian deity,
dispenser of light, identified at length with the Greek goddess
Artemis, and from the first with the moon; she was a virgin
goddess, and spent her time in the chase, attended by her maidens;
her temple at Ephesus was one of the seven wonders of the world.
Diana de Poitiers, the
mistress of Henry II. of France, for whom he built the magnificent
Château d'Anet, in Eure-et-Loir; she had a great influence
over him, and the cruel persecutions of the Huguenots in his
reign were due to her instigation (1490-1566).
Diana of France, the Duchess
of Angoulême, the natural daughter of Henry II. and the
Duchess de Castro (1538-1619).
Diarbekir (42), the largest
town in the Kurdistan Highlands, on the Tigris, 194 m. NE. of
Aleppo, and on the highway between Bagdad and Constantinople,
with a large and busy bazaar.
Diastase, a nitrogenous substance
developed during the germination of grain, and having the property
of converting starch first into dextrine and then into sugar.
Diavolo, Fra (lit.
Brother Devil), Michele Porsa, a Calabrian, originally a monk,
who left his monastery and joined a set of bandits, who lent
themselves to and conducted insurrectionary movements in Italy;
taken prisoner, was hanged at Naples; Auber's opera, "Fra
Diavolo," has no connection with him except the name (1760-1806).
a Portuguese navigator, sent on a voyage of discovery by John
II., in the command of two ships; sailed down the W. coast of
Africa and doubled the Cape of Good Hope, which, from the storm
that drove him past it, he called the Cape of Storms; returning
to Lisbon he was superseded by Vasco da Gama, or rather subordinated
to him; subsequently accompanied Cabral on his voyage to Brazil,
and was lost in a storm in 1500.
Diaz Miguel, governor of
Porto Rico, born in Aragon; friend and companion of Columbus;
suffered from the usual Jealousies in
enterprises of the kind, but prevailed in the end; d.
Diaz de la Peña,
a French painter, born at Bordeaux, of Spanish descent; a landscapist
of the Romantic school, eminent as a colourist (1809-1876).
Diaz del Castello, historian;
accompanied Cortes to Mexico; took part in the conquest, and
left a graphic, trustworthy account of it; died in Mexico, 1560.
Dibdin, Charles, musician,
dramatist, and song-writer, born in Southampton; began life
as an actor; invented a dramatic entertainment consisting of
music, songs, and recitations, in which he was the sole performer,
and of which he was for the most part the author; wrote some
30 dramatic pieces, and it is said 1400 songs; his celebrity
is wholly due to his sea songs, which proved of the most inspiring
quality, and did much to man the navy during the war with France;
was the author of "Tom Bowling"; left an account of
his "Professional Life" (1745-1814).
Dibdin, Thomas, dramatic
author and song-writer, son of the preceding; was an actor as
well as an author, and a most versatile one; performed in all
kinds of characters, and wrote all kinds of plays, as well as
numerous songs (1771-1841).
Dibdin, Thomas Frognall,
bibliographer, nephew of Charles Dibdin, born in Calcutta; took
orders in the Church of England; held several preferments; wrote
several works all more or less of a bibliographical character,
which give proof of extensive research, but are lacking often
in accuracy and critical judgment; was one of the founders of
the Roxburghe Club (1775-1847).
Dicæarchus, an ancient
geographer, born at Messina, 4th century B.C.; a disciple of
Dick, James, a West Indian
and London merchant, born in Forres; bequeathed £113,787
to encourage learning and efficient teaching among the parish
schoolmasters of Elgin, Banff, and Aberdeen shires; it is known
as the Dick Bequest, and the property is vested in a governing
body of thirteen duly elected (1743-1828).
Dickens, Charles, celebrated
English novelist, born at Landport, Portsmouth; son of a navy
clerk, latterly in great straits; was brought up amid hardships;
was sent to a solicitor's office as a clerk, learned shorthand,
and became a reporter, a post in which he learned much of what
afterwards served him as an author; wrote sketches for the
Monthly Magazine under the name of "Boz" in
1834, and the "Pickwick Papers" in 1836-37, which
established his popularity; these were succeeded by "Oliver
Twist" in 1838, "Nicholas Nickleby" in 1839,
and others which it is needless to enumerate, as they are all
known wherever the English language is spoken; they were all
written with an aim, and as Ruskin witnesses, "he was entirely
right in his main drift and purpose in every book he has written,"
though he thinks we are apt "to lose sight of his wit and
insight, because he chooses to speak in a circle of stage fire....
Allowing for his manner of telling them, the things he tells
us are always true"; being a born actor, and fain in his
youth to become one, he latterly gave public readings from his
works, which were immensely popular; "acted better,"
says Carlyle, who witnessed one of these performances, "than
any Macready in the world; a whole tragic, comic, heroic
theatre visible, performing under one hat, and keeping
us laughing—in a sorry way some of us thought—the
whole night"; the strain proved too much for him; he was
seized with a fit at his residence, Gad's Hill, near Rochester,
on June 8, 1870, and died the following morning; he was a little
man, with clear blue intelligent eyes, a face of most extreme
mobility, and a quiet shrewdness of expression (1812-1870).
Dictator, a magistrate invested
with absolute authority in ancient republican Rome in times
of exigence and danger; the constitution obliged him to resign
his authority at the end of six months, till which time he was
free without challenge afterwards to do whatever the interest
of the commonwealth seemed to him to require; the most famous
dictators were Cincinnatus, Camillus, Sulla, and Cæsar,
who was the last to be invested with this power; the office
ceased with the fall of the republic, or rather, was merged
in the perpetual dictatorship of the emperor.
Dictator of Letters,
Dictys Cretensis (i.
e. of Crete), the reputed author of a narrative of the Trojan
war from the birth of Paris to the death of Ulysses, extant
only in a Latin translation; the importance attached to this
narrative and others ascribed to the same author is, that they
are the source of many of the Greek legends we find inwoven
from time to time in the mediæval literature that has
come down to us.
Diddler, Jeremy, a needy,
artful swindler in Kenny's farce of "Raising the Wind."
Diderot, Denis, a French
philosopher, born at Langres, the son of a cutler there; a zealous
propagator of the philosophic ideas of the 18th century, and
the projector of the famous "Encyclopédie,"
which he edited along with D'Alembert, and which made a great
noise in its day, but did not enrich its founder, who was in
the end driven to offer his library for sale to get out of the
pecuniary difficulties it involved him in, and he would have
been ruined had not Catharine of Russia bought it, which she
not only did, but left it with him, and paid him a salary as
librarian. Diderot fought hard to obtain a hearing for his philosophical
opinions; his first book was burnt by order of the parlement
of Paris, while for his second he was clapped in jail; and all
along he had to front the most formidable opposition, so formidable
that all his fellow-workers were ready to yield, and were only
held to their task by his indomitable resolution and unquenchable
ardour. "A deist in his earlier writings," says
Schwegler, "the drift of
his subsequent writings amounts to the belief that all is God.
At first a believer in the immateriality and immortality of
the soul, he peremptorily declares at last that only the race
endures, that individuals pass, and that immortality is nothing
but life in the remembrance of posterity; he was kept back,
however, from the materialism his doctrines issued in by his
moral earnestness"; that Diderot was at heart no sceptic
is evident, as Dr. Stirling suggests, from his "indignation
at the darkness, the miserable ignorance of those
around him, and his resolution to dispel it" (1713-1784).
Didius, Julianus, a Roman
emperor who in 193 purchased the imperial purple from the prætorian
guards, and was after two months murdered by the soldiers when
Severus was approaching the city.
Dido, the daughter of Belus, king
of Tyre, and the sister of Pygmalion, who, having succeeded
to the throne on the death of his father, put Sichæus,
her husband, to death for the sake of his wealth, whereupon
she secretly took ship, sailed away from the city with the treasure,
accompanied by a body of disaffected citizens, and founded Carthage,
having picked up by the way 80 virgins from Cyprus to make wives
for her male attendants; a neighbouring
chief made suit for her hand, encouraged by her subjects, upon
which, being bound by an oath of eternal fidelity to Sichæus,
she erected a funeral pile and stabbed herself in presence of
her subjects; Virgil makes her ascend the funeral pile out of
grief for the departure of Æneas, of whom she was passionately
Didot, the name of a French family
of paper-makers, printers, and publishers, of which the most
celebrated is Ambroise Firmin, born in Paris, a learned Hellenist
Didymus (twin), a surname of
St. Thomas; also the name of a grammarian of Alexandria, a contemporary
of Cicero, and who wrote commentaries on Homer.
Diebitsch, Count, a Russian
general, born in Silesia; commander-in-chief in 1829 of the
Russian army against Turkey, over the forces of which he gained
a victory in the Balkans; commissioned to suppress a Polish
insurrection, he was baffled in his efforts, and fell a victim
to cholera in 1831.
Friedrich, an eminent German surgeon, born at Königsberg;
studied for the Church; took part in the war of liberation,
and began the study of medicine after the fall of Napoleon;
was appointed to the chair of Surgery in Berlin; his fame rests
on his skill as an operator (1792-1847).
a distinguished philologist and ethnologist, born at Ostheim,
in the grand-duchy of Hesse; was for 11 years a pastor; in the
end, until his death, librarian at Frankfort-on-the-Main; his
literary works were numerous and varied; his chief were on philological
and ethnological subjects, and are monuments of learning (1806-1883).
Diego Suarez, Bay of,
is situated on the NE. of Madagascar, and has been ceded to
Diemen, Antony van,
governor of the Dutch possessions in India, born in Holland;
was a zealous coloniser; at his instance Abel Tasman was sent
to explore the South Seas, when he discovered the island which
he named after him Van Diemen's Land, now Tasmania after the
Diepenbeck, Abraham van,
a Flemish painter and engraver (1599-1675).
Dieppe (22), a French seaport
on the English Channel, at the mouth of the river Arques, 93
m. NW. of Paris; a watering and bathing place, with fisheries
and a good foreign trade.
Dies Irae (lit. the
Day of Wrath), a Latin hymn on the Last Judgment, so called
from first words, and based on Zeph. i. 14-18; it is ascribed
to a monk of the name of Thomas de Celano, who died in 1255,
and there are several translations of it in English, besides
a paraphrastic rendering in the "Lay of the Last Minstrel"
by Scott, and it is also the subject of a number of musical
Diet, a convention of the princes,
dignitaries, and delegates of the German empire, for legislative
or administrative purposes, of which the most important in a
historical point of view are diets held at Augsburg in 1518,
at Worms in 1521, at Nüremberg in 1523, 1524, at Spires
in 1526, 1529, at Augsburg in 1530, at Cologne in 1530, at Worms
in 1536, at Frankfort in 1539, at Ratisbon in 1541, at Spires
in 1544, at Augsburg in 1547, 1548, 1550, and at Ratisbon in
Dietrich, mayor of Strasburg,
at whose request Rouget de Lisle composed the "Marseillaise";
was guillotined (1748-1793).
Dietrich of Bern, a favourite
hero of German legend, who in the "Nibelungen" avenges
the death of Siegfried, and in the "Heldenbuch" figures
as a knight-errant of invulnerable prowess, from whose challenge
even Siegfried shrinks, hiding himself behind Chriemhilda's
veil; has been identified with Theodoric the Great, king of
Diez, Friedrich Christian,
a German philologist, born at Giessen; after service as a volunteer
against Napoleon, and a tutorship at Utrecht, went to Bonn,
where, advised by Goethe, he commenced the study of the Romance
languages, and in 1830 became professor of them, the philology
of which he is the founder; he left two great works bearing
on the grammar and etymology of these languages (1794-1876).
Diez, Juan Martin, a
Spanish brigadier-general of cavalry, born at Valladolid, the
son of a peasant; had, as head of guerilla bands, done good
service to his country during the Peninsular war and been promoted;
offending the ruling powers, was charged with conspiracy, tried,
and executed (1775-1825).
Digby, a seaport on the Bay of
Fundy, Nova Scotia; noted for the curing of pilchards, called
from it digbies.
Digby, Sir Everard,
member of a Roman Catholic family; concerned in the Gunpowder
Plot, and executed (1581-1606).
Digby, Sir Kenelm, a
son of the preceding; was knighted by James I.; served under
Charles I.; as a privateer defeated a squadron of Venetians,
and fought against the Algerines; was imprisoned for a time
as a Royalist; paid court afterwards to the Protector; was well
received at the Restoration; was one of the first members of
the Royal Society, and a man of some learning; wrote treatises
on the Nature of Bodies and Man's Soul, on the corpuscular theory
Dihong, the name given to the
Brahmaputra as it traverses Assam; in the rainy season it overflows
its channel and floods the whole lowlands of the country.
Dijon (61), the ancient capital
of Burgundy, and the principal town in the dep. of Côte
d'Or, 195 m. SE. of Paris, on the canal of Bourgogne; one of
the finest towns in France, at once for its buildings, particularly
its churches, and its situation; is a centre of manufacture
and trade, and a seat of learning; the birthplace of many illustrious
Dikë (i. e. Justice),
a Greek goddess, the daughter of Zeus and Themis; the guardian
of justice and judgment, the foe of deceit and violence, and
the accuser before Zeus of the unjust judge.
Diktys, the fisherman of Seriphus;
saved Perseus and his mother from the perils of the deep.
Dilettante Society, The,
a society of noblemen and gentlemen founded in England in 1734,
and which contributed to correct and purify the public taste
of the country; their labours were devoted chiefly to the study
of the relics of ancient Greek art, and resulted in the production
of works in illustration.
Dilettantism, an idle,
often affected, almost always barren admiration and study of
the fine arts, "in earnest about nothing."
Dilke, Charles Wentworth,
English critic and journalist; served for 20 years in the Navy
Pay-Office; contributed to the Westminister and other
reviews; was proprietor and editor of the Athenæum;
started the Daily News; left literary Papers, edited
by his grandson (1789-1864).
Dilke, Sir Charles
Wentworth, English publicist and politician, grandson
of the preceding, born at Chelsea; called to the bar; travelled
in America and the English colonies, and wrote a record of his
travels in his "Greater Britain"; entered Parliament
as an extreme Liberal; held office under Mr. Gladstone; from
exposures in a divorce case had to retire from public life,
but returned after a time; b. 1843.
Dillmann, a great German Orientalist,
born at Illingen, a village of Würtemberg; studied under
Ewald at Tübingen; became professor at Kiel, at Giessen,
and finally at Berlin; as professor of Old Testament exegesis
made a special study of the Ethiopic languages, and is the great
authority in their regard; wrote a grammar and a lexicon of
these, as well as works on theology; b. 1823.
Dillon, a general in the service
of France, born in Dublin; was butchered by his troops near
Dillon, John, an Irish patriot,
born in New York; entered Parliament in 1880 as a Parnellite;
was once suspended, and four times imprisoned, for his over-zeal;
sat at first for Tipperary, and since for East Mayo; in 1891
threw in his lot with the M'Carthyites; b. 1851.
Dimanche, M. (Mr. Sunday),
a character in Molière's "Don Juan," the type
of an honest merchant, whom, on presenting his bill, his creditor
appeases by his politeness.
Dime, a U.S. silver coin, worth
the tenth part of a dollar, or about fivepence.
Dinan (10), an old town in the
dep. of Côtes du Nord, France, 14 m. S. of St. Malo; most
picturesquely situated on the top of a steep hill, amid romantic
scenery, of great archæological interest; the birthplace
Dinant, an old town on the Meuse,
14 m. S. of Namur, Belgium; noted for its gingerbread, and formerly
for its copper wares, called Dinanderie.
Dinapur (44), a town and military
station on the right bank of the Ganges, 12 m. NW. of Patna.
Dinarchus, an orator of the
Phocion party in Athens, born at Corinth.
Dinaric Alps, a range of
the Eastern Alps in Austria, runs SE. and parallel with the
Adriatic, connecting the Julian Alps with the Balkans.
Dindorf, Wilhelm, a German
philologist, born at Leipzig; devoted his life to the study
of the ancient Greek classics, particularly the dramatists,
and edited the chief of them, as well as the "Iliad"
and "Odyssey" of Homer, with notes; was joint-editor
with his brothers Ludwig and Hase of the "Thesaurus Græcæ
Linguæ" of Stephanus (1802-1883).
Dingelstedt, a German poet,
novelist, and essayist, born near Marburg; was the Duke of Würtemberg's
librarian at Stuttgart, and theatre superintendent at Münich,
Weimar, and Vienna successively; his poems show delicacy of
sentiment and graphic power (1814-1881).
Dingwall, the county town of
Ross-shire, at the head of the Cromarty Firth.
Dinkas, an African pastoral people
occupying a flat country traversed by the White Nile; of good
stature, clean habits; of semi-civilised manners, and ferocious
Dinmont, Dandie, a jovial,
honest-hearted store-farmer in Scott's "Guy Mannering."
Dinocrates, a Macedonian
architect, who, in the time of Alexander the Great, rebuilt
the Temple of Ephesus destroyed by the torch of Erostratus;
was employed by Alexander in the building of Alexandria.
Diocletian, Roman emperor
from 284 to 308, born at Salona, in Dalmatia, of obscure parentage;
having entered the Roman army, served with distinction, rose
rapidly to the highest rank, and was at Chalcedon, after the
death of Numerianus, invested by the troops with the imperial
purple; in 286 he associated Maximianus with himself as joint-emperor,
with the title of Augustus, and in 292 resigned the Empire of
the West to Constantius Chlorus and Galerius, so that the Roman
world was divided between two emperors in the E. and two in
the W.; in 303, at the instance of Galerius, he commenced and
carried on a fierce persecution of the Christians, the tenth
and fiercest; but in 305, weary of ruling, he abdicated and
retired to Salona, where he spent his remaining eight years
in rustic simplicity of life, cultivating his garden; bating
his persecution of the Christians, he ruled the Roman world
wisely and well (245-313).
Diodati, a Calvinistic theologian,
born at Lucca; was taken while a child with his family to Geneva;
distinguished himself there in the course of the Reformation
as a pastor, a preacher, professor of Hebrew, and a professor
of Theology; translated the Bible into Italian and into French;
a nephew of his was a school-fellow and friend of Milton, who
wrote an elegy on his untimely death (1576-1614).
Diodorus Siculus, historian,
born in Sicily, of the age of Augustus; conceived the idea of
writing a universal history; spent 30 years at the work; produced
what he called "The Historical Library," which embraced
the period from the earliest ages to the end of Cæsar's
Gallic war, and was divided into 40 books, of which only a few
survive entire, and some fragments of the rest.
a Greek historian, born at Laerte, in Cilicia; flourished in
the 2nd century A.D.; author of "Lives of the Philosophers,"
a work written in 10 books; is full of interesting information
regarding the men, but is destitute of critical insight into
Diogenes of Apollonia,
a Greek philosopher of the Ionic school, and an adherent of
Anaximenes (q. v.),
if of any one, being more of an eclectic than anything else;
took more to physics than philosophy; contributed nothing to
the philosophic movement of the time.
Diogenes the Cynic,
born in Sinope, in Pontus, came to Athens, was attracted to
Antisthenes (q. v.)
and became a disciple, and a sansculotte of the first water;
dressed himself in the coarsest, lived on the plainest, slept
in the porches of the temples, and finally took up his dwelling
in a tub; stood on his naked manhood; would not have anything
to do with what did not contribute to its enhancement; despised
every one who sought satisfaction in anything else; went through
the highways and byways of the city at noontide with a lit lantern
in quest of a man; a man himself not to be laughed at or despised;
visiting Corinth, he was accosted by Alexander the Great: "I
am Alexander," said the king, and "I am Diogenes"
was the prompt reply; "Can I do anything to serve you?"
continued the king; "Yes, stand out of the sunlight,"
rejoined the cynic; upon which Alexander turned away saying, "If
I were not Alexander, I would be Diogenes." D'Alembert
declared Diogenes the greatest man of antiquity, only that he
wanted decency. "Great truly," says Carlyle, but adds
with a much more serious drawback than that (412-323 B.C.).
See "Sartor Resartus,"
bk. iii. chap. 1.
Diogenes the Stoic,
born in Seleucia; a successor of Zeno, and head of the school
at Athens, 2nd century B.C.
Diomedes, king of Argos, called
Tydides, from his father; was, next to Achilles, the bravest
of the Greeks at the Trojan war; fought under the protection
of Athene against both Hector and Æneas, and even wounded
both Aphrodité and Ares; dared along with Ulysses to
carry off the Palladium from Troy; was
first in the chariot race in honour of Patroclus, and overcame
Ajax with the spear.
Diomedes, king of Thrace;
fed his horses with human flesh, and was killed by Hercules
for his inhumanity.
Dion Cassius, a Greek historian,
born at Nicæa, in Bithynia, about A.D. 155; went to Rome,
and served under a succession of emperors; wrote a "History
of Rome" from Æneas to Alexander Severus in 80 books,
of which only 18 survive entire; took years to prepare for and
compose it; it is of great value, and often referred to.
Dion Chrysostomus (Dion
with the golden, or eloquent, mouth), a celebrated Greek rhetorician,
born at Prusa, in Bithynia, about the middle of the 1st century;
inclined to the Platonic and Stoic philosophies; came to Rome,
and was received with honour by Nerva and Trajan; is famous
as an orator and as a writer of pure Attic Greek.
Dion of Syracuse, a pupil
of Plato, and an austere man; was from his austerity obnoxious
to his pleasure-loving nephew, Dionysius the Younger; subjected
to banishment; went to Athens; learned his estates had been
confiscated, and his wife given to another; took up arms, drove
his nephew from the throne, usurped his place, and was assassinated
in 353 B.C., the citizens finding that in getting rid of one
tyrant they had but saddled themselves with another, and greater.
Dione, a Greek goddess of the
earlier mythology; figures as the wife of the Dodonian Zeus;
drops into subordinate place after his nuptials with Hera.
Dionysius the Elder,
tyrant of Syracuse from 406 to 367 B.C.; at first a private
citizen; early took interest in public affairs, and played a
part in them; entered the army, and rose to be head of the State;
subdued the other cities of Sicily, and declared war against
Carthage; was attacked by the Carthaginians, and defeated them
three times over; concluded a treaty of peace with them, and
spent the rest of his reign, some 20 years, in maintaining and
extending his territory; was distinguished, it is said, as he
might well be, both as a poet and a philosopher; tradition represents
him as in perpetual terror of his life, and taking every precaution
to guard it from attack.
Dionysius the Younger,
tyrant of Syracuse, son of the preceding, succeeded him in 367
B.C. at the age of thirty; had never taken part in public affairs;
was given over to vicious indulgences, and proved incapable
of amendment, though Dion
(q. v.) tried hard to reform him; was unpopular with
the citizens, who with the help of Dion, whom he had banished,
drove him from the throne; returning after 10 years, was once
more expelled by Timoleon; betook himself to Corinth, where
he associated himself with low people, and supported himself
by keeping a school.
Dionysius of Alexandria,
patriarch from 348, a disciple of Origen, and his most illustrious
pupil; a firm but judicious defender of the faith against the
heretics of the time, in particular the Sabellians and the Chiliasts;
the Areopagite (i. e. judge of the Areopagus),
according to Acts xvii. 34, a convert of St. Paul's; became
bishop of Athens, and died a martyr in 95; was long regarded
as the father of mysticism in the Christian Church, on the false
assumption that he was the author of writings of a much later
date imbued with a pantheistic idea of God and the universe.
Dionysius of Halicarnassus,
a Greek historian and rhetorician of the age of Augustus; came
to Italy in 29 B.C., and spent 27 years in Rome, where he died;
devoted himself to the study of the Roman republic, its history
and its people, and recorded the result in his "Archæologia,"
written in Greek, which brings down the narrative to 264 B.C.;
it consisted of 20 books, of which only 9 have come down to
us entire; he is the author of works in criticism of the orators,
poets, and historians of Greece.
a Greek geographer who lived about the 4th century, and wrote
a description of the whole earth in hexameters and in a terse
and elegant style.
Dionysus, the god of the vine
or wine; the son of Zeus and
Semele (q. v.), the "twice
born," as plucked first from the womb of his dead mother
and afterwards brought forth from the thigh of Zeus, which served
to him as his "incubator." See
Diophantus, a Greek mathematician,
born in Alexandria; lived presumably about the 4th century;
left works in which algebraic methods are employed, and is therefore
credited with being the inventor of algebra.
Dioscor`ides, a Greek physician,
born in Cilicia, lived in the 1st century; left a treatise in
5 books on materia medica, a work of great research, and long
the standard authority on the subject.
Dioscuri, twin sons of Zeus,
Castor and Pollux, a stalwart pair of youths, of the Doric stock,
great the former as a horse-breaker and the latter as a boxer;
were worshipped at Sparta as guardians of the State, and pre-eminently
as patrons of gymnastics; protected the hearth, led the army
in war, and were the convoy of the traveller by land and the
voyager by sea, which as constellations they are still held
Diphilus, a Greek comic poet,
born at Sinope; contemporary of Menander; was the forerunner
of Terence and Plautus, the Roman poets.
Diphtheria, a contagious
disease characterised by the formation of a false membrane on
the back of the throat.
Dippel, Johann Konrad,
a celebrated German alchemist; professed to have discovered
the philosopher's stone; did discover Prussian blue, and an
animal oil that bears his name (1672-1734).
Dippel's Oil, an oil obtained
from the distinctive distillation of horn bones.
Dircæan Swan, Pindar,
so called from the fountain Dirce, near Thebes, his birthplace.
Dirce, the wife of Lycus, king
of Thebes, who for her cruelty to Antiope, her divorced predecessor,
was, by Antiope's two sons, Zethos and Amphion, tied to a wild
bull and dragged to death, after which her carcass was flung
by them into a well; the subject is represented in a famous
antique group by Apollonius and Tauriscus.
Directory, The, the name
given to the government of France, consisting of a legislative
body of two chambers, the Council of the Ancients and the Council
of Five Hundred, which succeeded the fall of the Convention,
and ruled France from October 27, 1795, till its overthrow by
Bonaparte on the 18th Brumaire (November 9, 1799). The Directors
proper were five in number, and were elected by the latter council
from a list presented by the former, and the chief members of
it were Barras and Carnot.
Dirschau (11), a Prussian town
on the Vistula, 21 m. SE. of Danzig, with iron-works and a timber
Dis, a name given to Pluto and the
nether world over which he rules.
Discipline, The Two
Books of, books of dates 1561 and 1581, regulative of
ecclesiastical order in the Presbyterian
churches of Scotland, of which the ground-plan was drawn up
by Knox on the Geneva model.
Discobolus, The, an antique
statue representing the thrower of the discus, in the Louvre,
and executed by the sculptor Myron.
Discord, Apple of. See
Discord, The Goddess of,
a mischief-making divinity, daughter of Night and sister of
Mars, who on the occasion of the wedding of Thetis with Peleus,
threw into the hall where all the gods and goddesses were assembled
a golden apple inscribed "To the most Beautiful,"
and which gave rise to dissensions that both disturbed the peace
of Olympus and the impartial administration of justice on earth.
Dismal Science, Carlyle's
name for the political economy that with self-complacency leaves
everything to settle itself by the law of supply and demand,
as if that were all the law and the prophets. The name is applied
to every science that affects to dispense with the spiritual
as a ruling factor in human affairs.
Dismas, St., the good thief
to whom Christ promised Paradise as he hung on the cross beside
D'Israeli, Isaac, a man
of letters, born at Enfield, Middlesex; only son of a Spanish
Jew settled in England, who left him a fortune, which enabled
him to cultivate his taste for literature; was the author of
several works, but is best known by his "Curiosities of
Literature," a work published in six vols., full of anecdotes
on the quarrels and calamities of authors; was never a strict
Jew; finally cut the connection, and had his children baptized
as Christians (1766-1848).
Dithyramb, a hymn in a lofty
and vehement style, originally in honour of Bacchus, in celebration
of his sorrows and joys, and accompanied with flute music.
Ditmarsh (77), a low-lying
fertile district in West Holstein, between the estuaries of
the Elbe and the Eider; defended by dykes; it had a legal code
of its own known as the "Ditmarisches Landbuch."
Ditton, Humphry, author
of a book on fluxions (1675-1715).
Diu (12), a small Portuguese island,
with a port of the same name, in the Gulf of Cambay, S. of the
peninsula of Gujarat, India; was a flourishing place once, and
contained a famous Hindu temple; inhabited now chiefly by fishermen.
Divan, The, a collection of
poems by Häfiz, containing nearly 600 odes; also a collection
of lyrics in imitation of Goethe, entitled "Westöstlicher
Dives, the name given, originally
in the Vulgate, to the rich man in the parable of the Rich Man
Dividing Range, a range
of mountains running E. from Melbourne, and then N., dividing
the basin of the Murray from the plain extending to the coast.
Divine Comedy, The, the
great poem of Dante, consisting of three compartments, "Inferno," "Purgatorio,"
and "Paradiso"; "three kingdoms ... Dante's World
of Souls...; all three making up the true Unseen World, as it
figured in the Christianity of the Middle Ages; a thing for
ever memorable, for ever true in the essence of it, to all men
... but delineated in no human soul with such depth of veracity
as in this of Dante's ... to the earnest soul of Dante it is
all one visible fact—Hell, Purgatory, Paradise, with him
not mere emblems, but indubitable awful realities." See
Carlyle's "Heroes and Hero-Worship."
Divine Doctor, Jean de
Ruysbroek, the mystic (1294-1381).
Hypatia (q. v.).
Divine Right, a claim on
the part of kings, now all but extinct, though matter of keen
debate at one time, that they derive their authority to rule
direct from the Almighty, and are responsible to no inferior
power, a right claimed especially on the part of and in behalf
of the Bourbons in France and the Stuart dynasty in England,
and the denial of which was regarded by them and their partisans
as an outrage against the ordinance of very Heaven.
Dixie Land, nigger land in
Dixon, W. Hepworth, an
English writer and journalist, born in Manchester; called to
the bar, but devoted himself to literary work; wrote Lives of
Howard, Penn, Robert Blake, and Lord Bacon, "New America," "Spiritual
Wives," &c.; was editor of the Athenoeum from
1853 to 1869; died suddenly (1821-1879).
Dizier, St. (13), a flourishing
French town, 30 m. from Châlons-sur-Marne.
Dizzy, a nickname given to Benjamin
Djezzar (i. e. Butcher),
the surname of Achmed Pasha, pacha of Acre; was born at Bosnia;
sold as a slave, and raised himself by his servility to his
master to the length of executing his cruellest wishes; in 1799
withstood a long siege of Acre by Bonaparte, and obliged him
to retire (1735-1804).
Djinnestan, the region of
Dnieper, a river of Russia,
anciently called the Borysthenes, the third largest for volume
of water in Europe, surpassed only by the Danube and the Volga;
rises in the province of Smolensk, and flowing in a generally
southerly direction, falls into the Black Sea below Kherson
after a course of 1330 m.; it traverses some of the finest provinces
of the empire, and is navigable nearly its entire length.
Dniester, a river which takes
its rise in Austria, in the Carpathians, enters Russia, flows
generally in a SE. direction past Bender, and after a rapid
course of 650 m. falls into the Black Sea at Akjerman.
Doab, The, a richly fertile,
densely peopled territory in the Punjab, between the Jumna and
Ganges, and extending 500 m. N., that is, as far as the Himalayas;
it is the granary of Upper India.
Dobell, Sidney, poet, born
at Cranbrook, in Kent; wrote, under the pseudonym of Sidney
Yendys, the "Roman," a drama, "Balder,"
and, along with Alexander Smith, sonnets on the war (the Crimean);
suffered much from weak health (1824-1874).
Döbereiner, a German
chemist, professor at Jena; inventor of a lamp called after
him; Goethe was much interested in his discoveries (1780-1849).
a light caused by a jet of hydrogen passing over spongy platinum.
Dobrovski, Joseph, a
philologist, born in Gyarmet, in Hungary; devoted his life to
the study of the Bohemian language and literature; wrote a history
of them, the fruit of immense labour, under which his brain
gave way more than once; was trained among the Jesuits (1753-1829).
Dobrenter, Hungarian archæologist;
devoted 30 years of his life to the study of the Magyar language;
author of "Ancient Monuments of the Magyar Language"
Dobrudja (196), the part of
Roumania between the Danube and the Black Sea, a barren, unwholesome
district; rears herds of cattle.
Dobson, Austin, poet and
prose writer, born at Plymouth, is in
a department of the Civil Service; wrote "Vignettes in
Rhyme," "Proverbs in Porcelain," "Old World
Idylls," in verse, and in prose Lives of Fielding, Hogarth,
Steele, and Goldsmith; contributed extensively to the magazines;
Dobson, William, portrait-painter,
born in London; succeeded Vandyck as king's serjeant-painter
to Charles I.; painted the king and members of his family and
court; supreme in his art prior to Sir Joshua Reynolds; died
in poverty (1610-1646).
Docetæ, a sect of heretics
in the early Church who held that the humanity of Christ was
only seeming, not real, on the Gnostic or Manichæan theory
of the essential impurity and defiling nature of matter or the
Doctor (lit. teacher),
a title implying that the possessor of it is such a master of
his art that he can teach it as well as practise it.
Doctor Mirabilis, Roger
Doctor My-Book, John Abernethy,
from his saying to his patients, "Read my book."
Doctor of the Incarnation,
Cyril of Alexandria, from his controversy with the Nestorians.
Doctor Slop, a doctor in "Tristram
Shandy," fanatical about a forceps he invented.
Doctor Squintum, George
Doctor Syntax. See
Doctors' Commons, a college
of doctors of the civil law in London, where they used to eat
in common, and where eventually a number of the courts of law
Doctrinaires, mere theorisers,
particularly on social and political questions; applied originally
to a political party that arose in France in 1815, headed by
Roger-Collard and represented by Guizot, which stood up for
a constitutional government that should steer clear of acknowledging
the divine right of kinghood on the one hand and the divine
right of democracy on the other.
Dodabetta, the highest peak,
8700 ft., in the Nilgherries.
Dodd, Dr. William, an
English divine, born at Bourne, Lincolnshire; was one of the
royal chaplains; attracted fashionable audiences as a preacher
in London, but lived extravagantly, and fell hopelessly into
debt, and into disgrace for the nefarious devices he adopted
to get out of it; forged a bond for £4500 on the Earl
of Chesterfield, who had been a pupil of his; was arrested,
tried, convicted, and sentenced to death, a sentence which was
carried out notwithstanding the great exertions made to procure
a pardon; wrote a "Commentary on the Bible," and compiled "The
Beauties of Shakespeare" (1729-1777).
Doddridge, Philip, a
Nonconformist divine, born in London; was minister at Kebworth,
Market Harborough, and Northampton successively, and much esteemed
both as a man and a teacher; suffered from pulmonary complaint;
went to Lisbon for a change, and died there; was the author
of "The Family Expositor," but is best known by his "Rise
and Progress of Religion in the Soul," and perhaps also
by his "Life of Colonel Gardiner" (1702-1751).
a German philologist, born at Jena; became professor of Philology
at Erlangen; edited Tacitus, Horace, and other classic authors,
but his principal works were on the etymology of the Latin language
Dodger, The Artful,
a young expert in theft and other villanies in Dickens's "Oliver
Dodgson, Charles Lutwidge,
English writer and man of genius, with the nom de plume
of Lewis Carroll; distinguished himself at Oxford in mathematics;
author of "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland," with
its sequel, "Through the Looking-Glass," besides other
works, mathematical, poetic, and humorous; mingled humour and
science together (1833-1898).
Dodington, George Bubb,
an English politician, notorious for his fickleness, siding
now with this party, now with that; worked for and won a peerage
before he died; with all his pretensions, and they were many,
a mere flunkey at bottom (1691-1762).
Dodo, an ungainly bird larger than
a turkey, with short scaly legs, a big head and bill, short
wings and tail, and a greyish down plumage, now extinct, though
it is known to have existed in the Mauritius some 200 years
Dodo`na, an ancient oracle of
Zeus, in Epirus, close by a grove of oak trees, from the agitation
of the branches of which the mind of the god was construed,
the interpreters being at length three old women; it was more
or less a local oracle, and was ere long superseded by the more
widely known oracle of Delphi (q.
Dods, Meg, an old landlady of
consistently inconsistent qualities in "St. Ronan's Well";
also the pseudonym of the authoress of a book on cookery.
Dodsley, Robert, an English
poet, dramatist, and publisher; wrote a drama called "The
Toyshop," which, through Pope's influence, was acted in
Drury Lane with such success as to enable the author to commence
business as a bookseller in Pall Mall; projected and published
the Miscellany, and continued to write plays, the most
popular "Cleone"; is best known in connection with
his "Collection of Old Plays"; he was a patron of
Johnson, and much esteemed by him (1703-1764).
Doeg, a herdsman of Saul (1 Sam.
xxi. 7); a name applied by Dryden to Elkanah Settle in "Absalom
Dogberry, a self-satisfied
night constable in "Much Ado about Nothing."
Dog-days, 20 days before and
20 after the rising of the dog-star Sirius, at present from
3rd July to 11th August.
Doge, the name of the chief magistrate
of Venice and Genoa, elected at first annually and then for
life in Venice, with, in course of time, powers more and more
limited, and at length little more than a figure-head; the office
ceased with the fall of the republic in 1797, as it did in Genoa
Dogger Bank, a sandbank in
the North Sea; a great fishing-field, extending between Jutland
in Denmark and Yorkshire in England, though distant from both
shores, 170 m. long, over 60 m. broad, and from 8 to 10 fathoms
Dogs, Isle of, a low-lying
projection of a square mile in extent from the left bank of
the Thames, opposite Greenwich, and 3½ m. E. of St. Paul's.
Sirius (q. v.).
Dolabella, son-in-law of Cicero,
a profligate man, joined Cæsar, and was raised by him
to the consulship; joined Cæsar's murderers after his
death; was declared from his profligacy a public enemy; driven
to bay by a force sent against him, ordered one of his soldiers
to kill him.
Dolci, Carlo, a Florentine
painter, came of a race of artists; produced many fine works,
the subjects of them chiefly madonnas, saints. &c. (1616-1686).
Dolcino, a heresiarch and martyr
of the 14th century, of the Apostolic Brethren, a sect which
rose in Piedmont who made themselves obnoxious to the Church;
was driven to bay by his persecutors, and at last caught and
tortured and burnt to death; a similar
fate overtook others of the sect, to its extermination.
Doldrums, a zone of the tropics
where calms, squalls, and baffling winds prevail.
Dôle (12), a town in the
dep. of Jura, on the Doubs, and the Rhône and Rhine Canal,
28 m. SE. of Dijon, with iron-works, and a trade in wine, grain, &c.
a learned French humanist, born at Orleans, became, by the study
of the classics, one of the lights of the Renaissance, and one
of its most zealous propagandists; suffered persecution after
persecution at the hands of the Church, and was burned in the
Place Maubert, Paris, a martyr to his philosophic zeal and opinions
Dolgelly, capital of Merioneth,
Wales, with manufactures of flannel.
Dolgorouki, the name of a
noble and illustrious Russian family.
Dollart Zee, a gulf in Holland
into which the Ems flows, 8 m. long by 7 broad, and formed by
inundation of the North Sea.
Döllinger, a Catholic
theologian, born in Bamberg, Bavaria, professor of Church History
in the University of Münich; head of the old Catholic party
in Germany; was at first a zealous Ultramontanist, but changed
his opinions and became quite as zealous in opposing, first,
the temporal sovereignty, and then the infallibility of the
Pope, to his excommunication from the Church; he was a polemic,
and as such wrote extensively on theological and ecclesiastical
topics; lived to a great age, and was much honoured to the last
Dollond, John, a mathematical
instrument-maker, born in Spitalfields, London, of Dutch descent;
began life as a silk-weaver; made good use of his leisure hours
in studies bearing mainly on physics; went into partnership
with his son, who was an optician; made a study of the telescope,
suggested improvements which commended themselves to the Royal
Society, and in especial how, by means of a combination of lenses,
to get rid of the coloured fringe in the image (1706-1761).
Dolmen, a rude structure of prehistoric
date, consisting of upright unhewn stones supporting one or
more heavy slabs; long regarded as altars of sacrifice, but
now believed to be sepulchral monuments; found in great numbers
in Bretagne especially.
Dolomite Alps, a limestone
mountain range forming the S. of the Eastern Alps, in the Tyrol
and N. Italy, famous for the remarkable and fantastic shapes
they assume; named after Dolomieu, a French mineralogist, who
studied the geology of them.
Domat, Jean, a learned French
jurist and friend of Pascal, regarded laws and customs as the
reflex of political history (1625-1696).
Dombasle, an eminent French
agriculturist, born at Nancy (1771-1818).
Dom-Boke (i. e. Doom-book),
a code of laws compiled by King Alfred from two prior Saxon
codes, to which he prefixed the Ten Commandments of Moses, and
rules of life from the Christian code of ethics.
Dombrowski, John Henry,
a Polish general, served in the Polish campaigns against Russia
and Prussia in 1792-1794; organised a Polish legion which did
good service in the wars of Napoleon; covered the retreat of
the French at the Beresina in 1812 (1755-1818).
Domdaniel, a hall under the
ocean where the evil spirits and magicians hold council under
their chief and pay him homage.
Domenichi`no, a celebrated
Italian painter, born at Bologna; studied under Calvaert and
Caracci; was of the Bolognese school, and reckoned one of the
first of them; his principal works are his "Communion of
St. Jerome," now in the Vatican, and the "Martyrdom
of St. Agnes," at Bologna, the former being regarded as
his masterpiece; he was the victim of persecution at the hands
of rivals; died at Naples, not without suspicion of having been
Domesday Book, the record,
in 2 vols., of the survey of all the lands of England made in
1081-1086 at the instance of William the Conqueror for purposes
of taxation; the survey included the whole of England, except
the four northern counties and part of Lancashire, and was made
by commissioners appointed by the king, and sent to the different
districts of the country, where they held courts, and registered
everything on evidence; it is a valuable document.
Dominic de Guzman, St., saint
of the Catholic Church, born in Old Castile; distinguished for
his zeal in the conversion of the heretic; essayed the task
by simple preaching of the Word; sanctioned persecution when
persuasion was of no avail; countenanced the crusade of Simon
de Montfort against the Albigenses for their obstinate unbelief,
and thus established a precedent which was all too relentlessly
followed by the agents of the Spanish Inquisition, the chiefs
of which were of the Dominican order, so that he is ignominiously
remembered as the "burner and slayer of heretics"
(1170-1221). Festival, Aug. 4.
Dominica, or Dominique
(26), the largest and most southerly of the Leeward Islands,
and belongs to Britain; one-half of the island is forest, and
parts of it have never been explored; was discovered by Columbus
on Sunday, November 3, 1493, whence its name.
Dominical Letter, one
of seven letters, A, B, C, D, E, F, G, used to mark the Sundays
throughout the year, so that if A denote the first Sunday, it
will denote all the rest, and so on with B, C, &c., till
at the end of seven years A becomes the dominical letter again.
or St. Domingo (610), a republic forming the E. part
of the island of Haiti, and consisting of two-thirds of it;
it belonged alternately to France and Spain till 1865, when,
on revolt, the Spaniards were expelled, and a republic established;
the capital is St. Domingo (15), and the chief port Puerto Plata.
Dominicans, a religious order
of preaching friars, founded at Toulouse in 1215 by St. Dominic,
to aid in the conversion of the heretic Albigenses to the faith,
and finally established as the order whose special charge it
was to guard the orthodoxy of the Church. The order was known
by the name Black Friars in England, from their dress; and Jacobins
in France, from the street of Paris in which they had their
Dominie, Sampson, a schoolmaster
in "Guy Mannering," "a poor, modest, humble scholar,
who had won his way through the classics, but fallen to the
leeward in the voyage of life."
Dominis, Marco Antonio
de, a vacillating ecclesiastic, born in Dalmatia; was
educated by the Jesuits; taught mathematics in Padua; wrote
a treatise in which an explanation was for the first time given
of the phenomenon of the rainbow; became archbishop of Spalatro;
falling under suspicion he passed over to England, professed
Protestantism, and was made dean of Windsor; reconciled to the
Papacy, returned to the Church of Rome, and left the country;
his sincerity being distrusted, was cast into prison, where
he died, his body being afterwards disinterred
and burned (1566-1624).
Domitian, Roman emperor, son
of Vespasian, brother of Titus, whom he succeeded in 81, the
last of the twelve Cæsars; exceeded the expectations of
every one in the beginning of his reign, as he had given proof
of a licentious and sanguinary character beforehand, but soon
his conduct changed, and fulfilled the worst fears of his subjects;
his vanity was wounded by the non-success of his arms, and his
vengeful spirit showed itself in a wholesale murder of the citizens;
many conspiracies were formed against his life, and he was at
length murdered by an assassin, who had been hired by his courtiers
and abetted by his wife Domitia, in 96.
Domrémy, a small village
on the Meuse, in the dep. of Vosges; the birthplace of Joan
Don, a Russian river, the ancient
Tanaïs; flows southward from its source in the province
of Tula, and after a course of 1153 m. falls into the Sea of
Azov; also the name of a river in Aberdeenshire, and another
Don Juan, the member of a distinguished
family of Seville, who seduces the daughter of a noble, and
when confronted by her father stabs him to death in a duel;
he afterwards prepares a feast and invites the stone statue
of his victim to partake of it; the stone statue turns up at
the least, compels Don Juan to follow him, and delivers him
over to the abyss of hell, the depths of which he had qualified
himself for by his utter and absolute depravity.
Don Quixote, the title of
a world-famous book written by Miguel Cervantes, in satire of
the romances of chivalry with which his countrymen were so fascinated;
the chief character of which gives title to it, a worthy gentleman
of La Mancha, whose head is so turned by reading tales of knight-errantry,
that he fancies he is a knight-errant himself, sallies forth
in quest of adventures, and encounters them in the most commonplace
incidents, one of his most ridiculous extravagancies being his
tilting with the windmills, and the overweening regard he has
for his Dulcinea del Tobosa.
Donaldson, John William,
a philologist, born in London; Fellow of Cambridge and tutor
of Trinity College; author of "New Cratylus; or Contributions
towards a more Accurate Knowledge of the Greek Language,"
a work of great erudition and of value to scholars; contributed
also to the philological study of Latin, and wrote a grammar
of both languages; he failed when he intruded into the field
of biblical criticism (1811-1861).
Donatello, a great Italian
sculptor, born at Florence, where he was apprenticed to a goldsmith;
tried his hand at carving in leisure hours; went to Rome and
studied the monuments of ancient art; returned to Florence and
executed an "Annunciation," still preserved in a chapel
in Santa Croce, which was followed by marble statues of St.
Peter, St. Mark, and St. George, before one of which, that of
St. Mark, Michael Angelo exclaimed, "Why do you not speak
to me?"; he executed tombs and figures, or groups in bronze
as well as marble; his schoolmasters were the sculptors of Greece,
and the real was his ultimate model (1383-1460).
Donati, an Italian astronomer,
born at Pisa; discoverer of the comet of 1858, called Donati's
Donatists, a sect in N. Africa,
founded by Donatus, bishop of Carthage, in the 4th century,
that separated from the rest of the Church and formed itself
into an exclusive community, with bishops and congregations
of its own, on the ground that no one was entitled to be a member
of Christ's body, or an overseer of Christ's flock, who was
not of divine election, and that in the face of an attempt,
backed by the Emperor Constantine, to thrust a bishop on the
Church at Carthage, consecrated by an authority that had betrayed
and sold the Church to the world; the members of it were subject
to cruel persecutions in which they gloried, and were annihilated
by the Saracens in the 7th century.
Donatus, a Latin grammarian
and rhetorician of the 4th century, the teacher of St. Jerome;
the author of treatises in grammar known as Donats, and, along
with the sacred Scriptures, the earliest examples of printing
by means of letters cut on wooden blocks, and so appreciated
as elementary treatises that they gave name to treatises of
the kind on any subject; he wrote also scholia to the
plays of Terence.
Donau, the German name for the
Doncaster (26), a market and
manufacturing town in the West Riding of Yorkshire, well built,
in a pleasant country, on the right bank of the Don, 33 m. S.
of York; famous for its races, the St. Leger in particular,
called after Colonel St. Leger, who instituted them in 1776.
Dondra Head, the southern
extremity of Ceylon, once the site of the capital.
Donegal (185), a county in the
NW. of Ireland, in the province of Ulster, the most mountainous
in the country; is mossy and boggy, and is indented along the
coast with bays, and fringed with islands.
Donetz, a tributary of the Russian
Don, the basin of which forms one large coal-field, reckoned
to be as large as all Yorkshire, and is reckoned one of the
largest of any in the world.
Dongola, New, a town in Nubia,
on the left bank of the Nile, above the third cataract, 20°
N. and over 700 m. from Cairo; was founded by the Mamelukes.
Donizetti, a celebrated Italian
composer, born at Bergamo, Lombardy, and studied at Bologna;
devoted himself to dramatic music; produced over 60 operas,
among the number "Lucia di Lammermoor," the "Daughter
of the Regiment," "Lucrezia Borgia," and "La
Favorita," all well known, and all possessing a melodious
quality of the first order (1797-1848).
Donne, John, English poet
and divine, born in London; a man of good degree; brought up
in the Catholic faith; after weighing the claims of the Romish
and Anglican communions, joined the latter; married a young
lady of sixteen without consent of her father, which involved
him in trouble for a time; was induced to take holy orders by
King James; was made his chaplain, and finally became Dean of
St. Paul's; wrote sermons, some 200 letters and essays, as well
as poems, the latter, amid many defects, revealing a soul instinct
with true poetic fire (1573-1631). See "Professor Saintsbury
Donnybrook, a village now
included in Dublin, long celebrated for its fairs and the fights
it was the scene of on such occasions.
Donon, the highest peak of the
Doo, George Thomas,
a celebrated English line-engraver, and one of the best in his
Doon, a river rendered classic
by the muse of Burns, which after a course of 30 m. joins the
Clyde 2 m. S. of Ayr.
Dora, the child-wife of "David
Copperfield," Dickens's novel.
Dora d'Istria, the pseudonym
of Helena Ghika, born in Wallachia, of noble birth; distinguished
for her beauty and accomplishments; was eminent as a linguist;
translated the "Iliad" into German; wrote works, the
fruits of travels (1829-1888).
Doran, John, an English man
of letters, born In London, of Irish descent; wrote on miscellaneous
subjects; became editor of the Athenæum and
Notes and Queries (1807-1878).
Dorat, Jean, a French poet,
born at Limoges; a Greek scholar; contributed much to the revival
of classical literature in France, and was one of the
French Pléiade (q.
v.); d. 1588.
Dorcas Society, a society
for making clothing for the poor. See Acts ix. 39.
Dorchester (7), the county
town of Dorset, on the Frome; was a Roman town, and contains
the ruins of a Roman amphitheatre.
Dordogne, a river in the S.
of France, which, after a course of 300 m., falls into the estuary
of Garonne; also a dep. (478) through which it flows.
Doré, Gustave, a
French painter and designer, born in Strasburg; evinced great
power and fertility of invention, having, it is alleged, produced
more than 50,000 designs; had a wonderful faculty for seizing
likenesses, and would draw from memory groups of faces he had
seen only once; among the books he illustrated are the "Contes
Drolatiques" of Balzac, the works of Rabelais and Montaigne,
Dante's "Inferno," also his "Purgatorio"
and "Paradiso," "Don Quixote," Tennyson's "Idylls,"
Milton's works, and Coleridge's "Ancient Mariner";
among his paintings were "Christ Leaving the Prætorium,"
and "Christ's Entry into Jerusalem"; he has left behind
him works of sculpture as well as drawings and pictures; his
art has been severely handled by the critics, and most of all
by Ruskin, who treats it with unmitigated scorn (1832-1883).
Doria, Andrea, a naval commander,
born in Genoa, of noble descent, though his parents were poor;
a man of patriotic instincts; adopted the profession of arms
at the age of 19; became commander of the fleet in 1513; attacked
with signal success the Turkish corsairs that infested the Mediterranean;
served under Francis I. to free his country from a faction that
threatened its independence, and, by his help, succeeded in
expelling it; next, in fear of the French supremacy, served,
under Charles V., and entering Genoa, was hailed as its liberator,
and received the title of "Father and Defender of his country";
the rest of his life, and it was a long one, was one incessant
wrestle with his great rival Barbarossa, the chief of the corsairs,
and which ended in his defeat (1466-1560).
Dorians, one of the four divisions
of the Hellenic race, the other three being the Achæans,
the Æolians, and the Ionians; at an early period overran
the whole Peloponnesus; they were a hardy people, of staid habits
and earnest character.
Doric, the oldest, strongest,
and simplest of the four Grecian orders of architecture.
Dorine, a petulant domestic in
Doris, a small mountainous country
of ancient Greece, S. of Thessaly, and embracing the valley
of the Pindus.
Doris, the wife of Nereus, and
mother of the Nereids.
Dorislaus, Isaac, a lawyer,
born at Alkmaar, in Holland; came to England, and was appointed
Judge-Advocate; acted as such at King Charles's trial, and was
for that latter offence assassinated at the Hague one evening
by certain high-flying Royalist cut-throats, Scotch several
of them; "his portrait represents him as a man of heavy,
deep-wrinkled, elephantine countenance, pressed down by the
labours of life and law" (1595-1649).
Dorking (7), a market-town picturesquely
situated in the heart of Surrey, 24 m. SW. of London; gives
name to a breed of fowls; contains a number of fashionable villas.
Dorn, a distinguished German orientalist;
wrote a History of the Afghans, and on their language (1805-1881).
Dorner, Isaak August,
a German theologian, born at Würtemberg; studied at Tübingen;
became professor of Theology in Berlin, after having held a
similar post in several other German universities; his principal
works were the "History of the Development of the Doctrine
of the Person of Christ," and the "History of Protestant
Dornoch, the county town of
Sutherland, a small place, but a royal burgh; has a good golf
Doros, a son of Helen and grandson
of Deucalion, the father of the Dorians, as his brother Æolis
was of the Æolians.
Dorothea, St., a virgin of
Alexandria, suffered martyrdom by being beheaded in 311. Festival,
Dorpat (38), a town on the Embach,
in Livonia, Russia, 150 m. NE. of Riga, with a celebrated university
founded by Gustavus Adolphus in 1632; it has a well-equipped
staff, and is well attended; the majority of the population
D'Orsay, Count, a man of
fashion, born in Paris; entered the French army; forsook it
for the society of Lord and Lady Blessington; married Lady B.'s
daughter by a former marriage; came to England with her ladyship
on her husband's death; started a joint establishment in London,
which became a rendezvous for all the literary people and artists
about town; was "Phoebus Apollo of Dandyism"; paid
homage to Carlyle at Chelsea one day in 1839; "came whirling
hither in a chariot that struck all Chelsea into mute amazement
with splendour," says Carlyle, who thus describes him, "a
tall fellow of six feet three, built like a tower, with floods
of dark auburn hair, with a beauty, with an adornment unsurpassable
on this planet: withal a rather substantial fellow at bottom,
by no means without insight, without fun, and a sort of rough
sarcasm, rather striking out of such a porcelain figure";
having shown kindness to Louis Napoleon when in London, the
Prince did not forget him, and after the coup d'état
appointed him to a well-salaried post, but he did not live to
enjoy it (1798-1852).
Dorset (194), maritime county
in the S. of England, with a deeply indented coast; it consists
of a plain between two eastward and westward reaching belts
of downs; is mainly a pastoral county; rears sheep and cattle,
and produces butter and cheese.
Dort, or Dordrecht (34),
a town on an island in the Maas, in the province of South Holland,
12 m. SE. of Rotterdam; admirably situated for trade, connected
as it is with the Rhine as well, on which rafts of wood are
sent floating down to it; is famous for a Synod held here in
1618-19, at which the tenets of Arminius were condemned, and
the doctrines of Calvin approved of and endorsed as the doctrines
of the Reformed Church.
Dortmund (89), a town in Westphalia;
a great mineral and railway centre, with large iron and steel
forges, and a number of breweries.
Dory, John, the hero of an
a scholastic establishment in "Nicholas Nickleby."
Douay (31), a town on the Scarpe,
in the dep. of Nord, France, 20 m. S. of Lille, and one of the
chief military towns of the country; has a college founded in
1568 for the education of Catholic priests intended for England,
and is where a version of the Bible in English for the use of
Catholics was issued.
Doubs, a tributary of the Saône,
which it falls into below Dôle; gives name to the dep.
(303), which it traverses.
Doubting Castle, a castle
belonging to Giant Despair in the "Pilgrim's Progress,"
which only one key could open, the key Promise.
Douce, Francis, a learned
antiquary, born in London; for a time keeper of MSS. in the
British Museum; author of "Illustrations of Shakespeare,"
and an illustrated volume, "The Dance of Death"; left
in the Museum a chest of books and MSS. not to be opened till
1900; was a man of independent means, and a devoted archæologist
Douglas (19), the largest town
and capital as well as chief port of the Isle of Man, 74 m.
from Liverpool; much frequented as a bathing-place; contains
an old residence of the Dukes of Atholl, entitled Castle Mona,
now a hotel. See Man, Isle of.
Douglas-1, the name of an
old Scotch family, believed to be of Celtic origin, and that
played a conspicuous part at one time in the internal and external
struggles of the country; they figure in Scottish history in
two branches, the elder called the Black and the later the Red
Douglases or the Angus branch, now represented by the houses
of Hamilton and Home. The eldest of the Douglases, William,
was a kinsman of the house of Murray, and appears to have lived
about the end of the 12th century. One of the most illustrious
of the family was the Good Sir James, distinguished specially
as the "Black" Douglas, the pink of knighthood and
the associate of Bruce, who carried the Bruce's heart in a casket
to bury it in Palestine, but died fighting in Spain, 1330.
Douglas, Gawin or Gavin,
a Scottish poet and bishop of Dunkeld, third son of Archibald,
Earl of Angus, surnamed "Bell-the-Cat"; political
troubles obliged him to leave the country and take refuge at
the Court of Henry VII., where he was held in high regard; died
here of the plague, and was buried by his own wish in the Savoy;
besides Ovid's "Art of Love," now lost, he translated
(1512-1513) the "Æneid" of Virgil into English
verse, to each book of which he prefixed a prologue, in certain
of which there are descriptions that evince a poet's love of
nature combined with his love as a Scotchman for the scenery
of his native land; besides this translation, which is his chief
work, he indited two allegorical poems, entitled the "Palace
of Honour," addressed to James IV., and "King Hart"
Douglas, Sir Howard,
an English general and writer on military subjects, born at
Gosport; saw service in the Peninsula; was Governor of New Brunswick
and Lord High Commissioner of the Ionian Islands (1776-1861).
Douglas, John, bishop of
Salisbury, born at Pittenweem, Fife; wrote "The Criterion
of, or a Discourse on, Miracles" against Hume; was a friend
of Samuel Johnson's (1721-1807).
Douglas, Stephen Arnold,
an American statesman, born in Brandon, Vermont; a lawyer by
profession, and a judge; a member of Congress and the Senate;
was a Democrat; stood for the Presidency when Lincoln was elected;
was a leader in the Western States; a splendid monument is erected
to his memory in Chicago (1813-1861).
American orator, born a slave in Maryland; wrought as a slave
in a Baltimore shipbuilder's yard; escaped at the age of 21
to New York; attended an anti-slavery meeting, where he spoke
so eloquently that he was appointed by the Anti-Slavery Society
to lecture in its behalf, which he did with success and much
appreciation in England as well as America; published an Autobiography,
which gives a thrilling account of his life (1817-1895).
Doulton, Sir Henry,
the reviver of art pottery, born in Lambeth; knighted in the
Jubilee year for his eminence in that department; b.
Douro, a river, and the largest,
of the Spanish Peninsula, which rises in the Cantabrian Mountains;
forms for 40 m. the northern boundary of Portugal, and after
a course of 500 m. falls into the Atlantic at Oporto; is navigable
only where it traverses Portugal.
Douster-swivel, a German
swindling schemer in the "Antiquary."
Dove, in Christian art the symbol
of the Holy Ghost, or of a pure, or a purified soul, and with
an olive branch, the symbol of peace and the gospel of peace.
Dove, Heinrich Wilhelm,
a German physicist, born at Liegnitz, Silesia; professor of
Natural Philosophy in Berlin; was eminent chiefly in the departments
of meteorology and optics; he discovered how by the stereoscope
to detect forged bank-notes (1803-1879).
Dover (33), a seaport on the E.
coast of Kent, and the nearest in England to the coast of France,
60 m. SE. of London, and with a mail service to Calais and Ostend;
is strongly fortified, and the chief station in the SE. military
district of England; was the chief of the Cinque Ports.
Dover, Strait of, divides
France from England and connects the English Channel with the
North Sea, and at the narrowest 20 m. across; forms a busy sea
highway; is called by the French Pas de Calais.
Dovrefeld, a range of mountains
in Norway, stretching NE. and extending between 62° and
63° N. lat., average height 3000 ft.
Dow or Douw, Gerard, a distinguished
Dutch genre-painter, born at Leyden; a pupil of Rembrandt; his
works, which are very numerous, are the fruit of a devoted study
of nature, and are remarkable for their delicacy and perfection
of finish; examples of his works are found in all the great
galleries of Europe (1613-1675).
Dowden, Edward, literary
critic, professor of English Literature in Dublin University,
born in Cork; is distinguished specially as a Shakesperian;
is author of "Shakespeare: a Study of his Mind and Art," "Introduction
to Shakespeare," and "Shakesperian Sonnets, with Notes";
has written "Studies in Literature," and a "Life
of Shelley"; is well read in German as well as English
literature; has written with no less ability on Goethe than
on Shakespeare; b. 1843.
Down (266), a maritime county in
the SE. of the province of Ulster, Ireland, with a mostly level
and fairly fertile soil, and manufactures of linen.
Downs, The, a safe place of
anchorage, 8 m. long by 6 m. broad, for ships between Goodwin
Sands and the coast of Kent.
Downs, The North and South,
two parallel ranges of low broad hills covered with a light
soil and with a valley between, called the Weald, that
extend eastward from Hampshire to the
sea-coast, the North terminating in Dover cliffs, Kent, and
the South in Beachy Head, Sussex; the South famous for the breed
of sheep that pastures on them.
Doyle, Dr. Conan, novelist,
nephew of Richard and grandson of John, born in Edinburgh; studied
and practised medicine, but gave it up after a time for literature,
in which he had already achieved no small success; several of
his productions have attracted universal attention, especially
his "Adventures" and his "Memoir of Sherlock
Holmes"; wrote a short play "A Story of Waterloo,"
produced with success by Sir Henry Irving; b. 1859.
Doyle, Sir Francis Hastings,
an English poet, born near Tadcaster; bred to the bar, but devoted
to poetry and horse-racing; became professor of Poetry at Oxford;
author of "Miscellaneous Verses," "Two Destinies," "Retreat
of the Guards," "The Thread of Honour," and "The
Private of the Buffs" (1810-1858).
Doyle, John, an eminent caricaturist,
of Irish origin, under the initials H. B. (1797-1868).
Doyle, Richard, eminent
caricaturist, born in London, son of the preceding; contributed
to Punch, of which he designed the cover, but left the
staff, in 1850 owing to the criticisms in the journal adverse
to the Catholic Church; devoted himself after that chiefly to
book illustration and water-colour painting (1824-1883).
Dozy, Reinhart, an Orientalist
and linguist, born at Leyden, where he became professor of History;
devoted himself to the study of the history of the Arabs or
Moors in North-Western Africa and Spain, his chief work being "The
History of the Mussulmans of Spain"; wrote also a "Detailed
Dictionary of the Names of the Dress of the Arabs" (1820-1883).
Drachenfels (Dragon's Rock),
one of the Siebengebirge, 8 m. SE. of Bonn, 1056 ft. above the
Rhine, and crowned by a castle with a commanding view; the legendary
abode of the dragon killed by Siegfried in the "Lay of
Draco, a celebrated Athenian law-giver,
who first gave stability to the State by committing the laws
to writing, and establishing the Ephetæ, or court of appeal,
621 B.C.; only he punished every transgressor of his laws with
death, so that his code became unbearable, and was superseded
ere long by a milder, instituted by Solon, who affixed the penalty
of death to murder alone; he is said to have justified the severity
of his code by maintaining that the smallest crime deserved
death, and he knew no severer punishment for greater; it is
said he was smothered to death in the theatre by the hats and
cloaks showered on him as a popular mark of honour; he was archon
Dragon, a fabulous monster, being
a hideous impersonation of some form of deadly evil, which only
preternatural heroic strength and courage can subdue, and on
the subdual and slaying of which depends the achievement of
some conquest of vital moment to the human race or some members
of it; is represented in mediæval art as a large, lizard-like
animal, with the claws of a lion, the wings of an eagle, and
the tail of a serpent, with open jaws ready and eager to devour,
which some knight high-mounted thrusts at to pierce to death
with a spear; in the Greek mythology it is represented with
eyes ever on the watch, in symbol of the evil that waylays us
to kill us if we don't kill it, as in guarding the "Apples
of the Hesperides" and the "Golden Fleece," because
these are prizes that fall only to those who are as watchful
of him as he is of them; and it is consecrated to Minerva to
signify that true wisdom, as sensible of the ever-wakeful dragon,
never goes to sleep, but is equally ever on the watch.
Dragonnades, the name given
to the persecution at the instance of Louis XIV. to force the
Huguenots of France back into the bosom of the Catholic Church
by employment of dragoons.
Dragon's Teeth, the teeth
of the dragon that Cadmus slew, and which when sown by him sprang
up as a host of armed men, who killed each other all to the
five who became the ancestors of the Thebans, hence the phrase
to "sow dragon's teeth," to breed and foster strife.
Drake, Sir Francis,
a great English seaman of the reign of Queen Elizabeth, born
near Tavistock, in Devon; served in the Royal Navy under his
relative, Sir John Hawkins, and distinguished himself with signal
success by his valour and daring against the pride of Spain,
towards which, as the great Catholic persecuting power, he had
been taught to cherish an invincible hatred; came swoop down
like a hawk on its ports across seas, and bore himself out of
them laden with spoil; in 1577 sailed for America with five
ships, passed through the Strait of Magellan, the first Englishman
to do it; plundered the W. coast as far as Peru; lost all his
ships save one; crossed the Pacific, and came home by way of
the Cape—the first to sail round the world—with
spoil to the value of £300,000, his successes contributing
much to embolden his countrymen against the arrogance of the
Catholic king; and he was vice-admiral in the fleet that drove
back the Armada from our shores (1540-1596).
Drake, Friedrich, a German
sculptor, born at Pyrmont; studied under Rauch; executed numerous
statues and busts, among others busts of Oken and Ranke, Bismarck
and Moltke; his chief works are the "Eight Provinces of
Prussia," represented by large allegorical figures, and
the "Warrior crowned by Victory" (1805-1882).
Drake, Nathan, a physician,
born at York; author of "Shakespeare and his Times"
a range of mountains in S. Africa, 6500 ft. high, between Natal
and the Orange Free State.
Dramatic unities, three
rules of dramatic construction prescribed by Aristotle, observed
by the French dramatists, but ignored by Shakespeare, that (1)
a play should represent what takes place within eight hours,
(2) there must be no change of locality, and (3) there must
be no minor plot.
Drammen (20), a Norwegian seaport
on a river which falls into Christiania Bay, 30 m. SW. of Christiania;
trade chiefly in timber.
Draper, John William,
a chemist, scientist, and man of letters, born at Liverpool;
settled in the United States; wrote on chemistry, physiology,
and physics generally, as well as works of a historical character,
such as the "History of the Intellectual Development of
Europe" and the "History of the Conflict between Science
and Religion," an able book (1811-1882).
Drapier, a pseudonym adopted
by Swift in his letters to the people of Ireland anent Wood's
pence, and which led to the cancelling of the patent.
Drave, a river from the Eastern
Alps which flows eastward, and after a course of 380 miles falls
into the Danube 10 m. below Essek.
Dravidians, races of people
who occupied India before the arrival of Aryans, and being driven
S. by them came to settle chiefly in the S. of the Dekkan; they
are divided into numerous tribes, each with a language of its
own, but of a common type or group, some of them literary and
some of them not, the chief the Tamil;
the tribes together number over 20 millions.
Drawcansir, a blustering,
bullying boaster in Buckingham's play the "Rehearsal";
he kills every one of the combatants, "sparing neither
friend nor foe."
Drayton, Michael, an
English poet, born In Warwickshire, like Shakespeare; was one
of the three chief patriotic poets, Warner and Daniel being
the other two, which arose in England after her humiliation
of the pride of Spain, although he was no less distinguished
as a love poet; his great work is his "Polyolbion,"
in glorification of England, consisting of 30 books and 100,000
lines; it gives in Alexandrines "the tracts, mountains,
forests, and other parts of this renowned isle of Britain, with
intermixture of the most remarkable stories, antiquities, wonders,
pleasures, and commodities of the same digested in a poem";
this was preceded by other works, and succeeded by a poem entitled "The
Ballad of Agincourt," pronounced one of the most spirited
martial lyrics in the language (1563-1631).
Drelincourt, a French Protestant
divine, born at Sedan; author of "Consolations against
the Fear of Death" (1595-1669).
Drenthe (137), a province of
Holland lying between Hanover and the Zuyder Zee; the soil is
poor, and the population sparse.
Dresden (250), the capital of
Saxony, on the Elbe, 116 m. SE. of Berlin; a fine city, with
a museum rich in all kinds of works of art, and called in consequence
the "Florence of Germany"; here the Allies were defeated
by Napoleon in 1813, when he entered the city, leaving behind
him 30,000 men, who were besieged by the Russians and compelled
to surrender as prisoners of war the same year.
On 23rd December 1894, Alfred Dreyfus, an Alsatian Jew, captain
of French Artillery; was by court-martial found guilty of revealing
to a foreign power secrets of national defence, and sentenced
to degradation and perpetual imprisonment; he constantly maintained
his innocence, and, in time, the belief that he had been unjustly
condemned became prevalent, and a revision of the trial being
at length ordered, principally through the exertions of Colonel
Picquart and Zola, the well-known author, Dreyfus was brought
back from Cayenne, where he had been kept a close prisoner and
cruelly treated, and a fresh trial at Rennes began on 6th August
1899, and lasted till 9th September; the proceedings, marked
by scandalous "scenes," and by an attempt to assassinate
one of prisoner's counsel—disclosed an alarmingly corrupt
condition of affairs in some lines of French public life under
the Republic of the time, and terminated in a majority verdict
of "guilty"; M. Dreyfus was set at liberty on 20th
September, the sentence of ten years' imprisonment being remitted;
Dreyse, Nicholaus von,
inventor of the needle-gun, born at Sömmerda, near Erfurt,
the son of a locksmith, and bred to his father's craft; established
a large factory at Sömmerda for a manufactory of firearms;
was ennobled 1864 (1787-1867).
Drogheda (11), a seaport in
co. Louth, near the mouth of the Boyne, 32 m. N. of Dublin,
with manufactures and a considerable export trade; was stormed
by Cromwell in 1649 "after a stout resistance," and
the garrison put to the sword; surrendered to William III. after
the battle of the Boyne in 1690.
Dromore, a cathedral town in
co. Down, Ireland, 17 m. SW. of Belfast, of which Jeremy Taylor
Droogs, steep rocks which dot
the surface of Mysore, in India, and resemble hay-ricks, some
of these 1500 ft. high, some with springs on the top, and scalable
only by steps cut in them.
Fraulein von, a German poetess, born near Münster;
was of delicate constitution; wrote tales as well as lyrics
in record of deep and tender experiences (1797-1848).
Drouet, Jean Baptiste,
notable king-taker, a violent Jacobin and member of the Council
of the Five Hundred; had been a dragoon soldier; was postmaster
at St. Menehould when Louis XVI., attempting flight, passed
through the place, and by whisper of surmise had the progress
of Louis and his party arrested at Varennes, June 21, 1791,
for which service he received honourable mention and due reward
in money; was taken captive by the Austrians at last; perched
on a rock 100 ft. high, descended one night by means of a paper
kite he had constructed, but was found at the foot helpless
with leg broken (1763-1824).
Drouet, Jean Baptiste,
Comte d'Erlon, marshal of France, born at Rheims; distinguished
in the wars of the Republic and the Empire; on Napoleon's return
from Elba seized on the citadel of Lille, and held it for the
emperor; commanded the first corps d'armée at
Waterloo; left France at the Restoration; returned after the
July Revolution; became governor of Algiers, and was created
Drouot, a French general, son
of a baker at Nancy; Napoleon, whom, as commander of artillery,
he accompanied over all his battlefields in Europe and to Elba,
used to call him the Sage of the Grande Armée
Drouyn de Lhuys, French
statesman and diplomatist, born in Paris; was ambassador at
the Hague and Madrid; distinguished himself by his opposition
to Guizot; served as Minister of Foreign Affairs under Louis
Napoleon; withdrew into private life after the collapse at Sedan
Droysen, a German historian,
born in Pomerania; professor in Berlin; author of the "History
of Prussian Policy," "History of Alexander the Great,"
and "History of Hellenism" (1808-1884).
Droz, the name of a Swiss family
of mechanicians, one of them, Jean Pierre, an engraver of medals
(1746-1833); also of a French moralist and historian, author
of "History of Louis XVI." (1773-1850).
Droz, Gustav, a highly popular
and brilliant novelist, born in Paris; author of "Monsieur,
Madam, et Bébé," "Entre Nous,"
and "Cahier bleu de Mlle. Cibot" (1832-1895).
Druids, a sacred order of learned
men under a chief called the Archdruid, among the ancient Celtic
nations, particularly of Gaul and Britain, who, from their knowledge
of the arts and sciences of the day, were the ministers of religion
and justice, as well as the teachers of youth to the whole community,
and exercised an absolute control over the unlearned people
whom they governed; they worshipped in oak groves, and the oak
tree and the mistletoe were sacred to them; the heavenly bodies
appear to have been also objects of their worship, and they
appear to have believed in the immortality and transmigration
of the soul; but they committed nothing to writing, and for
our knowledge of them we have to depend on the reports of outsiders.
Drumclog Moss, a flat wilderness
of broken bog and quagmire in Lanarkshire, where the Covenanters
defeated Claverhouse's dragoons in 1679.
Drummond, Henry, popular
scientist and Christian teacher, born in Stirling; was educated
at Edinburgh and Tübingen; studied for the Free
Church; lectured on natural science; became famous by the publication
of "Natural Law in the Spiritual World," a book which
took with the Christian public at once, and had an enormous
sale, which was succeeded by "Tropical Africa," a
charmingly-written book of travel, and by a series of booklets,
commencing with "The Greatest Thing in the World,"
intended to expound and commend the first principles of the
Christian faith; his last work except one, published posthumously,
entitled the "Ideal Life," was the "Ascent of
Man," in which he posits an altruistic element in the process
of evolution, and makes the goal of it a higher and higher life
Drummond, Captain Thomas,
civil engineer, born in Edinburgh; inventor of the Drummond
Light; was employed in the trigonometrical survey of Great Britain
and Ireland; became Under-Secretary for Ireland, and was held
in high favour by the Irish (1797-1840).
Drummond, William, of
Hawthornden, a Scottish poet, named the "Petrarch of Scotland,"
born in Hawthornden; studied civil law at Bourges, but poetry
had more attractions for him than law, and on the death of his
father he returned to his paternal estate, and devoted himself
to the study of it and the indulgence of his poetic tastes. "His
work was done," as Stopford Brooke remarks, "in the
reign of James I., but is the result of the Elizabethan influence
extending to Scotland. Drummond's sonnets and madrigals have
some of the grace of Sidney, and he rose at intervals into grave
and noble verse, as in his sonnet on John the Baptist."
He was a devoted Royalist; his first poem was "Tears"
on the death of James I.'s eldest son Henry, and the fate of
Charles I. is said to have cut short his days; the visit of
Ben Jonson to him at Hawthornden is well known (1585-1649).
Drummond Light, an intensely-brilliant
and pure white light produced by the play of an oxyhydrogen
flame upon a ball of lime, so called from the inventor, Captain
Drury, Dru, a naturalist, born
in London; bred a silversmith; took to entomology; published "Illustrations
of Natural History"; his principal work "Illustrations
of Exotic Entomology" (1725-1803).
Drury Lane, a celebrated London
theatre founded in 1663, in what was a fashionable quarter of
the city then; has since that time been thrice burnt down; was
the scene of Garrick's triumphs, and of those of many of his
illustrious successors, though it is now given up chiefly to
pantomimes and spectacular exhibitions.
Druses, a peculiar people, numbering
some 80,000, inhabiting the S. of Lebanon and Anti-lebanon,
with the Maronites on the N., whose origin is very uncertain,
only it is evident, though they speak the Arab language, they
belong to the Aryan race; their religion, a mixture of Christian,
Jewish, and Mohammedan beliefs, is grounded on faith in the
unity and the incarnation of God; their form of government is
half hierarchical and half feudalistic; in early times they
were under emirs of their own, but in consequence of the sanguinary,
deadly, and mutually exterminating strife between them and the
Christian Maronites in 1860, they were put under a Christian
governor appointed by the Porte.
Drusus, M. Livius, a tribune
of the people at Rome in 122 B.C., but a stanch supporter of
the aristocracy; after passing a veto on a popular measure proposed
by Gracchus his democratic colleague, proposed the same measure
himself in order to show and prove to the people that the patricians
were their best friends; the success of this policy gained him
the name of "patron of the senate."
Drusus, M. Livius, tribune
of the people, 91 B.C., son of the preceding, and an aristocrat;
pursued the same course as his father, but was baffled in the
execution of his purpose, which was to broaden the constitution,
in consequence of which he formed a conspiracy, and was assassinated,
an event which led to the Social
War (q. v.).
Drusus, Nero Claudius,
surnamed "Germanicus," younger brother of Tiberius
and son-in-law of Marc Antony; distinguished himself in four
successive campaigns against the tribes of Germany, but stopped
short at the Elbe, scared by the apparition of a woman of colossal
stature who defied him to cross, so that he had to "content
himself with erecting some triumphal pillars on his own safe
side of the river and say that the tribes across were conquered";
falling ill of a mortal malady, his brother the emperor hastened
across the Alps to close his eyes, and brought home his body,
which was burned and the ashes buried in the tomb of Augustus.
Dryads, nymphs of forest trees,
which were conceived of as born with the tree they were attached
to and dying along with it; they had their abode in wooded mountains
away from men; held their revels among themselves, but broke
them off at the approach of a human footstep.
Dryas, the father of Lycurgus,
a Thracian king, and slain by him, who, in a fit of frenzy against
the Bacchus worshippers, mistook him for a vine and cut him
down. See Lycurgus.
Dryasdust, a name of Sir Walter
Scott's invention, and employed by him to denote an imaginary
character who supplied him with dry preliminary historical details,
and since used to denote a writer who treats a historical subject
with all due diligence and research, but without any appreciation
of the human interest in it, still less the soul of it.
Dryburgh, an abbey, now a ruin,
founded by David I., on the Tweed, in Berwickshire, 3 m. SE.
of Melrose; the burial-place of Sir Walter Scott.
Dryden, John, a celebrated
English poet, "glorious John," born in Northamptonshire,
of a good family of Puritan principles; educated at Westminster
School and Cambridge; his first poetic production of any merit
was a set of "heroic stanzas" on the death of Cromwell;
at the Restoration he changed sides and wrote a poem which he
called "Astræa Redux" in praise of the event,
which was ere long followed by his "Annus Mirabilis,"
in commemoration of the year 1666, which revealed at once the
poet and the royalist, and gained him the appointment of poet-laureate,
prior to which and afterwards he produced a succession of plays
for the stage, which won him great popularity, after which he
turned his mind to political affairs and assumed the role of
political satirist by production of his "Absalom and Achitophel,"
intended to expose the schemes of Shaftesbury, represented as
Achitophel and Monmouth as Absalom, to oust the Duke of York
from the succession to the throne; on the accession of James
II. he became a Roman Catholic, and wrote "The Hind and
the Panther," characterised by Stopford Brooke as "a
model of melodious reasoning in behalf of the milk-white hind
of the Church of Rome," and really the most powerful thing
of the kind in the language; at the Revolution he was deprived
of his posts, but it was after that event he executed his translation
of Virgil, and produced his celebrated odes and "Fables"
Dualism, or Manichæism,
the doctrine that there are two opposite
and independently existing principles which go to constitute
every concrete thing throughout the universe, such as a principle
of good and a principle of evil, light and darkness, life and
death, spirit and matter, ideal and real, yea and nay, God and
Devil, Christ and Antichrist, Ormuzd and Ahriman.
Du Barry, Countess,
mistress of Louis XV., born at Vaucouleurs, daughter of a dressmaker;
came to Paris, professing millinery; had fascinating attractions,
and was introduced to the king; governed France to its ruin
and the dismissal of all Louis' able and honourable advisers;
fled from Paris on the death of Louis, put on mourning for his
death; was arrested, brought before the Revolutionary tribunal,
condemned for wasting the finances of the State, and guillotined
Du Bellay, a French general,
born at Montmirail; served under Francis I. (1541-1590).
Dublin (360), the capital of
Ireland, at the mouth of the Liffey, which divides it in two,
and is crossed by 12 bridges; the principal and finest street
is Sackville Street, which is about 700 yards long and 40 wide;
it has a famous university and two cathedrals, besides a castle,
the residence of the Lord-Lieutenant; and a park, the Phoenix,
one of the finest in Europe; manufactures porter, whisky, and
Dubois, Guillaume, cardinal
and prime minister of France; notorious for his ambition and
his debauchery; appointed tutor to the Duke of Orleans; encouraged
him in vice, and secured his attachment and patronage in promotion,
so that in the end he rose to the highest honours, and even
influence, in both Church and state; notwithstanding his debauchery
he was an able man and an able minister (1656-1723).
Dubois, Reymond, a German
physiologist, born in Berlin, of French descent; professor of
Physiology at Berlin; distinguished for his researches in animal
electricity; b. 1818.
Dubois de Crancé,
a violent French revolutionary, born at Charleville; besieged
and captured Lyons, giving no quarter; was Minister of War under
the Directory; secured the adoption of the principle of conscription
in recruiting the army (1747-1814).
Dubourg, a French magistrate,
member of the parlement of Paris; burnt as a heretic for recommending
clemency in the treatment of the Huguenots (1521-1559).
Dubufe, a distinguished French
Dubuque (36), a town in Iowa,
U.S., on the Mississippi, with lead-mines and a trade in grain,
Ducamp, Maxime, a French
littérateur, born in Paris; has written "Travels
in the East"; is the author of "Paris," its civic
life, as also an account of its "Convulsions";
Du Cange, Charles, one of the
most erudite of French scholars, born at Amiens, and educated
among the Jesuits; wrote on language, law, archæology,
and history; devoted himself much to the study of the Middle
Ages; contributed to the rediscovery of old French literature,
and wrote a history of the Latin empire; his greatest works
are his Glossaries of the Latin and Greek of the Middle Ages
Ducat, a coin, generally in gold,
that circulated in Venice, and was current in Germany at one
time, of varied value.
Du Chaillu, Paul Belloni,
an African traveller, born in Louisiana; his principal explorations
confined to the equatorial region of West Africa, and the result
an extension of our knowledge of its geography, ethnology, and
zoology, and particularly of the character and habits of the
ape tribes, and above all the gorilla; b. 1837.
Du Châtelet, Marquise
de, a scientific lady and friend of Voltaire's, born
in Paris; "a too fascinating shrew," as he at length
found to his cost (1706-1749).
Duchesne, André, French
historian and geographer, born in Touraine; styled the "Father
of French History"; famous for his researches in it and
in French antiquities, and for histories of England, Scotland,
and Ireland respectively; his industry was unwearied; he left
more than 100 folios in MS. (1584-1640).
Duchobortzi, a religious
community in Russia of Quaker principles, and of a creed that
denied the doctrine of the Trinity and the divinity of Christ;
they became a cause of trouble to the empire by their fanaticism,
and were removed to a high plateau in Transcaucasia, where they
live by cattle-rearing.
Ducis, Jean, a French dramatist,
born at Versailles; took Shakespeare for his model; declined
Napoleon's patronage, thinking it better, as he said, to wear
rags than wear chains (1733-1816).
Ducking Stool, a stool
or chair in which a scolding woman was confined, and set before
her own door to be pelted at, or borne in a tumbrel through
the town to be jeered at, or placed at the end of a see-saw
and ducked in a pool.
Duclos, Charles, a witty
and satirical French writer, born at Dinan; author of "Observations,"
and "A History of the Manners of the Eighteenth Century,"
and "Mémoires of the Reigns of Louis XIV. and Louis
XV."; he mingled much in French society of the period,
and took studious note of its passing whims (1704-1772).
Ducornet, a French historical-painter,
born at Lille; being born without arms, painted with his foot
Ducos, Roger, French politician,
born at Bordeaux, member of the National Convention and of the
Ducrot, a French general, born
at Nivers; served in Algeria, in the Italian campaign of 1859,
and as head of a division in the German War; was imprisoned
for refusing to sign the capitulation treaty of Sedan, but escaped
and took part in the defence of Paris when besieged by the Germans
Du Deffand, Marquise.
Dudley (90), the largest town
in Worcestershire, 8½ m. NW. of Birmingham, in the heart
of the "Black Country," with coal-mines, iron-works,
and hardware manufactures.
Dudley, Edmund, an English
lawyer and privy-councillor; was associated with Empson as an
agent in carrying on the obnoxious policy of Henry VII., and
beheaded along with him at the instance of Henry VIII. on a
charge of high treason in 1510.
Dudley, John, grand-marshal
of England, son of the preceding, father-in-law of Lady Jane
Grey; beheaded in 1558 for his part in an insurrection in her
Duff, Alexander, an eminent
Indian missionary, born at Moulin, near Pitlochry, Perthshire;
a man of Celtic blood, apostolic zeal, and fervid eloquence;
was the first missionary sent out to India by the Church of
Scotland; sailed in 1830, returned in 1840, in 1849, and finally
in 1863, stirring up each time the missionary spirit in the
Church; he was the originator of a new method of missionary
operations in the East by the introduction of English as the
vehicle of instruction in the Christian faith, which met at
first with much opposition, but was finally
crowned with conspicuous success; died in Edinburgh (1806-1873).
Duff, James Grant, Indian
soldier and statesman, born at Banff; conspicuous as a soldier
for his services in subduing the Mahratta chiefs, and as a statesman
for establishing friendly relations between the Mahrattas and
the East India Company (1789-1858).
Dufferin, Marquis of,
and Earl of Ava, statesman and diplomatist; held office
under Lord John Russell and Mr. Gladstone; was in succession
Governor-General of Canada, ambassador first at St. Petersburg,
then at Constantinople, and finally Governor-General of India;
has since acted as ambassador at Rome and Paris; is a man of
literary as well as administrative ability; b. 1826.
Duffy, Sir Charles Gavan,
an Irish patriot, born in co. Monaghan; bred for the bar; took
to journalism in the interest of his country's emancipation;
was one of the founders of the Nation newspaper; was
twice over tried for sedition, but acquitted; emigrated at length
to Australia, where he soon plunged into Colonial politics,
and in his political capacity rendered distinguished services
to the Australian colonies, especially in obtaining important
concessions from the mother-country; he is the author of the "Ballad
Poetry of Ireland," and an interesting record of his early
experiences in "Young Ireland"; b. 1816.
Dufour, a Swiss general, born
at Constance; commanded the army directed against the
Sonderbund (q. v.),
and brought the war there to a close (1787-1875).
Dufresne, Charles. See
Dufresny, French painter and
poet, born at Paris (1765-1825).
Dufresny, Charles Rivière,
French dramatist, a universal genius, devoted to both literature
and the arts; held in high esteem by Louis XIV.; wrote a number
of comedies, revealing a man of the world, instinct with wit,
and careless of style (1648-1724).
Dugdale, Sir William,
antiquary, born in Warwickshire; was made Chester herald, accompanied
Charles I. throughout the Civil War; his chief work was the "Monasticum
Anglicanum," which he executed conjointly with Roger Duckworth;
wrote also on the antiquities of Warwickshire and heraldry;
left 27 folio MSS. now in the Bodleian Library (1605-1686).
Dugommier, French general,
pupil of Washington, born at Guadeloupe; distinguished himself
in Italy; commanded at the siege of Toulon, which he took; fell
at the battle of Sierra-Negra, in Spain, which he had invaded
a celebrated French sea-captain, born at St. Malo; distinguished
at first in privateer warfare during the reign of Louis XIV.,
and afterwards as a frigate captain in the royal navy, to which
the royal favour promoted him; was much beloved by the sailors
and subordinate officers; died poor (1673-1736).
Du Guesclin, Bertrand, constable
of France, born in Côtes du Nord; one of the most illustrious
of French war-captains, and distinguished as one or the chief
instruments in expelling the English from Normandy, Guienne,
and Poitou; was taken prisoner at the battle of Auray in 1364,
but ransomed for 100,000 francs, and again by the Black Prince,
but soon liberated; he was esteemed for his valour by foe and
friend alike, and he was buried at St. Denis in the tomb of
the kings of France (1314-1380).
Duhesme, a French general; covered
with wounds at Waterloo, he was cruelly massacred by the Brunswick
hussars in the house to which he had fled for refuge (1760-1815).
Duilius, Caius, a Roman
consul; distinguished for having on the coast of Sicily gained
the first naval victory recorded in the annals of Rome, 260
Dulce Domum (for Sweet Home),
a song sung by the pupils at Winchester College on the approach
of and at the break-up of the school for the summer holidays.
Dulcinea del Tobosa,
the name Don Quixote gave to his beloved Aldonza Lorenzo, a
coarse peasant-girl of Tobosa, conceived by him as a model of
all feminine perfection, and as such adored by him.
Dulia, an inferior kind of worship
paid to angels and saints, in contradistinction to
Latria (q. v.).
Dulong, a French chemist, born
at Rouen; discoverer, by accidental explosion, of the chloride
of nitrogen (1785-1838).
Duluth (52), a port on Lake Superior,
with a fine harbour, and a great centre of commerce.
Dulwich, a southern Surrey suburb
of London, with a flourishing college founded in 1619, and a
picture gallery attached, rich especially in Dutch paintings.
See Alleyn, Edward.
Dumachus, the impenitent thief,
figures in Longfellow's "Golden Legend" as one of
a band of robbers who attacked St. Joseph on his flight into
Dumas, Alexandre, the
Elder, a celebrated French author, born at Villers-Cotterets,
son of General Dumas, a Creole; lost his father at four, and
led for a time a miscellaneous life, till, driven by poverty,
he came to Paris to seek his fortune; here he soon made his
mark, and became by-and-by the most popular dramatist and romancier
of his time; his romances are numerous, and he reached the climax
of his fame by the production of "Monte Cristo" in
1844, and the "Three Musketeers" the year after; he
was unhappy in his marriage and with his wife, as afterwards,
he squandered his fortune in reckless extravagance; before the
end it was all spent, and he died at Dieppe, broken in health
and impaired in intellect, ministered to by his son and daughter
Dumas, Alexandre, the
Younger or fils, dramatist and novelist, born
in Paris, son of the preceding; he made his début
as a novelist with "La Dame aux Camélias" in
1848, which was succeeded by a number of other novels; he eventually
gave himself up to the production of dramas, in which he was
more successful than in romance (1824-1895).
Dumas, Jean Baptiste
André, a distinguished French chemist, born at
Alais; was admitted to the Académie française
at the age of 25; at the Revolution of 1848 he became a member
of the National Assembly; was created a senator under the Empire,
but retired into private life after Sedan; he was distinguished
for his studies in chemistry, both theoretical and practical,
and ranks among the foremost in the science (1800-1884).
Du Maurier, artist, born in
Paris; started in London as a designer of wood engravings; did
illustrations for Once a Week, the Cornhill Magazine, &c..,
and finally joined the staff of Punch, to which he contributed
numerous clever sketches; he published a novel, "Peter
Ibbetson," in 1891, which was succeeded in 1895 by "Trilby,"
which had such a phenomenal success in both England and America
Thomas Aquinas (q. v.),
so called from his taciturnity before
he opened his mouth and began, as predicted, to fill the world
with his lowing.
Dumbarton (17), the county
town of Dumbartonshire, and a royal burgh, at the mouth of the
Leven, on the Clyde, 15 m. from Glasgow; shipbuilding the chief
industry; it was the capital of the kingdom of Strathclyde;
adjoining is a castle of historic interest, 250 ft. high, kept
up as a military fortress; the county, which is fertile, and
was originally part of Lennox, is traversed by the Leven, with
its bleach-fields and factories.
Dumbdrudge, an imaginary
village referred to in "Sartor," where the natives
toil and drudge away and say nothing about it,
as villagers all over the world used contentedly to do, and
did for most part, at the time "Sartor" was written,
though less so now.
Dumbiedikes, a Scotch laird
who figures in the "Heart of Midlothian," in love
with Jeanie Deans.
Dumesnil, Marie Françoise,
a celebrated French tragédienne, born near Alençon;
like Mrs. Siddons, surpassed all others at the time in the representation
of dignity, pathos, and strong emotion; made her first appearance
in 1737, retired in 1775 (1711-1803).
Dumfries (18), an agricultural
market-town, county town of Dumfriesshire and a seaport, stands
on the left bank of the Nith, with Maxwelltown as suburb on
the right, 90 m. SW. of Edinburgh; manufactures tweeds and hosiery,
and trades in cattle; here Robert Burns spent the last five
years of his life, and his remains lie buried.
Dumfriesshire (74), a
south-western Border county of Scotland; an agricultural district,
which slopes from a northern pastoral region to the Solway,
and is traversed by the fertile valleys of Nithsdale and Annandale.
Dumnorix, a chief of the Æduan
nation in Gaul, who gave some trouble to Cæsar in his
conquest of Gaul.
a sculptor, born in Paris (1801-1884).
Dumont, Jean, an eminent
French publicist, who settled in Austria and served the emperor;
wrote on international law (1660-1726).
Dumont, Louis, a French
publicist, born at Geneva, a friend of Mirabeau, memoirs of
whom he wrote, and who, coming to England, formed a close intimacy
with Jeremy Bentham, and became his disciple and expounder (1759-1829).
Dumont d'Urville, Jules,
a celebrated French navigator, born at Condé-sur-Noireau;
made a three years' voyage round the world, and visited the
Antarctic regions, of which he made a survey; he was distinguished
as a scientist no less than a sea-captain; lost his life in
a railway accident at Versailles (1790-1842).
Dumoulin, a celebrated French
jurist, born at Paris; did for French law what
Cujas (q. v.) did for Roman
Dumouriez, a French general,
born at Cambrai, "a wiry, elastic, unwearied man ... creature,"
as he boasted in his old age, "of God and his own sword
... on the whole, one of Heaven's Swiss"; took when already
grey to the Revolution and fought on its behalf; gained the
battles of Valmy and Jemmapes; conquered Belgium, but being
distrusted, passed over to the ranks of the enemies of France;
a man really "without faith; wanted above all things work,
work on any side"; died an exile in England (1739-1824).
See Carlyle's "French Revolution."
Düna, a river of Russia, which
rises near the source of the Volga, and after a W. and NW. course
of 650 m. falls into the Gulf of Riga; it is connected with
the Dnieper by the Beresina Canal.
Dunbar, an ancient seaport and
town of Haddingtonshire, on the coast of the Forth, 29 m. E.
of Edinburgh; is a fishing station, and manufactures agricultural
implements and paper; was, with its castle, which has stood
many a siege, a place of importance in early Scottish history;
near it Cromwell beat the Scots under Leslie on September 3,
Dunbar, William, a Scottish
poet, entered the Franciscan order and became an itinerant preaching
friar, in which capacity he wandered over the length and breadth
of the land, enjoying good cheer by the way; was some time in
the service of James IV., and wrote a poem, his most famous
piece, entitled "The Thistle and the Rose," on the
occasion of the King's marriage with the Princess Margaret Tudor,
daughter of Henry VII. His poems were of three classes—allegoric,
moral, and comic, the most remarkable being "The Dance,"
in which he describes the procession of the seven deadly sins
in the infernal regions. Scott says he "was a poet unrivalled
by any that Scotland has produced" (1480-1520).
Dunblane, a town in Perthshire,
5 m. N. of Stirling, with a beautiful cathedral, which dates
back as far as 1240; of the diocese the saintly Leighton was
Duncan, Adam, Viscount,
a British admiral, born at Dundee; entered the navy in 1746;
steadily rose in rank till, in 1795, he became admiral of the
Blue and commander of the North Sea fleet in 1795; kept watching
the movements of the Dutch squadron for two years, till, at
the end of that term, it put to sea, and came up with it off
Camperdown, and totally defeated it, June 11, 1797 (1731-1804).
Duncan, Thomas, a Scotch
artist, born at Kinclaven, Perthshire; painted fancy and Scoto-historical
subjects, and a number of excellent portraits; his career, which
was full of promise, was cut short by an early death (1807-1845).
Dunciad, The, a satire of
Pope's in four books, the "fiercest" as well as the
best of his satires, in which, with merciless severity, he applies
the lash to his critics, and in which Colley Cibber figures
as the King of Dunces.
Duncker, Max, a historical
writer, born in Berlin; held a professorship at Halle and Tübingen,
and became a minister of State; wrote among other works a work
of great learning, in seven vols., entitled the "History
of Antiquity" (1811-1886).
Duncombe, T. S., an English
politician, M.P. for Finsbury, one of the extreme Liberal party
of the time, presented to the House of Commons the Chartist
petition in 1842; denounced Sir James Graham, the Home Secretary
of the day, for opening Mazzini's letter, and advocated Jewish
Dundalk (12), capital of co.
Louth, Ireland, 50 m. N. of Dublin; a place of considerable
trade and manufactures; is an ancient city; Edward Bruce, the
last king of all Ireland, was crowned and resided here; it was
besieged and taken more than once, by Cromwell for one.
Dundas (of Arniston), the name
of a Scottish family, many of the members of which have distinguished
themselves at the bar and on the bench.
Dundas, Henry, Viscount
Melville, a junior member of the above family; trained
for the bar; rose to be Lord Advocate for Scotland and M.P.
for the county of Edinburgh; opposed at first to Pitt, he became
at last his ablest coadjutor in Parliament, and did important
services in connection with the military
and naval defences of the country; his power was sovereign in
Scotland; his statue, mounted on a lofty column, adorns one
of the principal squares of the New Town of Edinburgh (1741-1811).
Dundee (153), the third largest
city in Scotland, stands on the Firth of Tay, 10 m. from the
mouth; has a large seaport; is a place of considerable commercial
enterprise; among its numerous manufactures the chief is the
jute; it has a number of valuable institutions, and sends two
members to Parliament.
Dundonald, Thomas Cochrane, Earl of,
entered the navy at the age of 17; became captain of the
Speedy, a sloop-of-war of 14 guns and 54 men; captured in
ten months 33 vessels; was captured by a French squadron, but
had his sword returned to him; signalised himself afterwards
in a succession of daring feats; selected to burn the French
fleet lying at anchor in the Basque Roads, he was successful
by means of fire-ships in destroying several vessels, but complained
he was not supported by Lord Gambier, the admiral, a complaint
which was fatal to his promotion in the service; disgraced otherwise,
he went abroad and served in foreign navies, and materially
contributed to the establishment of the republic of Chile and
the empire of Brazil; in 1830 he was restored by his party,
the Whigs, to his naval rank, as a man who had been the victim
of the opposite party, and made a vice-admiral of the Blue in
1841; he afterwards vindicated himself in his "Autobiography
of a Seaman" (1775-1860).
Dundreary, Lord, a character
of the play "Our American Cousin"; the personification
of a good-natured, brainless swell; represented uniquely on
the stage by Mr. Sothern.
Dunedin (47), the capital of
Otago, in New Zealand, situated well south on the E. side of
the South Isle, at the head of a spacious bay, and the largest
commercial city in the colony; founded by Scotch emigrants in
1848, one of the leaders a nephew of Robert Burns.
Dunes, low hills of sand extending
along the coast of the Netherlands and the N. of France.
Dunfermline (19), an ancient
burgh in the W. of Fife; a place of interest as a residence
of the early kings of Scotland, and as the birthplace of David
II., James I., and Charles I., and for its abbey; it stands
in the middle of a coal-field, and is the seat of extensive
Dunkeld, a town in Perthshire,
15 m. NW. of Perth, with a fine 14th-century cathedral.
Dunkers, a sect of Quakerist
Baptists in the United States.
Dunkirk (40), the most northern
seaport and fortified town of France, on the Strait of Dover;
has manufactures and considerable trade.
Dunnet Head, a rocky peninsula,
the most northerly point in Scotland, the rocks from 100 to
600 ft. high.
Dunnottar Castle, an
old castle of the Keiths now in ruins, on the flat summit of
a precipitous rock 1½ m. S. of Stonehaven, Kincardineshire,
Scotland, and connected with the mainland by a neck of land
called the "Fiddle Head"; famous in Scottish history
as a State prison, and as the place of safe-keeping at a troubled
period for the Scottish regalia, now in Edinburgh Castle.
Dunois, Jean, a French patriot,
called the Bastard of Orleans, born in Paris, natural son of
Louis of Orleans, brother of Charles VI.; one of the national
heroes of France; along with Joan of Arc, compelled the English
to raise the siege of Orleans, and contributed powerfully, by
his sword, to all but expel the English from France after the
death of that heroine (1402-1468).
Duns Scotus, Johannes, one
of the most celebrated of the scholastics of the 14th century,
whether he was native of England, Scotland, or Ireland is uncertain;
entered the Franciscan order, and from his acuteness got the
name of "Doctor Subtilis"; lectured at Oxford to crowds
of auditors, and also at Paris; was the contemporary of Thomas
Aquinas, and the head of an opposing school of Scotists, as
against Thomists, as they were called; whereas Aquinas "proclaimed
the Understanding as principle, he proclaimed the Will, from
whose spontaneous exercise he derived all morality; with this
separation of theory from practice and thought from thing (which
accompanied it) philosophy became divided from theology, reason
from faith; reason took a position above faith, above authority
(in modern philosophy), and the religious consciousness broke
with the traditional dogma (at the Reformation)."
Dunstan, St., an English ecclesiastic,
born at Glastonbury; a man of high birth and connection as well
as varied accomplishments; began a religious life as a monk
living in a cell by himself, and prevailed in single combat
on one occasion with the devil; became abbot of Glastonbury,
in which capacity he adopted the rôle of statesman, and
arose to great authority during the reign of Edgar, becoming
archbishop of Canterbury, ruling the nation with vigour and
success, but with the death of Edgar his power declined, and
he retired to Canterbury, where he died of grief and vexation;
he is the patron saint of goldsmiths (924-988).
Dunton, Watts. See
Dupanloup, a French prelate,
bishop of Orleans, born at St. Felix, in Savoy; a singularly
able and eloquent man; devoted himself to educational emancipation
and reform; protested vigorously against papal infallibility;
yielded at length, and stood up in defence of the Church (1802-1878).
Duperré, a French admiral,
born at La Rochelle; contributed along with Marshal Bourmont
to the taking of Algiers (1775-1846).
Duperron, cardinal, a Swiss
by birth and a Calvinist by religious profession; went to Paris,
turned papist, and rose to ecclesiastical eminence in France
under Henry IV. (1556-1618).
Dupin, André, French
jurist and statesman; distinguished at the time of the revolution
of the three days as a supporter of Louis Philippe, and of the
house of Orleans after him (1783-1865).
Dupleix, Joseph, a French
merchant, head of a factory at Chandernagore, who rose to be
governor of the French settlements in India, and in the management
of which he displayed conspicuous ability, defending them against
the English and receiving the dignity of marquis; jealousy at
home, however, led to his recall, and he was left to end his
days in neglect and poverty, though he pled hard with the cabinet
at Versailles to have respect to the sacrifices he made for
his country (1697-1763).
Duplessis, Mornay, a
soldier, diplomatist, and man of letters; a leader of the Huguenots,
who, after the massacre of St. Bartholomew, visited England,
where he was received with favour by Elizabeth in 1575; entered
the service of the King of Navarre, afterwards Henry IV. of
France, but on Henry's reconciliation with the Church of Rome,
retired into private life and devoted himself to literary pursuits;
he was called the "Pope of the Huguenots"; d.
Dupont, Pierre, French
song-writer; his songs, "Le Chant des Ouvriers" and "Les
Boeufs," the delight of the young generation of 1848 (1820-1872).
Dupont de l'Eure, a French
politician, born at Neubourg; filled several important offices
in the successive periods of revolution in France; was distinguished
for his integrity and patriotism, and made President of the
Provisional Government in 1848 (1767-1855).
Dupont de Nemours, French
political economist; took part in the Revolution; was opposed
to the excesses of the Jacobin party, but escaped with his life;
wrote a book entitled "Philosophie de l'Universe"
Dupuis, Charles François,
a French savant; was a member of the Convention of the Council
of the Five Hundred, and President of the Legislative Body during
the Revolution period; devoted himself to the study of astronomy
in connection with mythology, the result of which was published
in his work in 12 vols., entitled "Origine de tous les
Cultes, ou la Religion Universelle"; he advocated the unity
of the astronomical and religious myths of all nations (1742-1809).
Dupuy, M. Charles, French
statesman, born at Puy; elected to the Chamber in 1885; became
Premier in 1893 and in 1894; was in office when Dreyfus was
condemned and degraded, and resigned in 1895; b. 1851.
Dupuytren, Baron, a celebrated
French surgeon, born at Pierre-Buffière; he was a man
of firm nerve, signally sure and skilful as an operator, and
contributed greatly, both by his inventions and discoveries,
to the progress of surgery; a museum of pathological anatomy,
in which he made important discoveries, bears his name (1777-1835).
Duquesne, Abraham, Marquis,
an illustrious naval officer of France, born at Dieppe; distinguished
himself in many a naval engagement, and did much to enhance
the naval glory of the country; among other achievements plucked
the laurels from the brow of his great rival, De Ruyter, by,
in 1676, defeating the combined fleets of Spain and Holland
under his command; Louis XIV. offered him a marshal's baton
if he would abjure Calvinism, but he declined; he was the only
one of the Huguenots excepted from proscription in the Revocation
of the Edict of Nantes, but his last days were saddened by the
banishment of his children (1610-1688).
Dura Den, a glen near Cupar-Fife,
famous for the number of ganoid fossil fishes entombed in its
Durance, a tributary of the
Rhône, which, after a rapid course of 180 m., falls into
that river by its left bank 3 m. below Avignon.
Durand, an Indian officer; served
in the Afghan and Sikh Wars, and became Lieutenant-Governor
of the Punjab (1828-1871).
Durandal, the miraculous sword
of Orlando, with which he could cleave mountains at a blow.
Durban (27), the port of Natal,
largest town in the colony, with a land-locked harbour.
Durbar, a ceremonious State reception
Dürer, Albert, the
great early German painter and engraver, born at Nürnberg,
son of a goldsmith, a good man, who brought him up to his own
profession, but he preferred painting, for which he early exhibited
a special aptitude, and his father bound him apprentice for
three years to the chief artist in the place, at the expiry
of which he travelled in Germany and other parts; in 1506 he
visited Venice, where he met Bellini, and painted several pictures;
proceeded thence to Bologna, and was introduced to Raphael;
his fame spread widely, and on his return he was appointed court-painter
by the Emperor Maximilian, an office he held under Charles V.;
he was of the Reformed faith, and a friend of Melanchthon as
well as an admirer of Luther, on whose incarceration in Wartburg
he uttered a long lament; he was a prince of painters, his drawing
and colouring perfect, and the inventor of etching, in which
he was matchless; he carved in wood, ivory, stone, and metal;
was an author as well as an artist, and wrote, among other works,
an epoch-making treatise on proportion in the human figure; "it
could not be better done" was his quiet, confident reply
as a sure workman to a carper on one occasion (1471-1528).
D'Urfey, Tom, a facetious
poet; author of comedies and songs; a great favourite of Charles
II. and his court; of comedies he wrote some 30, which are all
now discarded for their licentiousness, and a curious book of
sonnets, entitled "Pills to Purge Melancholy"; came
to poverty in the end of his days; Addison pled on his behalf,
and hoped that "as he had made the world merry, the world
would make him easy" (1628-1723).
Durgâ, in the Hindu mythology
the consort of Siva.
Durham (15), an ancient city
on the Wear, with a noble cathedral and a castle, once the residence
of the bishop, now a university seat, in the heart of a county
of the same name (1,106), rich in coal-fields, and with numerous
busy manufacturing towns.
Durham, Admiral, entered
the navy in 1777; was officer on the watch when the Royal
George went down off Spithead, and the only one with Captain
Waghorn who escaped; served as acting-lieutenant of a ship under
Lord Howe at the relief of Gibraltar, and commanded the Defence,
a ship of 74 guns, at the battle of Trafalgar (1763-1815).
Durham, John G. L., Earl
of, an English statesman, born in Durham Co.; a zealous
Liberal and reformer, and a member of the Reform Government
under Earl Grey, which he contributed much to inaugurate; was
ambassador in St. Petersburg, and was sent governor-general
to Canada in 1839, but owing to some misunderstanding took the
extraordinary step of ultroneously returning within the year
Durward, Quentin, a Scottish
archer in the service of Louis XI., the hero of a novel of Scott's
of the name.
Düsseldorf (176), a
well-built town of Rhenish Prussia, on the right bank of the
Rhine; it is a place of manufactures, and has a fine picture-gallery
with a famous school of art associated.
Dutens, Joseph, a French
engineer and political economist (1763-1848).
Dutens, Louis, a French
savant, born at Tours; after being chaplain to the British minister
at Turin, settled in England, and became historiographer-royal;
was a man of varied learning, and well read in historical subjects
and antiquities (1730-1812).
Dutrochet, a French physiologist
and physicist, known for his researches on the passage of fluids
through membranous tissues (1776-1847).
Duumvirs, the name of two Roman
magistrates who exercised the same public functions.
Duval, Claude, a French
numismatist, and writer on numismatics; keeper of the imperial
cabinet of Vienna; was originally a shepherd boy (1695-1775).
Dwight, Timothy, an American
theologian, grandson of Jonathan Edwards, and much esteemed
in his day both as a preacher and a writer; his "Theology
Explained and Defended," in 5 vols., was very popular at
one time, and was frequently reprinted (1752-1817).
Dwina, a Russian river, distinguished
from the Düna (q. v.),
also called Duna, and an important, which flows N. to the White
Dyaks, the native name of tribes
of Malays of a superior class aboriginal to Borneo.
Dyce, Alexander, an English
literary editor and historian, born in Edinburgh; edited several
of the old English poets and authors, some of them little known
before; also the poems of Shakespeare, Pope, &c.; was one
of the founders of the Percy Society, for the publication of
old English works (1798-1869).
Dyce, William, a distinguished
Scottish artist, born in Aberdeen, studied in Rome; settled
for a time in Edinburgh, and finally removed to London; painted
portraits at first, but soon took to higher subjects of art;
his work was such as to commend itself to both German and French
artists; he gave himself to fresco-painting, and as a fresco-painter
was selected to adorn the walls of the Palace of Westminster
and the House of Lords; his "Baptism of Ethelbert,"
in the latter, is considered his best work (1806-1864).
Dyck, Van. See
Dyer, John, English poet; was
a great lover and student of landscape scenery, and his poems, "Grongar
Hill" and the "Fleece," abound in descriptions
of these, the scenery of the former lying in S. Wales (1700-1758).
Dynam, the unit of work, or the
force required to raise one pound one foot in one second.
Dynamite, a powerful explosive
substance, intensely local in its action; formed by impregnating
a porous siliceous earth or other substance with some 70 per
cent. of nitro-glycerine.
Dynamo, a machine by which mechanical
work is transformed into powerful electric currents by the inductive
action of magnets on coils of copper wire in motion.
Eadmer, a celebrated monk of
Canterbury; flourished in the 12th century; friend and biographer
of St. Anselm, author of a History of His Own Times, as also
of many of the Lives of the Saints; elected to the bishopric
of St. Andrews in 1120; resigned on account of Alexander I.
refusing to admit the right of the English Archbishop of Canterbury
to perform the ceremony of consecration.
Eadric, a Saxon, notorious for
his treachery, fighting now with his countrymen against the
Danes and now with the Danes against them, till put to death
by order of Canute in 1017.
Eads, James Buchanan,
an American engineer, born in Laurenceburg, Indiana; designed
ingenious boats for floating submerged ships; built with remarkable
speed warships for the Federalists in 1861; constructed a steel
bridge spanning the Mississippi at St. Louis, noteworthy for
its central span of 520 ft. (1820-1887).
Eagle, the king of birds, and
bird of Jove; was adopted by various nations as the emblem of
dominant power, as well as of nobility and generosity; in Christian
art it is the symbol of meditation, and the attribute of St.
John; is represented now as fighting with a serpent, and now
as drinking out of a chalice or a communion cup, to strengthen
it for the fight.
Eagle, Order of the Black,
an order of knighthood founded by the Elector of Brandenburg
in 1701; with this order was ultimately incorporated the
Order of the Red Eagle, founded in 1734 by the Markgraf
Eagle of Brittany,
Du Guesclin (q. v.).
Eagle of Meaux,
Bossuet (q. v.).
Eagre, a name given in England
to a tidal wave rushing up a river or estuary on the top of
another, called also a Bore (q.
Earl, a title of nobility, ranking
third in the British peerage; originally election to the dignity
of earl carried with it a grant of land held in feudal tenure,
the discharge of judicial and administrative duties connected
therewith, and was the occasion of a solemn service of investiture.
In course of time the title lost its official character, and
since the reign of Queen Anne all ceremony of investiture has
been dispensed with, the title being conferred by letters-patent.
The word is derived from the Anglo-Saxon eorls which
signified the "gentle folk," as distinguished from
the ceorls, the "churls" or "simple folk."
Earl Marshal, a high officer
of State, an office of very ancient institution, now the head
of the college of arms, and hereditary in the family of the
Dukes of Norfolk; formerly one of the chief officers in the
court of chivalry, a court which had to do with all matters
of high ceremonial, such as coronations.
Earlom, Richard, a mezzotint
engraver, born in London; celebrated for his series of 200 prints
after the original designs of Claude de Lorraine (1743-1822).
Earlston or Ercildoune,
a village in Berwickshire, with manufactures of ginghams and
other textiles. In its vicinity stand the ruins of the "Rhymer's
Tower," alleged to have been the residence of Thomas the
Early English, a term in
architecture used to designate that particular form of Gothic
architecture in vogue in England in the 13th century, whose
chief characteristic was the pointed arch.
Earth Houses, known also
as Yird Houses, Weems and Picts' Houses, underground dwellings
in use in Scotland, extant even after the Roman evacuation of
Britain. Entrance was effected by a passage not much wider than
a fox burrow, which sloped downwards 10 or 12 ft. to the floor
of the house; the inside was oval in shape, and was walled with
overlapping rough stone slabs; the roof frequently reached to
within a foot of the earth's surface; they probably served as
store-houses, winter-quarters, and as places of refuge in times
of war. Similar dwellings are found in Ireland.
Earthly Paradise, poem
by William Morris, his greatest effort, considered his masterpiece;
consists of 24 tales by 24 travellers in quest of an earthly
East India Company,
founded in 1600; erected its first factories on the mainland
in 1612 at Surat, but its most profitable trade in these early
years was with the Spice Islands, Java, Sumatra, &c.; driven
from these islands by the Dutch in 1622, the Company established
itself altogether on the mainland; although originally created
under royal charter for purely commercial purposes, it in 1689
entered upon a career of territorial acquisition, which culminated
in the establishment of British power in India; gradually, as
from time to time fresh renewals of its charter were granted,
it was stripped of its privileges and monopolies, till in 1858,
after the Mutiny, all its powers were vested in the British
East River, the strait which
separates Brooklyn and New York cities, lying between Long Island
Sound and New York Bay, about 10 m. long; is spanned by a bridge.
Eastbourne (35), a fashionable
watering-place and health resort on the Sussex coast, between
Brighton and Hastings, and 66 m. S. of London; has Roman remains,
and is described in "Domesday Book."
Easter, an important festival
of the Church commemorating the resurrection of Christ; held
on the first Sunday after the first full moon of the calendar
which happens on or next after 21st of March, and constituting
the beginning of the ecclesiastical year; the date of it determines
the dates of other movable festivals; derives its name from
Eastre, a Saxon goddess, whose festival was celebrated about
the same time, and to which many of the Easter customs owe their
Eastern States, the six
New England States in N. America—Maine, New Hampshire,
Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut.
Eastlake, Sir Charles
Lock, artist and author, born at Plymouth; studied painting
in London and in Paris; produced the last portrait of Napoleon,
which he executed from a series of sketches of the emperor on
board the Bellerophon in Plymouth harbour; he travelled
in Greece, and from 1816 to 1830 made his home at Rome; "Christ
Weeping over Jerusalem," his greatest work, appeared in
1841; was President of the Royal Academy; wrote several works
on subjects relating to his art, and translated Goethe's "Farbenlehre"
Eastwick, Edward Backhouse,
Orientalist and diplomatist, born at Warfield, in Berkshire;
went to India as a cadet, acquired an extensive knowledge of
Indian dialects and Eastern languages, and passed an interpretership
examination, gaining the high proficiency reward of 1000 rupees;
carried through peace negotiations with China in 1842; invalided
home, he became professor of Hindustani at Haileybury College;
afterwards studied law and was called to the bar; entered Parliament,
and held various political appointments, including a three years'
embassy in Persia; was a fellow of many antiquarian and philological
societies; amongst his numerous philological productions and
translations his "Gulistan" and "Life of Zoroaster"
from the Persian are noted (1814-1883).
Eau Creole, a liqueur from
the distillation of the flowers of the mammee apple with spirits
Eau-de-Cologne, a perfume
originally manufactured at Cologne by distillation from certain
essential oils with rectified spirit.
Ebal, Mount, a mountain with a
level summit, which rises to the height of 3077 ft. on the N.
side of the narrow Vale of Shechem, in Palestine, and from the
slopes of which the people of Israel responded to the curses
which were pronounced by the Levites in the valley.
Eberhard, Johann August,
German philosophical writer, born at Halberstadt; professor
at Halle; rationalistic in his theology, and opposed to the
Kantian metaphysics; was a disciple of Leibnitz; wrote a "New
Apology of Socrates," in defence of rationalism in theology,
as well as a "Universal History of Philosophy," and
a work on German synonyms (1739-1809).
Ebers, George Moritz,
German Egyptologist, born at Berlin; discovered an important
papyrus; was professor successively at Jena and Leipzig; laid
aside by ill-health, betook himself to novel-writing as a pastime;
was the author of "Aarda, a Romance of Ancient Egypt,"
translated by Clara Bell (1837-1898).
Ebert, Karl Egon, a Bohemian
poet, born at Prague; his poems, dramatic and lyric, are collected
in 7 vols., and enjoy a wide popularity in his country (1801-1882).
Ebionites, a sect that in
the 2nd century sought to combine Judaism and the hopes of Judaism
with Christianity, and rejected the authority of St. Paul and
of the Pauline writings; they denied the divinity of Christ,
and maintained that only the poor as such were the objects of
Eblis, in Mohammedan tradition
the chief of the fallen angels, consigned to perdition for refusing
to worship Adam at the command of his Creator, and who gratified
his revenge by seducing Adam and Eve from innocency.
Ebony, a name given to Blackwood
by James Hogg, and eventually applied to his magazine.
Ebro, a river of Spain, rises in
the Cantabrian Mountains, flows SE. into the Mediterranean 80
m. SW. of Barcelona, after a course of 422 m.
Ecbatana, the ancient capital
of Media, situated near Mount Orontes (now Elvend); was surrounded
by seven walls of different colours that increased in elevation
towards the central citadel; was a summer residence of the Persian
and Parthian kings. The modern town of Hamadan now occupies
the site of it.
Ecce Homo (i. e. Behold
the Man), a representation of Christ as He appeared before Pilate
crowned with thorns and bound with ropes, as in the painting
of Correggio, a subject which has been treated by many of the
other masters, such as Titian and Vandyck.
Ecchymosis, a discolouration
of the skin produced by extravasated blood under or in the texture
of the skin, the result of a blow or of disease.
Ecclefechan, a market-town
of Dumfriesshire, consisting for the most part of the High Street,
5 m. S. of Lockerbie, on the main road to Carlisle, 16 m. to
the S.; noted as the birth and burial place of Thomas Carlyle.
Ecclesiastes (i. e.
the Preacher), a book of the Old Testament, questionably ascribed
to Solomon, and now deemed of more recent date as belonging
to a period when the reflective spirit prevailed; and it is
written apparently in depreciation of mere reflection as a stepping-stone
to wisdom. The standpoint of the author is a religious one;
the data on which he rests is given in experience, and his object
is to expose the vanity of every source of satisfaction which
is not founded on the fear, and has not supreme regard for the
commandments, of God, a doctrine which is the very ground-principle
of the Jewish faith; but if vanity is written over the whole
field of human experience, he argues, this is not the fault
of the system of things, but due, according to the author, to
the folly of man (chap. vii. 29).
Polity, the Law of, a vindication of the Anglican Church
against the Puritans, written by Richard Hooker; the most splendid
and stately piece of literary prose that exists in the language.
territories in Italy once subject to the Pope as a temporal
prince as well as ecclesiastically.
Ecclesiasticus, one of
the books of the Apocrypha, ascribed to Jesus, the son of Sirach,
admitted to the sacred canon by the Council of Trent, though
excluded by the Jews. It contains a body of wise maxims, in
imitation, as regards matter as well as form, of the Proverbs
of Solomon, and an appendix on the men who were the disciples
of wisdom. Its general aim, as has been said, is "to represent
wisdom as the source of all virtue and
blessedness, and by warnings, admonitions, and promises to encourage
in the pursuit of it." It was originally written in Hebrew,
but is now extant only in a Greek translation executed in Egypt,
professedly by the author's grandson.
Ecclesiology, the name
given in England to the study of church architecture and all
that concerns the ground-plan and the internal arrangements
of the parts of the edifice.
Ecgberht, archbishop of York;
was a pupil of Bede, and the heir to his learning; founded a
far-famed school at York, which developed into a university;
flourished in 766.
Echidna, a fabulous monster
that figures in the Greek mythology, half-woman, half-serpent,
the mother of Cerberus, the Lernean Hydra, the Chimæra,
the Sphinx, the Gorgons, the Nemean Lion, the vulture that gnawed
the liver of Prometheus, &c.
Echo, a wood-nymph in love with
Narcissus, who did not return her love, in consequence of which
she pined away till all that remained of her was only her voice.
Eck, John, properly Maíer,
a German theologian, of Swabian birth, professor at Ingolstadt;
a violent, blustering antagonist of Luther and Luther's doctrines;
in his zeal went to Rome, and procured a papal bull against
both; undertook at the Augsburg Diet to controvert Luther's
doctrine from the Fathers, but not from the Scriptures; was
present at the conferences of Worms and Regensburg (1486-1543).
Eckermann, Johann Peter,
a German writer, born at Winsen, in Hanover; friend of Goethe,
and editor of his works; the author of "Conversations with
Goethe in the Last Years of his Life, 1823-32," a record
of wise reflections and of Goethe's opinions on all subjects,
of the utmost interest to all students of the German sage (1792-1854).
Eckhart, Meister, a German
philosopher and divine, profoundly speculative and mystical;
entered the Dominican Order, and rapidly attained to a high
position in the Church; arraigned for heresy in 1325, and was
acquitted, but two years after his death his writings were condemned
as heretical by a papal bull; died in 1327.
Eckmühl, a village in Bavaria
where Napoleon defeated the Austrians in 1809, and which gave
the title of Duke to Davout (q.
v.), one of Napoleon's generals.
Eclectics, so-called philosophers
who attach themselves to no system, but select what, in their
judgment, is true out of others. In antiquity the Eclectic philosophy
is that which sought to unite into a coherent whole the doctrines
of Pythagoras, Plato, and Aristotle, such as that of Plotinus
and Proclus was. There is an eclecticism in art as well as philosophy,
and the term is applied to an Italian school which aimed at
uniting the excellencies of individual great masters.
Ecliptic, the name given to
the circular path in the heavens round which the sun appears
to move in the course of the year, an illusion caused by the
earth's annual circuit round the sun, with its axis inclined
at an angle to the equator of 23½ degrees; is the central
line of the Zodiac (q. v.),
so called because it was observed that eclipses occurred only
when the earth was on or close upon this path.
Economy, "the right arrangement
of things," and distinct from Frugality, which is "the
careful and fitting use of things."
Ecorcheurs (lit. flayers
properly of dead bodies), armed bands who desolated France in
the reign of Charles VII., stripping their victims of everything,
often to their very clothes.
Ecstatic Doctor, Jean
Ruysbroek, a schoolman given to mysticism (1294-1381).
Ecuador (1,271), a republic
of S. America, of Spanish origin, created in 1822; derives its
name from its position on the equator; lies between Columbia
and Peru; is traversed by the Andes, several of the peaks of
which are actively volcanic; the population consists of Peruvian
Indians, negroes, Spanish Creoles; exports cocoa, coffee, hides,
and medicinal plants; the administration is vested in a president,
a vice-president, two ministers, a senate of 18, and a house
of deputies of 30, elected by universal suffrage.
an ecclesiastical council representative, or accepted as representative,
of the Church universal or Catholic. See
Eczema, a common skin disease,
which may be either chronic or acute; develops in a red rash
of tiny vesicles, which usually burst and produce a characteristic
scab; is not contagious, and leaves no scar.
Edda (lit. grandmother),
the name given to two collections of legends illustrative of
the Scandinavian mythology: the Elder, or Poetic, Edda, collected
in the 11th century by Sæmund Sigfusson, an early Christian
priest, "with perhaps a lingering fondness for paganism,"
and the Younger, or Prose, Edda, collected in the next century
by Snorri Sturleson, an Icelandic gentleman (1178-1241), "educated
by Sæmund's grandson, the latter a work constructed with
great ingenuity and native talent, what one might call unconscious
art, altogether a perspicuous, clear work, pleasant reading
situated on a low reef of rocks submerged at high tide, 14 m.
SW. of Plymouth; first built of wood by Winstanley, 1696; destroyed
by a storm in 1703; rebuilt of wood on a stone base by Rudyard;
burnt in 1755, and reconstructed by Smeaton of solid stone;
the present edifice, on a different site, was completed by Sir
James Douglas in 1882, is 133 ft. in height, and has a light
visible 17½ m. off.
Edelinck, Gerard, a Flemish
copper-plate engraver, born at Antwerp; invited to France by
Colbert, and patronised by Louis XIV.; executed in a masterly
manner many works from historical subjects (1640-1707).
Eden (i. e. place of delight),
Paradise, the original spot referred to by tradition wholly
uncertain, though believed to have been in the Far East, identified
in Moslem tradition with the moon.
Edessa (40), an ancient city
in Mesopotamia; figures in early Church history, and is reputed
to have contained at one time 300 monasteries; it fell into
the hands of the Turks in 1515; is regarded as the sacred city
of Abraham by Orientals.
Edfu, a town in Upper Egypt, on
the left bank of the Nile; has unique ruins of two temples,
the larger founded by Ptolemy IV. Philopater before 200 B.C.
Edgar, a king of Saxon England
from 959 to 975, surnamed the Peaceful; promoted the union and
consolidation of the Danish and Saxon elements within his realm;
cleared Wales of wolves by exacting of its inhabitants a levy
of 300 wolves' heads yearly; eight kings are said to have done
him homage by rowing him on the Dee; St. Dunstan, the archbishop
of Canterbury, was the most prominent figure of the reign.
Edgar the Atheling,
a Saxon prince, the grandson of Edmund Ironside; was hurriedly
proclaimed king of England after the death of Harold in the
battle of Hastings, but was amongst the first to offer submission
on the approach of the Conqueror; spent
his life in a series of feeble attempts at rebellion, and lived
into the reign of Henry I.
Edgehill, in the S. of Warwickshire,
the scene of the first battle in the Civil War, in 1642, between
the royal forces under Charles I. and the Parliamentary under
Essex; though the Royalists had the worst of it, no real advantage
was gained by either side.
Edgeworth, Henry Essex,
known as the "Abbé" Edgeworth, born in Ireland,
son of a Protestant clergyman; educated at the Sorbonne, in
Paris; entered the priesthood, and became the confessor of Louis
XVI., whom he attended on the scaffold; exclaimed as the guillotine
came down, "Son of St. Louis, ascend to heaven!" left
France soon after; was subsequently chaplain to Louis XVIII.
Edgeworth, Maria, novelist,
born at Blackbourton, Berks; from her fifteenth year her home
was in Ireland; she declined the suit of a Swedish count, and
remained till the close of her life unmarried; amongst the best
known of her works are "Moral Tales," "Tales
from Fashionable Life," "Castle Rackrent," "The
Absentee," and "Ormond"; her novels are noted
for their animated pictures of Irish life, and were acknowledged
by Scott to have given him the first suggestion of the Waverley
series; the Russian novelist, Turgenief, acknowledges a similar
indebtedness; "in her Irish stories she gave," says
Stopford Brooke, "the first impulse to the novel of national
character, and in her other tales to the novel with a moral
Edgeworth, Richard Lovell,
an Irish landlord, father of Maria Edgeworth, with a genius
for mechanics, in which he displayed a remarkable talent for
invention; was member of the last Irish Parliament; educated
his son in accordance with the notions of Rousseau; wrote some
works on mechanical subjects in collaboration with his daughter
Edict of Nantes, an edict
issued in 1598 by Henry IV. of France, granting toleration to
the Protestants; revoked by Louis XIV. in 1685.
Edie Ochiltree, a character
in Scott's "Antiquary."
Edina, poetic name for Edinburgh.
Edinburgh (263), the capital
of Scotland, on the Firth of Forth, picturesquely situated amid
surrounding hills; derives its name from Edwin, king of Northumbria
in the 7th century; was created a burgh in 1329 by Robert the
Bruce, and recognised as the capital in the 15th century, under
the Stuarts; it has absorbed in its growth adjoining municipalities;
is noted as an educational centre; is the seat of the Supreme
Courts; has a university, castle, and royal palace, and the
old Scotch Parliament House, now utilised by the Law Courts;
brewing and printing are the chief industries, but the upper
classes of the citizens are for the most part either professional
people or living in retirement.
Edinburgh Review, a
celebrated quarterly review started in October 1802 in Edinburgh
to further the Whig interest; amongst its founders and contributors
were Horner, Brougham, Jeffrey, and Sidney Smith, the latter
being editor of the first three numbers; Jeffrey assumed the
editorship in 1803, and in his hands it became famous for its
incisive literary critiques, Carlyle and Macaulay contributing
some of their finest essays to it.
founded in 1583; was the last of the Scotch Universities to
receive its charter; was raised to an equal status with the
others in 1621; its site was the famous Kirk o'Field, the scene
of the Darnley tragedy; now consists of two separate buildings,
one entirely devoted to medicine, and the other to arts and
training in other departments; has an average matriculation
roll of about 3000.
Edison, Thomas Alva, a celebrated
American inventor, born at Milan, Ohio; started life as a newsboy;
early displayed his genius and enterprise by producing the first
newspaper printed in a railway train; turning his attention
to telegraphy, he revolutionised the whole system by a series
of inventions, to which he has since added others, to the number
of 500, the most notable being the megaphone, phonograph, kinetoscope,
a carbon telegraph transmitter, and improvements in electric
lighting; b. 1847.
Edith, the alleged name of Lot's
Edithe, St., an English princess,
the natural daughter of Edgar, king of England (961-984). Festival,
Edmund, St., king or "landlord"
of East Anglia from 855 to 870; refused to renounce Christianity
and accept heathenism at the hands of a set of "mere physical
force" invading Danes, and suffered martyrdom rather; was
made a saint of and had a monastery called "Bury St. Edmunds,"
in Norfolk, raised to his memory over his grave.
Edmund, St., Edmund Rich,
archbishop of Canterbury, born at Abingdon; while still at school
made a vow of celibacy and wedded the Virgin Mary; sided as
archbishop with the popular party against the tyranny of both
Pope and king; coming into disfavour with the papal court retired
to France, where, on his arrival, the mother of St. Louis with
her sons met him to receive his blessing, and where he spent
his last days in a monastery; died in 1240, and was canonised
six years after by Innocent IV., somewhat reluctantly it is
Edmund Ironside, succeeded
to the throne of England on the death of his father Ethelred
the Unready in 1016, but reigned only seven months; he struggled
bravely, and at first successfully, against Canute the Dane,
but being defeated, the kingdom ultimately was divided between
Edom, or Idumæa, a
mountainous but not unfertile country, comprising the S. of
Judæa and part of the N. of Arabia Petræa, 100 m.
long by 20 m. broad, peopled originally by the descendants of
Esau, who were ruled by "dukes," and were bitterly
hostile to the Jews.
Edred, king of the Anglo-Saxons,
son of Edward the Elder; subdued Northumbria; had in the end
of his reign St. Dunstan for chief adviser; d. 955.
Edrisi, an Arabian geographer,
born at Ceuta, in Spain; by request of Roger II. of Sicily wrote
an elaborate description of the earth, which held a foremost
place amongst mediæval geographers (1099-1180).
Education, as conceived of
by Ruskin, and alone worthy of the name, "the leading human
souls to what is best, and making what is best out of them";
and attained, "not by telling a man what he knew not, but
by making him what he was not."
Edui, an ancient Gallic tribe,
whose capital was Bibracte (Autun).
Edward, Thomas, naturalist,
born at Gosport; bred a shoemaker; settled in Banff, where he
devoted his leisure to the study of animal nature, and collected
numerous specimens of animals, which he stuffed and exhibited,
but with pecuniary loss; the Queen's attention being called
to his case, settled on him an annual pension of £50,
while the citizens of Aberdeen presented him in March 1877 with
a gift of 130 sovereigns, on which occasion
he made a characteristic speech (1814-1886).
Edward I., surnamed Longshanks,
king of England, born at Westminster, son of Henry III., married
Eleanor (q. v.) of Castile;
came first into prominence in the Barons' War; defeated the
nobles at Evesham, and liberated his father; joined the last
Crusade in 1270, and distinguished himself at Acre; returned
to England in 1274 to assume the crown, having been two years
previously proclaimed king; during his reign the ascendency
of the Church and the nobles received a check, the growing aspiration
of the people for a larger share in the affairs of the nation
was met by an extended franchise, while the right of Parliament
to regulate taxation was recognised; under his reign Wales was
finally subdued and annexed to England, and a temporary conquest
of Scotland was achieved (1239-1307).
Edward II., king of England
(1307-1327), son of the preceding; was first Prince of Wales,
being born at Carnarvon; being a weakling was governed by favourites,
Gaveston and the Spencers, whose influence, as foreigners and
unpatriotic, offended the barons, who rose against him; in 1314
Scotland rose in arms under Bruce, and an ill-fated expedition
under him ended in the crushing defeat at Bannockburn; in 1327
he was deposed, and was brutally murdered in Berkeley Castle
Edward III., king of England
(1327-1377), son of the preceding, married Philippa of Hainault;
during his boyhood the government was carried on by a council
of regency; in 1328 the independence of Scotland was recognised,
and nine years later began the Hundred Years' War with France,
memorable in this reign for the heroic achievements of
Edward the Black Prince (q.
v.), the king's eldest son; associated with this reign are
the glorious victories of Crécy and Poitiers, and the
great naval battle at Sluys, one of the earliest victories of
English arms at sea; these successes were not maintained in
the later stages of the war, and the treaty of Bretigny involved
the withdrawal of Edward's claim to the French crown; in 1376
the Black Prince died.
Edward IV., king of England
(1461-1483), son of Richard, Duke of York, and successor to
the Lancastrian Henry VI., whom he defeated at Towton; throughout
his reign the country was torn by the Wars of the Roses, in
which victory rested with the Yorkists at Hedgeley Moor, Hexham,
Barnet, and Tewkesbury; in this reign little social progress
was made, but a great step towards it was made by the introduction
of printing by Caxton (1442-1483)
Edward V., king of England for
three months in 1483, son of the preceding; deposed by his uncle,
Richard, Duke of Gloucester; was ultimately murdered in the
Tower, along with his young brother (1470-1483).
Edward VI., king of England
(1547-1553), son of Henry VIII. and Jane Seymour; his reign,
which was a brief one, was marked by a victory over the Scots
at Pinkie (1547), Catholic and agrarian risings, and certain
ecclesiastical reforms (1537-1553).
Edward VII., king of Great
Britain and Ireland and "all the British Dominions beyond
the Seas," born 9th November 1841, succeeded his mother,
Queen Victoria, 22nd Jan. 1901. On 10th March 1863 he married
Princess Alexandra, eldest daughter of Christian IX. of Denmark,
and has four surviving children: George, Prince of Wales,
b. 1865; Louise, Duchess of Fife, b. 1867; Victoria,
b. 1868; and Maud, b. 1869, who married Prince
Charles of Denmark. The king's eldest son, Albert Victor,
b. 1864, died January 14, 1892.
Edward the Confessor,
king of England, married Edith, daughter of the great
Earl Godwin (q. v.);
was a feeble monarch of ascetic proclivities; his appeal to
the Duke of Normandy precipitated the Norman invasion, and in
him perished the royal Saxon line; was canonised for his piety
Edward the Elder, king
of the Anglo-Saxons from 901 to 925; was the son and successor
of Alfred the Great; extended the Anglo-Saxon dominions.
Edwardes, Sir Herbert
Benjamin, soldier and administrator in India, born at
Frodesley, Shropshire; was actively engaged in the first Sikh
War and in the Mutiny; served under Sir Henry Lawrence, whose
Life he partly wrote (1819-1868).
Edwards, Bryan, historian,
born at Westbury; traded in Jamaica; wrote a "History of
British Colonies in the West Indies" (1743-1800).
Edwards, Jonathan, a
celebrated divine, born at E. Windsor, Connecticut; graduated
at Yale; minister at Northampton, Mass.; missionary to Housatonnuck
Indians; was elected to the Presidency of Princeton College;
wrote an acute and original work, "The Freedom of the Will,"
a masterpiece of cogent reasoning; has been called the "Spinoza
of Calvinism" (1703-1758).
Edwin, king of Northumbria in
the 6th century; through the influence of his wife Ethelburga
Christianity was introduced into England by St. Augustine; founded
Edinburgh; was defeated and slain by the Mercian King Penda
Edwy, king of the Anglo-Saxons
from 955 to 957; offended the clerical party headed by Dunstan
and Odo, who put his wife Elgiva to death, after which he soon
died himself at the early age of 19.
Eeckhout, a Dutch portrait
and historical painter, born at Antwerp; the most eminent disciple
of Rembrandt, whose style he successfully imitated (1621-1674).
Effen, Van, a Dutch author,
who wrote chiefly in French; imitated the Spectator of
Addison, and translated into French Swift's "Tale of a
Tub" and Defoe's "Robinson Crusoe" (1684-1735).
Effendi, a title of honour among
the Turks, applied to State and civil officials, frequently
associated with the name of the office, as well as to men of
learning or high position.
Duke of Orleans, born April 13th, 1787, father of Louis Philippe;
so called because he sided with the Republican party in the
French Revolution, and whose motto was "Liberté,
Fraternité, et Egalité." See
Orleans, Duke of.
Egates, three islands on the
W. coast of Sicily.
Egbert, king of Wessex, a descendant
of Cedric the founder; after an exile of 13 years at the court
of Charlemagne ascended the throne in 800; reigned till 809,
governing his people in tranquillity, when, by successful wars
with the other Saxon tribes, he in two years became virtual
king of all England, and received the revived title of Bretwalda;
Egede, Hans, a Norwegian priest,
founder of the Danish mission in Greenland, whither he embarked
with his family and a small colony of traders in 1721; leaving
his son to carry on the mission, and returning to Denmark, he
became head of a training school for young missionaries to Greenland
Egede, Paul, son of Hans;
assisted his father in the Greenland mission, and published
a history of the mission; translated part of the Bible into
the language of the country, and composed
a grammar and a dictionary of it; d. 1789.
Eger (17), a town in Bohemia, on
the river Eger, 91 m. W. of Prague, a centre of railway traffic;
Wallenstein was murdered here in 1634; the river flows into
the Elbe after a NE. course of 190 m.
Egeria, a nymph who inhabited
a grotto in a grove in Latium, dedicated to the Camenæ,
some 16 m. from Rome, and whom, according to tradition, Numa
was in the habit of consulting when engaged in framing forms
of religious worship for the Roman community; she figures as
his spiritual adviser, and has become the symbol of one of her
sex, conceived of as discharging the same function in other
the like cases.
Egerton, Francis. See
Bridgewater, Earl of.
Egger, Émile, a French
Hellenist and philologist (1813-1885).
Egham (10), a small town in Surrey,
on the Thames, 20 m. W. of London; has in its vicinity Runnymede,
where King John signed Magna Charta in 1215.
Eginhard, or Einhard,
a Frankish historian, born in Mainyan, in East Franconia; a
collection of his letters and his Annals of the Franks, as well
as his famous "Life of Charlemagne," are extant; was
a favourite of the latter, who appointed him superintendent
of public buildings, and took him with him on all his expeditions;
after the death of Charlemagne he continued at the Court as
tutor to the Emperor Louis's son; died in retirement (770-840).
Eglantine, Madame, the
prioress in the "Canterbury Tales" of Chaucer.
Eglinton and Winton,
Earl of, Archibald William Montgomerie, born at Palermo;
became Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland; Rector of Glasgow University;
was a noted sportsman and patron of the turf; is chiefly remembered
in connection with a brilliant tournament given by him at Eglinton
Castle in 1839, in which all the splendour and detail of a mediæval
tourney were spectacularly reproduced (1812-1861).
Egmont, Lamoral, Count
of, born in Hainault; became attached to the Court of
Charles V., by whom, for distinguished military and diplomatic
services, he was appointed governor of Flanders; fell into disfavour
for espousing the cause of the Protestants of the Netherlands,
and was beheaded in Brussels by the Duke of Alva; his career
and fate form the theme of Goethe's tragedy "Egmont,"
a play nothing as a drama, but charming as a picture of the
two chief characters in the piece, Egmont and Clärchen.
Egmont, Mount, the loftiest
peak in the North Island, New Zealand, is 8270 ft. in height,
and of volcanic origin.
Ego and Non-Ego (i. e.
I and Not-I, or Self and Not-Self), are terms used in philosophy
to denote respectively the subjective and the objective in cognition,
what is from self and what is from the external to self, what
is merely individual and what is universal.
Egoism, the philosophy of those
who, uncertain of everything but the existence of the Ego or
I, resolve all existence as known into forms or modifications
of its self-consciousness.
Egoist, a novel by George Meredith,
much admired by R. L. Stevenson, who read and re-read it at
least five times over.
Egypt (8,000), a country occupying
the NE. corner of Africa, lies along the W. shore of the Red
Sea, has a northern coast-line on the Mediterranean, and stretches
S. as far as Wady Halfa; the area is nearly 400,000 sq. m.;
its chief natural features are uninhabitable desert on the E.
and W., and the populous and fertile valley of the Nile. Cereals,
sugar, cotton, and tobacco are important products. Mohammedan
Arabs constitute the bulk of the people, but there is also a
remnant of the ancient Coptic race. The country is nominally
a dependency of Turkey under a native government, but is in
reality controlled by the British, who exercise a veto on its
financial policy, and who, since 1882, have occupied the country
with soldiers. The noble monuments and relics of her ancient
civilisation, chief amongst which are the Pyramids, as well
as the philosophies and religions she inherited, together with
the arts she practised, and her close connection with Jewish
history, give her a peculiar claim on the interested regard
of mankind. Nothing, perhaps, has excited more wonder in connection
with Egypt than the advanced state of her civilisation when
she first comes to play a part in the history of the world.
There is evidence that 4000 years before the Christian era the
arts of building, pottery, sculpture, literature, even music
and painting, were highly developed, her social institutions
well organised, and that considerable advance had been made
in astronomy, chemistry, medicine, and anatomy. Already the
Egyptians had divided the year into 365 days and 12 months,
and had invented an elaborate system of weights and measures,
based on the decimal notation.
Egyptian Night, such as
in Egypt when, by judgment of God, a thick darkness of three
days settled down on the land. See Exodus x. 22.
Egyptians, The, of antiquity
were partly of Asiatic and partly of African origin, with a
probable infusion of Semitic blood, and formed both positively
and negatively a no inconsiderable link in the chain of world-history,
positively by their sense of the divinity of nature-life as
seen in their nature-worship, and negatively by the absence
of all sense of the divinity of a higher life as it has come
to light in the self-consciousness or moral sense and destiny
Egyptology, the science,
in the interest of ancient history, of Egyptian antiquities,
such as the monuments and their inscriptions, and one in which
of late years great interest has been taken, and much progress
Egyptus, the brother of Danaüs,
whose 50 sons, all but one, were murdered by the daughters of
the latter. See Danaüs.
Ehkili, a dialect of S. Arabia,
interesting to philologists as one of the oldest of Semitic
Ehrenberg, a German naturalist,
born in Delitsch; intended for the Church; devoted himself to
medical studies, and graduated in medicine in 1818; acquired
great skill in the use of the microscope, and by means of it
made important discoveries, particularly in the department of
infusory animals; contributed largely to the literature of science
(i. e. broad stone of honour), a strongly fortified town
in Prussia, on the Rhine, opposite Coblentz, with which it has
communication by a bridge of boats and a railway viaduct; the
fortress occupies the summit of the rock, which is precipitous;
is about 500 ft. high, and has large garrison accommodation.
Eichhorn, Johann Gottfried,
a German theologian and Orientalist, born at Dorrenzimmern,
Franconia; a man of extensive scholarship; held the chair of
Oriental languages in Jena, and afterwards at Göttingen;
was the first to apply a bold rationalism to the critical treatment
of the Scriptures; he was of the old school of rationalists,
now superseded by the historico-critical; his
chief works are a Universal Library of
Biblical Literature, in 10 vols., Introductions to the Old and
to the New Testament, each in 5 vols., and an Introduction to
the Apocrypha (1752-1827).
Eichthal, Gustave d',
a French publicist, born at Nancy; an adherent of St. Simonianism;
wrote "Les Evangiles"; Mrs. Carlyle describes him
as "a gentle soul, trustful, and earnest-looking, ready
to do and suffer all for his faith" (1804-1886).
Eichwald, Charles Edward,
an eminent Russian naturalist, born in Mitau, Russia; studied
science at Berlin and Vienna; held the chairs of Zoology and
Midwifery at Kasan and Wilna, and of Palæontology at St.
Petersburg; his explorations, which led him through most of
Europe, Persia, and Algeria, and included a survey of the Baltic
shores, as well as expeditions into the Caucasus, are described
in his various works, and their valuable results noted (1795-1876).
Eiffel, Gustave, an eminent
French engineer, born at Dijon; early obtained a reputation
for bridge construction; designed the great Garabit Viaduct,
and also the enormous locks for the Panama Canal; his most noted
work is the gigantic iron tower which bears his name; in 1893
became involved in the Panama scandals, and was fined, and sentenced
to two years' imprisonment; b. 1832.
Eiffel Tower, a structure
erected on the banks of the Seine in Paris, the loftiest in
the world, being 985 ft. in height, and visible from all parts
of the city; it consists of three platforms, of which the first
is as high as the towers of Notre Dame; the second as high as
Strasburg Cathedral spire, and the third 863 ft; it was designed
by Gustave Eiffel, and erected in 1887-1889; there are cafés
and restaurants on the first landing, and the ascent is by powerful
Eigg or Egg, a rocky islet
among the Hebrides, 5 m. SW. of Skye; St. Donnan and 50 monks
from Iona were massacred here in 617 by the queen, notwithstanding
a remonstrance on the part of the islanders that it would be
an irreligious act; here also the Macleods of the 10th century
suffocated in a cave 200 of the Macdonalds, including women
Eighteenth Century, "a
sceptical century and a godless," according to Carlyle's
deliberate estimate, "opulent in accumulated falsities,
as never century before was; which had no longer the consciousness
of being false, so false has it grown; so steeped in falsity,
and impregnated with it to the very bone, that, in fact, the
measure of the thing was full, and a French Revolution had to
end it"; which it did only symbolically, however, as he
afterwards admitted, and but admonitorily of a doomsday still
to come. See "Frederick the Great," Bk. i. chap, ii.,
Eikon Basilikë (i.
e. the Royal Likeness), a book containing an account of
Charles I. during his imprisonment, and ascribed to him as author,
but really written by Bishop Gauden, though the MS. may have
been perused and corrected by the king; it gives a true picture
of his character and possible state of mind.
Eildons, The, a "triple-crested
eminence" near Melrose, 1385 ft., and overlooking Teviotdale
to the S., associated with Sir Walter Scott and Thomas the Rhymer;
they are of volcanic origin, and are said to have been cleft
in three by the wizard Michael Scott, when he was out of employment.
Eimeo, one of the French Society
Islands; is hilly and woody, but well cultivated in the valleys;
missionary enterprise in Polynesia first found a footing here.
Einsiedeln (8), a town in
the canton of Schwyz, Switzerland; has a Benedictine abbey,
containing a famous black image of the Virgin, credited with
miraculous powers, which attracts, it is said, 200,000 pilgrims
Eisenach (21), a flourishing
manufacturing town in Saxe-Weimar, close to the Thuringian Forest
and 48 m. W. of Weimar; is the birthplace of Sebastian Bach;
in the vicinity stands the castle of Wartburg, the hiding-place
for 10 months of Luther after the Diet of Worms.
Eisleben (23), a mining town
in Prussian Saxony, 24 m. NW. of Halle; the birthplace and burial-place
Eisteddfod, a gathering of
Welsh bards and others, now annual, at which, out of a patriotic
motive, prizes are awarded for the encouragement of Welsh literature
and music and the preservation of the Welsh language and ancient
Ekaterinburg (37), a Russian
town on the Isset, on the E. side of the Ural Mountains, of
the mining industry in which it is the chief centre; has various
manufactures, and a trade in the cutting and sorting of precious
Ekron, a town in N. Palestine,
30 m. N. from Gaza and 9 m. from the sea.
Elaine, a lady of the court of
King Arthur in love with Lancelot, and whose story is related
by Malory in his "History" and by Tennyson in his "Idylls
of the King."
Elaterium, a drug obtained
from the mucus of the fruit of the squirting cucumber; is a
most powerful purgative, and was known to the ancients.
Elba, a small and rocky island
in the Mediterranean between Corsica and Tuscany, with a bold
precipitous coast; belongs to Italy; has trade in fish, fruits,
and iron ore; famous as Napoleon's place of exile from May 1814
to February 1815.
Elbe, the most important river
in N. Germany; rises in the Riesengebirge, in Austria, flows
NW. through Germany, and enters the North Sea at Cuxhaven, 725
m. long, navigable 520 m.; abounds in fish.
Elberfeld (126), an important
manufacturing commercial centre, 16 m. NE. of Düsseldorf;
noted for its textiles and dye-works.
Elboeuf (21), a town on the
Seine, 75 m. NW. of Paris; has flourishing manufactures in cloths,
Elburz, a lofty mountain range
in N. Persia, S. of the Caspian; also the name of the highest
peak in the Caucasus (18,571 ft.).
Elder, a name given to certain
office-bearers in the Presbyterian Church, associated with the
minister in certain spiritual functions short of teaching and
administering sacraments; their duties embrace the general oversight
of the congregation, and are of a wider nature than those of
the deacons, whose functions are confined strictly to the secular
interests of the church; they are generally elected by the church
members, and ordained in the presence of the congregation; their
term of office is in some cases for a stated number of years,
but more generally for life.
Eldon, John Scott, Lord,
a celebrated English lawyer, born at Newcastle, of humble parentage;
educated at Oxford for the Church, but got into difficulties
through a runaway marriage; he betook himself to law, rose rapidly
in his profession, and, entering Parliament, held important
legal offices under Pitt; was made a Baron and Lord Chancellor,
1801, an office which he held for 26 years; retired from public
life in 1835, and left a large fortune at his death; was noted
for the shrewd equity of his judgments and his delay in delivering
El Dorado (lit. the
Land of Gold), a country which Orellana, the lieutenant of Pizzaro,
pretended to have discovered in S. America, between the Amazon
and Orinoco, and which he represented as abounding in gold and
precious gems; now a region of purely imaginary wealth.
Eleanor, queen of Edward I.
of England and sister of Alfonso
X. (q. v.) of Castile, surnamed the Wise, accompanied
her husband to the Crusade in 1269, and is said to have saved
him by sucking the poison from a wound inflicted by a poisoned
arrow; was buried at Westminster (1244-1290).
Eleatics, a school of philosophy
in Greece, founded by Xenophanes of Elia, and of which Parmenides
and Zeno, both of Elia, were the leading adherents and advocates,
the former developing the system and the latter completing it,
the ground-principle of which was twofold—the affirmation
of the unity, and the negative of the diversity, of being—in
other words, the affirmation of pure being as alone real, to
the exclusion of everything finite and merely phenomenal. See "Sartor,"
Bk. I. chap. 8.
Election, The Doctrine
of, the doctrine that the salvation of a man depends
on the election of God for that end, of which there are two
chief phases—the one is election to be Christ's,
or unconditional election, and the other that it is election
in Christ, or conditional election.
Electors, The, or Kurfürsts,
of Germany, German princes who enjoyed the privilege of
disposing of the imperial crown, ranked next the emperor, and
were originally six in number, but grew to eight and finally
nine; three were ecclesiastical—the Archbishops of Mayence,
Cologne, and Trèves, and three secular—the Electors
of Saxony, the Palatinate, and Bohemia, to which were added
at successive periods the Electors of Brandenburg, of Bavaria,
and Hanover. "There never was a tenth; and the Holy Roman
Empire, as it was called, which was a grand object once, but
had gone about in a superannuated and plainly crazy state some
centuries, was at last put out of pain by Napoleon, August 6,
1806, and allowed to cease from the world."
Electra (i. e. the Bright
One), an ocean nymph, the mother of Isis
Electra, the daughter of Agamemnon
and Clytemnestra, who, with her brother Orestes, avenged the
death of her father on his murderers.
Electric Light, a brilliant
white light due to positive and negative currents rushing together
between two points of carbon or (the "incandescent"
light) to the intense heat in a solid body, caused by an electric
current passing through it.
Electricity, the name given
to a subtle agent called the electric fluid, latent in all bodies,
and first evolved by friction, and which may manifest itself,
under certain conditions, in brilliant flashes of light, or,
when in contact with animals, in nervous shocks more or less
violent. It is of two kinds, negative and positive, and as such
exhibits itself in the polarity of the magnet, when it is called
Magnetic (q. v.), and
is excited by chemical action, when it is called
Voltaic (q. v.).
Elegy, a song expressive of sustained
earnest yearning, or mild sorrow after loss.
a general name given in the Middle Ages to salamanders, undines,
sylphs, and gnomes, spirits superstitiously believed to have
dominion respectively over, as well as to have had their dwelling
in, the four elements—fire, water, air, and earth.
Elements, originally the four
forms of matter so deemed—fire, air, earth, and water,
and afterwards the name for those substances that cannot be
resolved by chemical analysis, and which are now found to amount
Elephant, a genus of mammals,
of which there are two species, the Indian and the African;
the latter attains a greater size, and is hunted for the sake
of its tusks, which may weigh as much as 70 lbs.; the former
is more intelligent, and easily capable of being domesticated;
the white elephant is a variety of this species.
Elephant, Order of the
White, a Danish order of knighthood, restricted to 30
knights, the decoration of which is an elephant supporting a
tower; it was instituted by Canute IV., king of Denmark, at
the end of the 12th century.
Elephanta, an island 6 m.
in circuit in Bombay harbour, so called from its colossal figure
of an elephant which stood near the landing-place; it contains
three temples cut out of solid rock, and covered with sculptures,
which, along with the figure at the landing, are rapidly decaying.
Elephantiasis, a peculiar
skin disease, accompanied with abnormal swelling; so called
because the skin becomes hard and stiff like an elephant's hide;
attacks the lower limbs and scrotum; is chiefly confined to
India and other tropical countries.
Elephantine, a small island
below the first cataract of the Nile; contains interesting monuments
and ruins of the ancient Roman and Egyptian civilisations.
rites, initiation into which, as religiously conducive to the
making of good men and good citizens, was compulsory on every
free-born Athenian, celebrated annually at Eleusis in honour
of Demeter and Persephone, and which lasted nine days.
Eleusis, a town in ancient Attica,
NW. of Athens, with a temple for the worship of Demeter, the
largest in Greece; designed by the architect of the
Parthenon (q. v.).
Eleutheria, the goddess of
liberty, as worshipped in ancient Greece.
Elf-arrows, arrow-heads of
flint used in hunting and war by the aborigines of the British
Isles and of Europe generally, as they still are among savages
elsewhere; derived their name from the superstitious belief
that they were used by the fairies to kill cattle and sometimes
human beings in their mischief-joy; they were sometimes worn
as talismans, occasionally set in silver, as a charm against
Elgin or Moray (43), a
northern Scottish county, fronting the Moray Firth and lying
between Banff and Nairn, mountainous in the S. but flat to the
N., watered by the Spey, Lossie, and Findhorn; agriculture,
stone-quarrying, distilling, and fishing are the staple industries;
has some imposing ruins and interesting antiquities.
Elgin (8), the county town of
above, on the Lossie; created a royal burgh by David I.; has
ruins of a fine Gothic cathedral and royal castle.
Elgin (17), a city in Illinois,
on the Fox, 35 m. NW. of Chicago; watchmaking the chief industry.
Elgin, James Bruce,
8th Earl of, statesman and diplomatist, born in London;
governor of Jamaica and Canada; negotiated important treaties
with China and Japan; rendered opportune assistance at the Indian
Mutiny by diverting to the succour of Lord Canning an expedition
that was proceeding to China under his command; after holding
office as Postmaster-General he became Viceroy of India (1861),
where he died; his Journal and Letters are published (1811-1863).
Elgin Marbles, a collection
of ancient sculptured marbles brought from Athens by the Earl
of Elgin in 1812, and now deposited in the British
Museum, after purchase of them by the Government for £35,000;
these sculptures adorned certain public buildings in the Acropolis,
and consist of portions of statues, of which that of Theseus
is the chief, of alto-reliefs representing the struggle of the
Centaurs and Lapithæ, and of a large section of a frieze.
Elia, the nom de plume adopted
by Charles Lamb in connection with his Essays.
Elias, Mount, a mountain
in NW. coast of N. America; conspicuous far off at sea, being
about 18,000 ft. or 3½ m. above it.
Elijah, a Jewish prophet, born
at Tishbe, in Gilead, near the desert; prophesied in the reign
of Ahab, king of Israel, in the 10th century B.C.; revealed
himself as the deadly enemy of the worship of Baal, 400 of whose
priests he is said to have slain with his own hand; his zeal
provoked persecution at the hands of the king and his consort
Jezebel, but the Lord protected him, and he was translated from
the earth in a chariot of fire, "went up by a whirlwind
into heaven." See Prophets,
Eliot, George, the nom
de plume of Mary Ann Evans, distinguished English novelist,
born at Arbury, in Warwickshire; was bred on evangelical lines,
but by-and-by lost faith in supernatural Christianity; began
her literary career by a translation of Strauss's "Life
of Jesus"; became in 1851 a contributor to the Westminster
Review, and formed acquaintance with George Henry Lewes,
whom she ere long lived with as his wife, though unmarried,
and who it would seem discovered to her her latent faculty for
fictional work; her first work in that line was "Scenes
from Clerical Life," contributed to Blackwood in
1856; the stories proved a signal success, and they were followed
by a series of seven novels, beginning in 1858 with "Adam
Bede," "the finest thing since Shakespeare,"
Charles Reade in his enthusiasm said, the whole winding up with
the "Impressions of Theophrastus Such" in 1879; these,
with two volumes of poems, make up her works; Lewes died in
1878, and two years after she formally married an old friend,
Mr. John Cross, and after a few months of wedded life died of
inflammation of the heart; "she paints," says Edmond
Scherer, "only ordinary life, but under these externals
she makes us assist at the eternal tragedy of the human heart...
with so much sympathy," he adds, "the smile on her
face so near tears, that we cannot read her pages without feeling
ourselves won to that lofty toleration of hers" (1819-1880).
Eliot, John, the apostle of
the Indians, born in Hertfordshire; entered the Church of England,
but seceded and emigrated to New England; became celebrated
for his successful evangelistic expeditions amongst the Indians
during his lifelong occupancy of the pastorate at Roxbury (1604-1690).
Elis, a district of Greece, on
the W. coast of the Peloponnesus, sacred to all Hellas as the
seat of the greatest of the Greek festivals in connection with
the Olympian Games, a circumstance which imparted a prestige
to the inhabitants.
Elisa or Elissa, Dido,
queen of Carthage, in love with Æneas.
Elisha, a Jewish prophet, the
successor of Elijah, who found him at the plough, and consecrated
him to his office by throwing his mantle over him, and which
he again let fall on him as he ascended to heaven. He exercised
his office for 55 years, but showed none of the zeal of his
predecessor against the worship of Baal; was, however, accredited
as a prophet of the Lord by the miracles he wrought in the Lord's
Elizabeth, sister of Louis
XVI.; was guillotined (1764-1794).
queen of Spain, a daughter of Odoardo II. of Parma; in 1714
she married Philip V. of Spain, when her bold and energetic
nature soon made itself felt in the councils of Europe, where
she carried on schemes for territorial and political aggrandisement;
was an accomplished linguist; is called by Carlyle "the
Termagant of Spain"; her Memoirs are published in four
of Russia, daughter of Peter the Great and Catharine
I.; assisted Maria Theresa in the war of the Austrian Succession;
opposed Frederick the Great in the Seven Years' War; indolent
and licentious, she left the affairs of the State mainly in
the hands of favourites (1709-1762).
Elizabeth, Queen of
Bohemia, daughter of James VI. of Scotland and I. of
England; married Frederick V., Elector Palatine, who for a brief
time held the throne of Bohemia; her daughter Sophia, by marrying
the Elector of Hanover, formed a tie which ultimately brought
the crown of England to the House of Brunswick (1596-1662).
Elizabeth, Queen of
England (1658-1603), daughter of Henry VIII. and Anne
Boleyn, born in Greenwich Palace; was an indefatigable student
in her youth; acquired Greek and Latin, and a conversational
knowledge of German and French; the Pope's opposition to her
succession on the ground of being judged illegitimate by the
Church strengthened her attachment to the Protestant faith,
which was her mother's, and contributed to its firm establishment
during the reign; during it the power of Spain was crushed by
the defeat of the Armada; maritime enterprise flourished under
Drake, Raleigh, and Frobisher; commerce was extended, and literature
carried to a pitch of perfection never before or since reached;
masterful and adroit, Elizabeth yet displayed the weakness of
vanity and vindictiveness; the execution of Mary, Queen of Scots,
is a blot upon her fame, and her intrigues with Seymour, Leicester,
and Essex detract from her dignity; her wisdom was manifested
in her wise choice of counsellors and leaders, and her patriotism
won her a secure place in the hearts of her people (1533-1608).
Elizabeth, St., "a
very pious, but also a very fanciful young woman; her husband,
a Thuringian landgraf, going to the Crusade, where he died straightway,"
Carlyle guesses, "partly the fruit of the life she led
him; lodging beggars, sometimes in her very bed; continually
breaking his night's rest for prayer and devotional exercises
of undue length, 'weeping one moment, then smiling in joy the
next'; meandering about, capricious, melodious, weak, at the
will of devout whim mainly; went to live at Marburg after her
husband's death, and soon died there in a most melodiously pious
sort" in 1231, aged 24.
a term applied to the style of architecture which flourished
in the reigns of Elizabeth and James I., and which was characterised
by a revival of classic designs wrought into the decadent Gothic
style. Lord Salisbury's house at Hatfield is a good specimen
of this mixed style.
Elizabethan Era, according
to Carlyle, "the outcome and flowerage of all which had
preceded it... in that old age lies the only true
poetical literature of England. The poets of the last ago
took to pedagogy (Pope and his school), and shrewd men they
were; those of the present age to ground-and-lofty tumbling;
and it will do your heart good," he adds, "to see
how they vault."
Elkargeh (4), a town in the
great oasis in the Libyan Desert; has ancient remains, and is
an important resting stage in crossing the desert.
Law, Earl of, an English Conservative statesman, son
of Baron Ellenborough, Lord Chief-Justice of England; entered
Parliament in 1813; held office under the Duke of Wellington
and Sir Robert Peel; appointed Governor-General of India (1841);
recalled in 1844; subsequently First Lord of the Admiralty and
Indian Minister under Lord Derby (1790-1871).
a painter of great excellence, born at Constance; studied in
Rome; devoted herself to religious subjects, such as "Christ
Blessing Little Children," "Mary and the Infant Jesus," &c.
Egerton, Earl of, statesman and author, born in London,
second son of the Duke of Sutherland; was Secretary for Ireland
and War Secretary; author of some books of travel, and a translation
of "Faust" (1800-1857).
Elliot, George Augustus.
Elliotson, John, an English
physician, born in London; lost his professorship in London
University on account of employing mesmerism for medical purposes;
promoted clinical instruction and the use of the stethoscope;
founded the Phrenological Society (1791-1868).
Elliott, Ebenezer, poet,
known popularly as the "Corn-Law Rhymer," born in
Rotherham parish, Yorkshire; an active worker in iron; devoted
his leisure to poetic composition; proved a man that could handle
both pen and hammer like a man; wrote the "Corn-Law Rhymes"
and other pieces; his works have been "likened to some
little fraction of a rainbow, hues of joy and harmony, painted
out of troublous tears; no full round bow shone on by the full
sun, and yet, in very truth, a little prismatic blush, glowing
genuine among the wet clouds, ... proceeds from a sun cloud-hidden,
yet indicates that a sun does shine...; a voice from the deep
Cyclopean forges where Labour, in real soot and sweat, beats
with his thousand hammers, doing personal battle with Necessity
and her brute dark powers to make them reasonable and
Ellis, Alexander J.,
an eminent English philologist, born at Horeton; published many
papers on phonetics and early English pronunciation; was President
of the Philological Society; his name, originally Sharpe, changed
by royal license (1814-1890).
Ellis, George, literary
critic, born in London; did much to promote the study of early
English literature; contributed to the Anti-Jacobin,
and was joint-author of the "Rolliad," a satire on
Pitt, and of "Specimens of Early English Metrical Romances";
Scott declared him to be the best conversationalist he had ever
Ellis, Sir Henry, chief
librarian of the British Museum from 1827 to 1856, born in London;
edited various works on antiques; wrote an "Introduction
to Domesday Book"; knighted in 1833 (1777-1869).
Ellis, William, a missionary
and author, born in London; laboured in the South Sea Islands,
and afterwards in Madagascar; wrote various works descriptive
of these islands; he married Sarah Stickney, who is the authoress
of a number of popular works, including "The Women of England," "The
Daughters of England," &c. (1794-1872).
Elliston, Robert William,
a celebrated actor, born in London; ran away from home and joined
the stage, rose to the front rank both as comedian and tragedian
Ellora, an Indian village in
Hyderabad, 12 m. NW. of Aurungabad, famed for its Buddhist and
Hindu cave and monolithic temples, the most magnificent of which
is hewn out of a solid hill of red stone, the most beautiful
being the Hindu temple of Kailás.
Ellwood, Thomas, a celebrated
Quaker, born at Crowell, Oxfordshire; the intimate friend of
Milton, to whom he suggested the idea of "Paradise Regained"
by remarking to him, "Thou hast said much of Paradise Lost,
but what hast thou to say of Paradise Found?" his Autobiography
is still read (1639-1713).
Elmo's Fire, St., a popular
name for the display of electric fire which sometimes plays
about the masts of ships, steeples, &c., accompanied at
times with a hissing noise; commoner in southern climates, known
by other names, e. g. Fire of St. Clara, of St. Elias.
Eloge, a discourse in panegyric
of some illustrious person deceased, in which composition Fontenelle
took the lead, and in which he was followed by D'Alembert, Condorcet,
Flourens, and others.
Elohim, a Hebrew word in the
plural number, signifying God or one as God, but with a verb
in the singular, signifying generally the one true God; according
to the Talmud it denotes God as just in judgment to all in contradistinction
to Jehovah, which denotes God as merciful to His people.
Elohist, a name given by the
critics to the presumed author of the earlier part of the Pentateuch,
whose work in it they allege is distinguished by the use of
the word Elohim for God; he is to be distinguished from the
Jehovist, the presumed author of the later portions, from his
use, on the other hand, of the word Jehovah for God.
Keith, Admiral. See Keith.
a noted Indian civil servant and historian; co-operated with
Wellesley in firmly establishing British rule in India; was
governor of Bombay, where he accomplished many useful reforms,
and issued the Elphinstone Code of Laws; wrote a "History
of India," which earned for him the title of the "Tacitus
of India" (1779-1859).
an erudite and patriotic Scottish ecclesiastic and statesman,
born in Glasgow; took holy orders; went to Paris to study law,
and became a professor in Law there, and afterwards at Orleans;
returned to Scotland; held several high State appointments under
James III. and James IV.; continued a zealous servant of the
Church, holding the bishoprics of Ross and of Aberdeen, where
he founded the university (1431-1514).
Elsass (French Alsace),
a German territory on the left bank of the Rhine, traversed
by the Vosges Mountains; taken from the French in 1870-71.
Elsinore, a seaport on the
island of Zeeland, in Denmark, 20 m. N. of Copenhagen; has a
good harbour; the scene of Shakespeare's "Hamlet."
Elswick (53), a town in the
vicinity of Newcastle, noted for the great engineering and ordnance
works of Sir W. G. (now Lord) Armstrong.
Elton, a salt lake of SE. Russia,
in the government of Astrakhan; has an area of about 65 sq.
m., but is very shallow; yields annually some 90,000 or 95,000
tons of salt, which is shipped off viâ the Volga.
Elton, Charles Isaac,
jurist and ethnologist, born in Somerset; held a Fellowship
in Queen's College, Oxford; called to the bar in 1865, and in
1884 was returned to Parliament as a Conservative;
his first works were juridical treatises on the tenure of land,
but in 1882 he produced a learned book on the origins of English
history; b. 1839.
Elvas, a strongly fortified town
in Portugal, in the province of Alemtejo, 12 m. W. of Badajoz;
is a bishop's see; has a Moorish aqueduct 3½ m. long
and 250 ft. high.
Ely (8), a celebrated cathedral
city, in the fen-land of Cambridgeshire, on the Ouse, 30 m.
SE. of Peterborough; noted as the scene of Hereward's heroic
stand against William the Conqueror in 1071; the cathedral,
founded in 1083, is unique as containing specimens of the various
Gothic styles incorporated during the course of 400 years.
Ely, Isle of, a name given
to the N. portion of Cambridgeshire on account of its having
been at one time insulated by marshes; being included in the
region of the Fens, has been drained, and is now fertile land.
Elyot, Sir Thomas, author
and ambassador, born in Wiltshire; ambassador to the court of
Charles V.; celebrated as the author of "The Governour,"
the first English work on moral philosophy, and also of the
first Latin-English dictionary (1490-1546).
Elysium the abode of the shades
of the virtuous dead in the nether world as conceived of by
the poets of Greece and Rome, where the inhabitants live a life
of passive blessedness, which, however, is to such a man as
Achilles a place of woe rather and unrest, where he would fain
exchange places with the meanest hind that breathes in the upper
Elze, Frederick Carl,
a German Shakespearian scholar, born at Dessau; early devoted
himself to the study of English literature; lived some time
in England and Scotland; in 1875 became professor of English
Literature at Halle; his various publications on Shakespeare
and the Elizabethan dramatists are full of excellent criticisms;
also wrote Lives of Scott and Byron (1821-1889).
Elzevir, the name of an eminent
family of printers residing in Amsterdam and Leyden, Louis the
first of them, who started in Leyden; their publications date
from 1594 to 1680.
Elzevir Editions, editions
of the classics printed at Amsterdam and Leyden during the 16th
and 17th centuries by a family of the Elzevirs, and considered
to be immaculate.
Emanation, the Doctrine
of, a doctrine of Eastern origin, which derives everything
that exists from the divine nature by necessary process of emanation,
as light from the sun, and ascribes all evil and the degrees
of it to a greater and greater distance from the pure ether
of this parent source, or to the extent in consequence to which
the being gets immersed in and clogged with matter.
a term in Roman law and name given to the process of the manumission
of a son by his father; the son was sold to a third party and
after the sale became sui juris; it is now applied to
the remission of old laws in the interest of freedom, which
Carlyle regards in his "Shooting Niagara," as the
sum of nearly all modern recent attempts at Reform.
Emanuel I., king of Portugal
from 1495 to 1521; his reign inaugurated the golden period of
Portuguese history, during which Portugal became the first maritime
and commercial power in Europe; was the patron of Vasco da Gama
and Albuquerque; issued an edict for the expulsion of the Jews
from his kingdom, and wrote to the Elector of Saxony begging
him to get rid of Luther (1469-1521).
Embalming, the art of preserving
dead bodies from decay by means of antiseptic agents applied
both externally and internally; although known to other people,
e. g. the Peruvians, the art was chiefly practised among
the Egyptians, and the practice of it dates back to 4000 B.C.;
the thoroughness of the process depended on the money expended,
but it usually involved the removal of the viscera, save the
heart and kidneys, the extraction of the brain, the introduction
of drugs to the cavities, and the pickling of the body in native
carbonate of soda, and the wrapping of it in linen; experiments
in embalming, more or less successful, have been made in recent
times, and even still are.
Ember Days, four annually
recurring periods of three days each, appointed by the Romish
and English Churches to be devoted to fasting and praying; they
are the Wednesday, Friday, and Saturday after the first Sunday
in Lent, after Pentecost, after the 14th September, and after
the 13th December.
Embryo, the scientific term for
the young of an animal while yet in the initial stage of development
in the womb; also applied to the plant in its rudimentary stage
within the seed.
Embryology, the section of
biology which treats of the development of the embryo.
Emden (14), the chief part of
the province of Hanover, in Prussia, situated at the outlet
of the river Ems; is intersected by canals; shipbuilding and
brewing are the chief industries.
Emerald, a precious stone of
great value, allied in composition to the beryl; is of a beautiful
transparent green colour; the finest specimens are found in
Colombia and Venezuela.
Emerald Isle, Ireland, from
the fresh verdure of its herbage.
Emerson, Ralph Waldo,
an American philosophic thinker and poet, of English Puritan
descent, born at Boston, where he started in life as a Unitarian
preacher and pastor, an office he resigned in 1832 for literature,
in which he found he would have freer and fuller scope to carry
out his purpose as a spiritual teacher; in 1833 he paid a visit
to England, and in particular a notable one to
Craigenputtock (q. v.),
with the inmates of which he formed a lifelong friendship; on
his return the year after, he married, a second time as it happened,
and, settling down in Concord, began his career as a lecturer
and man of letters; by his "Essays," of which he published
two series, one in 1841 and a second in 1844, he commended himself
to the regard of all thinking men in both hemispheres, and began
to exercise an influence for good on all the ingenuous youth
of the generation; they were recognised by Carlyle, and commended
as "the voice of a man"; these embraced subjects one
and all of spiritual interest, and revealed transcendent intellectual
power; they were followed by "Representative Men,"
lectures delivered in Manchester on a second visit to England
in 1847, and thereafter, at successive periods, by "Society
and Solitude," "English Traits," "The Conduct
of Life," "Letters and Social Aims," besides
a long array of poems, as well as sundry remarkable Addresses
and Lectures, which he published; he was a man of exceptional
endowment and great speculative power, and is to this day the
acknowledged head of the literary men of America; speculatively,
Carlyle and he were of the same school, but while Carlyle had "descended"
from the first "into the angry, noisy Forum with an argument
that could not but exasperate and divide," he continued
pretty much all his days engaged in little more than in a quiet
survey and criticism of the strife; Carlyle tried hard to persuade
him to "descend," but it would appear Emerson never
to his dying day understood what Carlyle meant by the appeal,
an appeal to take the devil by the throat and cease to merely
speculate and dream (1803-1882).
Emerson Tennent, Sir
James, bred for the bar; was from 1845 to 1852 colonial
secretary and lieutenant-governor of Ceylon, and became on his
return joint-secretary to the Board of Trade; wrote "Christianity
in Ceylon" and "Ceylon: an Account of the Island"
Emery, a dull, blue-black mineral,
allied in composition to the sapphire, but containing a varying
quantity of iron oxide; is found in large masses; is exceedingly
hard, and largely used in polishing metals, plate-glass, and
Emigrants, The (Les Emigrés),
the members of the French aristocracy and of the partisans of
the ancient régime who at the time of the Revolution,
after the fall of the Bastille, fled for safety to foreign lands,
congregating particularly in Coblenz, where they plotted for
its overthrow, to the extent of leaguing with the foreigner
against their country, with the issue of confiscation of their
lands and properties by the republic that was set up.
Émile, the hero of a philosophic
romance by Rousseau of the same name, in which the author expounds
his views on education, and presents his reasons, with his ideal
of what, according to him, a good education is, a theory practically
adopted by many would-be educationists with indifferent fruit.
Emir, a title bestowed on the descendants
of Mahomet's daughter Fatima, the word denoting a "prince"
or "ruler"; has lost this its primary meaning; the
emirs, of whom there are large numbers in Turkey, enjoying no
privileges save the sole right to wear a green turban, the supposed
favourite colour of Mahomet, though they hold a high social
position; the title is also given to chieftains of N. Africa.
Emmet, Robert, a patriotic
Irishman, born in Dublin; bred for the bar; took part in the
Irish rebellion; was hanged for his share in attempting to seize
Dublin Castle (1778-1803).
Empe`docles, a philosopher
of Agrigentum, in Sicily; "extolled in antiquity as a statesman
and orator, as physicist, physician, and poet, and even as prophet
and worker of miracles," who flourished about the year
440 B.C.; he conceived the universe as made up of "four
eternal, self-subsistent, mutually underivative, but divisible,
primal material bodies, mingled and moulded by two moving forces,
the uniting one of friendship and the disuniting one of strife";
of him it is fabled that, to persuade his fellow-citizens, with
whom he had been in high favour as their deliverer from the
tyranny of the aristocracy, of his bodily translation from earth
to heaven, he threw himself unseen into the crater of Etna,
but that at the next eruption of the mountain his slipper was
cast up and revealed the fraud.
Empires: the Roman, capital
Rome, dates from the reign of Augustus, 25 B.C., to that of
Theodosius, A.D. 395; of the East, or Low Empire, capital
Constantinople, being part of the Roman empire, dates from 295
to 1453; of the West, capital Rome, dates from 295 to
476; the Holy, or Second Empire of the West, founded
by Charlemagne, dates from 800 to 911; the Latin, capital
Constantinople, founded by the Crusaders, dates from 1204 to
1261; the German, founded by Otho the Great in 962, ended
by abdication of Francis II. of Austria in 1806, and restored
under William I. in 1870; the French, founded by Napoleon
I., dates from 1804 to 1815, and as established by Napoleon
III. dates from 1852 to 1870; of the Indies, founded
in 1876 under the crown of England.
Empiric, the name given to any
who practises an art from the mere experience of results, apart
from all reference to or knowledge of the scientific explanation.
Empiricism, a philosophical
term applied to the theory that all knowledge is derived from
the senses and experience alone, to the rejection of the theory
of innate ideas; Locke, in modern times, is the great representative
of the school that advocates this doctrine supported by Aristotle.
Empson, Sir Richard,
a lawyer in the reign of Henry VII.; was Speaker of the House
of Commons; incurred the hatred of the populace by acting as
the king's agent in forcing payment of taxes and penalties;
was convicted of tyranny and treason, and beheaded in 1510.
Empyema, a medical term signifying
a diseased condition of the chest, in which pus accumulates
in the pleura, cures of which are sometimes effected by drawing
off the pus by means of tubes.
Empyrean, the highest heaven,
or region of pure elemental fire, whence everything of the nature
of fire has been conceived to emanate, whether in the phenomena
of nature or the life of man.
Ems, 1, a river of NW. Germany,
rises in Westphalia, and after a course of 205 m. discharges
into Dollart Bay, an inlet of the North Sea; is navigable, and
is joined to the Lippe by means of a canal, and also similarly
to Dortmund. 2, A celebrated German watering-place, on the Lahn,
near Coblenz; its mineral springs, known to the Romans, vary
in warmth from 80° to 135° F.
Enamel, a vitreous compound,
easily fusible, and coloured in various tints by the admixture
of different metallic oxides; is fused to the surface of metals
for utility and ornament; was known to the European and Asiatic
ancients, and has maintained its popularity to the present day.
Various schools have been formed, of which the Byzantine, Rhenish,
and Limoges are the most noted.
an ancient style of decorative art somewhat similar to enamelling,
which consisted in overlaying the surface (e. g. of walls)
with wax, then inlaying a coloured design, the whole being subsequently
Enceladus, one of the chief
giants that revolted against Zeus, and who, as he fled and took
refuge in Sicily, was transfixed by a thunderbolt, and buried
under Etna. The fiery eruptions of the mountain are his breath,
and the shaking of it ascribed to his shifting from one side
to another. In the latter regard he serves in literature as
the symbol of a blind, often impotent, struggle to throw off
some oppressive incubus.
Enceladus, Manuel Blanco,
a distinguished Chilian statesman and soldier, born in Buenos
Ayres; trained for the navy in Spain, but joined the Chilian
revolutionaries; served with distinction under Lord Cochrane,
and rose to high rank both in the army and navy; was commander
of the Chilian forces in 1825, and for two months in the following
year President of the Republic; was subsequently Governor of
Valparaiso, and minister to France (1790-1876).
Enchiridion of Epictetus.
Encina or Enzina, Juan de
la, a Spanish dramatist, whose works mark the rise of the
Spanish drama, born at Salamanca; was at one time secretary
to the Duke of Alva, and afterwards conductor of music in the
chapel of Leo X. at Rome (1469-1534).
Encke, Johann Franz,
a celebrated German astronomer, born at Hamburg; determined
the sun's distance, and the orbit of the comet of 1680;
calculated the time of the revolution
of the comet which now bears his name, and which appeared in
1818; determined also the distance of the sun by the two transits
of Venus in 1761 and 1769 (1791-1865).
a letter addressed by the Pope to the bishops of the Church,
condemnatory of prevailing errors or counselling them how to
act in connection with public questions of the day.
name of Greek derivation, given to works which embrace within
their pages a more or less complete account, in alphabetical
order, of the whole round of human knowledge, or of some particular
section of it. Attempts in this direction were made as far back
as Aristotle's day, and various others have since been made
from time to time, according as the circle of knowledge widened.
Amongst famous encyclopædias which have appeared, mention
may be made of the French "Encyclopédie"
(q. v.); the "Encyclopædia Britannica,"
Edinburgh (1708-1771), now in its ninth edition (1889); the
German "Encyclopedie," begun in 1818 by Ersch and
Gruber, and not yet completed, although 170 volumes have appeared;
while the largest of all is the Chinese encyclopædia,
in 5020 vols., printed in Pekin in 1726.
French encyclopædia consisting of 28 vols., to which a
supplement of 5 vols. was added; edited by D'Alembert and Diderot;
contributed to by a number of the eminent savants of France,
and issued in 1751-1777, and which contributed to feed, but
did nothing to allay, or even moderate, the fire of the Revolution.
a man of encyclopedic knowledge, or who conducts or contributes
to an encyclopædia; specially one who has, as the French
encyclopedists, an overweening, false, and illusory estimate
of the moral worth and civilising power of such knowledge. See
Bk. I. chap. 10, on the "Encyclopedic Head."
Endemic, a term applied to diseases
which affect the inhabitants of certain countries and localities,
and which arise from strictly local causes, e.g. neighbouring
swamps, bad sanitation, impure water, climate, &c.
Endogens, those plants in which
the new fibrous matter is developed in the centre of the stem,
and which is pushed outward by the formation of new tissue within,
thus developing the stem outwards from the inside. See
Endor, a place on the S. of Mount
Tabor, in Palestine, where the sorceress lived who was consulted
by Saul before the battle of Gilboa, and who professed communication
with the ghost of Samuel (1 Sam, xxviii. 7).
Endosmose, a word used in
physics to describe the intermingling of two liquids of different
densities, in close juxtaposition, but separated by a thin membranous
tissue. The liquid of lesser density passes more rapidly through
the dividing tissue, and raises the level of the liquid in the
other vessel, this action is named endosmose; while the flowing
of the liquid of greater density into the vessel whose level
is falling, is called exosmose.
Endymion, a beautiful shepherd,
son of Zeus, whom Selene (q.
v.) carried off to Mount Lemnos, in Caria, where, as she
kissed him, he sank into eternal sleep. This is one version
of the story.
Eneid, an epic poem of Virgil,
the hero of which is Æneas of Troy.
Energy, Conservation of,
the doctrine that, however it may change in form and character,
or be dissipated, no smallest quantity of force in the universe
is ever lost.
Enfantin, Barthélemy Prosper,
a Socialist and journalist, born in Paris, adopted the views
of Saint-Simon (q. v.);
held subversive views on the marriage laws, which involved him
in some trouble; wrote a useful and sensible book on Algerian
colonisation, and several works, mainly interpretative of the
theories of Saint-Simon (1796-1864).
Enfield (32), a town in Middlesex,
10 m. NE. of London, has a celebrated Government rifle factory;
was for six years the dwelling-place of Charles Lamb.
Engadine, a noted Swiss valley
in the canton of the Grisons, stretches about 65 m. between
the Lepontine or Rhætian Alps; is divided into the Lower
Engadine, wild and desolate, and the Upper Engadine, fertile
and populous, and a favourite health resort; the river Inn flows
through it, its waters collected here and there into lakes.
Engedi, an oasis, a spot of rare
beauty, once a place of palm-trees, 23 m. W. of the N. end of
the Dead Sea.
Enghien, Louis de
Bourbon, Duc d', an ill-fated French Royalist, born
at Chantilly; joined the Royalists under his grandfather, Prince
of Condé, and took part in the Rhine campaign against
the Republicans; was suspected of being concerned in a Bourbon
plot to assassinate the Emperor Napoleon; was seized in the
neutral territory of Baden, brought to Vincennes, and, after
an inconclusive and illegal trial, shot by Napoleon's orders,
a proceeding which gave rise to Fouché's remark, "It
is worse than a crime—it is a blunder" (1772-1804).
Engineers, Royal Naval,
since 1848 have ranked as commissioned officers; salaries vary
from £110 to £639 a year; admission is by examination;
duties include the entire oversight and management of the ship-machinery;
there are three ranks—inspectors of machinery, chief engineers,
and assistants, the latter being of three grades; in 1888 engineer
studentships were created.
Engineers, the Corps
of Royal, in the British army, instituted in 1763, consists
of about 900 officers and 5000 non-commissioned officers and
men, usually recruited from skilled artisans; their duties comprise
the undertaking of all engineering operations necessary in the
conduct of war, e. g. bridging and mining, road and railway
and telegraph construction, building of fortifications, &c.;
their term of service is 7 years in the active army and 5 in
the reserve, or maybe 3 in the former and 9 in the latter.
England (27,000), the "predominant
partner" of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland,
comprises along with Wales the southern, and by far the greater,
portion of Great Britain, the largest of the European islands;
it is separated from the Continent on the E. and S. by the North
Sea and English Channel, and from Ireland on the W. by St. George's
Channel, while Scotland forms its N. boundary; its greatest
length N. and S. is 430 m., and greatest breadth (including
Wales) 370. It is of an irregular triangular shape; has a long
and highly-developed coast-line (1800 m.); is divided into 40
counties (with Wales 52); has numerous rivers with navigable
estuaries, while transit is facilitated by a network of railways
and canals; save the highlands in the N., and the Pennine Range
running into Derby, England is composed (if we except the mountainland
of Wales) of undulating plains, 80 per cent, of which is arable;
while coal and iron are found in abundance, and copper, lead,
zinc, and tin in lesser quantities; in the extent and variety
of its textile factories, and in the
production of machinery and other hardware goods, England is
without an equal; the climate is mild and moist, and affected
by draughts; but for the Gulf Stream, whose waters wash its
western shores, it would probably resemble that of Labrador.
Under a limited monarchy and a widely embracing franchise, the
people of England enjoy an unrivalled political freedom. Since
Henry VIII.'s time, the national religion has been an established
Protestantism, but all forms are tolerated. In 1896 education
was made free. The name England is derived from Engle-land,
or land of the Angles, a Teutonic people who, with kindred Saxons
and Jutes, came over from the mainland in the 5th century, and
took possession of the island, driving Britons and Celts before
them. Admixtures to the stock took place during the 11th century
through the Danish and Norman conquests. E. annexed Wales in
1284, and was united with Scotland under one crown in 1603,
and under one Parliament in 1707.
England, The Want Of, "England
needs," says Ruskin, "examples of people who, leaving
Heaven to decide whether they are to rise in the world, decide
for themselves that they will be happy in it, and have resolved
to seek, not greater wealth, but simpler pleasures; not higher
fortune, but deeper felicity; making the first of possessions
self-possession, and honouring themselves in the harmless pride
and calm pursuits of peace."
Engles, Friedrich, a
Socialist, the friend of Karl Marx; an active propagandist of
socialistic theories; author of several works on Socialism (1820-1895).
Enid, the daughter of Yniol and
the wife of Geraint; one of the ladies of the court of King
Arthur; celebrated for her steadfast conjugal affection, the
story regarding whom is given in Tennyson's "Idylls of
Enniskillen (5), the county
town of Fermanagh, Ireland, on an isle in the river which joins
Lower and Upper Loughs Erne; the scene of the defeat of James
II.'s troops by those of William of Orange; gives its name to
a well-known dragoon regiment.
Ennius, an early Roman poet,
the father of Roman epic poetry, born in Rudiæ, Calabria;
promoted the study of Greek literature in Rome; of his poems,
dramatic and epic, only a few fragments are extant (239-169
Enoch, a godly man, who lived
in antediluvian times among a race gone godless, and whom the
Lord in judgment removed from the earth to return Himself by-and-by
with a flood in order to clear the world of the ungodly.
Enoch, The Book of, an
apocryphal book, quoted from by Jude, discovered over a century
ago, composed presumably about the 2nd century, though subsequently
enlarged and ascribed to Enoch; it professes to be a series
of revelations made to the patriarch bearing upon the secrets
of the material and spiritual universe and the course of Providence,
and written down by him for the benefit of posterity.
Enoch Arden, a poem of Tennyson,
and one of his happiest efforts to translate an incident of
common life into the domain of poetry; the story is: A sailor,
presumed to be lost, and whose wife marries another, returns,
finds her happily wedded, and bears the sorrow rather than disturb
her felicity by revealing himself.
Entablature, a term in classic
architecture applied to the ornamented portion of a building
which rests in horizontal position upon supporting columns;
is subdivided into three parts, the lower portion being called
the architrave, the middle portion the frieze,
and the uppermost the cornice; the depth assigned to
these parts varies in the different schools, but the whole entablature
generally measures twice the diameter of the column.
Entail, a term in law which came
to be used in connection with the practice of limiting the inheritance
of estates to a certain restricted line of heirs. Attempts of
the kind, which arise naturally out of the deeply-seated desire
which men have to preserve property—especially landed
estates—in their own families, are of ancient date; but
the system as understood now, involving the principle of primogeniture,
owes its origin to the feudal system. Sometimes the succession
was limited to the male issue, but this was by no means an invariable
practice; in modern times the system has been, by a succession
of Acts of Parliaments (notably the Cairns Act of 1882), greatly
modified, and greater powers given to the actual owner of alienating
the estates to which he has succeeded, a process which is called "breaking
Entsagen, the renunciation
with which, according to Goethe, life, strictly speaking, begins,
briefly explained by Froude as "a resolution, fixedly and
clearly made, to do without pleasant things—wealth, promotion,
fame, honour, and the other rewards with which the world recompenses
the services it appreciates," or, still more briefly, the
renunciation of the flesh symbolised in the Christian baptism
Environment, a term of extensive
use in biological science, especially employed to denote the
external conditions which go to determine modifications in the
development of organic life to the extent often of producing
Eon. See Æon.
Eon de Beaumont, Charles
d', the "Chevalier d'Eon," a noted French
diplomatist, born at Tonnerre, Burgundy; notorious as having,
while on secret missions, adopted a woman's dress for purposes
of disguise; was ambassador at the English Court, but degraded
and recalled by Louis XVI., and condemned to wear feminine garb
till the close of his life; died in destitution, when the popular
doubt as to his real sex was set at rest (1728-1810).
Eos, the goddess of the dawn, the
daughter of Hyperion, and the sister of Helios and Selene. See
Hungarian statesman and author, born at Buda; adopted law as
a profession, but devoted himself to literature, and eventually
politics; Minister of Public Instruction, and then of Worship
and Education; published some powerful dramas and novels, notably "The
Village Notary," a work pronounced equal in many respects
to the best of Scott's novels; also vigorous political essays
Epact, a name given to the excess
of the solar month over the lunar, amounting to 1 day 11 hours
11 minutes and 57 seconds, and of the solar year over the lunar
amounting to 11 days.
Epaminondas, a famous Theban
statesman and soldier, defeated Sparta in the great victory
of Leuctra, and during his lifetime raised Thebes to a position
of dominant power; was slain in the battle of Mantinea when
again successfully engaging the Spartans; blameless in his private
life as he was heroic in the field, he figures as the great
hero of Theban history; born about the close of the 5th century
Michel, Abbé de l', a noted philanthropist, born
at Versailles; took holy orders, but was divested of them on
account of Jansenist views; devoted his
life to the instruction of deaf-mutes, for whom he founded an
institute, and invented a language of signs (1712-1789).
Epeius, the contriver of the
wooden horse, by means of which the Greeks entered and took
possession of Troy, and who was assisted by Athena in the building
Épernay (18), a French
town on the Marne, 20 m. NW. of Châlons; the chief emporium
of the champagne district.
Ephesians, The Epistle
to, a presumably circular letter of St. Paul to the
Church at Ephesus, among other Churches in the East, written
to show that the Gentile had a standing in Christ as well as
the Jew, and that it was agreeable to the eternal purpose of
God that the two should form one body in Him; it contains Paul's
doctrine of the Church, and appears to have been written during
his first imprisonment in Rome (61-63); it appears from the
spirit that breathes in it and the similar thoughts and exhortations,
contained to have been written at the same time as the Epistle
to the Colossians.
Ephialtes, one of the giants
who revolted against Zeus and threatened to storm heaven; he
appears to have been maimed by Apollo and Hercules.
Ephialtes, a Malian Greek
who led the Persians across a pass in the mountains, whereby
they were able to surround and overcome Leonidas and his Spartans
Ephod, a richly and emblematically
embroidered vestment worn by the high-priest of the Jews, and
consisting of two parts, one covering the breast and supporting
the breastplate, and the other covering the back, these being
clasped to the shoulders by two onyx stones, with names inscribed
on them, six on each, of the 12 tribes, and the whole bound
round the waist with a girdle of gold, blue, purple, scarlet,
and fine-twined linen.
Eph`ori (i. e. overseers),
the name of five magistrates annually elected in ancient Sparta
from among the people as a countercheck to the authority of
the kings and the senate; had originally to see to the execution
of justice and the education of youth; their authority, which
resembled that of the tribunes in Rome, was at last destroyed
in 225 B.C.
Ephraem Syrus, the most
famous of the Church Fathers in Syria, and called "prophet
of the Syrians," also "Pillar of the Church"
and "Help of the Holy Ghost," born at Nisibis, Mesopotamia;
lived a hermit's life in a cave near Edessa; left exegetical
writings, homilies, and poems, and so great was his piety and
self-denial, that he was looked upon as a saint, and is still
so reverenced in several Churches (320-370).
Ephraim, one of the 12 tribes
of Israel, the one to which Joshua belonged, located in the
centre of the land; powerful in the days of the Judges, the
chief of the 10 tribes that revolted under Jeroboam after the
death of Solomon, and is found often to give name to the whole
body of them.
Epic, a poem that treats of the
events in the life of a nation or a race or the founder of one,
agreeably to the passion inspiring it and in such form as to
kindle and keep alive the heroism thereof in the generations
thereafter; or a poem in celebration of the thoughts, feelings,
and feats of a whole nation or race; its proper function is
to disimprison the soul of the related facts and give
a noble rendering of them; of compositions of this kind the "Iliad"
of Homer, the "Æneid" of Virgil, and the "Divine
Comedy" of Dante take the lead.
Epic melody, melody in accord
with the feeling of the whole race or the subject as a whole.
Epicharis, a Roman lady who
conspired against Nero and strangled herself rather than reveal
her accomplices after undergoing the cruellest tortures.
Epicharmus, a Greek philosopher
and poet in the island of Cos; studied philosophy under Pythagoras;
conceived a taste for comedy; gave himself up to that branch
of the drama, and received the name of the "Father of Comedy";
lived eventually at the court of Hiero of Syracuse (540-430
Epictetus, a celebrated Stoic
philosopher of the 1st century, originally a slave; lived and
taught at Rome, but after the expulsion of the philosophers
retired to Nicopolis, in Epirus; was lame, and lived in poverty;
his conversations were collected by Arrian, and his philosophy
in a short manual under the Greek name of "Enchiridion
of Epictetus," written, as is alleged, in utter obliviousness
of the fact that "the end of man is an action, not a thought."
Epicureans, a sect of philosophers
who derived their name from Epicurus, and who divided the empire
of philosophy with the Stoics (q.
v.), at the birth of Christ; they held that the chief end
of man was happiness, that the business of philosophy was to
guide him in the pursuit of it, and that it was only by experience
that one could learn what would lead to it and what would not;
they scouted the idea of reason as regulative of thought, and
conscience as regulative of conduct, and maintained that our
senses were our only guides in both; in a word, they denied
that God had implanted in man an absolute rational and moral
principle, and maintained that he had no other clue to the goal
of his being but his experience in life, while the distinction
of right and wrong was only a distinction of what was found
conducive to happiness and what was not; they had no faith in
or fear of a divine Being above man any more than of a divine
principle within man, and they scorned the idea of another world
with its awards, and concerned themselves only with this, which,
however, in their hands was no longer a cosmos but a chaos,
out of which the quickening and ordinative spirit had fled.
Epicurus, a Greek philosopher,
born at Samos, of Athenian origin; settled at Athens in his
thirty-sixth year, and founded a philosophical school there,
where he taught a philosophy in opposition to that of the Stoics;
philosophy he defined as "an activity which realises a
happy life through ideas and arguments," summing itself
up "in ethics, which are to teach us how to attain a life
of felicity"; his system comprised "the three branches
included in philosophy, viz., logic, physics, and ethics,"
but he arranges them in reverse order, logic and physics being
regarded only as the handmaids of ethics; for he "limited
logic to the investigation of the criterion of truth,"
and physics he valued as disillusioning the mind of "the
superstitious fear that went to disturb happiness"; he
was a man of a temperate and blameless life, and it is a foul
calumny on him to charge him with summing up happiness as mere
self-indulgence, though it is true he regarded "virtue
as having no value in itself, but only in so far as it offered
us something—an agreeable life."
Epicycle, an expression used
in the Ptolemaic (q. v.)
system of astronomy; the old belief that the celestial bodies
moved in perfect circles round the earth was found to be inadequate
to explain the varying position of the planets, a difficulty
which led Ptolemy to invent his theory of epicycles, which was
to the effect that each planet revolved round a centre of its
own, greater or less, but that all these
centres themselves moved in procession round the earth, a theory
which fell to pieces before the investigations of Kepler and
Epidaurus, a town of ancient
Greece, in Argolis, on the eastern shore of the Peloponnesus;
was at one time an independent State and an active centre of
trade, but was chiefly noted for its famous temple of Æsculapius,
to which people flocked to be cured of their diseases, and which
bore the inscription "Open only to pure souls"; ruins
of a magnificent theatre are still extant here.
Epidemic, a name given to contagious
diseases which, arising suddenly in a community, rapidly spread
through its members, often travelling from district to district,
until often a whole country is affected; the theory of the transmission
of disease by microbes has largely explained the spread of such
scourges, but the part which atmospheric and other physical,
and perhaps psychic, causes play in these disorders is still
matter of debate, especially as regards epidemic mental diseases.
Epigoni (the Descendants), the
name given to the sons of the Seven who perished before Thebes;
they avenged the death of their fathers by razing Thebes to
the ground; the war first and last has been made the subject
of epic and tragic poems.
Epigram, in modern usage, is
a neat, witty, and pointed utterance briefly couched in verse
form, usually satiric, and reserving its sting to the last line;
sometimes made the vehicle of a quaintly-turned compliment,
as, for example, in Pope's couplet to Chesterfield, when asked
to write something with that nobleman's pencil;—
"Accept a miracle; instead of wit,
See two dull lines by Stanhope's pencil
The Latin epigrammatists, especially Martial and Catullus,
were the first to give a satirical turn to the epigram, their
predecessors the Greeks having employed it merely for purposes
of epitaph and monumental inscriptions of a laudatory nature.
Epilepsy, a violent nervous
affection, manifesting itself usually in sudden convulsive seizures
and unconsciousness, followed by temporary stoppage of the breath
and rigidity of the body, popularly known as "falling sickness";
origin as yet undecided; attributed by the ancients to demoniacal
Epimenides, a philosopher
of Crete of the 7th century B.C., of whom it is fabled that
he fell asleep in a cave when a boy, and that he did not awake
for 57 years, but it was to find himself endowed with all knowledge
and wisdom. He was invited to Athens during a plague to purify
the city, on which occasion he performed certain mysterious
rites with the effect that the plague ceased. The story afforded
Goethe a subject for a drama entitled "Das Epimenides Erwachen," "in
which he symbolises his own aloofness from the great cause of
the Fatherland, the result of want of faith in the miraculous
power that resides in an enthusiastic outbreak of patriotic
Epimetheus (i. e.
Afterthought), the brother of Prometheus (Forethought), who
in spite of the warnings of the latter opened Pandora's box,
and let loose a flood of evils on the earth, which oppress it
to this day.
Epinal (21), the capital of the
dep. of Vosges, in France, charmingly situated at the foot of
the Vosges Mountains, on the Moselle; is elegantly built, and
has ruins of an old castle, surrounded by fine gardens, a 10th-century
church, and a fine library, &c.; a suspension bridge spans
the Moselle; there is industry in cotton, paper, &c.
Epinay, Madame d', a French
writer, unhappily married in her youth; became notorious for
her illicit intimacy with Rousseau and Grimm; her "Mémoires
et Correspondence" give a lively picture of her times (1725-1783).
Epiphanius, St., one of
the Fathers of the Greek Church; of Jewish descent; flourished
in the 4th century; led a monastic life, and founded a monastery
in Eleutheropolis; was bishop of Constantia in 367; bigoted
and tyrannical, he became notorious for his ecclesiastical zeal,
and for his indictments of Origen and St. Chrysostom; left writings
that show great but indiscriminate learning (330-402).
Epiphany, as observed in the
Christian Church, is a festival held on the 12th day after Christmas,
in commemoration of the manifestation of Christ to the Magi
of the East; but up to the close of the 4th century the festival
also commemorated the incarnation of Christ as well as the divine
manifestation at His baptism.
Epi`rus, was the NW. portion
of ancient Hellas, Dodona its capital, and Acheron one of its
rivers; in 1466 became part of the Ottoman empire, but in 1881
a portion was ceded to Greece.
Episcopacy, the name given
to the form of Church government in which there are superior
and inferior orders among the clergy, as between that of bishop
and that of a presbyter; called also Prelacy.
Episcopius, Simon, a
Dutch theologian, born at Amsterdam; the head of the Arminian
party after the death of Arminius; was unjustly misrepresented,
and tyrannically, even cruelly, treated by the opposite party;
he was a man of great ability, enlightened views, and admirable
temper, and set more store by integrity and purity of character
than orthodoxy of belief (1583-1643).
Virorum (i. e. letters of obscure men), a celebrated
collection of Latin letters which appeared in the 16th century
in Germany, attacking with merciless severity the doctrines
and modes of living of the scholastics and monks, credited with
hastening the Reformation.
Epitaph, an inscription placed
on a tombstone in commemoration of the dead interred below.
The natural feeling which prompts such inscriptions has manifested
itself among all civilised peoples, and not a little of a nation's
character may be read in them. The Greeks reserved epitaphs
for their heroes, but amongst the Romans grew up the modern
custom of marking the tombs of relatives with some simple inscription,
many of their sepulchres being placed on the side of the public
roads, a circumstance which explains the phrase, Siste, viator—Stay,
traveller—found in old graveyards.
Epithalamium, a nuptial
song, sung before the bridal chamber in honour of the newly-wedded
couple, particularly among the Greeks and Romans, of whom Theocritus
and Catullus have left notable examples; but the epithalamium
of Edmund Spenser is probably the finest specimen extant of
this poetic form.
Epping Forest, as it now
exists in the SE. of Essex, is a remnant—5600 acres—of
the famous Epping or Waltham Forest, which once extended over
all Essex, and which then served as a royal hunting-ground,
is now a favourite pleasure-ground and valuable field for explorations
of botanical and entomological collectors.
Epsom, a market-town in Surrey,
skirting Banstead Downs, 15 m. SW. of London; formerly noted
for its mineral springs, now associated with the famous Derby
are the two points at which the celestial equator intersects
the Ecliptic (q. v.),
so called because the days and nights are of equal duration
when the sun is at these points.
Equinoxes, the two annually
recurring times at which the sun arrives at the
Equinoctial Points (q.
v.), viz., 21st March and 22nd September, called respectively
the vernal and the autumnal equinoxes in the northern hemisphere,
but vice versa in the southern; at these times the sun is directly
over the equator, and day and night is then of equal length
over the whole globe.
Equites, The, a celebrated
equestrian order in ancient Rome, supposed to have been instituted
by Romulus; at first purely military, it was at length invested
with the judicial functions of the Senate, and the power of
farming out the public revenues; gradually lost these privileges
and became defunct.
a famous scholar and man of letters, born at Rotterdam; illegitimate
son of one Gerhard; conceived a disgust for monkish life during
six years' residence in a monastery at Steyn; wandered through
Europe and amassed stores of learning at various universities;
visited Oxford in 1489, and formed a lifelong friendship with
Sir Thomas More; was for some years professor of Divinity and
Greek at Cambridge; edited the first Greek Testament; settled
finally at Basel, whence he exercised a remarkable influence
over European thought by the wit and tone of his writings, notably
the "Praise of Folly," the "Colloquia" and "Adagia";
he has been regarded as the precursor of the Reformation; is
said to have laid the egg which Luther hatched; aided the Reformation
by his scholarship, though he kept aloof as a scholar from the
popular movement of Luther (1467-1536).
Erastianism, the right of
the State to override and overrule the decisions of the Church
that happen to involve civil penalties. See
Erastus, an eminent physician,
born at Baden, in Switzerland, whose fame rests mainly on the
attitude he assumed in the theological and ecclesiastical questions
of the day; he defended Zwingli's view of the Eucharist as a
merely symbolical ordinance, and denied the right of the Church
to inflict civil penalties, or to exercise discipline—the
power of the keys—that belonging, he maintained, to the
province of the civil magistrate and not to the Church (1534-1583).
Erato (i. e. the Lovely),
the muse of erotic poetry and elegy, represented with a lyre
in her left hand.
the Philologist, a philosopher of Alexandria, born at Cyrene,
276 B.C.; becoming blind and tired of life, he starved himself
to death at the age of 80; he ranks high among ancient astronomers;
measured the obliquity of the ecliptic, and estimated the size
of the earth (276-194 B.C.).
Ercilla y Zuñiga,
a Spanish poet, born at Madrid; took part in the war of the
Spaniards with the Araucos in Chile, which he celebrated in
an epic of no small merit called "La Araucana"; he
ended his days in poverty (1553-1595).
Erdgeist, the Spirit of the
Earth, represented in Goethe's "Faust" as assiduously
weaving, at the Time-Loom, night and day, in death as well as
life, the earthly vesture of the Eternal, and thereby revealing
the Invisible to mortal eyes.
Erdmann, a German philosopher,
born at Wolmar, professor at Halle; was of the school of Hegel,
an authority on the history of philosophy (1805-1892).
Erebus, a region of utter darkness
in the depths of Hades, into which no mortal ever penetrated,
the proper abode of Pluto and his Queen with their train of
attendants, such as the Erinnyes, through which the spirits
of the dead must pass on their way to Hades; equivalent to the
valley of the shadow of death.
Erectheus or Erichthonius,
the mythical first king of Athens; favoured and protected from
infancy by Athena, to whom accordingly he dedicated the city;
he was buried in the temple of Athena, and worshipped afterwards
as a god; it is fabled of him that when an infant he was committed
by Athena in a chest to the care of Agraulos and Herse, under
a strict charge not to pry into it; they could not restrain
their curiosity, opened the chest, saw the child entwined with
serpents, were seized with madness, and threw themselves down
from the height of the Acropolis to perish at the foot.
Erfurt (72), a town in Saxony,
on the Gera, 14 m. W. of Weimar, formerly capital of Thüringia,
and has many interesting buildings, amongst the number the 14th-century
Gothic cathedral with its great bell, weighing 13½ tons,
and cast in 1497; the monastery of St. Augustine (changed into
an orphanage in 1819), in which Luther was a monk; the Academy
of Sciences, and the library with 60,000 vols. and 1000 MSS.;
various textile factories flourish.
Ergot, a diseased state of grasses, &c.,
but a disease chiefly attacking rye, produced by a fungus developing
on the seeds; the drug "ergot of rye" is obtained
from a species of this fungus.
Eric, the name of several of the
kings of Denmark, and Sweden, and Norway, the most notorious
being the son of the noble Swedish king
Gustavus Vasa (q. v.),
who aspired to the hand of Elizabeth of England and challenged
his rival Leicester to a duel; afterwards sought Mary of Scotland,
but eventually married a peasant girl who had nursed him out
of madness brought on by dissipation; was deposed after a State
trial instigated by his own brothers, and ultimately poisoned
himself in prison eight years later (1533-1577).
Eric the Red, a Norwegian
chief who discovered Greenland in the 10th century, and sent
out expeditions to the coast of North America.
Ericsson, John, a distinguished
Swedish engineer, born at Langbanshyttan; went to England in
1826 and to United States of America in 1839, where he died;
invented the screw propeller of steamships; built warships for
the American navy, and amongst them the famous Monitor;
his numerous inventions mark a new era in naval and steamship
Erie, Lake, the fourth in size
among the giant lakes of North America, lies between Lakes Huron
and Ontario, on the Canadian border, is 240 m. long and varies
from 30 to 60 m. in breadth; is very shallow, and difficult
to navigate; ice-bound from December till about April.
Erigena, Johannes Scotus,
a rationalistic mystic, the most distinguished scholar and thinker
of the 9th century, of Irish birth; taught at the court of Charles
the Bald in France, and was summoned by Alfred to Oxford in
877; died abbot of Malmesbury; held that "damnation was
simply the consciousness of having failed to fulfil the divine
purpose"; he derived all authority from reason, and not
reason from authority, maintaining that authority unfounded
on reason was of no value; d. 882.
Erin, the ancient Celtic name of
Ireland, used still in poetry.
Erinna, a Greek poetess, the
friend of Sappho, died at 19; wrote epic
poetry, all but a few lines of which has perished; born about
Erinnyes, The (i. e.
the roused-to-anger, in Latin, the Furies), the Greek goddesses
of vengeance, were the daughters of Gaia, begotten of the blood
of the wounded Uranus, and at length reckoned three in number,
Alecto, Tisiphone, and Megara; they were conceived of as haunting
the wicked on earth and scourging them in hell; they were of
the court of Pluto, and the executioners of his wrath.
Eris, the Greek goddess of strife
or discord, sowing the seeds thereof among the gods to begin
with, which she has since continued to do among men.
Erivan (15), a fortified town
in Transcaucasia, situated 30 m. NE. of Mount Ararat on an elevated
plateau; was ceded to Russia in 1828 by Persia.
Erlangen (13), a Bavarian town
on the Regnitz, has a celebrated Protestant university, founded
by Wilhelmina, sister of Frederick the Great, who was the Electress;
was a place of refuge for the Huguenots in 1685; manufactures
in gloves, mirrors, and tobacco are carried on, and brewing.
Erlau (22), an ecclesiastical
city of Hungary, on the Erlau, 89 m. NE. of Pesth; is the seat
of an archbishop; has a fine cruciform cathedral, built since
1837, several monasteries, a lyceum with a large library and
an observatory; is noted for its red wine.
Erl-King, a Norse impersonation
of the spirit of superstitious fear which haunts and kills us
even in the guardian embrace of paternal affection.
Erminia, a Syrian, the heroine
of Tasso's "Jerusalem Delivered," in love with the
Christian prince Tancred.
Ernesti, Johann August,
a celebrated German classicist and theologian, called the "German
Cicero," born at Tennstädt, Thüringia; professor
of Philology in Leipzig, and afterwards of Theology; edited
various classical works, his edition of Cicero specially noted;
was the first to apply impartial textual criticism to the Bible,
and to him, in consequence, we owe the application of a more
correct exegesis to the biblical writings (1707-1781).
Ernst, Elector of Saxony,
founder of the Ernestine line of Saxon princes, ancestor of
Prince Consort, born at Altenburg; was kidnapped along with
his brother Albert in 1455, an episode famous in German history
as the "Prinzenraub" (i. e. the stealing of
the prince); succeeded his father in 1464; annexed Thüringia
in 1482, and three years later shared his territory with his
brother Albert (1441-1486).
Ernst I., Duke of Saxe-Gotha
and Altenburg; served in the Thirty Years' War under Gustavus
Adolphus, and shared in the victory of Lützen; was an able
and wise ruler, and gained for himself the surname of "the
Eros (in Latin, Cupido), the Greek
god of love, the son of Aphrodité, and the youngest of
the gods, though he figures in the cosmogony as one of the oldest
of the gods, and as the uniting power in the life of the gods
and the life of the universe, was represented at last as a wanton
boy from whose wiles neither gods nor men were safe.
Erostratus, an obscure Ephesian,
who, to immortalise his name, set fire to the temple of Ephesus
on the night, as it happened, when Alexander the Great was born;
the Ephesians thought to defeat his purpose by making it death
to any one who named his name, but in vain, the decree itself
giving wider and wider publicity to the act.
Erpenius (Thomas van Erpen),
Arabic scholar, born at Gorkum, in Holland; after completing
his studies at Leyden and Paris, became professor of Oriental
Languages there; famed for his Arabic grammar and rudiments,
which served as text-books for upwards of 200 years (1585-1624).
Ersch, Johann Samuel,
a bibliographer, born at Grossglogau; after a college career
at Halle devoted himself to journalism, and in 1800 became librarian
of the University of Jena; subsequently filled the chair of
Geography and Statistics at Halle; his "Handbook of German
Literature" marks the beginning of German bibliography;
began in 1818, along with Gruber, the publication of an encyclopædia
which is still unfinished (1766-1828).
Erskine, Ebenezer, founder
of the Secession Church of Scotland, born at Chirnside, Berwickshire;
minister at Portmoak for 28 years; took part in the patronage
dispute, and was deposed (1733), when he formed a church at
Gairney Bridge, near Kinross, the nucleus of the Secession Church
Erskine, Henry, a famous
Scotch lawyer, second son of the Earl of Buchan, born at Edinburgh;
called to the bar and became Lord Advocate; a Whig in politics;
brought about useful legal reforms; noted as a brilliant wit
and orator (1746-1817).
Erskine, John, a Scottish
jurist; called to the bar in 1719; became professor of Scots
Law in Edinburgh University in 1837, resigned 1763; author of
two important works on Scots Law, "The Institutes"
and "Principles" (1695-1768).
Erskine, John, D.D., son
of the preceding; a celebrated Scotch preacher and author of
various essays and pamphlets; a prominent leader on the Evangelical
side in the General Assemblies; was minister of the Old Greyfriars,
Edinburgh, and the colleague of Principal Robertson; is remembered
for a retort in the pulpit and for another in the General Assembly;
the former was to a remark of his colleague, Principal Robertson, "If
perfect virtue were to appear on earth we would adore it."
... "Perfect virtue did appear on earth and we crucified
it"; and that other in the General Assembly was "Rax
(reach) me that Bible," as certain Moderates in the court
began derisively to scoff at the proposal to send missions to
the heathen (1721-1803).
Erskine, John, of Dun,
a Scotch Reformer, supported Knox and Wishart; was several times
Moderator of the General Assembly, and assisted in the formation
of "The Second Book of Discipline" (1509-1591).
Erskine, Ralph, a Scotch
divine, brother of Ebenezer
(q. v.), with whom he co-operated in founding the Secession
Church; his sermons and religious poems, called "Gospel
Sonnets," were widely read; one of the first of the Scotch
seceders, strange to contemplate, "a long, soft, poke-shaped
face, with busy anxious black eyes, looking as if he could not
help it; and then such a character and form of human existence,
conscience living to the finger ends of him, in a strange, venerable,
though highly questionable manner ... his formulas casing him
all round like the shell of a beetle"; his fame rests chiefly
on his "Gospel Sonnets," much appreciated at one time
Erskine, Thomas, Lord,
a famous lawyer, youngest son of the Earl of Buchan, born in
Edinburgh; spent his early years in the navy, and afterwards
joined the army; resigned in 1775 to enter upon the study of
law; called to the bar in 1778; a king's counsel in 1783; created
a baron and Lord Chancellor in 1806;
was engaged in all the famous trials of his time; an unrivalled
orator in the law courts; his speeches rank as masterpieces
of forensic eloquence (1750-1823).
Erskine, Thomas, of
Linlathen, member of the Scottish bar, but devoted in
an intensely human spirit to theological interests, "one
of the gentlest, kindliest, best bred of men," says Carlyle,
who was greatly attached to him; "I like him," he
says, "as one would do a draught of sweet rustic mead served
in cut glasses and a silver tray ... talks greatly of symbols,
seems not disinclined to let the Christian religion pass for
a kind of mythus, provided one can retain the spirit of it";
he wrote a book, much prized at one time, on the "Internal
Evidences of Revealed Religion," also on Faith; besides
being the constant friend of Carlyle, he corresponded on intimate
terms with such men as Maurice and Dean Stanley (1788-1870).
Erwin, a German architect, born
at Steinbach, Baden; the builder of the western façade
of the cathedral of Strasburg (1240-1318).
Erymanthus, a mountain in
Arcadia that was the haunt of the boar killed by Hercules.
Erysipelas, known popularly
as St. Anthony's Fire and Rose, a febrile disease, manifesting
itself in acute inflammation of the skin, which becomes vividly
scarlet and ultimately peels; confined chiefly to the head;
is contagious, and recurrent.
Erythema, a medical term used
loosely to designate a diseased condition of the skin; characterised
by a scarlet or dark-red rash or eruption, distinct from erysipelas.
Erythrea (220), a colony belonging
to Italy, extending from Cape Kasar 670 m. along the western
shore of the Red Sea to a point in the Strait of Bab-el-Mandeb;
Massowah the capital.
Erythrean Sea, a name of
the Red Sea.
Erzerum (60), a city in Turkish
Armenia, capital of the province of the same name, 125 m. SE.
of Trebizond; situated on a fertile plain 6300 ft. above sea-level;
is an important entrepôt for commerce between Europe and
Asia; is irregularly built, but contains imposing ruins; has
a fortress, and in the suburbs a number of mosques and bazaars;
is famed for its iron and copper ware; fell into the hands of
the Turks in 1517; figured as a military centre in many Turkish
wars; was reduced by the Russians in 1878; was a scene of Armenian
massacres by the Turks in 1895.
Erzgebirge, a range of mountains
lying between Saxony and Bohemia; the highest peak is the Keilberg,
4052 ft.; is rich in various metallic ores, especially silver
Eryx, an ancient town in the NW.
of Sicily, at the foot of a mountain of the same name, with
a temple to Venus, who was hence called Erycina.
Esau, the eldest son of Isaac,
who sold his birthright to Jacob for a mess of lentils; led
a predatory life, and was the forefather of the Edomites.
Eschatology, the department
of theology which treats of the so-called last things, such
as death, the intermediate state, the millennium, the return
of Christ, the resurrection, the judgment, and the end of the
Eschenbach, Wolfram von,
a famous minnesinger, born at Eschenbach, in Bavaria, at about
the close of the 12th century; was of good birth, and lived
some time at the Thuringian Court; enjoyed a wide reputation
in his time as a poet; of his poems the epic "Parzival"
is the most celebrated, and records the history of the "Grail."
Escher, Johann Heinrich
Alfred. Swiss statesman, born at Zurich; bred for the
law, and lectured for a while in his native town; became President
of the Council of Zurich; co-operated with Farrer in expelling
the Jesuits; became member of the Diet; supported Federal union,
and did much to promote and establish State education in Switzerland;
Æschines; as also
Esop, &c., under
Escobar, Mendoza Antonio,
a Spanish Jesuit and casuist, born at Valladolid, a preacher
and voluminous writer (1589-1669).
Escurial, a huge granite pile,
built in the form of a gridiron, 30 m. NW. from Madrid, and
deemed at one time the eighth wonder of the world; was built
in 1563-1584; was originally dedicated as a monastery to St.
Lorenzo in recognition of the services which the Saint had rendered
to Philip II. at the battle of St. Quentin, and used at length
as a palace and burial-place of kings. It is a mere shadow of
what it was, and is preserved from ruin by occasional grants
of money to keep it in repair.
Esdraëlon, a flat and
fertile valley in Galilee, called also the valley of Jezreel,
which, with a maximum breadth of 9 m., extends in a NW. direction
from the Jordan at Bathshean to the Bay of Acre.
Esdras, the name of two books
of the Apocrypha, the first, written 2nd century B.C., containing
the history of the rebuilding of the Temple and the restoration
of its cultus, with a discussion on the strangest of all things,
ending in assigning the palm to truth; and the second, written
between 97 and 81 B.C., a forecast of the deliverance of the
Jews from oppression and the establishment of the Messianic
Esk, the name of several Scottish
streams: (1) in Dumfriesshire, the Esk of young Lochinvar, has
a course of 31 m. after its formation by the junction of the
North and South Esks, and flows into the Solway; (2) in Edinburgh,
formed by the junction of the North and South Esks, joins the
Firth of Forth at Musselburgh; (3) in Forfarshire, the South
Esk discharges into the North Sea at Montrose, and the North
Esk also flows into the North Sea 4 m. N. of Montrose.
Eskimo or Esquimaux, an
aboriginal people of the Mongolian or American Indian stock,
in all not amounting to 40,000, thinly scattered along the northern
seaboard of America and Asia and in many of the Arctic islands;
their physique, mode of living, religion, and language are of
peculiar ethnological interest; they are divided into tribes,
each having its own territory, and these tribes in turn are
subdivided into small communities, over each of which a chief
presides; the social organisation is a simple tribal communism;
Christianity has been introduced amongst the Eskimo of South
Alaska and in the greater part of Labrador; in other parts the
old religion still obtains, called Shamanism, a kind of fetish
worship; much of their folk-lore has been gathered and printed;
fishing and seal-hunting are their chief employments; they are
of good physique, but deplorably unclean in their habits; their
name is supposed to be an Indian derivative signifying "eaters
of raw meat."
Eskimo dog, a dog found among
the Eskimo, about the size of a pointer, hair thick, and of
a dark grey or black and white; half tamed, but strong and sagacious;
invaluable for sledging.
Esmond, Henry, the title
of one of Thackeray's novels, deemed by the most competent critics
his best, and the name of its hero, a chivalrous cavalier of
the time of Queen Anne. "Esmond" is pronounced by
Prof. Saintsbury to be "among the very
summits of English prose fiction, exquisitely
written in a marvellous resurrection of eighteenth-century style,
touched somehow with a strange modernity and life which make
it no pastiche, containing the most brilliant passages
of mere incident, and, above all, enshrining such studies of
character ... as not four other makers of English prose and
verse can show."
Esné, a town in Upper Egypt,
on the left bank of the Nile, and 25 m. S. of Thebes; famous
for the ruins of a temple.
Esoteric, a term used to denote
teaching intended only for the initiated, and intelligible only
Espartero, a celebrated Spanish
general and statesman, born at Granatula; supported, against
the Carlist faction, the claims of Isabella to the throne of
Spain; was for his services made Duke of Vittoria, and in 1841
elected regent; compelled to abdicate, he fled to England, but
afterwards returned for a time to the head of affairs; an able
man, but wanting in the requisite astuteness and tact for such
a post (1793-1879).
Espinasse, Clare Françoise,
a wit and beauty, born at Lyons, illegitimate child of the Countess
d'Albon; went to Paris as companion to Madame du Deffand, with
whom she quarrelled; set up a salon of her own, and became celebrated
for her many attractions; D'Alembert was devoted to her; many
of her letters to her lovers, the Marquis de Mora and M. de
Guilbert in particular, have been published, and display a charming
Espinel, Vincent de,
a Spanish poet and musician, born at Ronda, Granada; first a
soldier and then a priest, the friend of Lope de Vega, and author
of a work which Le Sage made free use of in writing "Gil
Blas"; was an expert musician; played on the guitar, and
added a fifth string (1551-1634).
Espiritu Santo, (1) a
small and swampy maritime province of Brazil (121), lying on
the N. border of Rio de Janeiro; does some trade in timber,
cotton, coffee, and sugar; Victoria is the capital; (2) a town
(32) in central Cuba; (3) the largest of the
New Hebrides (q. v.)
(20); the climate is unhealthy, but the soil fertile.
Esprit des Lois (i.
e. the Spirit of Laws), the title of Montesquieu's great
work, at once speculative and historical, published in 1748,
characterised in "Sartor" as the work, like many others,
of "a clever infant spelling letters from a hieroglyphic
book the lexicon of which lies in Eternity, in Heaven."
Espy, James Pollard,
a meteorologist, born in Pennsylvania; did notable work in investigating
the causes of storms, and in 1841 published "The Philosophy
of Storms"; was appointed to the Washington observatory,
where he carried on experiments in the cooling of gases and
atmospheric expansion (1785-1860).
Esquire, originally meant a
shield-bearer, and was bestowed upon the two attendants of a
knight, who were distinguished by silver spurs, and whose especial
duty it was to look after their master's armour; now used widely
as a courtesy title.
Esquiros, Henry Alphonse,
poet and physician, born at Paris; his early writings, poems
and romances, are socialistic in bias; member of the Legislative
Assembly in 1848; retired to England after the coup d'état;
returned to France and rose to be a member of the Senate (1875);
wrote three works descriptive of the social and religious life
of England (1814-1876).
Essen (79), a town in the Rhine
province of Prussia, 20 m. NE. of Düsseldorf, the seat
of the famous "Krupp" steel-works.
Essenes, a religious communistic
fraternity, never very numerous, that grew up on the soil of
Judea about the time of the Maccabees, and had establishments
in Judea when Christ was on earth, as well as afterwards in
the time of Josephus; they led an ascetic life, practised the
utmost ceremonial cleanness, were rigorous in their observance
of the Jewish law, and differed from the Pharisees in that they
gave to the Pharisaic spirit a monastic expression; they represented
Judaism in its purest essence, and in the spirit of their teaching
came nearer Christianity than any other sect of the time; "Essenism,"
says Schürer, "is first and mainly of Jewish formation,
and in its non-Jewish features it had most affinity with the
Pythagorean tendency of the Greeks."
Essequibo, an important river
in British Guiana, 620 m. long, rises in the Sierra Acaray,
navigable for 50 m. to small craft, flows northward into the
Essex (785), a county in the SE.
of England, between Suffolk on the N. and Kent in the S., faces
the German Ocean on the E.; is well watered with streams; has
an undulating surface; is chiefly agricultural; brewing is an
important industry, and the oyster fisheries of the Colne are
noted; Chelmsford is the county town.
Essex, Robert Devereux,
Earl of, a favourite of Queen Elizabeth, born at Netherwood,
Hereford; served in the Netherlands under Leicester, his stepfather;
won the capricious fancy of Elizabeth; lost favour by marrying
clandestinely the widow of Sir Philip Sidney, but was restored,
and led a life of varying fortune, filling various important
offices, till his final quarrel with the Queen and execution
Essex, Robert Devereux,
Earl of, son of preceding; commander of the Parliamentary
forces against Charles I.; the title died with him, but was
conferred again upon the present family in 1661 (1591-1646).
Essling, a village near Vienna,
where the French gained a bloody victory over the Austrians
in 1809, and which gave the title of prince to Masséna.
Esslingen (22), an old historic
and important manufacturing town in Würtemberg, on the
Neckar, 9 m. SE. of Stuttgart; has a citadel and the Liebfrauen
Church, which is a fine Gothic structure with a spire 246 ft.;
is a noted hardware centre, and celebrated for its machinery;
a good trade is done in textiles, fruit, and sparkling champagne.
Estaing, Comte d', a French
admiral, "one of the bravest of men," fought against
the English in the Indies and in America; winced as a Royalist
at the outbreak of the French Revolution; his loyalty to royalty
outweighed, it was thought, his loyalty to his country, and
he was guillotined (1729-1794).
Este, an ancient and illustrious
Italian family from which, by an offshoot founded by Welf IV.,
who became Duke of Bavaria in the 11th century, the Guelph Houses
of Brunswick and Hanover, also called the Este-Guelphs, trace
their descent. Of the Italian branch the most noted descendant
was Alphonso I., a distinguished soldier and statesman and patron
of art, whose second wife was the famous Lucrezia Borgia. His
son, Alphonso II., is remembered for his cruel treatment of
Tasso, placing him in prison for seven years as a madman who
dared to make love to one of the princesses.
Este (6), an Italian town, 18
m. SW. of Padua, on the S. side of the Euganean Hills; has a
castle and church with a leaning campanile.
Esterhazy, the town of a noble
Austrian family of ancient date, and
that gave birth to a number of illustrious men.
Esterhazy de Galantha,
the name of a powerful and famous Hungarian family holding the
rank of Princes of the Empire since the 17th century. Their
estates include upwards of 4000 villages, 60 market-towns, many
castles and lordships, but they are heavily mortgaged.
Esther, The Book of,
a book of the Old Testament, which takes its name from the chief
figure in the story related, an orphan Jewess and ward of her
cousin Mordecai, who, from her beauty, was chosen into the royal
harem and raised to be consort to the king. It is read through
in the Jewish synagogues at the feast of
Purim (q. v.). It is observed
that the name of God does not occur once in the book, but the
story implies the presence of an overruling Providence, responding
to the cry of His oppressed ones for help.
Esthonia (393), one of the
Russian Baltic provinces, has a northern foreshore on the Gulf
of Finland, and on the W. abuts on the Baltic; what of the country
that is free from forest and marsh is chiefly agricultural,
but fishing is also an important industry; the people are a
composite of Finns and immigrant Germans, with latterly Russians
Estienne, the name of a family
of French painters. See Stephens.
name given by James II. to Prince George of Denmark, the husband
of Princess Anne, from his invariable exclamation on hearing
how one after another had deserted the Stuart cause; he ended
with deserting it himself.
Estrades, Count d', a
French diplomatist (1579-1680).
Estremadura (1,111), a coast
province of Portugal, between Beira and Alemtejo, watered by
the Tagus; richly fertile in many parts, but sparely cultivated;
silk is an important industry, and an increasing; Lisbon is
the chief city, and with Setubal monopolises the trade; salt,
fruits, wine, and oil are exported; also name of a district
in Spain between Portugal and New Castile, now divided into
the provinces of Badajoz and Cácéres.
Etéocles, a son of Oedipus,
king of Thebes, agreed on the banishment of his father to govern
the state alternately with his brother Polynices, but failing
to keep his engagement, the latter appealed to his guardian,
out of which there arose the War of the Seven against Thebes,
which ended in the slaughter of the whole seven, upon which
the brothers thought to end the strife in single combat, when
each fell by the sword of the other.
Eternal City, ancient Rome
in the esteem of its inhabitants, in accordance with the promise,
as Virgil feigns, of Jupiter to Venus, the goddess-mother of
Eternities, The Conflux
of, Carlyle's expressive phrase for Time, as in every
moment of it a centre in which all the forces to and from Eternity
meet and unite, so that by no past and no future can we be brought
nearer to Eternity than where we at any moment of Time are;
the Present Time, the youngest born of Eternity, being the child
and heir of all the Past times with their good and evil, and
the parent of all the Future, the import of which (see Matt.
xvi. 27) it is accordingly the first and most sacred duty of
every successive age, and especially the leaders of it, to know
and lay to heart as the only link by which Eternity lays hold
of it and it of Eternity.
Ethelbert, a king of Kent,
in whose reign Christianity was introduced by St. Augustin and
a band of missionaries in 597; drew up the first Saxon law code
Etheldreda, a Saxon princess,
whose name, shortened into St. Audrey, was given to a certain
kind of lace, whence "tawdry"; she took refuge from
the married state in the monastery of St. Abb's Head, and afterwards
founded a monastery in the Isle of Ely (630-679).
Ethelred I., king of Saxon
England (866-871), predecessor and brother of Alfred; his reign
was a long and unsuccessful struggle with the Danes.
Ethelred II., the Unready,
a worthless king of Saxon England (979-1016), married Emma,
daughter of Richard, Duke of Normandy, a step which led in the
end to the claim which issued in the Norman Conquest (968-1016).
Ether, a volatic liquid prepared
from the distillation of alcohol and sulphuric acid at high
temperature; is colourless, and emits a sweet, penetrating odour;
is highly combustible; a useful solvent, and an important anæsthetic.
Ether, a subtle element presumed
to pervade all interstellar space, vibrations in which are assumed
to account for the transmission of light and all radiant energy.
Etheredge, Sir George,
the originator of the kind of comedy "containing a vein
of lively humour and witty dialogue which were afterwards displayed
by Congreve and Farquhar"; has been called the "founder
of the comedy of intrigue"; he was the author of three
clever plays, entitled "Love in a Tub," "She
Would if She Could," and "Sir Fopling Flutter"
Ethics, the science which treats
of the distinction between right and wrong and of the moral
sense by which they are discriminated.
Ethics of Dust, The, "a
book by Ruskin about crystallography, but it twists symbolically
in the strangest way all its geology into morality, theology,
Egyptian mythology, with fiery cuts at political economy, pretending
not to know whether the forces and destinies and behaviour of
crystals are not very like those of a man."
Ethiopia, a term loosely used
in ancient times to indicate the territory inhabited by black
or dark-coloured people; latterly applied to an undefined tract
of land stretching S. of Egypt to the Gulf of Aden, which constituted
the kingdom of the Ethiopians, a people of Semitic origin and
speaking a Semitic language called Ge'ez, who were successively
conquered by the Egyptians, Persians, and Romans; are known
in the Bible; their first king is supposed to have been Menilehek,
son of Solomon and the Queen of Sheba; their literature consists
mostly of translations and collections of saws and riddles;
the language is no longer spoken.
Ethnology, a science which
treats of the human race as grouped in tribes or nations, but
limits itself to tracing the origin and distribution of races,
and investigating the physical and mental peculiarities and
differences exhibited by men over all parts of the globe; the
chief problem of the science is to decide between the monogenous
and polygenous theories of the origin of the race, and investigation
inclines to favour the former view. The polygenous argument,
based on the diversity of languages, has been discarded, as,
if valid, necessitating about a thousand different origins,
while the monogenous position is strengthened by the ascertained
facts that the different racial groups are fruitful amongst
themselves, and present points of mental and physical similarity
which accord well with this theory. Ethnologists now divide
the human race into three main groups:
the Ethiopian or negro, the Mongolic or yellow,
and the Caucasic or white.
Étienne, St., (133),
an important French town, capital of the dep. of the Loire,
on the Furens, 35 m. SW. of Lyons; chief seat of the iron-works
of France; also has noted ribbon factories.
Etive, a sea-loch in Argyllshire,
Scotland, is an inland extension of the Firth of Lorne, about
20 m. in length, and varying in breadth from 2 to ¼ m.;
the mountain scenery along the shores grandly picturesque; the
river which bears the same name rises in Rannoch Moor, and joins
the loch after a SW. course of 15 m.; both loch and river afford
Etna, a volcanic mountain on the
E. coast of Sicily, 10,840 ft. high; a striking feature is the
immense ravine, the Val del Bove, splitting the eastern side
of the mountain, and about 5 m. in diameter; on the flanks are
many smaller cones. Etna is celebrated for its many and destructive
eruptions; was active in 1892; its observatory, built in 1880,
at an elevation of 9075 ft. above sea-level, is the highest
inhabited dwelling in Europe.
Eton, a town in Buckinghamshire,
on the Thames, 22 m. SW. of London; celebrated for its public
school, Eton College, founded in 1440 by Henry VI., which has
now upwards of 1000 scholars.
the Supreme Being agreeably to the hollow and vacant conception
of the boasted, beggarly 18th-century Enlightenment of Revolutionary
Etruria, the ancient Roman name
of a region in Italy, W. of the Apennines from the Tiber to
the Macra in the N.; inhabited by the Etruscans, a primitive
people of Italy; at one time united in a confederation of twelve
States; gradually absorbed by the growing Roman power, and who
were famous for their artistic work in iron and bronze. Many
of the Etruscan cities contain interesting remains of their
early civilised state; but their entire literature, supposed
to have been extensive, has perished, and their language is
only known through monumental inscriptions. Their religion was
polytheistic, but embraced a belief in a future life. There
is abundant evidence that they had attained to a high degree
of civilisation; the status of women was high, the wife ranking
with the husband; their buildings still extant attest their
skill as engineers and builders; vases, mirrors, and coins of
fine workmanship have been found in their tombs, and jewellery
which is scarcely rivalled; while the tombs themselves are remarkable
for their furnishings of chairs, ornaments, decorations, &c.,
showing that they regarded these sanctuaries more as dwellings
of departed spirits than as sepulchres of the dead.
Moritz Ludwig, a German philologist, born at Gerfsdorf,
Saxony, professor of German literature in Zurich in 1863; did
notable work in connection with Anglo-Saxon and in Middle German
Ettrick, a Scottish river that
rises in Selkirkshire and joins the Tweed, 3 m. below Selkirk;
the Yarrow is its chief tributary; a forest of the same name
once spread over all Selkirkshire and into the adjoining counties;
the district is associated with some of the finest ballad and
pastoral poetry of Scotland.
James Hogg (q. v.).
Etty, William, a celebrated
painter, born at York; rose from being a printer's apprentice
to the position of a Royal Academician; considered by Ruskin
to have wasted his great powers as a colourist on inadequate
and hackneyed subjects (1787-1849).
Euboea (82), the largest of the
Grecian Isles, skirts the mainland on the SE., to which it is
connected by a bridge spanning the Talanta Channel, 40 yards
broad; it is about 100 m. in length; has fine quarries of marble,
and mines of iron and copper are found in the mountains; Chalcis
is the chief town.
Euclid of Alexandria,
a famous geometrican, whose book of "Elements," revised
and improved, still holds its place as an English school-book,
although superseded as such in America and the Continent; founded
a school of Mathematics in Alexandria; flourished about 300
Euclid of Megara, a Greek
philosopher, a disciple of Socrates, was influenced by the
Eleatics (q. v.); founded
the Megaric school of Philosophy, whose chief tenet is that
the "good," or that which is one with itself, alone
is the only real existence.
Eudæmonism, the doctrine
that the production of happiness is the aim and measure of virtue.
Eudocia, the ill-fated daughter
of an Athenian Sophist, wife of Theodosius II., embraced Christianity,
her name Athenais previously; was banished by her husband on
an ill-founded charge of infidelity, and spent the closing years
of her life in Jerusalem, where she became a convert to the
views of Eutyches (q. v.)
Eudoxus of Cnidus, a
Grecian astronomer, was a pupil of Plato, and afterwards studied
in Egypt; said to have introduced a 365½ day year into
Greece; flourished in the 4th century B.C.
Prince of Savoy, a renowned general, born at Paris,
and related by his mother to Cardinal Mazarin; he renounced
his native land, and entered the service of the Austrian Emperor
Leopold; first gained distinction against the Turks, whose power
in Hungary he crushed in the great victory of Pieterwardein
(1697); co-operated with Marlborough in the war of the Spanish
Succession, and shared the glories of his great victories, and
again opposed the French in the cause of Poland (1663-1736).
ex-Empress of the French, born at Granada, second daughter
of Count Manuel Fernandez of Montigos and Marie Manuela Kirkpatrick
of Closeburn, Dumfriesshire; married to Napoleon III. in 1853;
had to leave France in 1870, and has since January 1873 lived
as his widow at Chiselhurst, Kent; b. 1826.
Eugenius, the name of four
Popes. E., St., I., Pope from 654 to 658 (festival, August 27);
E. II., Pope from 824 to 827; E. III., Pope from 1145 to 1153;
E. IV., Pope from 1431 to 1447.
Eugenius IV., Pope, born
at Venice; his pontificate was marked by a schism created by
proceedings in the Council of Basel towards the reform of the
Church and the limitation of the papal authority, the issue
of which was that he excommunicated the Council and the Council
deposed him; he had an unhappy time of it, and in his old age
regretted he had ever left his monastery to assume the papal
Eugubine Tables, seven
bronze tablets discovered in 1441 near Eugubium, in Italy, containing
inscriptions which supply a key to the original tongues of Italy
prior to Latin.
Euhemerism, the theory that
the gods of antiquity are merely deified men, so called from
Euhemeros, the Greek who first propounded the theory, and who
lived 316 B.C.
Eulenspiegel (i. e.
Owl-glass), the hero of a popular German tale, which relates
no end of pranks, fortunes, and misfortunes of a wandering mechanic
born in a village in Brunswick; buried in 1350 at Mölln,
in Lauenburg, where they still show his
tombstone sculptured with an owl and a glass.
Euler, Leonhard, a celebrated
mathematician, born at Basel; professor in St. Petersburg successively
of Physics and Mathematics; came to reside in Berlin in 1741
at the express invitation of Frederick the Great; returned to
St. Petersburg in 1746, where he died; besides many works issued
in his lifetime, he left 200 MSS., which were published after
his death (1707-1783).
Eumenides (i. e. the
Well-meaning), a name given to the
Erinnyes (q. v.) or Furies,
from a wholesome and prudent dread of calling them by their
Eumolpus, the founder of the
Eleusinian Mysteries, alleged to have been a priest of Demeter
Eunomians, an ultra-Arian
sect of the 4th century, which soon dwindled away after breaking
from the orthodox Church; called after
Eunomius (q. v.).
Eunomius, an Arian divine,
born in Cappadocia; head of a sect who maintained that the Father
alone was God, that the Son was generated from Him, and the
Spirit from the Son; was bishop of Cyzicum, a post he by-and-by
resigned; d. 394.
Eupatoria (13), a Russian
town on the Crimean coast, in the government of Taurida, 40
m. NW. of Simferopol; has a fine Tartar mosque, and does a large
export trade in hides and cereals; during the Crimean War was
an important military centre of the Allies.
Euphemism, is in speech or
writing the avoiding of an unpleasant or indelicate word or
expression by the use of one which is less direct, and which
calls up a less disagreeable image in the mind. Thus for "he
died" is substituted "he fell asleep," or "he
is gathered to his fathers"; thus the Greeks called the "Furies"
the "Eumenides," "the benign goddesses,"
just as country people used to call elves and fairies "the
good folk neighbours."
Euphrates, a river in West
Asia, formed by the junction of two Armenian streams; flows
SE. to Kurnah, where it is joined by the Tigris. The combined
waters—named the Shat-el-Arab—flow into the Persian
Gulf; is 1700 m. long, and navigable for 1100 m.
Euphrosyne, the cheerful
one, or life in the exuberance of joy, one of the three Graces.
Euphuism, an affected bombastic
style of language, so called from "Euphues," a work
of Sir John Lyly's written in that style.
Eure (349), a dep. of France, in
Normandy, so called from the river Eure which traverses it.
Eure-et-Loir (285), a dep.
of France lying directly S. of the preceding; chief rivers the
Eure in the N. and the Loir in the S.
Eureka (i. e. I have found
it), the exclamation of Archimedes on discovering how to test
the purity of the gold in the crown of
Hiero (q. v.); he discovered
it, tradition says, when taking a bath.
Euripides, a famous Greek
tragic dramatist, born at Salamis, of wealthy parents; first
trained as an athlete, and then devoted himself to painting,
and eventually to poetry; he brought out his first play at the
age of 25, and is reported to have written 80 plays, of which
only 18 are extant, besides fragment of others; of these plays
the "Alcestes," "Bacchæ," "Iphigenia
at Aulis," "Electra," and "Medea" may
be mentioned; he won the tragic prize five times; tinged with
pessimism, he is nevertheless less severe than his great predecessors
Sophocles and Æschylus, surpassing them in tenderness
and artistic expression, but falling short of them in strength
and loftiness of dramatic conception; Sophocles, it is said,
represented men as they ought to be, and Euripides as they are;
he has been called the Sophist of tragic poets (480-406 B.C.).
Europa, a maiden, daughter of
Agenor, king of Phoenicia, whom Zeus, disguised as a white bull,
carried off to Crete, where she became by him the mother of
Sarpedon (q. v.).
Europe (361,000), the most important,
although the second smallest, of the five great land divisions
of the globe; is, from a geographical point of view, a peninsula
of Asia; the Caspian Sea, Ural River and mountains, form its
Asiatic boundary, while on the other three sides it is washed
by the Mediterranean on the S., Atlantic on the W., and Arctic
Ocean on the N.; its coast-line is so highly developed that
to every 190 sq. m. of surface there is 1 m. of coast; this
advantage, combined with the varied adaptability of its land,
rivers, and inland seas, and its central position, has made
it the centre of civilisation and the theatre of the main events
of the world's history. Its greatest length is 3370 m. from
Cape St. Vincent to the Urals, and its greatest breadth 2400
m. from Cape Matapan to Nordkyn, while its area is about 3,800,000
sq. m.; it is singularly free from wild animals, has a fruitful
soil richly cultivated, and possesses in supreme abundance the
more useful metals. Its peoples belong to the two great ethnological
divisions, the Caucasian and Mongolian groups; to the former
belong the Germanic, Romanic, Slavonic, and Celtic races, and
to the latter the Finns, Magyars, and Turks. Christianity is
professed throughout, except amongst the Jews, of whom there
are about six millions, and in Turkey, where Mohammedanism claims
about seven millions; of Catholics there are about 155 millions,
of Protestants 85, and of the Greek Church 80. Amongst the 18
countries the form of government most prevailing is the hereditary
monarchy, resting more and more on a wide representation of
Eurotas, the classic name of
the Iri, a river of Greece, which flows past Sparta and discharges
into the Gulf of Laconia, 30 m. long.
Eurus, the god of the withering
Eurystheus, the king of Mycenæ,
at whose command, as subject to him by fate, Hercules was required
to perform his 12 labours, on the achievement of which depended
his admission to the rank of an immortal.
Eusebius Pamphili, a distinguished
early Christian writer, born in Palestine, bishop of Cæsarea
in 313; headed the moderate Arians at the Council of Nice, who
shrank from disputing about a subject so sacred as the nature
of the Trinity; wrote a history of the world to A.D. 328; his "Ecclesiastical
History" is the first record of the Christian Church up
to 324; also wrote a Life of Constantine, who held him in high
favour; many extracts of ancient writers no longer extant are
found in the works of Eusebius (about 264-340).
an Italian physician of the 16th century; settled at Rome, made
several anatomical discoveries, among others those of the
tube from the middle ear to the mouth, and a valve
on the wall of the right auricle of the heart, both called
Eustachian after him.
Eustathius, archbishop of
Thessalonica, a Greek commentator of Homer, born in Constantinople;
a man of wide classical learning, and his work on Homer of value
for the extracts of writings that no longer exist; d.
Euterpë, the Muse of lyric
poetry, represented in ancient works of art with a flute in
a Roman historian, secretary to the Emperor Constantine; wrote
an epitome of Roman history, which from its simplicity and accuracy
still retains its position as a school-book; d. about
Eutyches, a Byzantine heresiarch,
who, in combating Nestorianism
(q. v.), fell into the opposite extreme, and maintained
that in the incarnation the human nature of Christ was absorbed
in the divine, a doctrine which was condemned by the Council
of Chalcedon in 448 (378-454).
Euxine, a Greek name for the
Black Sea (q. v.).
Evander, an Arcadian, who is
said to have come from Greece with a colony to Latium and settled
in it 60 years before the Trojan war, and with whom Æneas
formed an alliance when he landed in Italy; he is credited with
having introduced the civilising arts of Greece.
Evangelical, a term applied
to all those forms of Christianity which regard the atonement
of Christ, or His sacrifice on the Cross for sin, as the ground
and central principle of the Christian faith.
an alliance of Christians of all countries and denominations
holding what are called evangelical principles, and founded
a religious body in Scotland which originated in 1843 under
the leadership of James Morison of Kilmarnock, and professed
a creed which allowed them greater freedom as preachers of the
gospel of Christ. See Morisonianism.
Evangeline, the heroine of
a poem by Longfellow of the same name, founded on an incident
connected with the expulsion of the natives of Acadia from their
homes by order of George II.
Evangelist, a name given
in the early Church to one whose office it was to persuade the
ignorant and unbelieving into the fold of the Church.
Evans, Sir de Lacy, an
English general, born at Moeg, Ireland; served in the Peninsular
war; was present at Quatre-Bras and Waterloo; commanded the
British Legion sent to assist Queen Isabella in Spain, and the
second division of the army in the Crimea and the East; was
for many years a member of Parliament (1787-1870).
Evans, Mary Ann, the real
name of George Eliot (q.
Evelyn, John, an English
writer, born at Wotton, Surrey; travelled in France and Italy
during the Civil War, where he devoted much time to gardening
and the study of trees; was author of a celebrated work, entitled "Sylva;
or, A Discourse of Forest Trees," &c.; did much to
improve horticulture and introduce exotics into this country;
his "Memoirs," written as a diary, are full of interest, "is
justly famous for the fulness, variety, and fidelity of its
Everest, Mount, the highest
mountain in the world; is one of the Himalayan peaks in Nepal,
India; is 29,002 ft. above sea-level.
Everett, Alexander Hill,
an American diplomatist and author, born at Boston; was U.S.
ambassador at The Hague and Madrid, and commissioner to China;
wrote on a variety of subjects, including both politics and
belles-lettres, and a collection of critical and miscellaneous
Everett, Edward, American
scholar, statesman, and orator, brother of the preceding; was
a Unitarian preacher of great eloquence; distinguished as a
Greek scholar and professor; for a time editor of the North
American Review; was a member of Congress, and unsuccessful
candidate for the Vice-Presidency of the Republic; his reputation
rests on his "orations," which are on all subjects,
and show great vigour and versatility of genius (1794-1865).
Everlasting No, The, Carlyle's
name for the spirit of unbelief in God, especially as it manifested
itself in his own, or rather Teufelsdröckh's, warfare against
it; the spirit, which, as embodied in the
Mephistopheles (q. v.)
of Goethe, is for ever denying,—der stets verneint—the
reality of the divine in the thoughts, the character, and the
life of humanity, and has a malicious pleasure in scoffing at
everything high and noble as hollow and void. See
Everlasting Yea, The,
Carlyle's name for the spirit of faith in God in an express
attitude of clear, resolute, steady, and uncompromising antagonism
to the Everlasting No, an the principle that there is no such
thing as faith in God except in such antagonism, no faith except
in such antagonism against the spirit opposed to God.
Eversley, a village in Hampshire,
13 m. NE. of Basingstoke; the burial-place of Charles Kingsley,
who for 35 years was rector of the parish.
Charles Shaw Lefevre, Viscount, politician; graduated
at Cambridge; called to the bar; entered Parliament, and in
1839 became Speaker of the House of Commons, a post he held
with great acceptance for 18 years; retired, and was created
a peer (1794-1888).
Evil Eye, a superstitious belief
that certain people have the power of exercising a baneful influence
on others, and even animals, by the glance of the eyes. The
superstition is of ancient date, and is met with among almost
all races, as it is among illiterate people and savages still.
It was customary to wear amulets toward the evil off.
Evolution, the theory that
the several species of plants and animals on the globe were
not created in their present form, but have all been evolved
by modifications of structure from cruder forms under or coincident
with change of environment, an idea which is being applied to
everything organic in the spiritual as well as the natural world.
See Darwinian Theory.
Ev`ora, a city of Portugal, beautifully
situated in a fertile plain 80 m. E. of Lisbon, once a strong
place, and the seat of an archbishop; it abounds in Roman antiquities.
Evremond, Saint, a lively
and witty Frenchman; got into trouble in France from the unbridled
indulgence of his wit, and fled to England, where he became
a great favourite at the court of Charles II., and enjoyed himself
to the top of his bent; his letters are written in a most graceful
Evreux (14), capital of the dep.
of Eure, on the Iton, 67 m. NW. of Paris; is an elegant town;
has a fine 11th-century cathedral, an episcopal palace with
an old clock tower; interesting ruins have been excavated in
the old town; is the seat of a bishop; paper, cotton, and linen
are manufactured, and a trade is carried on in cereals, timber,
Ewald, Georg Heinrich
August von, a distinguished Orientalist and biblical
scholar, born at Göttingen, and professor both there and
at Tübingen; his works were numerous, and the principal
were "The Poetic Books of the Old Testament," "The
Prophets," and "The History of the People of Israel";
he was a student and interpreter of the concrete, and belonged
to no party (1803-1875).
Ewald, Johannes, a Danish
dramatist and lyrist, born at Copenhagen; served as a soldier
in the German and Austrian armies; studied theology at Copenhagen;
disappointed in love, he devoted himself to poetical composition;
ranks as the founder of Danish tragedy, and is the author of
some of the finest lyrics in the language (1743-1781).
Ewige Jude, the Everlasting
Jew, the German name for the Wandering Jew.
Excalibur, the magic sword
of King Arthur, which only he could unsheathe and wield. When
he was about to die he requested a knight to throw it into a
lake close by, who with some reluctance threw it, when a hand
reached out to seize it, flourished it round three times, and
then drew it under the water for good.
ecclesiastical punishment inflicted upon heretics and offenders
against the Church laws and violators of the moral code; was
formulated in the Christian Church in the 2nd and 3rd centuries.
It varied in severity according to the degree of transgression,
but in its severest application involved exclusion from the
Eucharist, Christian burial, and the rights and privileges of
the Church; formerly it had the support of the civil authority,
but is now a purely spiritual penalty.
Joseph Isodore, Comte, a distinguished French marshal,
born at Bar-le-Duc; entered the army at 16; won distinction
in the Naples campaign, and for his services at Eylau in 1807
was made a Brigadier-General; was taken prisoner in Spain while
serving under Murat, and sent to England, where he was kept
prisoner three years; liberated, took part in Napoleon's Russian
campaign, for his conduct in which he was appointed a General
of Division; after Napoleon's fall lived in exile till 1830;
received honours from Louis Philippe, and was created a Marshal
of France by Louis Napoleon in 1851 (1775-1852).
Exeter (50), the capital of Devonshire,
on the Exe, 75 m. SW. of Bristol, a quaint old town; contains
a celebrated cathedral founded in 1112.
Exeter Hall, a hall in the
Strand, London; head-quarters of the Y.M.C.A.; erected in 1831
for holding religious and philanthropic meetings.
Exmoor, an elevated stretch of
vale and moorland in the SW. of Somerset, NE. of Devonshire;
has an area of over 100 sq. m., 25 of which are covered with
Exmouth (8), a noted seaside
resort on the Devonshire coast, at the mouth of the Exe, 11
m. SE. of Exeter; has a fine beach and promenade.
Exodus (i. e. the Going
out), the book of the Old Testament which records the deliverance
of the children of Israel from Egyptian bondage, and the institution
of the moral and ceremonial laws for the nation; consists partly
of history and partly of legislation.
"Exodus from Houndsditch,"
the contemplated title of a work which Carlyle would fain have
written, but found it impossible in his time. "Out of Houndsditch
indeed!" he exclaims. "Ah, were we but out, and had
our own along with us" (our inheritance from the past,
he means). "But they that have come hitherto have come
in a state of brutal nakedness, scandalous mutilation"
(having cast their inheritance from the past away), "and
impartial bystanders say sorrowfully, 'Return rather; it is
better even to return!'" Houndsditch was a Jew's quarter,
and old clothesmarket in London, and was to Carlyle the symbol
of the alarming traffic at the time in spiritualities fallen
extinct. Had he given a list of these, as he has already in
part done, without labelling them so, he would only, he believed,
have given offence both to the old-rag worshippers and those
that had cast the rags off, and were all, unwittingly to themselves,
going about naked; considerate he in this of preserving what
of worth was in the past.
Exogens, the name for the order
of plants whose stem is formed by successive accretions to the
outside of the wood under the bark.
Exorcism, conjuration by God
or Christ or some holy name, of some evil spirit to come out
of a person; it was performed on a heathen as an idolater, and
eventually on a child as born in sin prior to baptism.
Exoteric, a term applied to
teaching which the uninitiated may be expected to comprehend,
and which is openly professed, as in a public confession of
Externality, the name for
what is ab extra as apart from what is ab intra
in determining the substance as well as form of things, and
which in the Hegelian philosophy is regarded as working conjointly
with the latter.
Extreme Unction, one
of the seven sacraments of the Catholic Church; an anointing
of consecrated or holy oil administered by a priest in the form
of a cross to a sick person upon the eyes, ears, nose, mouth,
hands, and face at the point of death, which is presumed to
impart grace and strength against the last struggle.
Eyck, Jan van, a famous Flemish
painter, born at Mass-Eyck; was instructed by his eldest brother
Hubert (1370-1426), with whom he laboured at Bruges and Ghent;
reputed to have been the first to employ oil colours (1389-1440).
Eylau, a small town, 23 m. S.
of Königsberg, the scene of a great battle between Napoleon
and the Russian and Prussian allies in February 8, 1807; the
fight was interrupted by darkness, under cover of which the
allies retreated, having had the worst of it.
Eyre, Edward John, explorer
and colonial governor, born in Yorkshire; emigrated to Australia
in 1832; successfully explored the interior of SW. Australia
in 1841; governor of New Zealand in 1846, of St. Vincent in
1852, and of Jamaica in 1862; recalled in 1865, and prosecuted
for harsh treatment of the natives, but was acquitted; his defence
was championed by Carlyle, Ruskin, and Kingsley, while J. S.
Mill supported the prosecution; b. 1815.
Eyre, Jane, the heroine of
a novel of Charlotte Brontë's so called, a governess who,
in her struggles with adverse fortune, wins the admiration and
melts the heart of a man who had lived wholly for the world.
Ezekiel, a Hebrew prophet, born
in Jerusalem; a man of priestly descent, who was carried captive
to Babylon 599 B.C., and was banished to Tel-abib, on the banks
of the Chebar, 201 m. from the city, where, with his family
about him, he became the prophet of the captivity, and the rallying
centre of the Dispersion. Here he foretold the destruction of
Jerusalem as a judgment on the nation, and comforted them with
the promise of a new Jerusalem and a new Temple on their repentance,
man by man, and their return to the Lord. His prophecies arrange
themselves in three groups—those denouncing judgment on
Jerusalem, those denouncing judgment on the heathen, and those
announcing the future glory of the nation.
Ezra, a Jewish scribe of priestly
rank, and full of zeal for the law of the Lord and the restoration
of Israel; author of a book of the Old Testament, which records
two successive returns of the people from captivity, and embraces
a period of 79 years, from 576 to 457 B.C., being a continuation
of the book of Chronicles, its purpose
being to relate the progress of the restored theocracy in Judah
and Jerusalem, particularly as regards the restoration of the
Temple and the re-institution of the priesthood.