The Vashishta Dharmashastra, Part 2
Suggestions for Further Reading
- Dharma, the Moral and Religious Duties of Hinduism
- Ashrama Dharma in Hinduism
- Good and Evil in Hinduism
- Why is Hinduism Called Sanatana Dharma?
- Wealth and Duty in Hinduism
- The Basis of Morality in Hinduism
- The Bhagavadgita on Karma, the Law of Actions
- Karma Yoga According to the Bhagavadgita
- The Hindu Dharmashastras, Subject Index
- A Brief Note on the Dharmashastras
- The Laws of Manu Chapter 1 to 6
- The Laws of Manu Chapters 7 to 12
- Introduction to the Apastamba
- The Apastamba - Prasna I
- The Apastamba - Prasna II
- Introduction to Gautama Sutras
- The Gautama Sutras, Chapters I to XIV
- The Gautama Sutras Chapters XV to XVIII
- The Vashishta Dharmashastra, introduction
- The Vashishta Dharmashastra, Chapters I - VII
- The Vashishta Dharmashastra, Chapters VIII - XIV
- The Vashishta Dharmashastra, Chapters V - XXII
- The Vashishta Dharmashastra, Chapters XIII - XXX
- Introduction to the Baudhayana DharmasShastra
- The Baudhayana Dharmashastra - PrasnaI (Kandika 1-21)
- The Baudhayana Dharmashastra - PrasnaII (Kandika 1-18)
- The Baudhayana Dharmashastra - PrasnaIII, IV and V
- Essays On Dharma
- Esoteric Mystic Hinduism
- Introduction to Hinduism
- Hindu Way of Life
- Essays On Karma
- Hindu Rites and Rituals
- The Origin of The Sanskrit Language
- Symbolism in Hinduism
- Essays on The Upanishads
- Concepts of Hinduism
- Essays on Atman
- Hindu Festivals
- Spiritual Practice
- Right Living
- Yoga of Sorrow
- Mental Health
- Concepts of Buddhism
- General Essays
42:1 VIII. Vishnu XXIV, 9; Gautama IV, 1-2. Regarding the bath at the end of the studentship, see Vishnu XXVIII, 42, and Professor Jolly's note.
42:2 Vishnu XXLV, 10.; Gautama. IV, 2.
42:3 Vishnu LIX, 1, and Professor Jolly's note. The fire intended is the grihya or sm‚rta, the sacred household fire, which according o this SŻtra must be kindled on the occasion of the marriage ceremony, while other Smritis permit of its being lighted on the division of the paternal estate.
43:4 Vishnu LXVII, 28-29.
43:5 Vishnu LXVII, 30.
43:6 Vishnu LXVII, 33.
43:7 Identical with Vishnu LXVII, 34; Manu III, 102.
43:8 Vishnu LXVII, 35; Manu III, 105.
43:9 Vishnu LIX, 2. The Agnihotra which is here 'intended is, of course, the Srauta Agnihotra, to be performed with three fires. The Agny‚dheya is one of the HaviryagŮas with which the Sraut‚gnihotrin has to begin his rites.
43:10 Vishnu LIX, 8.
44:11 I agree with Krishnapandita that the word 'and' used in this enumeration serves the purpose of calling to mind that there are other minor duties. The three named specially are the so-called 'three debts;' see below, XI, 48.
44:12 Vishnu LXVII, 45 Gautama V, 38-41.
44:13 Vishnu LXVII, 26.
44:14-17. Vishnu LIX, 27-30; Manu VI, 89.
44:15 Identical with Manu VI, 90.
44:17 'Who always carries water (in his gourd)' (nityodakÓ) may also be translated, 'who always keeps water (in his house);' see ¬pastamba II, 1, 1, 15. 'Who always wears the sacred thread' p. 45 may also mean 'who always wears his upper in the manner required at a sacrifice,' i.e. passes it over the left and under the right arm.
45:1 IX. Vishnu XCIV, 8-9; Gautama III, 34. Krishnapandita takes kÓra, 'bark,' to mean '(made of) grass,' e.g. of MuŮga or Balvaga.
45:2 Gautama III, 33. The particle 'and' probably indicates that the hermit is not to enter any other inhabited place.
45:3 Gautama III, 32.
45:4 Vishnu XCV, 5.
45:5 Vishnu XCV, 7.
45:6 Manu VI, 8.
45:7 Gautama III, 30.
45:9 Vishnu XCV, 10.
45:10 Gautama III, 27. Krishnapandita and MSS. B. F. read sr‚vanakena, and the rest ‚varnakena. I read sr‚manakena, 'according to the rule of the Sr‚manaka SŻtra,' in accordance with Gautama's text. Baudh‚yana, too, uses the same word.
45:11 Manu VI, 25.
46:1 X. Manu VI, 39; Y‚gŮavalkya III, 61.
46:2 Manu VI, 40.
46:3 'The born and the unborn,' i.e. his ancestors who lose heaven, and his descendants who lose their caste.
46:4 Manu VI, 39.
46:5 Manu II, 83.
46:6 Gautama III, 11, 22. The term parigraha, 'home,' includes the wife, the family, attendants, and a house.
47:7 Vishnu XCVI, 3.
47:8 Vishnu XCVI, 6; Manu VI, 56.
47:9 Vishnu XCVI, 13. It is very probable that the single garment mentioned in the SŻtra is, as Krishnapandita thinks, a small strip of cloth to cover the ascetic's nakedness.
47:12-13. Vishnu XCVI, 10-12.
47:14 Manu VI, 43, 65.
47:20 I read 'ramy‚vasathapriyasya,' with the majority of the MSS.
48:21 Identical with Manu VI, 50.
48:22 Vishnu XCVI, 4. Identical with Manu VI, 57.
48:23 There are three TÓrthas called Pushkara; see Professor Jolly's note on Vishnu LXXXV, I.
48:24 Krishnapandita thinks that this rule is a concession to those ascetics who are unable to subsist on one meal a day, as Manu VI, 55 prescribes.
48:25 Manu VI, 59. 26. Manu VI, 94-95.
48:27 The text is here probably corrupt. But I follow Krishnapandita. Several MSS. read asatho, 'he shall not be a rogue,' for asavo, 'he shall not observe the rules of impurity.'
49:30 Vishnu II, 16-17.
49:31 Krishnapandita believes that this SŻtra again refers to ascetics. But that is hardly possible, as ascetics are not allowed to wear a sacrificial thread (see above. SŻtra 18). I think that it is meant to emphatically assert that a Br‚hmana who is free from the shortcomings enumerated in the preceding SŻtra, and who follows the rule of conduct, will obtain salvation, whether he passes through the order of Samny‚sins or not.
49:1-2. XI. Gautama V, 27-30. The persons enumerated elsewhere are the teacher, the father-in-law, and so forth. Regarding the Sn‚taka, see ¬pastamba I, 11, 30, 1-4.
49:3 Vishnu LXVII, 1-3.
50:4 Vishnu LXVII, 4-22.
50:5 Vishnu LIX, 14; LXVII, 23, 27. Krishnapandita does not take 'agrabh‚ga' as a technical term, but explains it by 'a first portion, sufficient for a dinner, or as much as one is able to spare.'
50:6 Vishnu LXVII, 28, 36-38.
50:7 Vishnu LXVII, 39. The majority of the MSS. read b‚lavriddhatarunaprad‚t‚s [tato]. Krishnapandita corrects the last word to prad‚t‚, while the editor of the Calcutta edition writes prabhritÓms [tato]. Both conjectures are inadmissible. As the same phrase occurs once more, below, XIX., 23 (where Krishnapandita writes prad‚t‚rah), I think that it is not permissible to change the text. Prad‚t‚h must be the correct reading, and a technical name for a class of female relatives. Etymologically it may mean 'those who have been perfectly cleansed.' But I am unable to trace its precise technical import, and have left it untranslated.
50:8 Vishnu LXVII, 41.
50:9 Vishnu LXVII, 26.
50:10 Gautama V, 25, and note. 'A SŻdra, i.e. one who is his servant.'--Krishnapandita. It is, however, possible, that a visitor of the SŻdra caste is meant; see ¬pastamba II, 2, 4, 19-20.
50:11 Vishnu LXVII, 41.
51:12 ¬pastamba II, 3, 6, 16; Gautama V, 32, 33. A guest, i.e. one to whom the definition given above, VIII, 6, 7, applies. I read according to my MSS. punahp‚ko instead of punahp‚ke.
51:14-15. Gautama V, 38.
51:16 Vishnu LXXVI, 1-2; Gautama XV, 3.
51:17 Vishnu LXXIII, 1; LXXXII, 2-4; LXXXIII, 5, 19; Gautama XV, 10; ¬pastamba II, 7, 17, 4.
51:18 ¬pastamba II, 7, 17, 6.
51:19 Gautama XV, 16, 18. The explanation of the word nagna, p. 52 'neglecting their duties,' is doubtful. I have followed Krishnapandita, who quotes the M‚rkandeya Pur‚na in support of his view. The word occurs in the same connexion, Vishnu LXXXII, 27, where it is rendered by 'naked.' Possibly it may refer to ascetics who go entirely naked.
52:20 The SŻtra gives an exception to the preceding rule.
52:21 I read 'skyotante hi' instead of 'skyotante val.'
52:22 'Those who receive a share with difficulty,' i.e. the manes of uninitiated children, mentioned in the next verses.
52:23-24. Vishnu LXXXII, 22 Manu III, 245-246. These rules, however, do not fully agree with the teaching of our Manu-smriti, as the latter assigns the fragments on the ground to honest and upright servants. SŻtra 24 I read with the majority of the MSS. 'lepanodakam' for 'lepamodakam,' and 'annam preteshu' for 'anupreteshu.'
53:25 Manu III, 225.
53:26 Manu III, 224. The meaning of the last clause seems to be that the sacrificer shall stand before the Br‚hmanas until they have done eating.
53:27 Identical with Manu III, 125; see also Vishnu LXXIII, 3. The offering to the gods is the Vaisvadeva offering which precedes the Sr‚ddha.
53:28 Identical with Manu III, 126.
53:29 Manu III, 129.
54:32 Identical with Vishnu LXXXII, 20, and Manu III, 237.
54:34 Manu V, 35.
54:35 Identical with Manu III, 235.
54:37 Vishnu LXIX, 2-4.
55:39-40. Vishnu LXXVIII, 51-53.
55:41 'Who lengthens the line,' i.e. who himself begets sons. Read instead of nuyantam pitrikarmani (v. l. muyantam and tripantah), 'udyatam.'
55:42 Vishnu LXXXV, 4, 66-67. A
55:43 Sr‚vana, i.e. July-August; ¬grah‚yana, i.e. M‚rgasÓrsha or November--December. AnvashtakÓ means the day following the Ashtak‚, or eighth day, i.e. the ninth day of the dark halves of M‚rgasÓrsha, Pausha, M‚gha, and Ph‚lguna. The form of the word is usually anvashtak‚.
56:44 Gautama XV, 5.
56:45 Vishnu LIX, 2.
56:46 Vishnu LIX, 4-9.
56:47 Manu IV, 257. I read rinasamstutam with MS. E.
56:48 Taitt. Samh. VI, 3, 10, 5; Satapatha-br‚hmana I, 7, 2, 11.
56:49-51. Vishnu XXVII, 15-17.
56:52-54. Vishnu XXVII, 29. Regarding other kinds of sticks, see Gautama I, 22-24.
57:55-57. Vishnu XXVII, 22.
57:58-60. Vishnu XXVII, 18.
57:61-63. Vishnu XXVII, 20.
57:64-67. Vishnu XXVII, 19; Gautama I, 17-21. 'Unblemished,' i.e. new, without holes and seams.
57:68-70. Vishnu XXVII, 25. I.e. 'Lady, give alms;' 'Give, O lady, alms;' and 'Give alms, lady.'
58:71-73. Vishnu XXVII, 26.
58:74 Vishnu XXVII, 27. S‚vitrÓ, literally 'the Rik sacred to Savitri' (Rig-veda III, 62, 10), means here 'the initiation,' see Gautama I, 12 note.
58:75 ¬pastamba I, 1, 1, 28. The plural viv‚hayeyuh, 'let them (not) form matrimonial alliances,' indicates that orthodox Br‚hmanas must neither give their daughters to Patitas‚vitrÓkas nor take the daughters of such persons.
58:78 Gautama XIX, 9.
58:79 Gautama XIX, 8.
59:1 XII. 'Now' marks the beginning of a new topic. 'Therefore,' i.e. because the duties of a Sn‚taka have to be taught after those of a student.
59:2 Manu IV, 33; Gautama IX, 63.
59:3 Manu X, 113-114.
59:4 Manu IV, 34; Vishnu III, 79.
59:5 Krishnapandita, whom I have followed in the translation of this SŻtra, thinks that it indicates the obligation of wearing clean clothes, see e.g. Vishnu LXXI, 9. It seems to me, however, probable that its real sense is, 'Let him not cohabit with a woman during her courses,' and that the next SŻtra has to be read n‚ragasvalay‚., 'Nor with one of immature age.'
59:7 'An unfit one,' i.e.' one of low caste' (hÓn‚).--Krishnapandita, Probably a sick wife is meant, Gautama IX, 28.
59:8 Gautama IX, 53. Krishnapandita gives besides the above interpretation of the SŻtra from Haradatta's GautamÓy‚ Mit‚kshar‚, another one, according to which it means, 'Let him not forsake his own family and enter another one (by adoption and so forth).' A third p. 60 explanation is given by N‚r‚yana on S‚ṅkh‚yana Grihya-sŻtra IV, 12, II, who takes it to mean, 'Let him not go from one house to the other.'
60:9 Gautama IX, 52; Vishnu LXIII, 42.
60:10 Vishnu LXXI, 17-18.
60:11-12. Vishnu LXXI, 35.
60:13 Gautama IX, 37-38, 41-43; Vishnu LX, 2-3.
60:14 Vishnu LXXI, 13-15.
60:18 Vishnu LXVIII, 40.
61:19 Krishnapandita thinks that this rule refers to the first five mouthfuls only.
61:21 Vishnu LXIX, 1. The Parva days are the eighth, fourteenth, and fifteenth of each half-month.
61:25-27. Gautama IX, 32.
61:28 ¬pastamba II, 5, 12, 6.
61:30 ¬pastamba II, 5, 12, 7-8.
61:31 Satapatha-br‚hmana X, 5, 2, 9; Vishnu LXVIII, 46.
62:32-33. Gautama IX, 22.
62:34 Gautama IX, 44.
62:35 Vishnu LXVIII, 21.
62:36 Gautama IX, 32.
62:37 Vishnu LXXI, 13.
62:38 Vishnu LXXI, 16.
62:39 Gautama IX, 32.
62:40 I read sabh‚samav‚y‚msk‚vagayeta. The corrupt readings of Bh. samav‚y‚ska gavÓyan and of F. samav‚y‚mska vakshÓyanna point to this version, the sense of which agrees with the parallel passages of other Smritis, see e.g. ¬pastamba I, 11, 32, 19.
62:41 Vishnu LXXI, 83.
62:42 Gautama IX, 54-55, 66.
62:43 Vishnu LXIII, 9. According to Krishnapandita the time intended is midday.
63:44 Vishnu LXIII, 47.
63:45 Vishnu LXIII, 46. Krishnapandita omits this SŻtra which is found in the majority of the MSS.
63:46 ¬pastamba I, II, 32, 15; Vishnu XXX, 27.
63:47 Manu IV, 92; Vishnu LX, i. The MuhŻrta sacred to Prag‚pati is the same as the Br‚hma-muhŻrta, and falls in the last watch of the night.
63:1 XIII. Vishnu XXX, I. Sr‚vana, July-August. Praushthapada, i.e. Bh‚drapada, August-September. Krishnapandita improperly combines this SŻtra with the next.
63:5 Gautama XVI, 2.
64:6-7. Manu IV, 98.
64:9 ¬pastamba I, 3, 9, 20.
64:10 Gautama XVI, 12.
64:11 Gautama XVI, 19; Vishnu XXX, 10. The above translation follows Krishnapandita's gloss. But the SŻtra may also be taken differently: 'In (villages) where a corpse lies or a K‚nd‚la stays (and) in towns.' For the prohibition to study in towns is mentioned by Gautama XVI, 45; Manu IV, 116; and ¬pastamba I, 3, 9, 4.
64:12 ¬pastamba I, 3, 9, 5. The rule refers to places, such as high-roads, where studying is ordinarily forbidden.
64:13 Vishnu XXX, 15; ¬pastamba I, 3, 9, 6.
64:14 Gautama XVI, 17.
64:15 Gautama XVI, 34.
64:16 Manu IV, 117 somewhat resembles the verse quoted. But p. 65 its altered form shows clearly that the M‚nava Dharmas‚stra known to Vasishtha differed from the work which at present goes by that name. Compare also S‚ṅkh‚yana Grihya-sŻtra IV, 7, 55.
65:17 Y‚gŮavalkya I, 150; Gautama XVI, 19; Manu IV, 120.
65:18 ¬pastamba I, 3, 11, 16.
65:19 Vishnu XXX, 18; Manu IV, 121.
65:20 ¬pastamba I, 3, 10, 25.
65:21 Gautama XVI, 7, and note.
65:22 Vishnu XXX, 4; Gautama XVI, 37-38. The Ashtak‚s are the eighth days of the dark halves of the winter months, M‚rgasÓrsha, Pausha, M‚gha, and Ph‚lguna.
65:23 Vishnu XXX, 17; Manu IV, 112.
65:26 Manu IV, 116.
66:27 Gautama XVI, 18.
66:28 Vishnu XXX, 19.
66:29 Gautama XVI, 11. Krishnapandita improperly divides the SŻtra into two.
66:30 Vishnu XXX, 26.
66:31 Vishnu XXX, 21.
66:32-34. Vishnu XXX, 5; Gautama XVI, 22.
66:35 Gautama XVI, 22; Manu IV, 105, 115. Krishnapandita mentions digd‚ha, 'when the sky appears preternaturally red,' as a various reading for 'dign‚da.'
66:38 ¬pastamba I, 3, 11, 29.
67:39 ¬pastamba I, 3, 10, 2-4.
67:40 Vishnu XXXII, 4.
67:42 The persons intended are, the teacher and so forth. See ¬pastamba 1, 4, 14, 7, note.
67:44 Gautama VI, 5.
67:45 ¬pastamba I, 4, 14, 23. Krishnapandita combines this SŻtra with the preceding.
67:46 ¬pastamba I, 2, 5, 18. In returning a salute, the name of the person addressed is pronounced, and if it ends in a, the vowel is made pluta, while e and o are changed to ‚ya and ‚va, e.g. Hare to Har‚ya.
67:47 Gautama XX, I; XX, 15; ¬pastamba I, 10, 28, 9.
67:48 Manu II, 145.
68:49 ¬pastamba I, 2, 8, 29-30.
68:50 Gautama XXI, 12.
68:51 ¬pastamba I, 10, 29, 14.
68:53 Manu II, 238; Y‚gŮavalkya III, 261.
68:54 Vishnu XXVIII, 29, 31.
68:56 Vishnu XXXII, 16.
68:58-59. Vishnu LXIII, 51.
69:61 ¬pastamba II, 2, 4, 14; Gautama V, 35-36.
69:2 XIV. Vishnu LI, 7, 10-11. Dandika, 'a mace-bearer,' may mean 'a police officer' or 'a messenger.' I read with MSS. Bh. and F. shandha, 'a eunuch,' instead of satha, 'a rogue,' the reading of the other MSS. and of Krishnapandita.
69:3 Vishnu LI, 8-9, 12, 19; Gautama XVII, 17. I write sŻkaka, 'a spy,' instead of sŻkika, 'a tailor,' according to the other Smritis, e.g. Vishnu LI, 12; ¬pastamba I, 6, 18, 30
69:4 ¬pastamba I, 6, 18, 13.
69:5 ¬pastamba I, 6, 18, 19.
70:9 ¬pastamba I, 6, 18, 17.
70:10 Vishnu LI, 7. 'And so forth (iti), i.e. by cruel men and the like.'--Krishnapandita.
70:11 Vishnu LI, 15.
70:12 Gautama XVII, 3; Vishnu LVII, 10.
70:13 Vishnu LVII, 13; Manu IV, 251.
71:15 Manu V, 22-23. I connect vigŮ‚yate with this SŻtra, instead of with the preceding one, as Krishnapandita does.
71:16 Vishnu LVII, 11; Mann IV, 248; ¬pastamba I, 6, 19, 14.
71:18 Vishnu LVII, 12; Manu IV, 249; ¬pastamba I, 6, 19, 14.
71:19 ¬pastamba I. 6, 19, 15.
71:20 Vishnu XXVIII. 11.
72:22 ¬pastamba I, 5, 16, 28; Gautama XVII, 9.
72:23 Vishnu XXIII, 38; Y‚gŮavalkya I, 189.
72:24 Y‚gŮavalkya I, 191.
72:26 Vishnu XXIII, 30. Krishnapandita thinks that pl‚vanena, 'by straining them (through a cloth),' may also mean 'by heating them on the fire.'
72:28 Gautama XVII, 13, and note, 15-16.
72:29 Manu V, 24.
73:33 Vishnu LI, 34, 36; Gautama XVII, 32-33. Regarding the Atikrikkhra penance, see below, XXIV, 1.
73:34 Vishnu LI, 40. For other explanations of the term sandhinÓ, 'a cow that is in heat,' see ¬pastamba I, 5, 17, 23; Vishnu LI, 40.
73:35 Vishnu LI, 39. The SŻtra implies that the milk of other animals must not be drunk under any circumstances.
73:37-38. Vishnu LI, 35, 42.
74:39 Gautama XVII, 27. Haradatta on ¬pastamba and Gautama explain sv‚vidh, 'the porcupine,' to be a kind of boar, and salyaka, 'the hedgehog,' to be 'the porcupine.'
74:40 Vishnu LI, 30; Manu V, 18.
74:41-42. Gautama XVII, 36; ¬pastamba I, 5, 17, 38-39.
74:43 ¬pastamba I, 5, 17, 29.
74:44 Manu V, 11, 17.
74:45 Gautama XVII, 30-31.
74:46 ¬pastamba I, 5, 17, 31.
74:48 Gautama XVII, 34-35; Vishnu LI, 28-31. I read m‚ndh‚la, 'the flying fox,' while Krishnapandita gives m‚gh‚ra, a p. 75 reading which he cannot explain. The MSS. read as follows: B. E. m‚gh‚ra, Bh. F. m‚dh‚m, I. O. 913 (tittibh)‚ndha (naktam). Haradatta on ¬pastamba I, 5, 17, 33' explains plava, 'the water-hen,' to be a kind of heron, called also sakatabila.
Source: The Sacred Laws of the ¬ryas translated by Georg BŁhler Part I: ¬pastamba and Guatama (Sacred Books of the East, Volume 2.) . The text has been reproduced and reformatted from Sacred-texts.com by Jayaram V for Hinduwebsite.com. While we have made every effort to reproduce the text correctly, we do not guarantee or accept any responsibility for any errors or omissions or inaccuracies in the reproduction of this text.
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