Om ! May He protect us both together; may He nourish us both
together; May we work conjointly with great energy, May our
study be vigorous and effective; May we not mutually dispute
(or may we not hate any). Om ! Let there be Peace in me ! Let
there be Peace in my environment ! Let there be Peace in the
forces that act on me !
1. Now, therefore, we shall set forth ‘the hymn of food’
that is beyond all empirical knowledge, the essence of all Upanishads,
dealing with the sacrifice in the body, by virtue of which the
embodied man becomes free from transmigratory life without Agnihotra
and the knowledge of Sankhya.
2. According to proper procedure, setting (the cooked) rice
on the ground one intones the three verses beginning with ‘Ya
osadhaya …’ and the two beginning with ‘annapate ..’.
3. The many plants of hundred shapes and forms that Soma
rules asking, urged on by Brihaspati, ye deliver us from calamities.
4. The fruitful plants and fruitless, that have flowers
and the flowerless, urged on by Brihaspati, ye deliver us from
5. Let me not bind for you the plants that live and endow
(others with) life, that are free from malignancy; may they
put to fight the evil spirits from one who offers them (sacrifice).
6. Lord of food ! Give us food that is clean and rich in
energy; help the giver of food over (the hazards of life). Endow
us, bipeds and quadrupeds, with might.
7. May the food (we eat) be fire; (though) it is adverse
to the Rudras and the evil spirits and may it promote generations
of off-spring. Let the mighty (Lord) purge it of all seeds of
fear and make it auspicious. Hail to the mighty Lord.
8. Seeing all you move within the hidden (places). You are
the sacrifice; You are Brahma, Rudra, Vishnu. You are the sacred
syllable Vasat, light, taste, the immortal Brahman, the earth,
the mid-region and the firmament. OM Salutation.
9. May the waters purify the earth; may the purified earth
purify me. May (the waters) purify the master of the Veda; may
the hallowed Vedic essence purify me. Whatever is left over
as unfit to be consumed or whatever deed of mine be sinful –
all these may the waters purify; also the gifts (accepted from)
the unrighteous. Hail !
10. You are ambrosia; an ambrosial spread (base). You are
ambrosia in regard to the vital breath; fit for the sacred offering,
the last blessing. OM, salutation to Prana. OM, salutation to
Apana. OM, salutation to Vyana. OM, salutation to Udana. OM,
salutation to Samana. OM, salutation to Brahman. OM, may myself
be in Brahman for the winning of immortality.
11. The offering to Prana is made with the little finger
and the thumb. With the ring finger and the thumb is made the
offering to Apana. With the middle finger and the thumb is made
that to Vyana, with all fingers is the offering made to Udana
and with the forefinger and the thumb is made the offering to
12. Silently one offering is made with one Ric; two in the
Ahavaniya; one in the Dakshina fire; one in the Garhapatya and
one in the fire for all expiatory rites.
13. Then, ‘You are the lid for immortality’ – for winning
immortality. Sipping one must take again and touch again.
14. Taking water in the right palm and holding it over against
the heart one should intone: Prana is fire; is the supreme Self
surrounded by the five vital breaths. Fearlessness to all living
beings ! Fear never dwells in me
15. You (Prana) are Vishva and Vaishvanara; by you is the
multiform world sustained as it manifests itself. Where you
are, the immortal Brahma, are all offerings (made).
16. This great and novel Spirit (is) established at the ends
of the big toes. I pour water round him at the end (of the ceremonial
eating) for winning immortality.
17. Let this external self meditate on specific activities
– thus one makes offerings in the fire. Let (the performer)
be a son to all. The ritual offerings are consecrated in the
18. I shall perform sacrifice in my body. There are the four
fires, no mean ones, corresponding to the four parts of OM with
the half syllable.
19. There is no solar fire, shaped like the solar disc, sheathed
in a thousand rays, abiding in the crown as the solar seer.
The fire of vision mentioned (above) with its four forms, becoming
the Ahavaniya is stationed in the mouth. The bodily fire consumes
the oblations that destroy old age. Becoming Dakshinagni, shaped
like a half moon, it is stationed in the heart. Then, there
is the gastric fire that, becoming Garhapatya is stationed at
the navel consuming what is eaten, drunk, licked and sucked.
20. Underneath are the three horizontal states of mind –
the moon, Lord and the agent of generation.
21. In this bodily sacrifice, unadorned by the girdle round
the sacrificial post, who is the sacrificer ? Who is (his) wife
? Who are the officiating priests ? Who are the attendants ?
Which are the sacrificial vessels ? What are the oblations ?
Which is the altar ? Which is the interior of the altar ? Which
is the wooden container (for the soma juice) ? Which is the
chariot ? Which is the sacrificial animal ? Who is the officiating
priest ? Who is the invoking priest ? Who is the assistant of
the Chief priest ? Who is the assistant of the Adhvaryu ? Who
is the first chanter ? Who is the assistant of the Hotir ? Who
sings the Sama songs aloud ? Which is the libation to (Agni)
? Who is the assistant of the Brahma priest ? What are the Darbha
grass ? Which is the ladle Which is the container of the ghee
? Which are the two ghee offerings ? Which are the two parts
of the ghee ? What are the preliminary offerings ? What are
the final sacrifices ? Which is the Ida libation (in between
the two) ? What is recitation ? What is the Samyorvaka formula
? Which are the four Ajya oblations ? Which is the sacrificial
post ? Which is the cord ? Which are the Ishtis (oblations of
butter, fruits, etc.,) ? What is the sacrificial fee ? What
is the ritual bath after the sacrifice ?
22. In the bodily sacrifice, unadorned by the cord round
the sacrificial post, the sacrificer is the self; (his) wife
is the intellect. The great officiating priests are the Vedas.
The ego is the Adhvaryu. The mind-stuff is the invoking priest.
Prana is the assistant of the chief priest; Apana is the assistant
of the Adhvaryu. Vyana is the first chanter. Udana is the loud
Sama singer. Samana is the assistant of Hotir. The body is the
altar. The nose is the interior of the altar. The crest is the
wooden container. The foot is the chariot. The right hand is
the ladle. The left hand is the container of the ghee. The ears
are the two ghee offerings. The eyes are the two parts of the
ghee. The neck is the libation. The Tanmatras are the assistant
of the Brahma Priest. The great elements are the attendants.
Gunas are the supplementary offerings. The tongue is the final
sacrifices. Teeth and lips are the middle libation. The palate
is the hymn-recitation. Memory is the Samyorvaka formula. Compassion,
forbearance, non-violence are the four Ajya oblations (to Soma,
etc.,). Om is the sacrificial post. Desire is the cord. Mind
is the chariot. Lust is the sacrificial animal. The hair is
the Darbha grass. The sense organs are the sacrificial vessels.
The organs of action are the oblations. Non-violence is the
Ishtis. Renunciation is the sacrificial fee. The post-sacrificial
bath (follows) from death. In this body are stationed all the
23. (Either) one dies in Benares (or) the Brahmana
who reads this (Upanishad) achieves liberation in one life:
This is the secret doctrine. Om ! May He protect us both together;
may He nourish us both together; May we work conjointly with
great energy, May our study be vigorous and effective; May we
not mutually dispute (or may we not hate any). Om ! Let there
be Peace in me ! Let there be Peace in my environment ! Let
there be Peace in the forces that act on me !
Here ends the Pranagnihotropanishad belonging to the Krishna-Yajur-Veda.
(My humble salutations to Sreeman A G Krishna Warrier for