White Yajurveda, Book 21 to Book 40

Vedic Yajna

Translated by Ralph T.H. Griffith

Contents Book 21 To 40

Offering of a Rice Cake and prayer to Varuna 196
Prayer to Agni as Mediator 196
Prayer and Oblation to Aditi 196
Oblations to Mitra and Varuna as Rain-Gods 196
A Propitiatory Hymn in honour of Indra 197
Benedictions on Indra 198
Directions to the Hotar to worship various Deities and Sacred Objects 199
Benedictions on Indra 202
Conclusion of the Santrâmanî Ceremony 204
The Asvamedha or Horse-Sacrifice 205
Investing the Sacrificer with the Gold Ornament 205
Address to the Ornament 205
Girding and Sprinkling of the Horse 205
Symbolical Slaughter of a Dog 205
Offering of Oblations to Ten Deities 205
Homage to the Horse 205
Prayers and Oblations to Savitar 205
Inviting Verses to Agni 206
Eulogy of the Horse 206
Protection invoked for the Horse 206
Oblations and Homage to Prajâpati and Other Deities 207
The King's Prayer for Blessings on his Kingdom 208
Homage and Oblations to Gods and deified Objects 208
Homage to the Genii of Numbers 209
Ceremonies after return of the Horse 210
Offering of two Mahiman Libations 210
Harnessing the Horse 210
Bathing the Horse 210
Anointing and Decking the Horse 211
A Brahmodyam 211
Binding the Horse to the Stake 211
Slaughter of the Horse 212
p. xiv
Circumambulation of the Horse 213
Ceremony performed by the Chief Queen 213
Marking the lines of dissection 213
A Brahmodyam 213
Mahiman Libation to Prajâpati 217
Enumeration of Animals to be tied up 218
Continuation of the Horse Sacrifice 224
Oblations of the roasted flesh 224
Inviting and Offering Verses to Prajâpati 226
Inviting and Offering Verses to the All-Gods 226
The Eulogy of the Horse 227
Conclusion of the Sacrifice 230
Supplementary Texts and Formulas connected with various sacrifices 231
Supplementary Texts and Formulas continued 235
Texts and Formulas of the Sautrâmanî Ceremony, supplementary to Books XIX-XXI. 240
An Âprî hymn 240
Supplementary Texts and Formulas of the Asvamedha or Horse-Sacrifice 247
Praise of the Home as identified with the Sun 248
An Âprî hymn 250
Eulogy of the Bow and Implements of War 251
Supplement to the List of Victims in Book XXIV 254
The Purushamedha or Human Sacrifice 255
Enumeration of Victims. men and women, to be dedicated to various Deities and Abstractions 255
p. xv
The Purushamedha continued 260
The Purushasûkta 260
Glorification of the First Performer of the Purushamedha 263
Texts and Formulas of the Sarvamedha or Sacrifice for Universal Success and Prosperity 264
Eulogy of the Sacrificer 265
Prayer for Wisdom and Glory 266
Continuation of the Sarvamedha Formulas 267
A Litany addressed to Agni 267
Glorification of Indra 269
Glorification, with Libations, of Sûrya 271
Unconnected verses in praise of various Deities 274
The Sivasankalpa Upanishad 280
Miscellaneous Texts suitable for the General Sacrifice 280
Prayer to Bhaga 284
Praise of Pûshan 285
Investiture with a Golden Ornament 286
Prayer to Brahmanaspati 247
Formulas, connected with the Pitriyajña or Sacrifice to the Fathers or Ancestral Manes, to be used at funeral ceremonies 288
Purificatory and benedictive Formulas 289
Preliminary Formulas of the Pravargya Ceremony 291
Formulas to be used at the performance of the Pravargya 293
Fumigation of, and addresses to, the three Caldrons 294
p. xvi
Circumambulation of the Mahâvîra 295
The Rauhina Oblation 296
Continuation of the Pravargya Formulas 297
Calling and milking of the Cow 297
Anointing of the Mahâvîra 299
Address to Agni represented by the Mahâvîra 299
Remains of the contents drunk by Sacrificer and Priests 300
Expiatory Formulas to remedy any defect in the performance of the Pravargya Ceremony 301
Various Deities represented by the Mahâvîra 301
Names of seven Maruts or Storm-Gods 302
Propitiation of various Deities 302
The Object of the Pravargya 302
The Îsâvâsyam or Îsopanishad 304
Îs, Lord, Soul of All, the only Absolute Reality 304
Renunciation and Religious Works or Karma 304
The Âtmâ or Self 305
Sambhûti and Asambhûti 306
Sambhava and Asambhava 306
Sambhûti and Vinâsa 306
Nescience and Science 307
The Prayer of the dying Devotee 307
Excursus on the Îsopanishad 308

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VARUNA, hear this call of mine: be gracious unto us this
Longing for help I yearn for thee.
2 I ask this of thee with my prayer, etc., as in XVIII. 49.
3 Do thou who knowest Varuna, O Agni, put far away from
us the God's displeasure.
Best Sacrificer, brightest One, refulgent, remove thou far
from us all those who hate us.
4 Be thou the nearest unto us, O Agni, our closest Friend
while now this Morn is breaking.
Reconcile Varuna to us, be bounteous: show thy compassion
and be swift to hear us.
5 We call to succour us the mighty Mother of those whose
sway is just, the Queen of Order,
Strong-ruler, far-expanding, ne’er decaying, Aditi gracious
guide and good protectress.
6 Sinless may we ascend, for weal, this vessel rowed with
good oars, divine, that never leaketh,
Earth our strong guard, incomparable Heaven. Aditi gracious
guide and good protectress.
7 May I ascend the goodly ship, free from defect, that leaketh
Moved by a hundred oars, for weal.
8 O Mitra-Varuna, gracious Pair, with fatness dew our
With mead the regions of the air.

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9 Stretch forth your arms and let our lives be lengthened:
with fatness dew the pastures of our cattle.
Ye Youthful, make us famed among the people: hear,
Mitra-Varuna, these mine invocations.
10 Bless us the Coursers when we call, etc., as in IX. 16.
11 Deep-skilled in Law, etc., as in IX. 18.
12 Kindled is Agni with the brand, yea, kindled well, the
The metre Gâyatrî, the steer of eighteen months, give power
and life!
13 Tanûnapât whose acts are pure, our bodies’ guard Sarasvatî,
Ushnihâ metre and the steer of two years’ age give power
and life!
14 Agni with offerings, meet for praise, and Soma the immortal
Anushtup metre and the steer of thirty months give power
and life!
15 Agni with goodly grass spread out, deathless with Pûshan
at his side,
Brihatî metre and a steer of three years’ age give power
and life!
16 The Doors divine, the mighty Regions, Brahma, God
The metre Pankti, here a bull in his fourth year, give
power and life
17 The two young Darns of lovely form, the deathless Universal
The Trishtup metre, here, a bull in his sixth year, give
power and life!
18 The two celestial Hotars, both Physicians, Indra's close-knit
The metre Jagatî, an ox who draws the wain, give power and
19 The Three, Ida, Sarasvatî, and Bhâratî, the Marut folk,
Virâj the metre, here, a cow in milk, a bull, give power and

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20 Tvashtar the wondrous, full of seed, Indrâgnî furtherers of
Dvipadâ metre, and a cow and vigorous bull give power and
21 Our slaughterer, Vanaspatî, Savitar who promoteth wealth,
The metre Kakup, here, a cow who casts her calf, give power
and life!
22 With Svâhâ mighty Varuna give healing power to Sacrifice!
The Atichhandas, Brihat, and a steer and bull give power
and life!
23 With the Spring Season may the Gods the Vasus praised
with triple hymn
And with Rathantara, give life to Indra, splendour, sacrifice.
24 With Summer may the Rudras, Gods, praised in the Pañchadasa
With Brihat, give to Indra strength; with fame, and sacrifice
and life.
25 May the Âdityas with the Rains, lauded in Saptadasa
And with Vairûpa, with folk, strength, give Indra sacrifice
and life.
26 With Autumn may the Ribhus, Gods, praised in the Ekavimsa
And with Virâja, give with grace to Indra grace, life,
27 With Winter may the Maruts, Gods, praised in the laud of
thrice nine parts,
The Sakvarîs, with strength give might to Indra, sacrifice
and life.

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28 With Dew-time may the deathless Gods praised in the
Thirty-three-part laud,
The Revatîs, with truth give sway to Indra, sacrifice and
29 Let the Hotar sacrifice with fuel to Agni in the place of
libation, to the Asvins, Indra, Sarasvatî. A grey-coloured
he-goat with wheat, jujube-fruit and sprouts of rice
becomes a sweet salutary remedy, splendour, might, milk,
Soma. Let them enjoy sweet butter with foaming liquor.
Hotar, present offerings of butter.
30 Let the Hotar, Tanûnapât, worship Sarasvatî. A sheep,
a ram, a salutary remedy on the honey-sweet path, bearing
to the Asvins and Indra heroic strength, with jujube-fruit,
Indra-grains, sprouts of rice, becomes a salutary
remedy, milk, Soma. Let them enjoy, etc., as in verse 29.
31 Let the Hotar worship Narâsamsa and the Lord Nagnahu.
A ram with Surâ a salutary remedy, Sarasvatî the Physician,
the golden car of the Asvins, the victim's omentum,
with jujube-fruit, Indra-grains, and rice-sprouts, become
a salutary remedy, the manly strength of Indra, milk,
Soma. Let them, etc.
32 Let the Hotar, magnified with oblations, offering sacrifice,
worship Sarasvatî and Indra, increasing them with
strength, with a bull and a cow. Strength and medicine
to the Asvins and Indra are meath with jujube-fruit,
Mâsara with parched grain, milk, Soma. Let them, etc.
33 Let the Hotar worship the wool-soft Altar-grass, the Physicians
Nâsatyas, the Physicians Asvins. A mare with a
foal, a milch-cow is a physician. Sarasvatî the Physician
yields medicine to Indra, milk, Soma. Let them enjoy, etc.

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34 Let the Hotar worship the Doors, the Regions, the resounding,
expansive Doors, the Regions, with the Asvins. Indra
milks the two milky worlds. The Mulch-cow Sarasvatî
yields medicine for the Asvins and Indra, pure light and
strength. Milk, Soma. Let them, etc.
35 Let the Hotar worship the two fair-formed Dawns. At
night and by day the Asvins with Sarasvatî compose
impetuous power, like healing balm, in Indra, like a falcon,
Mâsara with light, thought, and grace. Milk, Soma. Let
them enjoy, etc.
36 Let the Hotar worship the two divine Hotars, the Physician
Asvins, and Indra. Watchfully by day and night Sarasvatî
as Physician, with balms, with lead, yields strength
and power. Milk, Soma. Let them enjoy, etc.
37 Let the Hotar worship the three Goddesses. The three active
ones, with three sacrificial elements, lay balm and golden
hue on Indra. The Asvins, Idâ, Bhâratî—Sarasvatî with
Speech yields might and power to Indra. Milk, Soma.
Let them enjoy, etc.
38 Let the Hotar worship Tvashtar full of good seed, the Bull
active for men, Indra, the Asvins, Sarasvatî the Physician.
Vigour, speed, power, a fierce wolf as physician,
fame with Surâ is a medicine, Mâsara with grace. Milk,
Soma. Let them enjoy, etc.
39 Let the Hotar worship Vanaspatî the Immolator, the Lord
of Hundred Powers, and awful Passion, the King, the
Tiger, and the Asvins, with reverence. Sarasvatî the
Physician yields wrath and power to Indra. Milk, Soma.
Let them enjoy, etc.

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40 Let the Hotar worship Agni. Of the drops of clarified butter,
Svâhâ! Of the fat, omentum, etc., severally, Svâhâ!
Svâhâ! the goat for the Asvins. Svâhâ! the ram for Sarasvatî.
Svâhâ! the bull for Indra. To the Lion, to his might,
power. Svâhâ! Agni the salutary remedy. Svâhâ! Soma,
the power. Svâhâ! Indra the Good Deliverer. Savitar,
Varuna Lord of Physicians. Svâhâ! Vanaspatî, beloved,
food and medicine. Svâhâ! Gods who drink clarified
butter. Agni accepting the medicine. Milk, Soma.
Let them enjoy, etc.
41 Let the Hotar worship the Asvins with the omentum of a
he-goat. Let them enjoy the fat. Hotar, offer the sacrificial
Let the Hotar worship Sarasvatî with the omentum of a
ram. Let her enjoy the fat. Hotar offer the sacrificial
Let the Hotar worship Indra with the omentum of a bull.
Let him, etc.
42 Let the Hotar worship the Asvins, Sarasvatî, Indra the
Good Deliverer. These your Somas, pressed, rejoicing
with goats, rams, bulls, giving pleasure with rice-shoots,
young blades of corn, parched grain, joy-givers adorned
with Mâsara, bright, milky, immortal, presented, dropping
honey. these let the Asvins, Sarasvatî, Indra the
Good Deliverer, Vritra-slayer, accept. Let them drink,
rejoice in, enjoy the Soma meath. Hotar, sacrifice.
43 Let the Hotar worship the Asvins. Let them eat of the
he-goat, the sacrifice. Let them to-day eat the fat, taken
from the middle, before those who hate us, before human
handling. Yea, let them eat amid the fodder of fields
fresh with moisture, with their expanse of barley, limbs
of those tasted by Agni, belonging to the Hundred Rudras,
portions covered with fat, from the sides, from the thighs,
from the fore-feet from the chine. From every member
of the divided victims these two make their repast. Thus
let the Asvins accept. Hotar, offer the sacrificial oblation.

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44 Let the Hotar worship Sarasvatî. Let her approach the ram,
the sacrifice.
To-day let her eat, etc., the rest of verse 43 repeated mutatis mutandis.
43 Let the Hotar worship Indra, etc., as in 44 mutatis mutandis.
46 Let the Hotar worship Vanaspatî. He has held with a very
well formed and very strong rope. There where the favourite
stations of the Asvins are, of the he-goat the sacrifice;
of Sarasvatî, of the ram the sacrifice; of Indra, of the
bull the sacrifice; there where the favourite stations of
Agni are, of Soma, of Indra the Good Deliverer, of Savitar,
of Varuna, the favourite places of Vanaspatî, the
favourite stations of Gods who drink clarified butter, and
of Agni the Hotar, there let him arrange these victims
when he has praised and lauded them, and perform when
he has made them very strong. Let divine Vanaspatî
accept. Hotar, offer oblation.
47 Let the Hotar worship Agni Svishtakrit. Let Agni worship
the favourite stations of the Asvins, of the he-goat the
sacrifice; of Sarasvatî, of the ram the sacrifice; of Indra,
of the bull the sacrifice; there, etc., to 'butter' as in 46.
Let him worship the favourite stations of Agni the Hotar.
Let him worship his own majesty. Let him win for himself
by sacrifice food worthy of sacrifice. Let him, Knower of
Beings, perform the sacred rites. Let him accept the
sacrificial food. Hotar, offer oblation.
48 The Grass divine, for the right Gods, Sarasvatî, the Asvins
Give Indra splendour, with the Grass, sight of his eyes and
mighty strength! For gain of wealth let them enjoy.
Thou, Hotar, offer sacrifice.
49 The Doors, the Doors divine, the Two Asvins, Leeches,
May they give breath to Indra in his nostrils, and heroic
For gain of wealth, etc., as in verse 48.

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50 May Dawn and Night, the Goddesses, both Asvins, and
Lay, with both Dawns, strength, voice within Indra the
Good Deliverer's mouth.
For gain of wealth, etc.
51 Both nursing Goddesses, the Pair of Asvins, and Sarasvatî
Have with both nurses given strength to Indra, fame, and
power to hear.
For gain of wealth, etc.
52 Bringers of strengthening sacrifice, both Goddesses,
well-yielding cows,
Sarasvatî, both Asvins, the Physicians, these are Indra's
Forth from their breasts by sacrifice they give him brilliant
light and power.
For gain of wealth, etc.
53 Both Gods, the Hotars of the Gods, the Asvins the
Physicians and
Sarasvatî with Vashat-calls, with the two Hotars have
bestowed on Indra brilliant light and power, and planted
wisdom in his heart.
For gain of wealth, etc.
54 Goddesses three, three Goddesses—Asvins, Idâ, Sarasvatî
In Indra's midmost navel have laid store of energy and
For gain of wealth, etc.
55 God Narâsamsa, Indra thrice-protecting, whose car moves
by Sarasvatî and Asvins
May Tvashtar lay seed, deathless form in Indra, a fitting
place of birth and mighty powers.
For gain of wealth, etc.
56 God with the Gods, Vanaspatî of golden leaves and goodly
Ripens till Indra finds it sweet, with Asvins and Sarasvatî.
57 Strewn, soft as wool, in sacrifice, with Asvins and Sarasvatî,
The sacred robe of water-plants be, Indra, a fair seat for thee!
Together with the sacred grass limy they, for sovranty, bestow
King Passion and great power on thee.
For gain of wealth, etc.

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58 Let the God Agni Svishtakrit worship the Gods as is meet
and right for each, the two Hotars, Indra, the Asvins,
Vâk with speech, Sarasvatî, Agni, Soma. Svishtakrit
has been well worshipped, Indra Good Deliverer, Savitar,
Varuna the Physician have been worshipped. The God
Vanaspatî, the Gods who drink clarified butter have been
well worshipped, Agni by Agni. Let the Hotar Svishtakrit
give the Hotar fame, great power, energy, honour,
Ancestral libation.
59 To-day this Sacrificer cooking viands, cooking sacrificial
rice-cakes, binding a goat for the Asvins, a ram for Sarasvatî,
a hull for Indra, pressing Surâ and Soma juices for
the Asvins, Sarasvatî, and Indra the Good Deliverer, has
chosen Agni as Hotar.
60 To-day the divine Vanaspatî has done good service to the
Asvins with a goat, to Sarasvatî with a ram, to Indra
with a bull. They have eaten these from the marrow
onwards, they have accepted the cooked viands, they have
waxed strong with the rice-cakes. The Agnis, Sarasvatî,
and Indra have drunk the Surâ and Soma draughts.
61 Thee, to-day, O Rishi, Rishi's son, descendant of Rishis, hath
this Sacrificer chosen for many collected, saying: This
(Agni) shall win by sacrifice for me choice-worthy treasures
among the Gods. O God, what gifts the Gods have
given, these do thou desire and approve. And thou art
a commissioned Hotar, a human Hotar sent forward for
benediction, for good speech, Speak thou good words.

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SPLENDOUR art thou, bright, deathless, life-protector.
Protector of my life be thou.
By impulse of God Savitar I take thee with arms of Asvins,
with the hands of Pûshan.
2 This girdle, which in their religious meetings sages assumed
in earlier time of worship,
Is present with us here at this libation, in the Law's hymn,
proclaiming rich abundance.
3 Famous art thou, thou art the world, controller and
upholder thou.
Go, consecrate by Svâhâ to Agni Vaisvânara widely-famed.
4 For Gods and for Prajâpati I fit thee. For Gods and for
Prajâpati, O Brahman,
Will I tie up the horse. Thence may I prosper! Binding
him for Prajâpati and Gods be thou successful.
5 Thee welcome to Prajâpati I sprinkle. I sprinkle thee
welcome to Indra-Agni. I sprinkle thee acceptable to Vâyu.
Thee welcome to the All-Gods I besprinkle. Thee
welcome to all Deities I sprinkle.
With fury Varuna attacks the man who fain would slay the
Avaunt the man! Avaunt the dog!

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6 To Agni Hail! To Soma Hail! Hail to the Waters’ Joy! Hail
to Savitar! Hail to Vâyu! Hail to Vishnu! Hail to Indra!
Hail to Brihaspati! Hail to Mitra! Hail to Varuna!
7 Hail to the sound hiṅ! Hail to the uttered hiṅ! Hail to
the neigh! Hail to the down-neigh! Hail to the snort!
Hail to the roar! Hail to his smell! Hail to him smelt
at! Hail to him seated! Hail to him seated down! Hail
to him weary! Hail to him going! Hail to him sitting!
Hail to him lying! Hail to him sleeping! Hail to him
waking! Hail to him whinnying! Hail to him wakened!
Hail to him yawning! Hail to him outstretched! Hail to
him drawn together! Hail to him risen! Hail to his
going! Hail to his good going! Hail!
8 Hail to him as he goes! Hail to him running! Hail to him
running away! Hail to him when he has run away!
Hail to the cry Shoo! Hail to him scared with Shoo!
Hail to him seated! Hail to him risen! Hail to his
speed! Hail to his strength! Hail to him rolling! Hail
to him when he has rolled! Hail to him tossing about!
Hail to him when he has tossed about! Hail to him
listening! Hail to him hearing. Hail to him looking!
Hail to him looked at! Hail to him closely looked at!
Hail to his closing his eye! Hail to his food! Hail to
his drink! Hail to his stale! Hail to him in action!
Hail to what he has done!
9 May we attain that excellent glory of Savitar the God:
So may he stimulate our prayers.
10 For our protection I invoke the golden-handed Savitar:
He knoweth, as a God, the place.
11 We specially invoke the grace of Savitar, observant God,
The great good-will that gives true boons.
12 We seek the eulogy and gift of Savitar who strengthens grace,
Yea, of the God who knows our thoughts.
13 I invocate the heroes’ Lord, free-giving Savitar, and call
The Cheerer to the feast of Gods.

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14 The judgment of bright Savitar, that cheers the All-Gods’
With prayer we estimate as bliss.
15 Wake Agni with thy laud and set the Immortal One aflame,
let him
Bestow our offerings on the Gods.
16 Oblation-bearer, well-inclined, immortal, eager Messenger,
Agni comes near us with the thought.
17 Agni, Envoy, I place in front, the oblation-bearer I address:
Here let him seat the Deities.
18 Yea, Pavamâna, thou didst generate the Sun and spread
the moisture out with power,
Basting to us with plenty vivified with milk.
19 Mighty through thy dam, eminent through thy sire, thou
art a horse, thou art a steed, thou art a courser, thou
art a comfort, thou art a racer, thou art a yoke-horse,
thou art a strong steed, thou art a stallion, thou art
manly-minded. Thou art called Yayu, thou art called
Sisu. Follow thou the flight of the Âdityas.
Gods, Warders of the Regions, protect for the Gods this
horse besprinkled for sacrifice.
Here is delight. Here take thy pleasure. Here is content.
Here is self-content.
20 Hail to Ka! Hail to Who?! Hail to Which?! Hail to
him who has experienced pain! Hail to Prajâpati who
knows the mind! Hail to him who discerns the thought!

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Hail to Aditi! Hail to good Aditi! Hail to gracious
Aditi! Hail to Sarasvatî! Hail to purifying Sarasvatî!
Hail to great Sarasvatî! Hail to Pûshan! Hail to
Pûshan of the highways! Hail to Pûshan observer of
men! Hail to Tvashtar! Hail to swift Tvashtar! Hail
to Tvashtar of many forms! Hail to Vishnu! Hail to
Vishnu Nibhûyapa! Hail to Vishnu Sipivishta!
21 Let every mortal man elect, etc., repeated from IV. 8.
22 O Brahman, let there be born in the kingdom the Brahman
illustrious for religious knowledge; let there be born the
Râjanya, heroic, skilled archer, piercing with shafts,
mighty warrior; the cow giving abundant milk; the ox
good at carrying; the swift courser; the industrious
woman. May Parjanya send rain according to our desire;
may our fruit-bearing plants ripen; may acquisition and
preservation of property be secured to us.
23 Hail to vital breath! Hail to out-breathing! Hail to
diffusive breath! Hail to the eye! Hail to the ear! Hail
to Speech! Hail to Mind!
24 Hail to the Eastern Region! Hail to the hitherward Region!
Hail to the Southern Region! Hail to the hitherward
Region! Hail to the Western Region! Hail to the
hitherward Region! Hail to the Northern Region! Hail
to the hitherward Region! Hail to the Upward Region!
Hail to the hitherward Region! Hail to the Downward
Region! Hail to the hitherward Region!
25 Hail to waters! Hail to floods! Hail to water! Hail to
standing waters! flail to flowing waters! Hail to trickling
waters! Hail to well waters! Hail to spring waters! Hail
to the foaming sea! Hail to the ocean! Hail to the deep!
26 Hail to wind! Hail to mist! Hail to vapour! Hail to
cloud! Hail to cloud lightening! Hail to cloud thundering!
Hail to it bursting! Hail to it raining! Hail to it
pouring! Hail to it violently raining! Hail to it swiftly
raining! Hail to it holding up! Hail to it when it has
held up! Hail to it sprinkling! Hail to it drizzling! Hail
to its drops! Hail to thunderbolts! Hail to hoar frosts!
27 Hail to Agni! Hail to Soma! Hail to Indra! Hail to Earth!
Hail to Firmament! Hail to Sky! Hail to Regions? Hail
to Quarters! Hail to the Upward Region! Hail to the
Downward Region!

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23 Hail to the lunar asterisms! Hail to those connected with
the lunar asterisms! Hail to Day and Night! Hail to
the half-months! Hail to the mouths! Hail to the Seasons!
Hail to the Season-groups! Hail to the Year!
Hail to Heaven and Earth! Hail to the Moon! Hail to
the Sun! Hail to his rays! Hail to the Vasus! Hail to
the Rudras! Hail to the Âdityas! Hail to the Maruts!
Earl to the All-Gods! Hail to roots! Hail to branches!
Hail to forest trees! Hail to flowers! Hail to fruits!
Hail to herbs!
29 Hail to Earth! Hail to Firmament t Hail to Sky! Hail to
Sun! Hail to Moon! Hail to lunar asterisms! Hail to
waters! Hail to herbs! Hail to forest trees! Hail to creatures
that swim! Hail to things moving and stationary!
Hail to things that creep and crawl!
30 Hail to breath! Hail to the Vasu! Hail to the Mighty!
Hail to Vivasvân! Hail to the trooping one! Hail to
the Troop's Lord! Hail to the Superior! Hail to the
Overlord! Hail to Strength! Hail to Samsarpa! Hail
to the Moon! Hail to light! Hail to Malimlucha! Hail
to him who flies by day!
31 Hail to Madhu! Hail to Mâdhava! Hail to Sukra! Hail to
Suchi! Hail to Nabhas! Hail to Nabhasya! Hail to Isha!
Hail to Ûrja! Hail to Sahas! Hail to Sahasya! Hail to
Tapas! Hail to Tapasya! Hail to Amhasaspati!
32 Hail to Strength! Hail to impulse! Hail to After-born!
Hail to will! Heaven, Hail? Hail to the head! Hail to
Vyasnuvin! To the final, Hail! Hail to the mundane
final! Hail to the Lord of the world! Hail to the Overlord!
Hail to the Lord of Creatures!
33 May life succeed by sacrifice, Hail! May breath succeed
by sacrifice, Hail! May downward breath, diffusive.
breath, upward breath, digestive breath, vision, hearing,
speech, mind, self, devotion, light, heaven, hymn-arrangement,
sacrifice succeed by sacrifice. All-hail!
34 Hail to One! Hail to Two! Hail to Hundred! Hail to
Hundred-and-One! Hail to Daybreak! Hail to Heaven!

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IN the beginning rose Hiranyagarbha, etc:
2 Taken upon a base art thou. I take thee welcome to Prajâpati.
This is thy place: Sûrya thy majesty.
The majesty that has accrued to thee in the day, in a year,
that majesty which has accrued in the wind, in the firmament,
to that majesty of thine, to Prajâpati, to the Gods,
3 Who, by his, grandeur hath become sole Ruler of all the.
moving world that breathes and slumbers;
He who is Sovran of these men and cattle—what God shall
we adore with our oblation?
4 Taken upon a base art thou. I take thee welcome to Prajâpati,
This is thy place: the Moon thy majesty.
Thy majesty that has accrued to thee by night, in a year,
thy majesty that has accrued in the earth, in Agni, in the
stars and in the Moon, to that majesty of thine, to Prajâpati
and to the Gods, All-hail!
5 They who stand round hills as he moves harness the bright,
the ruddy Steed:
The lights are shining in the sky.
6 On both sides to the car they yoke the two. Bay Coursers
dear to him,
Bold; tawny, bearers of the Chief.
7 When, swift as wind, the Horse has reached the form that
Indra loves, the flood,
Again, O singer, by this path bring thou our Courser hitherward.

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8 Let the Vasus anoint thee with Gâyatrî metre. Let the
Rudras anoint thee with Trishtup metre. Let the Âdityas
anoint thee with Jagatî metre. Earth! Ether! Heaven!
O Gods, eat this food, parched grains and groats in the
product of barley and in the product of cows: eat this
food, Prajâpati.
9 Who moveth single and alone? Who is brought forth to life
What is the remedy of cold, or what the great receptacle?
10 The Sun moves single and alone. The Moon is brought to
life again,
Fire is the remedy of cold; Earth is the great receptacle.
11 What was the antecedent thought? What was the bird of
mighty size?
The slippery matron, who was she? Who was the
reddish-coloured one?
12 Heaven was the antecedent thought. The Courser was the
mighty bird.
The slippery matron was the earth, Night was the
reddish-coloured one.
13 Vâyu help thee with cooked viands! Blackneck with goats;
Nyagrodha with cups; Salmali with increase; this Stallion
here, good for the chariot—let him verily come with
his four feet. Brahmâkrishna help us! Obeisance to Agni!

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14 The car is fitted with the rein, the steed is fitted with the rein.
Fitted in waters, water-born, is Brahmâ following Soma's lead.
15 Steed, from thy body, of thyself, sacrifice and accept thyself.
Thy greatness can be gained by none but thee.
16 No, here thou diest not, thou art not injured: only by
fair paths to the Gods thou guest,
May Savitar the God in that world place thee where dwell
the pious, whether they have journeyed.
17 Agni was the victim. With him they sacrificed. He won this
world in which Agni is. This shall become thy world.
This shalt thou win. Drink these waters. Vâyu was the
victim. With him they sacrificed. He won this world
in which Vâyu is. This shall become, etc., as above.
Sûrya was the victim, etc, He won the world in which
Sûrya is. This shall become, etc.
18 To vital breath, Hail! To out-breathing, Hail! To diffusive
breath, Hail!
Ambâ! Ambikâ! Ambâlikâ! No one is taking me away.
The sorry horse will lie beside another, as Subhadrâ, the
dweller in Kâmpila.

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19 Thee we invoke, troop-lord of troops, Thee we invoke, the
loved ones’ lord.
Thee, lord of treasures, we invoke. My precious wealth!
. . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . .
32 Now have I glorified with praise strong Dadhikrâvan,
conquering steed,
Sweet may he make our mouths: may he prolong the days
we have to live.
33 Gâyatrî, Trishtup, Jagatî, and Pankti with Anushtup joined,
Brihatî, Kakup, Ushnihâ pacify thee with needle-points!
34 Two-footed, those that have four feet, those with three feet
and those with five,
Metteless, with one metre; these pacify thee with needle-points!
35 May Mahânâmnîs, Revatîs, all far-spread Regions of the sky,
Voices, and lightnings from the cloud pacify thee with needle-points!
36 May married dames of human birth skilfully separate thy hair:
The Regions, Consorts of the Gods, pacify thee with needle-points!

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37 They, made of silver, gold, and lead, are used as helpers in
the work.
As lines on the strong Courser's skin may they console and
give thee rest.
38 What then? As men whose fields are full of barley, etc., as
in X. 32.
39 Who flays thee? Who dissects thee? Who prepares thy limbs
for sacrifice?
Who is the Sage that slaughters thee?
40 In due time let the seasons as thy Slaughterers divide thy
And with the splendour of the Year sacrifice thee with holy
41 Let the Half-months and let the Months, while sacrificing,
flay thy limbs:
Let Day and Night and Maruts mend each fault in sacrificing
42 Let the divine Adhvaryus flay thy body and dissect thy
And let the sacrificing lines prepare thy members joint by
43 May Sky, Earth, Air, and Wind supply each failing and
defect of thine:
May Sûrya with the Stars of heaven duly prepare a world
for thee.
44 Well be it with thine upper parts, well be it with the parts
Well he it with thy bones and with thy marrow and with all
thy frame!
45 Who moveth singly? etc., as in verse 9.
46 The Sun moves singly, etc., as in verse 10.
47 What lustre is like Sûrya's light? What lake is equal to the

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What is more spacious than the Earth? What thing is that
which naught can mete?
48 Brahma is lustre like the Sea. Heaven is a flood to match
the Sea.
Indra is vaster than the Earth. Beyond all measure is the
49 Friend of the Gods, I ask, for information, if thou in spirit
hast obtained the knowledge,
Hath Vishnu this whole Universe pervaded in the three steps
wherein the God is worshipped?
50 I also am in those three steps of Vishnu wherewith this Universe
he permeated.
The earth and heaven I circle in a moment and this heaven's
summit with a single organ.
51 What are the things which Purusha hath entered? What
things hath Purusha contained within him?
This riddle we propound to thee, O Brahman. Why dost
thou give no answer to my question?
52 Within five things hath Purusha found entrance; these
Purusha hath within himself connected.
This is the thought which I return in answer. Thou art
not my superior in wisdom.
53 What was the antecedent thought? etc., as in verse 11.
54 Heaven was the antecedent thought, etc., as in 12.
55 Who, tell me, is the yellowish she? Who is the darkly-
Who moves with rapid spring and bound? Who glides and
winds along the path?

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56 The she-goat, Sir, is yellowish, dark-yellowish is the porcupine.
The hare moves swift with leap and bound: the snake creeps
winding on the path.
57 How many different forms hath this, how many syllables,
burnt-oblations, brands for kindling?
Here, of the rites of sacrifice I ask thee. How many Hotars
in due season worship?
68 Sixfold its form, its syllables a hundred, eighty burnt-offerings,
just three brands for kindling.
To thee I tell the rites of sacrificing. Seven Hotars worship
in appointed season.
59 Who knoweth this world's central point? Who knoweth the
heaven, the earth, and the wide air between them?
Who knows the birthplace of the mighty Sûrya? Who knows
the Moon, whence he was generated?
60 I know the centre of the world about us. I know heaven,
earth, and the wide air between them.
I know the birthplace of the mighty Sûrya. I know the
Moon, whence he was generated.
61 I ask thee of the earth's extremest limit, where is the
centre of the world, I ask thee.
I ask thee of the Stallion's genial humour, I ask of highest
heaven where Speech abideth.
62 This altar is the earth's extremest limit; this sacrifice of
ours is the world's centre.
This Soma is the Stallion's genial humour, this Brahman
highest heaven where Speech abideth.

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63 The Strong, the Self-existent One, the First, within the
mighty flood
Laid down the timely embryo from which Prajâpati was born.
64 Let the Hotar sacrifice to Prajâpati from the Mahiman-Soma.
Let him accept. Let him drink the Soma. Hotar, sacrifice.
65 Prajâpati, thou only, etc., as in X. 20.

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HORSE, hornless goat, Gomriga, these belong to Prajâpati.
A black-necked goat, devoted to Agni, (is to be bound)
in front to the forehead (of the horse); Sarasvatî's ewe
below his jaws; two goats belonging to the Asvins, with
marks on the lower parts of the body, to his fore-legs; a
dark-coloured goat, Soma's and Pûshan's, to his navel; a
white and a black, sacred to Soma and Varna, to his sides;
Tvashtar's two, with bushy tails, to his hind feet; Vâyu's
white goat to his tail; for Indra the Good Worker a cow
who slips her calf; a dwarf belonging to Vishnu.
2 The red goat, the smoky-red, the jujube-red, these belong to
Soma. The brown, the ruddy-brown, the parrot-brown,
these are Varuna's. One with white ear holes, one with
partly white, one with wholly white, belong to Savitar.
One with fore feet white, partly white, wholly white,
belongs to Brihaspati. She goats speckled, with small spots,
with big spots, these belong to Mitra-Varuna.
3 The bright-tailed, the wholly bright-tailed, the jewel-tailed,
these belong to the Asvins. The white, the white-eyed,
the reddish, these are for Rudra Lord of Beasts. Long-eared
goats are for Yama; proud ones for Rudra; cloud-coloured
ones for Parjanya.

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4 Goats speckled, transversely speckled, upward speckled are
for the Maruts. The reddish she-goat, the red-haired, the
white, these belong to Sarasvatî. The goat with diseased
ears, the short-eared, the red eared are Tvashtar's. The
black-necked, the white-flanked, one with bright-coloured
thighs belong to Indra and Agni. Those with black marks,
small marks, large marks belong to Dawn.
5 Parti-coloured female victims belong to the All-Gods;
red-coloured, eighteen mouths old to Vâk; victims without
distinguishing marks to Aditi; those of one same colour
to Dhâtar; weaned kids sacred to the Consorts of the Gods.
6 Black-necked victims for Agni; white browed for the Vasus;
red for Rudra; bright ones for the Âdityas; cloud-coloured
for Parjanya.
7 The tall goat, the sturdy, the dwarf, these are Indra-Vishnu's;
the tall, the white fore-footed, the black-backed,
Indra-Brihaspati's; parrot-coloured the Vâjins’; speckled
Agni-Maruts’; dark-coloured Pûshan's.
8 Variegated, Indra-Agni's; two-coloured, Agni-Soma's; dwarf
oxen, Agni-Vishnu's; barren cows, Mitra-Varuna's; partly
variegated, Mitra's.
9 Black-necked ones, Agni's; brown, Soma's; white, Vâyu's;
undistinguished, Aditi's; self-coloured, Dhâtar's; weanlings,
the Gods’ Consorts’.
10 Black ones for Earth; smoke-coloured for Firmament; tall
ones for Sky; brindled ones for Lightning; blotched ones
for Stars.
11 Smoke-coloured ones he sacrifices to Spring; white to
Summer; black to the Rains; red ones to Autumn;
speckled to Winter; reddish-yellow to the Dewy Season.
12 Calves eighteen months old to Gâyatrî; steers of two and
a half years to Trishtup; two year old steers to Jagatî;
three year olds to Anushtup; four year olds to Ushnih.
13 Four year old steers to Virâj; full grown bulls to Brihatî;
strong bulls to Kakup; draught oxen to Pankti; milch-cows
to Atichhandas.

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14 Black-necked victims sacred to Agni; brown to Soma; spotted
to Savitar; weaned she-kids to Sarasvatî; dark-coloured
goats to Pûshan; speckled victims to the Maruts;
many-coloured to the All-Gods; barren cows to Heaven
and Earth.
15 Called contemporary, the dappled belong to Indra-Agni;
black ones to Varuna; speckled to the Maruts; hornless
he-goats to Ka.
16 To Agni foremost in place he sacrifices firstling goats; to
the consuming Maruts those born of one mother; to the
Maruts who perform domestic rites those born after a long
time; to the sportive Maruts those born together; to the
self-strong Maruts those born in succession.
17 Called contemporaneous, the dappled belonging to Indra-Agni;
those with projecting horns to Mahendra; the many-coloured
to Visvakarman.
18 Smoke-coloured, those of brownish hue, to be offered to the
Soma-possessing Fathers; the brown and the smoky-looking
to the Fathers who sit on sacred grass; the black and
the brownish-looking to the Fathers who have been tasted
by Agni; the black and the spotted belong to Tryambaka.
19 Called contemporaneous, the dappled belong to Suna and
Sîra; white ones to Vâyu; white ones to Sûrya.
20 To Spring he offers Kapiñjalas; to Summer sparrows; to
the Rains partridges; to Autumn quails; to Winter.
Kakaras; to the Dewy Season Vikakaras.
21 To the Sea he sacrifices porpoises; to Parjanya frogs; to
the Waters fishes; to Mitra Kulîpayas; to Varuna crocodiles.

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22 To Soma he sacrifices wild geese; to Vâyu female cranes;
to Indra-Agni curlews; to Mitra divers; to Varuna
23 To Agni he sacrifices cocks; to Vanaspatis owls; to Agni-Soma
blue jays; to the Asvins peacocks; to Mitra-Varuna
24 To Soma he sacrifices quails; to Tvashtar Kaulîkas; Mainas
to the Gods’ Consorts; Kulîkas to the Gods’ Sisters;
Pârushnas to Agni Lord of the Homestead.
25 To Day he sacrifices doves; to Night Sîchâpûs; to the Joints
of Day and Night bats; to the Months gallinules; to the
Year great eagles.
26 To Ground he sacrifices rats; to Firmament field-rats; to
Day voles; to the Quarters mungooses; to the Intermediate
Spaces brownish ichneumons.
27 To the Vasus he sacrifices black-bucks; to the Rudras stags;
to the Âdityas Nyanku deer; to the All-Gods spotted deer;
to the Sâdhyas Kulinga antelopes,
28 To Îsâna he sacrifices wild asses; to Mitra Gauras; to Varuna
buffaloes; to Brihaspati Gayals; to Tvashtar camels.
29 To Prajâpati he sacrifices men elephants; to Vâk white ants;
to Sight flies; to Hearing black bees.
30 To Prajâpati and to Vâyu a Gayal is to be offered; to Varuna
a wild ram; to Yama a black ram; to a human king a
monkey; to the Tiger a red doe; to the Bull a female
Gayal, to the Kshiprasyena a quail; to the Nilangu a
worm; to the Sea a porpoise; to the Snowy Mountain an

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31 The Kinnara belongs to Prajâpati; the Ula, the Halikshna,
the cat belong to Dhâtar; the heron belongs to the Quarters;
the Dhunkshâ to Agni; sparrow, red snake, Sâras,
these are Tvashtar's; the curlew belongs to Vâk.
32 To Soma an antelope is to be offered; wild goat, mungoose,
Sakâ. these are Pûshan's; the jackal is the Mâyu's; the
Gaura Indra's; Pidva, antelope, cock, these are Anumati's;
the Chakravâka is for Echo.
33 The female crane is Sûrya's; Sârga, Srijays, Sayândaka,
these are Mitra's; to Sarasvatî belongs the human-voiced
Maina; to Ground the porcupine; tiger, wolf, viper belong
to Passion; to Sarasvân the human-voiced parrot.
34 The eagle is Parjanya's; the Âti, the Vâhasa, the wood-pecker,
these are for Vâyu; for Brihaspati Lord of Speech
is the Paingarâja; the Alaja belongs to Firmament;
pelican, cormorant, fish, these belong to the Lord of Rivers;
the tortoise belongs to Heaven and Earth.
35 The book belongs to the Moon; iguana, Kâlakâ, woodpecker,
these belong to the Vanaspatis; the cock belongs to Savitar;
the swan is Vâta's; crocodile, dolphin, Kulîpaya,
these belong to the Sea; the porcupine to Modesty.
36 The Black-doe belongs to Day; frog, female rat, partridge,
these belong to the Serpents; the jackal belongs to the
Asvins; the Black-buck to Night; bear, bat, Sushilikâ,
these belong to the Other Folk (i.e. fairies--JBH); the polecat belongs to

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37 The cuckoo belongs to the Half Months; antelope, peacock,
eagle, these are the Gandharvas’; the otter belongs to
the Months; tortoise, doe-antelope, iguana, Golathikâ
belong to the Apsarases; the black snake belongs to Death.
38 The frog belongs to the Seasons; the vole, the rat, the mouse,
these are the Fathers’; the Python, the Balâva belong to
the Vasus; Kapiñjala, pigeons owl, hare belong to Nirriti;
the wild ram to Varuna.
39 The white animal belongs to the Âdityas; the camel, the
Ghrintîvân, the rhinoceros to Mati; the Srimara belong to
the Forest-God; the Raru buck is Rudra's; Kvayi, cock,
gallinule, these are the Vâjins’; the cuckoo belongs to
40 The Khanga is the All-Gods'; the black dog, the long eared,
the ass, the hyena, these are the Râkshasas; the boar is
for Indra; the lion is for the Maruts; the chameleon,
the Pipoaka, the vulture, these belong to Saravyâ; the
spotted antelope belongs to the All-Gods.

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I GRATIFY Fresh Grass with his teeth, Avakâ with his gums,
Clay with his tooth-sockets, Tegas with his fangs. The
tongue-tip for Sarasvatî; I gratify the root of the tongue
and the palate with his neigh, Vâja with his jaws, the
Waters with his mouth, the Stallion with his testicles,
the Âdityas with the beard, Path with his eyebrows,
Heaven and Earth with his eyelashes, Lightning with
the pupils of his eyes. Hail to the white! Hail to the
black! Effectual are his eyelashes, irresistible are his
lower eyelashes; irresistible are his eyelashes, effectual
are his lower eyelashes.
2 With his breath I gratify Vâta; with his outbreath the two
Nostrils; with his lower lip the Upayâma; with his
upper lip Existence. With his bright look I please Antara,
with his reflection Bâhya; the Whirlpool with his head;
Thunder with his frontal bone; the Lightning-flash with
his brain; Lightning with the pupils of his eyes; Hearing
with his external ears; Ears with his internal ears;
Blood with his lower neck; Waters with the fleshless
part of his neck; Thought with the back neck-tendons;
Aditi with his head; Nirriti with his ragged head;
Vital Breathings with his roars; Tempest with his crest.
3 I gratify Flies with his hair; Indra with his active shoulder;
Brihaspati with his quick spring; Tortoises with his
hoofs; Approach with his fetlocks; Kapiñjalas with his
heel-ropes; Speed with his two thighs; the Way with
his two fore-legs; the Forest-God with a kneepan; Agni
with his two knees; Pûshan with his two fore-feet; the
Asvins with his shoulders; Rudra with his shoulder-joints,

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4 The first rib is Agni's; the second Vâyu's; the third
Indra's; the fourth Soma's; the fifth Aditi's; the sixth
Indrânî's; the seventh the Maruts’; the eighth Brihaspati's;
the ninth Aryaman's; the tenth Dhâtar's; the
eleventh Indra's; the twelfth Varuna's; the thirteenth
5 (On the left side) the first rib belongs to Indra-Agni; the
second to Sarasvatî; the third to Mitra; the fourth to
the Waters; the fifth to Nirriti; the sixth to Agni-Soma;
the seventh to the Serpents; the eighth to Vishnu; the
ninth to Pûshan; the tenth to Tvashtar; the eleventh to
Indra; the twelfth to Varuna; the thirteenth to Yama.
The right flank belongs to Heaven and Earth, the left to
the All-Gods.
6 The shoulders belong to the Maruts; the first rib-cartilages
to the All-Gods; the second to the Rudras; the third to
the Âdityas; the tail belongs to Vâyu; the hind-quarters
to Agni-Soma. I gratify the two Curlews with the hips;
Indra-Brihaspati with the thighs; Mitra-Varuna with
the groins; Approach with the buttocks; Strength with
the two cavities of the loins.
7 I gratify Pûshan with the rectum; Blind-worms with the
large intestines; Serpents with the entrails; Worms with
the guts; the Waters with the bladder; Scrotum with
the testicles; the Vâjins with his penis; Offspring with
his seed; Blue jays with his bile; Fissures with his
arms; Kûshmas with his lumps of dung.
8 His chest belongs to Indra; his belly to Aditi; his clavicles
to the Quarters; his nether hind-part to Aditi. I gratify
Clouds with his aorta; Firmament with his pericardium;
Mist with his belly; the two Chakravâkas with his cardiac
bones; Sky with his kidneys; Mountains with his
ducts; hocks with his spleen; Ant-hills with his lungs;
Shrubs with his heart-vessels; Streams with his veins;
Lakes with his flanks; Sea with his belly; Vaisvânara
with his ashes.

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9 I gratify Separation with his navel; Butter with his flavour;
the Waters with his broth; Sunbeams with his drops of
fat; Hoar-frost with his heat; Ice with his marrow; Hailstones
with his tears; Thunderbolts with the rheum of
his eyes; Râkshasas with his blood; Bright things with
his limbs; Stars with his beauty; Earth with his skin.
All-hail to Jumbaka!
10 In the beginning rose Hiranyagarbha, etc., as in XIII. 4;
11 Who by his grandeur, etc., as in XXIII. 3.
12 Whose, by his might, are these snow-covered mountains,
and men call sea and Rasâ his possession:
Whose are these arms, whose are these heavenly regions.
What God shall we adore with our oblation?
13 Giver of vital breath, of power and vigour, he whose
commandment all the Gods acknowledge:
The Lord of death, whose shade is life immortal. What
God shall we adore with our oblation?
14 May powers auspicious come to us from every side, never
deceived, unhindered and victorious,
That the Gods ever may be with us for our gain, our guardians
day by day, unceasing in their care.
15 May the auspicious favour of the Gods be ours, on us
descend the bounty of the righteous Gods.
The friendship of the Gods have we devoutly sought: so
may the Gods extend our life that we may live.

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16 We call them hither with a hymn of olden time, Bhaga, the
friendly Daksha, Mitra, Aditi,
Aryaman, Varuna, Soma, the Asvins. May Sarasvatî, auspicious,
grant felicity.
17 May the Wind waft to us that pleasant medicine, may Earth
our Mother give it, and our Father Heaven,
And the joy-giving stones that press the Soma's juice. Asvins,
may ye, for whom our spirits long, hear this.
18 Him we invoke for aid who reigns supreme, the Lord of all
that stands or moves, inspirer of the soul,
That Pûshan may promote the increase of our wealth, our
keeper and our guard infallible for our good.
19 Illustrious far and wide, may Indra prosper us: may Pûshan
prosper us, the Master of all wealth.
May Târkshya with uninjured fellies prosper us: Brihaspati
vouchsafe to us prosperity.
20 The Maruts, Sons of Prisni, borne by spotted steeds, moving
in glory, oft visiting holy rites,
Sages whose tongue is Agni and their eyes the Sun,——hither
let all the Gods for our protection come.
21 Gods, may we with our ears listen to what is good, and with
our eyes see what is good, ye Holy Ones.
With limbs and bodies firm may we extolling you attain the
term of life appointed by the Gods.
22 A hundred autumns stand before us, O ye Gods, within
whose space ye bring our bodies to decay;
Within whose space our sons become fathers in turn. Break
ye not in the midst our course of fleeting life.
23 Aditi is the heaven, Aditi is mid-air, Aditi is the Mother
and the Sire and Son.

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Aditi is all Gods, Aditi five-classed men, Aditi all that hath
been born and shall be born.
24 Slight us not Varuna, Aryaman, or Mitra, Ribhukshan,
Indra, Âyu, or the Maruts,
When we declare amid the congregation the virtues of the
Strong Steed, God-descended.
25 What time they bear before the Courser, covered with
trappings and with wealth, the grasped oblation,
The dappled goat goeth straightforward, bleating, to the
place dear to Indra and to Pûshan.
26 Dear to all Gods, this goat, the share of Pûshan, is first led
forward with the vigorous Courser,
While Tvashtar sends him forward with the Charger, acceptable
for sacrifice, to glory.
27 When thrice the men lead round the Steed, in order, who
goeth to the Gods as meet oblation,
The goat precedeth him, the share of Pûshan, and to the
Gods the sacrifice announceth.
28 Invoker, ministering priest, stoner, fire-kindler, Soma-presser,
sage, reciter,
With this well ordered sacrifice, well finished, do ye fill full
the channels of the rivers.
29 The hewers of the post and those who carry it, and those
who carve the knob to deck the Horse's stake;
Those who prepare the cooking-vessels for the Steed,—may
the approving help of these promote our work.
30 Forth, for the regions of the Gods, the Charger with his
smooth back is come; my prayer attends him.
In him rejoice the singer and the sages. A good friend
have we won for the Gods’ banquet.

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31 May the fleet Courser's halter and his heel-ropes, the headstall
and the girths and cords about him,
And the grass put within his mouth to bait him,—among
the Gods, too, let all these be with thee.
32 What part of the Steed's flesh the fly hath eaten, or is left
sticking to the post or hatchet,
Or to the slayer's hands and nails adhereth,—among the
Gods, tog, may all this he with thee.
33 Food undigested steaming from his belly, and any odour of
raw flesh remaining,
This let the immolators set in order and dress the sacrifice
with perfect cooking.
34 What from thy body which with fire is roasted, when thou
art set upon the spit, distilleth,—
Let not that lie on earth or grass neglected, but to the longing
Gods let all be offered.
35 They who, observing that the Horse is ready, call out and
say, The smell is good; remove it;
And, craving meat, await the distribution,—may their
approving help promote our labour.
36 The trial-fork of the flesh cooking caldron, the vessels out
of which the broth is sprinkled,
The warming-pots, the covers of the dishes, hooks,
carving-boards,—all these attend the Charger.
37 Let not the fire, smoke-scented, make thee crackle, nor
glowing caldron smell and break to pieces.
Offered, beloved, approved, and consecrated,—such Charger
do the Gods accept with favour.
38 The starting-place, his place of rest and rolling, the ropes
wherewith the Charger's feet were fastened,
The water that he drank, the food he tasted,—among the
Gods, too, may all these attend thee.
39 The robe they spread upon the Horse to clothe him, the
upper covering and the golden trappings,
The halters which restrain the Steed, the heel-ropes,—all
these, as grateful to the Gods, they offer.
40 If one, when seated, with excessive urging hath with his
heel or with his whip distressed thee,
All these thy woes, as with oblation's ladle at sacrifices,
with my prayer I banish.
41 The four-and-thirty ribs of the swift Courser, kin to the
Gods, the slayer's hatchet pierces.

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Cut ye with skill so that the parts be flawless, and piece by
piece declaring them dissect them.
42 Of Tvashtar's Courser there is one dissector: this is the
custom: two there are who guide him.
Such of his limbs as I divide in order, all these, amid the
lumps, in fire I offer.
43 Let not thy dear soul burn thee as thou comest, let not the
hatchet linger in thy body.
Let not a greedy clumsy immolator, missing the joints,
mangle thy limbs unduly.
44 No, here thou diest not, thou art not injured: only by easy
paths to Gods thou goest.
Both Bays, both Spotted Mares are now thy fellows, and to
the Ass's pole is yoked the Courser.
45 May this Steed bring us all-sustaining riches, wealth in
good kine, good horses, manly offspring.
Freedom from sin may Aditi vouchsafe us; the Steed with
our oblations gain us lordship!
46 We will, with Indra and all Gods to help us, bring these
existing worlds into subjection.
With the Âdityas, with the band of Maruts, may Indra
give us medicine to heal us.
Our sacrifice, our bodies, and our offspring may Indra
regulate with the Âdityas.
47 O Agni, be our nearest Friend, etc., as in III. 25.
To thee then, O Most Bright, etc., as in III. 26.

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AGNI and Prithivî, closely connected, may they bring low for
me the boon I mention.
Vâyu and Firmament, closely connected, may they, etc.
Closely connected Dyaus and the Âditya, may they, etc.
Closely connected Varuna and Waters, may they, etc.
Lord of the seven communities and her who forms all beings,
Make our ways full of pleasantness: may So-and-So and I
2 That I to all the people may address this salutary speech,
To priest and nobleman, Sûdra and Arya, to one of our own
kin and to the stranger.
Dear may I be to Gods and guerdon-giver. Fulfilled be this
my hope: be that my portion!
3 Give us, Brihaspati, that wondrous treasure, that which
exceeds the merit of the foeman,
Which shines among the folk effectual, splendid, that, Son
of Law, which is with might refulgent.
Taken upon a base art thou. Thee for Brihaspati. This is
thy home. Thee for Brihaspati,
4 Come hither, Indra, rich in kine! Drink Soma, Lord of
Hundred Powers,
Effused by braying pressing-stones.
Taken upon a base art thou. Thee for Indra, rich in kine.
This is thy home. Thee for Indra, rich in kine.

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5 O Indra, Vritra-slayer, come. Drink Soma, Lord of
Hundred Powers,
Expressed with stones whose wealth is kine.
Taken upon a base art thou, etc., as in verse 4.
6 Vaisvânara the righteous One, the Lord of sacrifice and light,
The heat that wasteth not, we seek.
Taken upon a base art thou. Thee for Vaisvânara.
This is thy home: thee for Vaisvânara.
7 Still in Vaisvânara's grace may we continue: yea, he is
King Supreme o’er all things living.
Sprung hence to life upon this All he looketh. Vaisvânara
hath rivalry with Sûrya.
Taken upon a base art thou, etc., as in verse 6.
8 Hitherward come Vaisvânara to succour us from far away,
Agni through laud that brings him near!
Taken upon a base, etc, as in verse 6.
9 Agni is Pavamâna, Sage, the Tribe-Priest of the Races Five:
To him of mighty wealth we pray.
Taken upon a base art thou. Thee for lustre. This is thy
home. Thee for lustre.
10 May mighty Indra, thunder-armed, may Shodasî protect us
well, and slay the wicked man who hateth us.
Taken upon a base art thou. Thee for Mahendra. This is
thy home. Thee for Mahendra.
11 As cows low to their calves in stalls so with our songs we
This Indra, e’en your wondrous God who checks assault,
who joys in the delicious juice.
12 Agni's is the most fetching song. Shine mightily, thou rich
in light!
Like the Chief Consort of a King, riches and strength proceed
from thee.

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13 Come, here, O Agni, will I sing verily other songs to thee,
And with these drops shalt thou grow strong.
14 The Seasons spread thy sacrifice! the Mouths protect thine
May the Year guard our sacrifice for thee and keep our children
15 There where the mountains downward slope, there by the
meeting of the streams
The sage was manifest with song.
16 High is thy juice's birth: though sat in heaven, on earth it
hath obtained
Strong sheltering power and great renown.
17 Finder of room and freedom, flow for Indra, meet for worship,
For Varuna and the Marut host.
18 Striving to win, with him we gain all wealth of the ungodly
Yea, all the glories of mankind.
19 May we be prosperous with brave sons, cattle, horses, each
wish of ours, and varied blessings,
With quadrupeds, and with the men about us. May the
Gods guide our sacrifice in season.
20 O Agni, bring thou hitherward the yearning Consorts of the
Bring Tvashtar to the Soma-draught.
21 O Neshtar girt by Dames, accept our sacrifice: with Ritu
For thou art he who giveth wealth.

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22 He with the Ritus fain would drink, Wealth-river, from the
Neshtar's bowl.
Begin, pay offerings: hasten ye.
28 Thine is this Soma: come thou near, approach it. Drink
thou thereof, benevolent, and cease not.
Sit on the sacred grass at this our worship, and take these
drops into thy belly, Indra.
24 Come unto us, ye swift to listen! as at home, upon the
sacred grass sit and enjoy yourselves.
And, Tvashtar, well content be joyful in the juice with Gods
and Goddesses in gladsome company.
25 In sweetest and most gladdening stream flow pure, O Soma,
on thy way,
Pressed out for Indra, for his drink.
26 Fiend-queller, Friend of all men, he hath in the vat attained
His place, his iron-fashioned home.

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HALF-YEARS and Seasons strengthen thee, O Agni, the Years
and all the Verities and Rishis!
Flash forth with thy celestial effulgence: illumine all four
regions of the heaven.
2 Kindle thee, Agni, rake this man to knowledge: rise up
erect for great and happy fortune.
Agni, be those uninjured who adore thee, thy priests be
glorious and none beside them!
3 The Brahmans present here elect thee, Agni: be thou
propitious in our sanctuary.
Slayer of rivals, Agni, quell our foemen: watch in thy house
with care that never ceases.
4 Even here do thou, O Agni, stablish wealth: let not oppressors
injure thee by thinking of thee first.
Light be thy task of ruling, Agni, with thy power: may he
who worships thee wax strong, invincible.
5 Kind to the people, grasp thy power, O Agni: contend thou
with the Friend by way of friendship.
Placed, Agni, in the centre of our kinsmen, flash forth to be
invoked by Kings around thee.
6 Past those who slay, past enemies, past thoughtless men,
past those who hate,—
Yes, Agni, drive away all woe and trouble: vouchsafe us
opulence with men about us.
7 Holder of sway, shine here refulgent, Agni! invincible,
unconquered Jâtavedas.
Light all the regions, chasing human terrors: with happy
helps guard us to-day for increase.

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8 Brihaspati, Savitar, give this man knowledge: sharpen him
thoroughly though already sharpened.
To great and high felicity exalt him: in him let all the Gods
rejoice and triumph.
9 As thou, Brihaspati, from curse hast freed us, from dwelling
yonder in the realm of Yama,
The Asvins, Leeches of the Gods, O Agni, have chased Death
far from us with mighty powers.
10 Looking upon the loftier light, etc., as in XX. 21.
11 Uplifted are the brands that are his fuel: lofty and brilliant
are the flames of Agni,
Splendidly bright of the Son fair of aspect.
13 Tanûnapât the Asura, all-possessing, God among Gods, the
God with mead and butter shall bedew the paths.
13 With mead to sacrifice thou comest, Agni, earnest as friendly-
minded Narâsamsa, and Savitar righteous God who brings
all blessings.
14 He cometh hitherward with power and fatness, the luminous,
implored with adoration.
While rites proceed the ladles move to Agni.
15 Let him pay worship to this Agni's greatness, daintily fed:
he verily gives enjoyments:
The wisest Vasu he, and best wealth giver.
16 Widely expansive, ruling by foundation, the Doors divine—
and, after, all—
Preserve this Agni's holy works.
17 May Dawn and Night protect—his heavenly Consorts—in
a his home this our sacrificial worship.
18 Ye two celestial Hotars, greet with praises this lofty rite of
ours, the tongue of Agni.
Cause that our sacrifice be well conducted.

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19 Upon this grass three Goddesses be seated, Idâ, Sarasvatî,
Bhâratî the Mighty glorified with song.
20 This our productive wondrous flow may Tvashtar pour down
on this man's kin, and wealth and heroes.
21 Vanaspatî, presenting of thyself, send God-ward! Let Agni,
Immolator, season our oblation.
22 Pay sacrifice to Indra, Jâtavedas Agni! with Hail! All Gods
accept the gift we offer!
23 Wise, bright, arranger of his teams, he seeketh men with
rich food whose treasures are abundant.
They have stood firm of one accord with Vâyu: yea, the
men wrought all noble operations.
24 The God whom both these worlds brought forth for riches,
whom heavenly Dhishanâ for our wealth appointeth—
His team of harnessed horses waits on Vâyu and, foremost,
on the radiant treasure-holder.
26 What time the mighty waters came containing the universal
germ, producing Agni,
Thence sprang the Gods’ one spirit into being. What God
shall we adore with our oblation?
26 Who in his might surveyed the floods enclosing productive
force and generating Worship,
He who is God mid Gods, and none beside him—What God
shall we adore with our oblation?
27 The teams wherewith thou seekest him who offers, within
his house, O Vâyu, to direct him,
Therewith send wealth to us with full enjoyment, a hero son
and gifts of kine and horses.
28 With thy yoked teams in hundreds and in thousands come
to our sacrifice and solemn worship.
O Vâyu, make thee glad at this libation. Preserve us evermore,
ye Gods, with blessings.

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29 Drawn by thy team, O Vâyu, come: to thee is offered this,
the pure.
Thou visitest the presser's house.
30 Vâyu, the bright is offered thee, best of the meath at holy
Come thou to drink the Soma juice, God longed-for, on thy
team-drawn car.
31 Lover of worship, leader, come Vâyu with thought, to sacrifice,
Propitious with propitious teams!
32 With all the thousand chariots that are thine, O Vâyu, come
to us,
Team-drawn, to drink the Soma juice.
33 Come thou with one, and ten, O Self-Existent! with two
unto the sacrifice, and twenty.
Three are the teams and thirty which convey thee. O Vâyu,
in this place unyoke thy coursers.
34 Wonderful Vâyu, Lord of Truth, thou who art Tvashtar's
Son in-law,
Thy saving succour we elect.
35 Like kine unmilked we call aloud, Hero, to thee and sing
thy praise,
Looker on heavenly light, Lord of this moving world, Lord,
Indra! of what moveth not.
36 None other like to thee, of earth or of the heavens, hath
been or ever will be born.
Desiring horses, Indra, Bounteous Lord! and kine, as men
of might we call on thee.
37 That we may win us wealth and power, we poets call on
only thee.
In war men call on thee, Indra! the hero's Lord, in the
steed's race-course call on thee.
38 As such, O Wonderful, whose hand holds thunder, praised
as mighty, Caster of the Stone!

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Pour on us boldly, Indra, kine and chariot-steeds ever to be
the conqueror's strength.
39 What succour will he bring to us, wonderful, ever-prospering
With what most mighty company?
40 What, genuine and most liberal draught will spirit thee with
juice to burst
Open e’en strongly-guarded wealth
41 Do thou who art protector of us thy friends who praise thee
With hundred aids approach us.
42 Sing to your Agni with each song, at every sacrifice, for
Come, let us praise the Wise and Everlasting God even as a
well-belovèd Friend.
43 Protect us, Agni, through the first, protect us through the
second hymn.
Protect us through three hymns, O Lord of Power and Might;
through four hymns, Vasu! guard thou us.
44 The Son of Strength; for is he not our Friend? Let us serve
him for offering our gifts.
In battles may he be our help and strengthener, yea, be the
saviour of our lives.
45 Thou art Samvatsara; thou art Parivatsara; thou art
Idâvatsara; thou art Idvatsara; thou art Vatsara.
Prosper thy Dawns! Prosper thy Day-and-Nights! Prosper
thy Half-months, Months, Seasons, and Years!
Combine them for their going and their coming, and send
then forward on their ordered courses.
In eagle's shape thou art piled up and layered. With that
divinity, Angiras-like, lie steady.

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ON the earth's centre, at libation's place let the Priest worship
Indra with the kindling-stick.
The mightiest of the lords of men is kindled on the height
of heaven.
Let him enjoy the butter. Hotar, worship.
2 Him let the Hotar worship, him Tanûnapât with ready aids;
the conqueror never overcome,
Indra, the God who finds heaven's light on paths most rich
in pleasant sweets, with Narâsamsa all aglow. Let him
enjoy, etc., as in verse 1.
3 With viands let the Hotar worship Indra immortal, praised,
receiver of oblations.
The God, the equal of the Gods in vigour, the thunder-wielder,
breaker-down of castles. Let him enjoy, etc.
4 Let the Priest worship Indra, Bull who sitteth on sacred
grass, doer of manly actions.
Let him be seated on the grass with Vasus and Rudras and
Âdityas for companions. Let him enjoy, etc.
5 Let the Priest sacrifice. The Doors have strengthened
Indra, his force and conquering might and vigour.
At this our worship let the Doors be opened, easy to pass,
the strengtheners of Order: wide let them open out for
bounteous Indra. Let them enjoy, etc.
6 Let the Priest sacrifice to Night and Morning, the teeming
Cows of Indra, Mighty Mothers.
Indra their calf with lustre have they strengthened, even
as two mothers of a calf in common. Let them enjoy, etc.
7 Let the Priest worship both the heavenly Hotars, Friends,
Leeches, healing Indra with oblation.
The sages, Gods preëminent for wisdom bestow on Indra his
surpassing power. Let them enjoy, etc.

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8 Let the Priest offer sacrifice to the three Goddesses and balm.
Let the three triple active Ones, let Idâ and Sarasvatî and
Bhâratî the mighty Dames, Consorts of Indra, who receive
our sacrificial offerings, enjoy the butter, etc.
9 Let the Priest worship Tvashtar radiant Indra, Physician
good at sacrifice, graced with butter,
Multiform and prolific, rich and bounteous. Let Tvashtar,
giving wondrous powers to Indra, enjoy, etc.
10 Let the Priest worship him, the Forest-Sovran, the Immolator,
Lord of Hundred Powers, the lover of the prayer, the
friend of Indra.
Balming with mead, may he on easy pathways sweeten our
sacrifice with savoury butter. Let him enjoy, etc.
11 Let the Priest offer sacrifice to Indra: with Hail! to Gods
of butter; with Hail! to Gods of marrow; with Hail!
to Gods of drops; with Hail! to Gods of offerings paid with
Svâhâ; with Hail! to Gods of sacrificial hymns.
All hail! May butter-drinking Gods and Indra rejoicing
taste the butter. Hotar, worship.
12 Vigorous, strewn by Gods upon the altar the right Gods’
sacred Grass hath strengthened Indra.
Cut in the day, cherished by night it hath surpassed those
who have sacrificial Grass with wealth. For gain of riches
let him taste. Pay sacrifice.
13 Firm, closely joined, the Doors divine have strengthened
Indra in the rite.
Pressed by a calf or tender boy may they drive off the
courser as he tosses up the sand. For gain of wealth let
then enjoy. Pay sacrifice.
14 Morning and Night, the Goddesses, have called on Indra as
the rite advanced.
May they well-pleased and ordered well make the Celestial
Tribes come forth. For gain of wealth let them enjoy.
Pay sacrifice.

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15 Two Goddesses, wealth-givers, kind, have heightened radiant
Indra's strength.
One drives away hatreds and sins; the other shall bring the
Sacrificer boons and treasure.
Instructed, let them both enjoy, for gain of wealth. Pay
16 Bringers of strengthening sacrifice, the Goddesses, the teeming
Cows, have prospered Indra with their milk.
Let one bring food and energy, the other feast and banqueting.
Bringers of strengthening sacrifice, allotting the several portions
they have put together old energy with new and new
with olden, strengthening boons and treasures for the
Sacrificer. Instructed, let them, etc., as in verse 15.
17 The two Celestial Hotars, Gods, have heightened radiant
Indra's might.
Freed from slain sinners these have brought the Sacrificer
wealth and boons. Instructed, let them, etc.
18 Goddesses three, three Goddesses have heightened their
Lord Indra's strength.
One, Bhâratî, hath touched the sky, Sarasvatî the sacrifice
with Rudras, and, enriched with wealth, Idâ the homesteads
of the folk. For gain of wealth let them enjoy.
Pay sacrifice.
19 The radiant Indra, Praise of Men, thrice-shielding, borne on
three car-seats, hath heightened radiant Indra's strength.
Set on a hundred white-backed cows, yea, on a thousand
forth he goes. Mitra and Varuna alone deserve to be his
Hotar-Priests, Brihaspati his Chanter, and the Asvins his
Adhvaryavas. For gain of wealth let him enjoy. Pay
20 Vanaspatî, a God with Gods, with golden leaves, sweet
boughs, fair fruit, hath heightened radiant Indra's strength.
Sky with his summit hath he touched, and firmament, and
stablished earth. For gain of wealth let him enjoy. Pay

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21 The grassy robe of water-plants, divine, hath heightened
Indra's strength.
This, the fair seat where Indra sits, hath topped all other
sacred grass. For gain of wealth let it enjoy. Pay sacrifice.
22 Agni, Fair-offering-maker, bright, hath heightened radiant
Indra's strength.
To-day may Svishtakrit, Fair-offering-maker, paying good
sacrifice, for us perform it. For gain of wealth let him
enjoy. Pay sacrifice.
23 To-day the Sacrificer hath elected—dressing messes of cooked
food and a rice-cake, binding a goat for Indra—Agni as
his Hotar.
To-day divine Vanaspatî hath with a goat served Indra well.
He hath eaten from the fat, he hath accepted the cooked
food, he hath waxed strong with the rice-cake.
Thee, to-day, O Rishi, etc., as in XXI. 61.
21 Let the Priest worship Agni, Indra, kindled, splendidly
kindled, excellent strength-giver,
Lending him mighty power, Gâyatrî metre, a cow aged
eighteen months, and vital vigour. Let him enjoy the
butter. Hotar, worship.
25 Let the Priest serve with sacrifice him who breaks forth,
Tanûnapât, the germ which Aditi conceived, pure Indra
who bestoweth strength,
Bringing him mighty power, the Ushnih metre, an ox of two
years old, and vital vigour. Let him enjoy; etc.
26 Let the Priest sacrifice to Soma, Indra, adorable, adored,
best Vritra-slayer, strength-giver, might, to be adored
with viands,
Bringing him mighty power, Anushtup metre, a cow of
thirty months, and vital vigour. Let him enjoy, etc
27 Let the Priest worship Indra, strength-bestower, immortal,
with fair grass, allied with Pûshan, seated on sacred grass,
dear, everlasting,
Bringing him mighty power, Brihatî metre, a steer of three
years’ age and vital vigour. Let him enjoy, etc.
28 Let the Priest worship the wide-opening Portals, easy to
pass, divine, Law-strengthening, golden, Indra, the Brahman
Priest, the strength-bestower,

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Bringing him mighty power, the Pankti metre, a bullock
four years old, and vital vigour. Let them enjoy the
butter. Hotar, worship.
29 Let the Priest worship lofty Night and Morning,
well-decked, of varied hue, lovely to look on, Indra the
Universal, strength-bestower,
Bringing him mighty power, the Trishtup metre, a bullock
four years old, and vital vigour. Let them enjoy the
butter. Hotar, worship.
30 Let the Priest worship both celestial Hotars, the Gods’ best
glory, sages famed for wisdom, the two companions, Indra
Bringing him mighty power, Jagatî metre, an ox that draws
the wain, and vital vigour. Let them enjoy the butter.
Hotar, worship.
31 Let the Priest sacrifice to three well-decorated Goddesses,
gold-decked, great, lofty, Bhâratîs, Indra their Lord who
giveth strength,
Bringing him mighty power, Virâj the metre, and a cow in
milk. Let him enjoy the butter. Hotar, worship.
32 Let the Priest worship Tvashtar the prolific, strengthener
of growth, maintaining varied growth and form, Indra
who giveth vital force,
Bringing him Dvipad metre, mighty power, and an ox
full-grown. Let him enjoy the butter. Hotar, sacrifice.
33 Let the Priest serve with sacrifice the Forest Lord Vanaspatî,
the Immolator, hundred-powered, praise-worthy, golden-leafed,
who wears the girdle, loved, the gracious Lord,
Indra who gives the strength of life,
Giving him Kakup metre, mighty power, a barren, a calf-
slipping cow, and vital vigour. Let him enjoy the butter.
Hotar, sacrifice.
34 Let the Priest offer worship to the Svâhâkriti Goddesses, to
Agni Household Lord apart, to Varuna the Leech and
Sage. might, Indra who bestoweth strength,
Bringing him Atichhandas metre, great and mighty power,
a strong bull, his prime, and vital vigour. Let them
enjoy the butter. Hotar, sacrifice.

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35 The Grass divine hath added might to radiant Indra
Laying in Indra wondrous power and sight and strength by
Gâyatrî. For gain of wealth let him enjoy the butter.
Offer sacrifice.
36 The Doors divine have magnified bright Indra, who bestoweth
With Ushnih laying mighty power in Indra, vital breath
and force. For gain of wealth let them enjoy the butter.
Offer sacrifice.
37 Morning and Night, divine Ones, have strengthened bright
Indra, strength-giver, the Goddesses advanced the God,
With the Anushtup laying power in Indra, strength and
vital force. For gain of wealth let them enjoy. Pay
38 Kind, bounteous, and divine, they have strengthened bright
Indra, force-giver, the Goddesses advanced the God,
Laying in Indra power and force and hearing with the
Brihatî. For gain of wealth let them enjoy. Pay sacrifice.
39 Bringers of strengthening sacrifice, the Goddesses, two
teeming cows, have heightened Indra's power with milk,
Laying bright power in Indra with Pankti, and vital energy.
For gain of wealth let them enjoy. Pay sacrifice.
40 The Gods, two heavenly Hotars, have strengthened bright
Indra, force-giver, those Gods have magnified the God,
With Trishtup giving Indra power, impetuous might, and
vital strength. For gain of wealth let them enjoy. Pay
41 Goddesses three, three Goddesses have heightened their
Lord Indra's strength, his who bestoweth vital force,
Laying in Indra power and might and vital strength with
Jagatî. For gain of wealth let them enjoy. Pay sacrifice.
42 The God, the Praise of all men, hath strengthened bright
Indra force-giver, the God hath magnified the God,
Laying in Indra with Virâj beauty and power and vital force.
For gain of wealth let him enjoy. Pay sacrifice.
43 The God the Forest Sovran hath strengthened bright Indra,
force-giver, the God hath magnified the God,
With Dvipad storing Indra with fortune and power and vital
strength. For gain of wealth let him enjoy. Pay sacrifice.

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44 The Grass divine of water-plants hath helped bright Indra
force-giver, the God hath magnified the God,
Laying in Indra mighty power with Kakup, fame and vital
strength. For gain of wealth let it enjoy. Pay sacrifice.
45 Agni, the God who makes fair rites, hath strengthened
Indra force-giver, the God hath magnified the God,
Laying with Atichhandas power in Indra, sway, and vital
strength. For gain of wealth let him enjoy. Pay sacrifice.
46 To-day the Sacrificer hath elected, etc., as in verse 23.
To-day divine Vanaspatî, etc. . . . . . .
Thee, to-day, O Rishi, etc. . . . . . .

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DECKING the treasure-house of prayers, O Agni, enkindled,
pouring forth sweet-tasted butter,
Swift-moving, bearing curd, O Jâtavedas, bear what they
love to the Gods’ habitation.
2 Balming the paths that lead to heaven with fatness, let the
Steed go unto the Gods well-knowing.
Courser, the Quarters of the sky attend thee! Bestow thou
food upon this Sacrificer.
3 Thou, Steed, art meet for laud and veneration; swift, fit for
sacrifice art thou, O Courser.
In concert with the Gods and Vasus Agni Omniscient waft
thee a contented bearer!
4 Pleased with much Sacred Grass which we have scattered
wide spread upon the earth, a pleasant carpet,
Joined with the Gods may Aditi, accordant, bestowing bliss
award it happy fortune.
5 May these your Doors divine that wear all colours, auspicious,
with uplifted leaves unfolding,
Lofty and closely fitted and sonorous, rich in adornment,
offer easy passage.
6 Your two Dawns rich in gold and varied colour, travelling
on ’twixt Varuna and Mitra,
Acquainted with the face of sacrifices, I settle here within
the home of Order.
7 Your two chief Hotars have I pleased, bright-coloured, borne
on one car, Gods who behold all creatures,
Those who prepare your rules and ordinances and make you
see the light by their direction.
8 Bhâratî with Âdityas love our worship! Sarasvatî with
Rudras be our helper,
And Idâ in accord, invoked with Vasus! Goddesses, place
our rite among the Immortals.

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9 The God-devoted son Tvashtar produces: from Tvashtar
springs to life your fleet-foot Courser.
Tvashtar gave being to this All about us. Priest, worship
here the mighty work's achiever.
10 Let the Steed seek his home, and balmed with butter go of
himself unto the Gods in season.
To the Gods’ world Vanaspatî, well-knowing, bear our oblations
which the fire has tasted!
11 Thou, waxing by Prajâpati's strong fervour, born quickly,
guardest sacrifice, O Agni.
With consecrated offering go, preceding, and let the Sâdhyas,
Gods, eat our oblation.
12 What time, first springing into life, thou neighedst, proceeding
from the sea or cloudy vapour,
Limbs of the deer hadst thou, and eagle pinions. O Steed,
thy birth is high and must be lauded.
13 This Steed, bestowed by Yama, Trita harnessed, and Indra
was the first to mount and ride him.
His bridle the Gandharva grasped. O Vasus, from out the
Sun ye fashioned forth the Courser.
14 Yama art thou, O Horse; thou art Âditya; Trita art thou
by secret operation.
From Soma thou art thoroughly divided. They say there
are three bonds in heaven that hold thee.
15 Three bonds, they say, thou hast in heaven to bind thee,
three in the waters, three within the ocean.

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To me thou seemest Varuna, O Courser, there where they
say is thy sublimest birthplace.
16 Here, Courser, are the places where they groomed thee;
here are the traces of thy hooves as winner.
Here have I seen the auspicious reins that guide thee, which
those who guard the holy Law keep safely.
17 Thyself from far I recognized in spirit, a Bird that from
below flew through the heaven.
I saw thy head still soaring, striving upward by paths unsoiled
by dust, pleasant to travel.
18 Here I beheld thy form matchless in beauty, eager to win
thee food at the Cow's station.
Whene’er a man brings thee to thine enjoyment, thou
swallowest the herbs, most greedy eater.
19 After thee, Courser, come the car, the bridegroom, the kine
come after, and the charm of maidens.
Full companies have followed for thy friendship: the pattern
of thy vigour Gods have followed.
20 His horns are golden and his feet are iron. Less fleet than
he, though swift as thought, was Indra.
The Gods came only to the oblation-banquet of him who
mounted first of all the Courser.
21 Symmetrical in flank, with rounded haunches, mettled like
heroes, the celestial Coursers
Put forth their strength like swans in lengthened order when
they, the Steeds, have reached the heavenly causeway.
22 A body formed for flight hast thou, O Charger; swift as the
wind in motion is thy spirit.
Thy horns are spread abroad in all directions; they move
with restless beat in wildernesses.

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23 The strong Steed hath come forward to the slaughter, pondering
with a mind directed God-ward.
The goat who is his kin is led before him: the sages and the
singers follow after.
21 The Steed is come unto the noblest mansion, is come unto
his Father and his Mother.
This day shall he approach the Gods, most welcome: then
he declares good gifts to him who worships.
25 Thou in the house of man this day enkindled worshippest
Gods, a God, O Jâtavedas.
Wealthy in friends! observant, bring them hither. Thou
art a sapient envoy, full of wisdom.
26 Tanûnapât, fair-tongued, with sweet mead balming the
paths and ways of Order, make them pleasant.
Convey our sacrifice to heaven, exalting with holy thoughts
our hymns of praise and worship.
27 With sacrifice to these we with laudations will honour holy
Narâsamsa's greatness—
To these the pure, most wise, the thought-inspirers, Gods
who enjoy both sorts of our oblations.
28 Invoked, deserving laud and adoration, O Agni, come accordant
with the Vasus.
Thou art, O vigorous One, the Gods’ Invoker, so, best of
Sacrificers, bring them quickly.
29 By rule the Sacred Grass is scattered eastward, a robe to
clothe the earth when dawns are breaking.
Widely it spreads around and far extended, fair for the Gods
and bringing peace and freedom.
30 Let the expansive Doors be widely opened, like wives who
deck their beauty for their husbands.
Lofty, celestial, all-impelling Portals, admit the Gods and
give them easy access.

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31 Pouring sweet dews, let holy Night and Morning, each
close to each, be seated at their station—
Lofty, celestial Dames, with gold to deck them, assuming
all their fair and radiant beauty.
32 Come the two chief celestial sweet-voiced Hotars, arranging
sacrifice for man to worship,
As singers who inspire us in assemblies, showing the eastward
light with their direction!
33 Let Bhâratî come quickly to our worship, and Idâ showing
like a human being.
So let Sarasvatî and both her fellows, deft Goddesses, on
this fair grass be seated.
34 Hotar more skilled in sacrifice, bring hither with speed today
God Tvashtar, thou who knowest,
Even him who framed these two, the Earth and Heaven,
the Parents, with their forms, and every creature.
35 Send to our offerings which thyself thou balmest the
Companies of Gods in ordered season.
Agni, Vanaspatî, the Immolator sweeten our offered gift
with mead and butter.
36 Agni as soon as he was born made ready the sacrifice and
was the Gods’ preceder.
May the Gods eat our offering consecrated according to the
true Priest's voice and guidance.
37 Thou, making light where no light was, and form, O men!
where form was not,
Wast born together with the Dawns.
38 The warrior's look is like a thunderous rain-cloud's when,
armed with mail, he seeks the lap of battle.
Be thou victorious with unwounded body: so let the thickness
of thine armour save thee.
39 With Bow let us win kine, with Bow the battle, with Bow
be victors in our hot encounters.
The Bow brings grief and sorrow to the foeman: armed with
the Bow may we subdue all regions.

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40 Close to his ear, as fain to speak, She presses, holding her
well-loved Friend in her embraces.
Strained on the Bow, She whispers like a woman—this
Bow-string that preserves us in the combat.
41 These, meeting like a woman and her lover, bear,
mother-like, their child upon their bosom.
May the two Bow-ends, starting swift asunder scatter, in
unison, the foes who hate us.
42 With many a son, father of many daughters, He clangs and
clashes as he goes to battle.
Slung on the back, pouring his brood, the Quiver vanquishes
all opposing bauds and armies.
43 Upstanding in the Car the skilful Charioteer guides his
strong Horses on whitherso’er he will.
See and admire the strength of those controlling Reins which
from behind declare the will of him who drives
44 Horses whose hoofs rain dust are neighing loudly, yoked to
the Chariots, showing forth their vigour.
With their forefeet descending on the foemen, they, never
flinching, trample and destroy them.
45 Car-bearer is the name of his oblation, whereon are laid his
Weapons and his Armour.
So let us here, each day that passes, honour the helpful Car
with hearts exceeding joyful.
46 In sweet association lived the fathers who gave us life,
profound and strong in trouble,
Unwearied, armed with shafts and wondrous weapons, free,
real heroes, conquerors of armies.

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47 The Brâhmans, and the Fathers meet for Soma draughts,
and, graciously inclined, unequalled Heaven and Earth.
Guard us from evil, Pûshan! guard us strengtheners of
Law! let not the evil-wisher master us.
48 Her tooth a deer, dressed in an eagle's feathers, bound with
cow-hide, launched forth, She flieth onward.
There where the heroes speed hither and thither, there may
the arrows shelter and protect us.
49 Avoid as thou whose flight is straight, and let our bodies
be as stone.
May Soma kindly speak to us, and Aditi protect us well.
59 He lays his blows upon their backs, He deals his strokes
upon their thighs.
Thou Whip who urgest horses, drive sagacious chargers in
the fray.
51 It compasses the arm with serpent windings, fending away
the friction of the bowstring:
So may the Brace, well skilled in all its duties, guard manfully
the man from every quarter.
52 Lord of the Wood, be firm and strong in body: be, bearing
us, a brave victorious hero.
Show forth thy strength, compact with straps of leather,
and let thy rider win all spoils of battle.
53 Its mighty strength was borrowed from the heaven and earth
its conquering force was brought from sovrans of the wood.
Honour with holy gifts the Car like Indra's bolt, the Car
bound round with straps, the vigour of the floods.
54 Thou bolt of Indra, Vanguard of the Maruts, close knit to
Varuna and Child of Mitra,—
As such, accepting gifts which here we offer, receive, O Godlike
Chariot, these oblations.
55 Send forth thy voice aloud through earth and heaven, and
let the world in all its breadth regard thee;
O Drum, accordant with the Gods and Indra, drive thou
afar, yea, very far, our foemen.

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56 Thunder out strength and fill us fall of vigour: yea, thunder
forth and drive away all dangers.
Drive hence, O War-drum, drive away misfortune: thou art
the Fist of Indra: show thy firmness.
57 Drive hither those, and these again bring hither: the
War-drum speaks aloud as battle's signal.
Our heroes, winged with horses, come together. Let our
car-warriors, Indra, be triumphant.
58 The black-necked victim belongs to Agni; the ewe to
Sarasvatî; the brown victim is Soma's; the dusky Pûshan's;
the white-backed is Brihaspati's; the dappled belongs to
the All-Gods; the red to Indra; the spotted to the Maruts;
the strong-bodied to Indra-Agni; one with white marks below
to Savitar; to Varuna a black ram with one white foot
59 To Agni Anîkavân is sacrificed a red-marked ox; two with
white spots below are for Savitar; two with silvery navels
for Pûshan; two yellow hornless he-goats for the All-Gods;
a spotted one for the Maruts; the black-faced he-goat is
Agni's; the ewe is Sarasvatî's; the ram is Varuna's.
60 To Agni of the Gâyatrî, of the Trivrit hymn and of the
Rathantara Sâman is to be offered a rice-cake on eight
potsherds; to Indra of the Trishtup, the Pañchadasa
hymn and the Brihat Sâman one on eleven potsherds; to
the All-Gods of the Jagatî, the Seventeenfold hymn
and the Vairûpa Sâman, one on twelve potsherds; to
Mitra-Varuna of the Anushtup, the Ekavimsa hymn, and
the Vairâja Sâman, a mess of curdled milk; to Brihaspati
of the Pankti metre, the Trinava hymn, and the Sâkvara
Sâman, an oblation of rice boded in milk; to Savitar of
the Ushnih, the Thirty-threefold hymn, and the Raivata
Sâman, a rice-cake on eight potsherds; a mess of boiled
rice is to be made for Prajâpati; the same for Vishnu's
Consort Aditi; to Agni Vaisvânara is to be offered a
rice-cake on twelve potsherds, and to Anumati one on eight.

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OUR sacrifice, God Savitar! speed onward: speed to his share
the sacrifice's patron.
May the Celestial Gandharva, cleanser of thought and will,
make clean our thoughts and wishes.
The Lord of Speech sweeten the words we utter!
2 May we attain that excellent glory of Savitar the God:
So may he stimulate our prayers.
3 Savitar, God, send far away all troubles and calamities,
And send us only what is good.
4 We call on him distributer of wondrous bounty and of wealth,
On Savitar who looks on men.
5 For Brahman (Priesthood) he binds a Brahman to the
stake; for Kshatra (Royalty) a Râjanya; for the Maruts
a Vaisya; for Penance a Sûdra; for Darkness a robber;
for Hell a homicide or a man who has lost his consecrated
fire; for Misfortune a eunuch; for Venality an Ayogû;
for Kâma a harlot; for Excessive Noise a Mâgadha;

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6 For Dance a stable-master; for Song a public dancer; for
Duty one who attends court; for Pastime a timid man;
for Sport a chatterer; for Laughter an artist; for Pleasure
a woman-lover; for Desire a damsel's son; for Dexterity
a car-builder; for Firmness a carpenter;
7 For Trouble a potter's son; for Device an artificer; for
Beauty a jeweller; for Welfare a sower; for the Arrow-deity
a maker of shafts; for Injury a bowyer; for Action
a bowstring-maker; for Fate a rope-maker; for Death a
hunter; for the Finisher a dog-leader;
8 For Rivers a fisherman; for Rikshîkâs a Nishâda's son; for
the Man-tiger a madman; for the Gandharvas and
Apsarases a Vrâtya; for Motives one demented; for Serpents
and Genii an untrustworthy man; for Dice a gambler;
for Excitement a non-gambler; for Pisâchas a woman who
splits cane; for Yâtudhânas a woman who works in thorns;
9 For Rendezvous a lover; for Homestead a paramour; for
Trouble an unmarried elder brother; for Nirriti a younger
brother who has married before his elder; for Misfortune
the husband of a younger sister whose elder sister has
not been married; for Representation a woman who
embroiders; for Agreement a woman who deals in
love-charms; for Garrulity a by-sitter; for Colour an
obstinate man; for Strength a yielding man;
10 For Interruptions a hunch-back; for Delight a dwarf,
for Doors a blear-eyed man; for Sleep a blind man; for
Unrighteousness a deaf man; for Purifying Medium a
physician; for Insight an astrologer; for Craving for
Knowledge an inquisitive man; for Desire of extra
Knowledge an extra-inquisitive man; for Moral Law
a question solver;
11 For Eye-diseases an elephant-keeper; for Speed a
horse-keeper; for Nourishment a cowherd; for Manliness a
shepherd; for Keenness a goatherd; for Refreshment a
ploughman; for Sweet Beverage a preparer of Surâ; for
Weal a house-guard; for Well-being a possessor of wealth;
for Supervision a doorkeeper's attendant;

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12 For Light a wood-bringer; for Brightness a fire-kindler; for
the Sun's Station a besprinkler; for Highest Heaven a
high steward; for the World of Gods a carver; for the
World of Men a distributer; for All-Worlds a pourer-out:
for Poverty, Affliction a stirrer-up of strife; for Sacrifice
a washerwoman; for Delight a female dyer;
13 For Assault a thievish-hearted man; for Homicide a slanderer;
for Discrimination a door-keeper; for Inspection a
door-keeper's attendant; for Strength a servant; for
Plenty a running footman; for the Beloved a sweet speaker;
for Safety the rider of a horse; for the World of
Svarga a dealer-out of portions; for Highest Heaven a
high steward;
14 For Passion an iron-smelter; for Anger a remover; for
Yoking a yoker; for Pain an assailant; for Quiet an unyoker;
for Up-hill and Down-hill one who stands on three legs;
for Form a conceited man; for Virtue a female
ointment-maker; for Nirriti a female scabbard-maker;
for Yama a barren woman;
15 For Yama a mother of twins; for the Atharvans a woman
who has miscarried; for the First Year a gad-about; for
the Parivatsara one who has not borne a child; for the
Idâvatsara one who exceeds; for the Idvatsara one who
transgresses; for the Vatsara one who is worn out; for
the Samvatsara one with grey hair; for the Ribhus a
hide-dresser; for the Sâdhyas a currier;
16 For Lakes a fisherman; for Standing Waters a fisher; for
Tank-waters a Nishâda; for Reed-beds a fish-vender; for
the Opposite Bank one who gropes for fish; for This Bank
a fish-catcher; for Fords an Âuda; for shallows a Mainâla;

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for Sounds a Bhilla; for Caverns a Kirâta; for Mountain-heights
a destructive savage; for Mountains a wild man;
17 For Abhorrence a Paulkasa; for Colour a goldsmith; for
Balance a merchant; for Repentance a sluggard; for All
Spirits a leper; for Prosperity a watchful man; for Failure
a sleepy man; for Mischief a chatterer; for Misfortune
a shameless man; for Undoing one who cuts up into small
18 For the Dice-king a gambler; for the die Krita one who
contemplates his adversary's ill luck, for the Tretâ a
gamble-manager; for the Dvâpara a chief manager; for Askanda
one who will not leave the gambling-hall; for Mrityu one
who approaches cows; for Antaka a Cow-killer; for
Hunger one who goes begging to a man who is cutting
up a cow; for Misdeed a leader of the Charakas; for
Misery a robber;
19 For Echo a reviler; for Noise a snarler; for End a very
talkative man; for Endless a mute; for Sound a drummer;
for Might a lute-player; for Cry a flute-blower; for
Confused Tone a Conch-blower; for the Wood a
wood-ranger; for Partly-wooded Land a forest fire guard;
20 For Pastime a harlot; for Laughter a jester; for Lust a
woman with spotty skin; for Might these, the head-man
of a village, an astrologer, and a watchman; a lute-player;
a hand-clapper, a flutist, these for Dance; for Pleasure a
21 For Fire a fat man; for Earth a cripple; for Wind a
Chândâla; for Mid-Air a pole-dancer; for Sky a bald-head;
for the Sun a green-eyed man; for Stars a spotty man;
for the Moon a leper; for Day a white yellow-eyed man;
for Night a black man with yellow eyes.

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22 Now he ties up the eight following variform men: one too
tall, one too short, one too stout, one too thin, one too
white, one too black, one too bald, one too airy. These
must be neither Sûdras nor Brâhmans, and must be
dedicated to Prajâpati.
A minstrel, a harlot, a gambler, and a eunuch—neither of
Sûdra nor Brâhman caste—are to be dedicated to Prajâpati.

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PURUSHA hath a thousand heads, a thousand eyes, a
thousand feet.
Pervading earth on every side he fills a space ten fingers
2 Purusha is in truth this All, what hath been and what yet
shall be;
Lord, too, of immortality which waxes greater still by food.
3 So mighty in his grandeur; yea, greater than this is Purusha.
All creatures are one fourth of him, three fourths eternal
life in heaven.

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4 With three fourths Purusha rose up: one fourth of him
again was here.
Thence he moved forth to every side over what eats not
and what eats.
5 From him Virâj was born; again Purusha from Virâj was
When born, he spread to west and east beyond the boundaries
of earth.
6 From that great General Sacrifice the dripping fat was
gathered up.
He formed the creatures of the air and animals both wild
and tame.
7 From that great General Sacrifice Richas and Sâma hymns
were born:
Therefrom were spells and charms produced; the Yajus
had its birth from it.
8 From it were horses born, from it all cattle with two rows
of teeth
From it were generated kine, from it were goats and sheep
9 They balmed as victim on the grass Purusha born in earliest
With him the Deities and all Sâdhyas and Rishis sacrificed.
10 When they divided Purusha how many portions did they

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What was his mouth? what were his arms? what are the
names of thighs and feet?
11 The Brâhman was his mouth, of both his arms was the
Râjanya made.
His thighs became the Vaisya, from his feet the Sûdra was
12 The Moon was gendered from his mind, and from his eye
the Sun had birth;
Vâyu and Prâna from his ear, and from his mouth was Agni
13 Forth from his navel came mid-air; the sky was fashioned
from his head;
Earth from his feet, and from his ear the Quarters. Thus
they formed the worlds.
14 When Gods performed the sacrifice with Purusha as offering
Spring was the butter, Autumn the oblation, Summer was
the wood.
15 Then seven were his enclosing-sticks, his kindling-brands
were three times seven,
When Gods, performing sacrifice, bound as their victim
16 Gods, sacrificing, sacrificed the victim: these were the earliest
holy ordinances.
The Mighty Ones attained the height of heaven, there where
the Sâdhyas, Gods of old, are dwelling.

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17 In the beginning he was formed, collected from waters, earth,
and Visvakarman's essence.
Fixing the form thereof Tvashtar proceedeth. This was at
first the mortal's birth and godhead.
18 I know this mighty Purusha whose colour is like the Sun,
beyond the reach of darkness.
He only who knows him leaves Death behind him. There is
no path save this alone to travel.
19 In the womb moves Prajâpati: he, never becoming born, is
born in sundry figures.
The wise discern the womb from which he springeth. In
him alone stand all existing creatures.
20 He who gives light and heat to Gods, first, foremost Agent
of the Gods,
Born ere the Gods—to him the bright, the holy One, be
21 Thus spake the Gods at first, as they begat the bright and
holy One:
The Brahman who may know thee thus shall have the Gods
in his control.
22 Beauty and Fortune are thy wives: each side of thee are
Day and Night.
The constellations are thy form: the Asvins are thine open
Wishing, wish yonder world for me, wish that the Universe
be mine.

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AGNI is That; the Sun is That; Vâyu and Chandramâs are
The Bright is That; Brahma is That, those Waters, that
2 All twinklings of the eyelid sprang from Purusha,
resplendent One.
No one hath comprehended him above, across, or in the
3 There is no counterpart of him whose glory verily is great.
In the beginning rose Hiranyagarbha, etc. Let not him
harm me, etc. Than whom there is no other born, etc.
4 This very God pervadeth all the regions; yea, born aforetime,
in the womb he dwelleth.
He verily born and to be born hereafter meeteth his offspring,
facing all directions.
5 Before whom naught whatever sprang to being; who with
his presence aids all living creatures,
Prajâpati, rejoicing in his offspring, he, Shodasî, maintains
the Three great Lustres.
6 By whom the heavens are strong and earth stands firmly,
by whom light's realm and sky-vault are supported;
By whom the regions in mid-air were measured. What
God shall we adore with our oblation?

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7 To whom, supported by his help, two armies embattled look
while trembling in their spirit,
Where over them the risen Sun is shining. What God shall
we adore with our oblation?
What time the mighty waters, etc. He in his might surveyed, etc.
8 The Sage beholdeth That mysterious Being wherein this
All hath found one only dwelling.
Therein unites the Whole, and thence it issues: far-spread it
is the warp and woof in creatures.
9 Knowing Eternity, may the Gandharva declare that station,
parted, kept in secret.
Three steps thereof in mystery are hidden: he who knows
these shall be the father's father.
10 He is our kin, our Father and Begetter: he knows all beings
and all Ordinances,
In whom the Gods obtaining life eternal have risen upward
to the third high station.
11 Having encompassed round existing creatures, the world;
and all the Quarters and Mid-quarters,
Having approached the first-born Child of Order he with his
Self into The Self hath entered.

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12 Having gone swiftly round the earth and heaven, around
the worlds, around the sky, the Quarters,
Having spread out the lengthened thread of Order, he views,
and he becomes and is That Being.
13 To the Assembly's wondrous Lord, to Indra's lovely Friend
who gives
Wisdom. have I drawn near in prayer.
14 That wisdom which the Companies of Gods, and Fathers,
Even with that intelligence, O Agni, make me wise to-day.
15 Varuna grant me wisdom! grant it Agni and Prajâpati!
Wisdom may Indra, Vâyu grant. May the Creator grant it
me. All-hail!
16 Let these the Priests and Nobles both enjoy the splendour
that is mine.
Best splendour may the Gods bestow on me. To thee, that
splendour, hail!

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His be the fires, eternal, purifying, protectors of our homes,
whose smoke is shining,
White, waxing in their strength, for ever stirring, and seated
in the wood: like winds are Somas.
2 Gold-coloured, bannered with the smoke, urged by the wind,
aloft to heaven
Rise, lightly borne, the flames of fire.
Bring to us Mitra-Varuna, bring the Gods to the great
Bring them, O Agni, to thine home.
4 Yoke, Agni, as a charioteer, thy steeds who best invoke the
As ancient Hotar take thy seat.
5 To fair goals travel Two unlike in semblance: each in
succession nourishes an infant.
One bears a Godlike Babe of golden colour: bright and
fair-shining is be with the other.
6 Here by ordainers was this God appointed first Invoker,
best at worship, to be praised at rites,
Whom Apnavâna and the Bhrigus caused to shine,
bright-coloured in the wood, spreading to every house.
7 Three times a hundred Gods, and thrice a thousand, and
three times ten, and nine have worshipped Agni,
For him spread sacred grass, balmed him with butter, and
stablished him as Priest and Sacrificer.

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8 Him, messenger of earth and head of heaven, Agni Vaisvânara,
born in holy Order,
The Sage, the King, the Guest of men, a vessel fit for their
mouths, the Gods have generated.
9 May Agni slay the foemen,—fain for riches, through the
love of song
Kindled, bright, served with sacrifice.
10 With the All-Gods, with Indra and with Vâyu drink the
Soma mead,
O Agni, after Mitra's laws.
11 When splendour reached the Lord of men to speed him,
down from the heaven was shed the brilliant moisture.
Agni brought forth to light and filled with spirit the youthful
host benevolent and blameless.
12 Show thyself strong for mighty bliss, O Agni; most excellent
be thine effulgent splendours.
Make easy to maintain our household lordship and trample
down the might of those who hate us.
13 We have elected thee as most delightful for thy beams’
glow: hear our great laud, O Agni.
The best men praise thee as the peer of Indra in strength,
mid Gods, like Vâyu in thy bounty.
14 O Agni who art worshipped well, dear let our princes be to
Our wealthy patrons who are governors of men, who part in
gifts their stalls of kine.

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15 Hear, Agni who hast ears to hear, with all thy train of
escort Gods.
Let Mitra, Aryaman, seeking betimes our rite, seat them
upon the sacred grass.
16 The Freedom of all Gods who merit worship, freely received
as Guest in all men's houses,
Agni who hath secured the Gods’ high favour, may he be
gracious to us, Jâtavedas.
17 In great enkindled Agni's keeping and, for bliss, free from
all sin before Mitra and Varuna,
May we share Savitar's best animating help. We crave this
gracious favour of the Gods to-day.
18 Like barren cows, moreover, swelled the waters: singers
approached thy holy cult, O Indra.
Come thou to us as to his team comes Vâyu. Thou through
our solemn hymns bestowest bounty.
19 Ye Cows, protect the fount. The two mighty Ones bless the
The handles twain are wrought of gold.
20 Now when the Sun hath risen to-day may sinless Mitra,
Bhaga, and Savitar speed us forth.
21 Pour on the juice the ornament which reaches both the
heaven and earth;

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Supply the liquid to the Bull.
Thou in the first old time. See, Vena.
22 As he was rising up they all revered him: self-luminous he
travels, clothed in splendour.
That is the Bull's, the Asura's lofty nature: he, Omniform,
hath reached the eternal waters.
23 I laud your Mighty One who joyeth in the juice, him who
is good to all men, who pervadeth all;
Indra whose conquering strength is powerful in war, whose
fame and manly vigour Heaven and Earth revere.
24 Great is their fuel, strung their laud, wide is their sacrificial
Whose Friend is Indra, ever young.
25 Come, Indra, and delight thee with the juice at all the
Soma feasts,
Conqueror, mighty in thy strength.
26 Leading his band, Indra encompassed Vritra; weak grew
the wily leader of enchanters.
He who burns fierce in forests slaughtered Vyamsa, and
made the milch-kine of the nights apparent.
27 Whence comest thou alone, thou who art mighty, Indra,
Lord of the Brave? What is thy purpose?
Thou greetest us, encountering us the Bright Ones. Lord of
Bay Steeds, say what thou hast against us.
Indra, great in his power and might. Ne’er art thou fruitless.
Never art thou neglectful.

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28 Those men extolled that deed of thine, O Indra, those who
would fain burst through the stall of cattle,
Fain to milk her who bare but once, great, lofty, whose sons
are many and her streams a thousand.
29 To thee the Mighty One I bring this mighty hymn, for thy
desire hath been gratified by my laud.
In Indra, yea, in him victorious through his might, the
Gods have joyed at feast and when the Soma flowed.
30 May the Bright God drink glorious Soma-mingled mead,
giving the sacrifice's lord uninjured life;
He who, wind-urged, in person guard our offspring well,
hath nourished them with food and shone o’er many a
31 His bright rays bear him up aloft, the God who knoweth all
that lives,
Sûrya, that all may look on him.
32 Pure Varuna, with that same eye wherewith thou lookest
upon one
Actively stirring mid the folk—
33 Ye two divine Adhvaryus, come hither upon a sun-bright car:
Bedew our sacrifice with stead.
Thou in the first old time. See, Vena. The brilliant presence.
34 Loved of all men, may Savitar through praises offered as
sacred food come to our synod,
That ye too, through our hymns, ye ever youthful, may
gladden at your visit all our people.

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35 Whatever, Vritra-slayer! thou Surya hast risen on to-day,
That, Indra, all is in thy power.
36 Swift, visible to all art thou, O Sûrya, maker of the light,
Illuming all the radiant realm.
37 This is the Godhead, this the might of Sûrya: he hath
withdrawn what spread o’er work unfinished.
When he hath loosed his horses from their station, straight
over all Night spreadeth out her garment.
38 In the sky's lap the Sun this form assumeth that Varuna
and Mitra may behold it.
His Bay Steeds well maintain their power eternal, at one
time bright, and darksome at another.
39 Verily, Sûrya, thou art great; truly, Âditya, thou art great.
As thou art great indeed thy greatness is admired: yea,
verily thou, God, art great.
40 Yea, Sûrya, thou art great in fame: thou, evermore, O God,
art great.
Thou by thy greatness art the Gods’ Home-Priest, divine,
far-spread, unconquerable light.
41 Turning, as ’twere, to meet the Sun, enjoy from Indra all
good things.
When he who will be horn is born with power we look to
treasures as our heritage.
42 To-day, ye Gods, when Sûrya hath ascended, deliver us
front trouble and dishonour.
This boon may Varuna and Mitra grant us, and Aditi and
Sindhu, Earth and Heaven.

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43 Throughout the dusky firmament advancing, laying to rest
the immortal and the mortal,
Borne on his golden chariot he cometh, Savitar, God,
beholding living creatures.
44 Soft to the tread the sacred grass is scattered: these go
like Kings amid the band around them,
At the folk's early call on Night and Morning,—Vâyu, and
Pûshan with his team to bless us.
45 Indra, Vâyu, Brihaspati, Mitra, Agni, Pûshan, Bhaga,
Âdityas, and the Marut host.
46 Be Varuna our chief defence, let Mitra guard us with all aids:
Both make us rich exceedingly!
47 Regard us, Indra, Vishnu, here, ye Asvins, and the Marut
host, us who are kith and kin to you.
Thou in the first old time. See, Vena. O ye eleven Gods.
Loved of all men, may Savitar. With the All-Gods. Ye
Visvedevas who protect.
48 O Agni, Indra, Varuna, and Mitra, give, O ye Gods, and
Marut host, and Vishnu.
May both Nâsatyas, Rudra, heavenly Matrons, Pûshan,
Sarasvatî, Bhaga accept us.
49 Indra, Agni, Mitra, Varuna, Aditi, the Waters, Mountains,
Maruts, Sky, and Earth and Heaven,
Vishnu I call, Pûshan and Brahmanaspati, and Bhaga, Samsa,
Savitar that they may help.
50 With us are raining Rudras, clouds accordant in call to
battle at the death of Vritra,
The strong, assigned to him who sings and praises. May
Gods with Indra as their chief protect us.

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51 Turn yourselves hitherward this day, ye Holy, that fearing
in my heart I may approach you.
Protect us, Gods, let not the wolf destroy us. Save us, ye
Holy, from the pit and falling.
52 This day come all the Maruts, etc., as in XVIII. 31.
53 Listen, All-Gods, to this mine invocation, ye who inhabit
heaven and air's mid-region.
All ye; O Holy Ones, whose tongue is Agni, seated upon
this sacred grass be joyful.
54 For thou at first producest for the holy Gods the noblest of
all portions, immortality.
Thereafter as a gift to men, O Savitar, thou openest existence,
life succeeding life.
55 I with a lofty song call hither Vâyu all-bounteous, filler of
his car, most wealthy.
Thou, Sage, with bright path, Lord of harnessed horses,
impetuous, promptly honourest the prudent.
56 These, Indra-Vâyu, have been shed, etc., as in VII. 8.
57 Mitra of holy strength I call, and foe-destroying Varuna,
Who make the oil-fed rite complete.
58 Nâsatyas, Wonder-workers, yours are these libations with
clipt grass.
Come ye whose paths are bright with glow.
59 When Saramâ had, found the mountain's fissure, that vast
and ancient place she plundered thoroughly.
In the floods’ van she led them forth, light-footed: she who
well knew came first unto their lowing.

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60 For nowhere did they find another envoy to lead the way
than this Vaisvânara Agni.
The Gods immortal strengthened the immortal Vaisvânara
to win the land in battle.
61 The strong, dispellers of the foe, Indra and Agni, we invoke:
May they be kind to one like me.
62 Sing forth to Indu, O ye men, to him as he is purified,
Fain to pay worship to the Gods.
63 Drink Soma, Indra, handed with the Maruts who, Boon
Lord! strengthened thee at Ahi's slaughter,
’Gainst Sambara, Lord of Bays! in winning cattle, and now
rejoice in thee, the holy singers.
64 Thou vast born mighty for victorious valour, exulting,
strongest, full of pride and courage.
There, even there the Maruts strengthened Indra when his
most rapid Mother stirred the Hero.
65 O thou who slewest Vritra, come, O Indra, hither to our side,
Mighty One with thy mighty aids.
66 Thou in thy battles, Indra, art subduer of all hostile bands.
Father art thou, all-conquering, cancelling the curse: vanquish
the men who fight with us.
67 Heaven and Earth cling close to thy victorious might
As sire and mother to their child.
68 The sacrifice obtains the Gods’ acceptance, etc., as in VIII. 4.
69 Protect our habitation, Savitar, this day with guardian
aids around, propitious, ne’er beguiled.
God of the golden tongue, keep us for newest bliss: let not
the evil-wisher have us in his power.

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70 For you have flowed, through noble ministration, pressed
by Adhvaryus, bright sweet-flavoured juices.
Drive on thy team and come thou hither, Vâyu: drink for
thy rapture of the sap of Soma.
71 Ye Cows, protect, etc., as in verse 14.
72 Come ye foe-slayers to the place of meeting, to the
birth-places of the two great Sages,
With force of intellect unto the dwelling.
73 Ye two divine Adhvaryus, etc., as in verse 33. Thou in
the time of old. See, Vena.
74 Transversely was the severing line extended: was it above,
or was it, haply, under?
There were begetters, there were mighty forces, free action
here and energy up yonder.
75 He hath filled heaven and earth and the great realm of light,
when at his birth the skilful held him in their hold.
He like a steed is led forth to the sacrifice, Sage, graciously
inclined, that he may win us wealth.
76 Call hither with the song and lauds the two best slayers of
the foe,
Delighting even in our hymn.
77 All Sons of Immortality shall listen to the songs we sing,
And be exceeding good to us.
78 Mine are devotions, hymns, sweet are libations. Strength
stirs, and hurled forth is my rocky weapon.
They call for me, for me their lauds are longing. To their
libations these my Bay Steeds bear me.

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79 Nothing, O Bounteous Lord, stands firm before thee: among
the Gods not one is found thine equal.
None born or springing into life comes near thee. Do what
thou hast to do, exceeding mighty!
80 In all the worlds That was the Best and Highest whence
sprang the mighty God of splendid valour.
Quickly when born he overcomes his foemen, he in whom
all who lend him aid are joyful.
81 May these my songs of praise exalt thee, Lord, who hast
abundant wealth.
Men skilled in holy hymns, pure, with the hues of fire, have
sung them with their lauds to thee.
82 Good Lord of wealth is he to whom all Âryas, Dâsas here
E’en over unto thee, the pious Rusama Pavîru, is that
wealth brought nigh.
83 He, with his might advanced by Rishis thousandfold, hath
like an ocean spread himself.
His majesty is praised as true at solemn rites, his power
where holy singers rule.
84. Protect our habitation, Savitar, etc., as in verse 69.
85 Come, Vâyu, drawn by fair hymns, to our sacrifice that
reaches heaven.
Poured on the middle of the straining-cloth and dressed,
this bright drink hath been offered thee.
86 Indra and Vâyu, fair to see and swift to hear, we call to us,
That in assembly all, yea, all the folk may be benevolent to
us and free from malady.

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87 Yea, specially that mortal man hath toiled for service of
the Gods,
Who quickly hath brought near Mitra and Varuna to share
his sacrificial gifts.
38 Approach ye, and be near to us. Drink, O ye Asvins, of
the mead.
Draw forth the milk, ye mighty, rich in genuine wealth!
Injure us not, and come to us.
89 May Brahmanaspati draw nigh, may Sûnritâ the Goddess
And Gods bring to our rite which gives the fivefold gift the
Hero, lover of mankind.
90 Within the Waters runs the Moon, he with the beauteous
wings, in heaven.
To yellow-hued abundant wealth, object of many a man's
desire, loud-neighing goes the tawny Steed.
91 Singing their praise with godlike hymn let us invoke each
God for grace,
Each God to bring you help, each God to strengthen you.
92 Agni Vaisvânara, set in heaven, with mighty splendour
hath shone forth.
Increasing in his power on earth, benevolent, he quells the
darkness with his light.
93 First, Indra Agni! hath this Maid come footless unto those
with feet.
Stretching her head and speaking loudly with her tongue,
she hath gone downward thirty steps.

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94 For of one spirit are the Gods with mortal man, co-sharers
all of gracious gifts.
May they increase our strength hereafter and to-day, providing
ease and ample room.
95 Indra who quells the curse blew curses far away, and then
in splendour came to us.
Indra, refulgent with the Marut host! the Gods eagerly
strove to win thy love.
96 To Indra, to your mighty Chief, Maruts, sing forth a mighty
Let Satakratu, Vritra-slayer, kill the fiend with hundred-knotted
97 Indra increased his manly strength at sacrifice, in the wild
rapture of this juice;
And living men to-day, even as of old, sing forth their
praises to his majesty.
May these. Good Lord of wealth. He with his might.
Stand up erect.

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THAT which, divine, mounts far when man is waking, that
which returns to him when he is sleeping,
The lights’ one light that goeth to a distance, may that,
my mind, be moved by right intention.
2 Whereby the wise and thoughtful in assemblies, active in
sacrifice, perform their duties,
The peerless spirit stored in living creatures, may that, my
mind, be moved by right intention.
3 That which is wisdom, intellect, and firmness, immortal light
which creatures have within them,
That without which men do no single action, may that, my
mind, be moved by right intention.
4 Whereby, immortal, all is comprehended, the world which is,
and what shall be hereafter,
Whereby spreads sacrifice with seven Hotars, may that, my
mind, be moved by right intention.
5 Wherein the Richas, Sâmans, Yajur-verses, like spokes within
a car's nave, are included,
And all the thought of creatures is inwoven, may that, my
mind, be moved by right intention.
6 Controlling men, as, with the reins that guide them, a skilful
charioteer drives fleet-foot horses,
Which dwells within the heart, agile, most rapid, may that,
my mind, be moved by right intention.
7 Now will I glorify great strength's upholder, Food,
By whose invigorating might Trita rent Vritra limb from limb.

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8 Do thou, in truth, Anumati, assent and grant us happiness.
Urge us to strength and energy: prolong the days we have
to live.
9 Anumati this day approve our sacrifice among the Gods!
Oblation-bearing Agni be, and thou, bliss to the worshipper!
10 O broad-tressed Sinîvâlî, thou who art the sister of the Gods,
Accept the offered sacrifice, and, Goddess, grant us progeny.
11 Five rivers flowing on their way speed onward to Sarasvatî,
But then became Sarasvatî a fivefold river in the land.
12 O Agni, thou the earliest Angiras, the Seer, hast, God thyself,
become the Gods’ auspicious Friend.
After thy holy ordinance the Maruts, sage, active through
wisdom, with their glittering spears, were born.
15 Worthy to be revered, O Agni, God, preserve our wealthy
patrons with thy succours, and ourselves.
Guard art thou of our seed and progeny and cows, incessantly
protecting in thy holy law.
14 Lay this with care on her who lies extended: straight, when
impregned, hath she brought forth the Hero.
With his bright pillar—radiant is his lustre—in our skilled
task is born the Son of Idâ.
15 In Idâ's place, the centre of the earth, will we deposit thee,
That, Agni Jâtavedas, thou mayst bear our offerings to the
16 Like Angiras a gladdening laud we ponder to him who loveth
song, exceeding mighty.
Let us sing glory to the far-famed Hero who must be praised
with fair hymns by the singer.

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17 Unto the Great One bring great adoration, a chant of praise
to him the very potent,
Through whom our sires, Angirases, singing praises, and
knowing well the places, found the cattle.
18 The friends who offer Soma long to find thee: they pour
forth Soma and present their viands.
They bear, Unmoved, the cursing of the people, for all our
wisdom comes from thee, O Indra.
19 Not far for thee are mid-air's loftiest regions: start hither,
Lord of Bays, with both Bay Horses.
Pressed for the Firm and Strong are these libations. The
pressing-stones are set, the fire is kindled.
20 Invincible in fight, saviour in battles, guard of our camp,
winner of light and water,
Born amid hymns, well-housed, exceeding famous, victor, in
thee may we rejoice, O Soma.
21 To him who worships Soma gives a milch cow, a fleet steed,
and a man of active knowledge,
Skilled in home duties, competent in council, meet for the
court, the glory of his father.
22 These herbs, these milch-kine, and these running waters, all
these, O Soma, thou hast generated.
The spacious firmament hast thou expanded, and with the
light thou hast dispelled the darkness.
23 Do thou, God Soma, with thy God-like spirit, victorious,
win for us a share of riches.
Let none prevent thee: thou art Lord of valour. Provide
for these and those in fight for cattle.
24 The earth's eight points his brightness hath illumined, three
desert regions, and the Seven Rivers.

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God Savitar the gold-eyed hath come hither, giving choice
treasures to the man who worships.
25 Savitar, golden-handed, swiftly moving, goes on his way
between the earth and heaven,
Drives away sickness, bids the Sun approach us, and spreads
the bright sky through the darksome region.
26 May, he, gold-handed Asura, kind leader, come hitherward
to us with help and favour.
Driving off Râkshasas and Yâtudhânas, the God is present,
praised in hymns at evening.
27 O Savitar, thine ancient dustless pathways are well established
in the air's mid-region.
O God, come by those paths so fair to travel: preserve thou
us from harm this day and bless us.
28 Drink our libations, Asvins twain, grant us protection, both
of you,
With aids which none may interrupt.
29 Make ye our speech effectual, O Asvins, and this our hymn,
ye mighty Wonder-workers.
In luckless game I call on you for succour: strengthen us
also on the field of battle.
30 With undiminished blessings, O ye Asvins, through days and
nights on every side protect us.
This prayer of ours may Varuna grant, and Mitra, and Aditi
and Sindhu, Earth and Heaven.
31 Throughout the dusky firmament, etc., as in XXXIII. 43.
32 Night! the terrestrial realm hath been filled with the
Father's power and might.
Thou spreadest thee on high unto the seats of heaven: terrific
darkness cometh nigh.

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33 O Dawn enriched with ample wealth, bestow on us that
wondrous gift
Wherewith we may support children and children's sons.
34 Agni at dawn, and Indra we invoke at dawn, and Varuna
and Mitra and the Asvins twain,
Bhaga at dawn, Pûshan and Brahmanaspati, Soma at dawn,
Rudra may we invoke at dawn.
35 May we invoke strong early-conquering Bhaga, the Son of
Aditi, the great Arranger,
Thinking of whom the poor, yea, even the mighty, even the
King says, Let me share in Bhaga.
36 Bhaga our guide, Bhaga whose gifts are faithful, favour this
prayer and give us wealth, O Bhaga.
Bhaga, increase our store of kine and horses: Bhaga, may
we be rich in men and heroes.
37 So may felicity be ours at present, and when the day
approaches, and at noontide;
And may we still, O Bounteous One, at sunset be happy in
the Deities’ loving-kindness.
38 May Bhaga verily he Bliss-bestower, and through him,
Gods! may happiness attend us.
As such, O Bhaga, all with might invoke thee: as such be
thou our Champion here, O Bhaga.
39 To this our worship may the Dawns incline them, and come
to the pure place like Dadhikrâvan.
As strong steeds draw a chariot shay they bring us hitherward
Bhaga who discovers treasure.
40 May friendly Mornings dawn on us for ever, with wealth of
kine, of horses, and of heroes,
Streaming with all abundance, pouring fatness. Preserve
us evermore, ye Gods, with blessings.

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41 Secure in thy protecting care, O Pûshan, never may we fail:
We here are singers of thy praise.
42 I praise with eloquence hire who guards all pathways. He,
when his love impelled him, went to Arka.
May he vouchsafe us gear with gold to grace it: may Pûshan
make each prayer of ours effective.
43 Vishnu the undeceivable Protector strode three steps, thenceforth
Establishing his high decrees.
44 This, Vishnu's station most sublime, the singers ever vigilant.
Lovers of holy song, light up.
45 Filled full of fatness, compassing all things that be, wide,
spacious, dropping meath, beautiful in their form,
The Heaven and the Earth by Varuna's decree, unwasting,
rich in seed, stand parted each from each.
46 Let those who are our foemen stand afar from us: with
Indra and with Agni we will drive them off.
Vasus, Âdityas, Rudras have exalted me, made me preëminent,
mighty, thinker, sovran lord.
47 Come, O Nâsatyas, with the thrice eleven Gods: come,
O ye Asvins, to the drinking of the meath.
Prolong our days of life, and wipe out all our sins: ward off
our enemies; be with us evermore.
48 May this your praise, may this your song, O Maruts, sung
by the poet, Mâna's son, Mândârya,

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Bring offspring for ourselves with food to feed us. May we
find strengthening food in full abundance.
49 They who were versed in ritual and metre, in hymns and
rules, were the Seven godlike Rishis.
Viewing the path of those of old, the sages have taken up
the reins like chariot-drivers.
50 Bestowing splendour, length of life, increase of wealth, and
conquering power,
This brightly shining gold shall be attached to me for victory.
51 This gold no demons injure, no Pisâchas; for this is might
of Gods, their primal offspring.
Whoever wears the gold of Daksha's children lives a long life
among the Gods, lives a long life among mankind.
52 This ornament of gold which Daksha's children bound, with
benevolent thoughts, on Satânîka,
I bind on me for life through hundred autumns, that I may
live till ripe old age o’ertakes me.
53 Let Ahibudhnya also hear our calling, and Aja-Ekapâd and
Earth and Ocean.

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All Gods Law-strengtheners, invoked and lauded, and Texts
recited by the sages, help us!
54 These hymns that drop down fatness, with the ladle I ever
offer to the Kings Âdityas.
May Mitra, Aryaman, and Bhaga hear us, the mighty Varuna,
Daksha, and Amsa.
55 Seven Rishis are established in the body: seven guard it
evermore with care unceasing.
Seven waters seek the world of him who lies asleep: two
sleepless Gods are feast-fellows of him who wakes.
56 O Brahmanaspati, arise. God-fearing men, we pray to thee.
May they who give good gifts, the Maruts, come to us. Indra,
be thou most swift with them.
57 Now Brahmanaspati speaks forth aloud the solemn hymn
of praise.
Wherein Indra and Varuna, Mitra, Aryaman, the Gods have
made their dwelling-place.
58 O Brahmanaspati, be thou controller of this our hymn, and
prosper thou our children.
All that the Gods regard with love is blessèd. Loud may
we speak, with brave sons, in assembly.
He who sate down. Mighty in mind. Father who made us.
A share of good, O Lord of Food.

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BEGONE the Panis, hence away, rebellious, scorners of the
The place is his who poured the juice.
2 Let Savitar approve a spot upon the earth for thy remains:
And let the bulls be yoked for it.
3 Let Vâyu purify. Let Savitar purify. With Agni's glitter.
With Savitar's lustre. Let the bulls be unyoked.
4 The Holy Fig Tree is your home, your mansion is the Parna
Winners of cattle shall ye be if ye regain for me this man.
5 Let Savitar lay down thy bones committed to the Mother's
Be pleasant to this man, O Earth.
6 Here in the God Prajâpati, near water, Man, I lay thee down:
May his light drive mishap from us.
7 Go hence, O Death, pursue thy special pathway apart from
that which Gods are wont to travel.
To thee I say it who hast eyes and hearest: Touch not our
offspring, injure not our heroes.

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8 Pleasant to thee be wind and sun, and pleasant be the bricks
to thee.
Pleasant to thee be the terrestrial fires: let them not scorch
thee in their flames.
9 Prosper for thee the regions and the waters, and let the seas
for thee be most propitious.
Auspicious unto thee be Air. Prosper all Quarters well for
10 On flows the stony flood: hold fast each other, keep yourselves
up, my friends, and pass the river.
Here let us leave the powers that brought no profit, and
cross the flood to Powers that are auspicious.
11 Drive away evil, drive away fault, sorcery, and guiltiness.
Do thou, O Apâmârga, drive the evil dream away from us.
12 To us let waters and the plants be friendly, to him who
hates us, whom we hate, unfriendly.
13 For our prosperity we touch the ox the son of Surabhi.
Be bearer and deliverer to us as Indra to the Gods.
14 Looking upon the loftiest light, etc., as in XX. 21.
15 Here I erect this rampart for the living: let none of these,
none other, reach this limit.
May they survive a hundred lengthened autumns, and may
they bury Death beneath this mountain.
16 Agni, thou pourest life, etc., as in XIX. 38.

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17 Waxing with sacrifice live long, O Agni, with butter on thy
face and homed in fatness.
When thou hast drunk the cows’ fair savoury butter, guard,
as a father guards his son, these people.
18 These men have led about the ox, have duly carried Agni
And raised their glory to the Gods. Who will attack them
with success?
19 I drive Corpse-eating Agni to a distance: sin-laden let him
go to Yama's kingdom.
Here let this other, Jâtavedas, carry oblation to the Deities,
20 Carry the fat to Fathers, Jâtavedas, where, far away, thou
knowest, them established.
Let rivulets of marrow flow to meet them, and let their
truthful wishes be accomplished. All-hail!
21 Pleasant be thou to us, O Earth, without a thorn, our
Vouchsafe us shelter reaching far. May thy light drive
mishap from us.
22 Born art thou, Agni, from this man: let him again be born
from thee,
For Svarga's world, the man I name. All-hail!

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REFUGE I take in Speech as Rich: refuge in Mind as
Yajus-text; refuge in Breath as Sâma-chant; refuge in
Hearing and in Sight.
Speech-energy endowed with strength, inbreath and
outbreath are in me.
2 Whatever deeply-sunk defect I have of eye, or mind, or
heart, that way Brihaspati amend!
Gracious to us be he, Protector of the world.
3 Earth! Ether! Heaven! May we attain that excellent, etc.,
as in III. 33.
With what help will he come to us etc., as in XXVII. 39.
5 What genuine, etc., as in XXVII. 40.
6 Do thou who art, etc., as in XXVII. 41.
7 O Hero, with what aid dost thou delight us, with what
succour bring
Riches to those who worship thee?
8 Indra is king of all that is: may weal attend our bipeds and
our quadrupeds.
9 Gracious he Mitra unto us, and Varuna and Aryaman;
Indra, Brihaspati be kind, and Vishnu of the mighty stride.
10 Pleasantly blow the wind for us, may Sûrya warm us
Pleasantly, with a roar, the God Parjanya send the rain on us.
11 May days pass pleasantly for us, may nights draw near
Befriend us with their aids Indra and Agni, Indra and
Varuna who taste oblations.
Indra and Pûshan be our help in battle, Indra and Soma
give health, strength, and comfort.
12 May the celestial Waters, our helpers, be sweet for us to drink,
And flow with health and strength to us.

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13 Pleasant be thou to us, O Earth, etc., as in XXXV. 21.
14 Ye, Waters, are, etc., as in XL 50.
15 Give us a portion, etc., as in XI. 51.
16 To you we gladly come, etc., as in XI. 52,
17 Sky alleviation, Air alleviation, Earth alleviation, Plants
Trees alleviation, All-Gods alleviation, Brahma alleviation,
Universe alleviation, just Alleviation alleviation—may
that alleviation come to me!
18 Caldron, strengthen me. May all beings regard me with the
eye of a friend. May I regard all beings with the eye of
a friend.
With the eye of a friend do we regard one another.
19 Do thou, O Caldron, strengthen me. Long may I live to
look on thee. Long may I live to look on thee.
20 Obeisance to thy wrath and glow, etc., as in XXII. 11.
21 Homage to thee the lightning flash, homage to thee the
thunder's roar!
Homage, O Bounteous Lord, to thee whereas thou fain
wouldst win to heaven!
22 From whatsoever trouble thou desirest, give us safety thence.
Give to our children happiness and to our beasts security.
23 To us let Waters and let Plants be friendly, etc., as in VI. 23.
21 Through hundred autumns may we see that bright Eye,
God-appointed, rise,
A hundred autumns may we live.
Through hundred autumns may we hear; through hundred
autumns clearly speak: through hundred autumns live
content; a hundred autumns, yea, beyond a hundred
autumns may we see.

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By impulse of God Savitar I take thee, etc. Spade art thou.
Woman art thou, etc., as in XI. 9, 10.
2 The priests of him the lofty Priest, etc., as in V. 14.
3 O Heaven and Earth divine, may I duly prepare for you
this day the head of Makha on the place of earth where
the Gods sacrificed.
For Makha thee, thee for the head of Makha!
4 Ye who were born the earliest of creation, Ants divine, may
I duly prepare for you this day the head of Makha on
the place of earth where the Gods sacrificed.
For Makha thee, thee for the head of Makha!

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5 Only so large was it at first. Duly may I prepare for you
this day the head of Makha on earth's place where the
Gods sacrificed.
For Makha thee, thee for the head of Makha!
6 Indra's effective might are ye. Duly may I prepare for you
this day the head of Makha on earth's place where the
Gods sacrificed.
For Makha thee, thee for the head of Makha! For Makha
thee, thee for the head of Makha! For Makha thee, thee
for the head of Makha!
7 May Brahmanaspati draw nigh, etc., as in XXXIII. 89.
For Makha thee, thee for the head of Makha, etc., as in
verse 6.
8 Thou art the head of Makha. Thee for Makha, thee for
Makha's head! Thou art the head of Makha. Thee for
Makha, thee for Makha's head! Thou art the head of
Makha, thee for Makha, thee for Makha's head!
For Makha thee, thee for the head of Makha, etc., as in
verse 6.
9 Thee on Gods’ sacrificial ground with stallion's dung I
For Makha thee, thee for the head of Makha!
For Makha thee, thee for the head of Makha! For Makha
thee, thee for the head of Makha! For Makha thee, thee
for the head of Makha!
10 Thee for the True. Thee for the Good. Thee for the place
of happy rest.

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For Makha thee, thee for the head of Makha! For Makha
thee, thee for the head of Makha! For Makha thee, thee
for the head of Makha!
11 For Yama thee. For Makha thee. For Sûrya's fervent
ardour thee.
May Savitar the God with balm anoint thee. Guard thou
the touches of the earth.
Flame art thou; thou art radiance; thou art heat.
12 Unconquerable, eastward, in Agni's overlordship, give me life.
Rich in sons, southward, in Indra's overlordship give me
Fair-seated, westward, in God. Savitar's overlordship, give
me sight.
Range of hearing, northward, in Dhâtar's overlordship, give
me increase of wealth.
Arrangement, upward, in Brihaspati's overlordship, give me
From all destructive spirits guard us. Thou art Manu's mare.
13 All-hail! By Maruts be thou compassed round.
Guard the sky's touches. Mead, mead, mead.
14 Germ of the Gods, Father of hymns, all living creatures’
guardian Lord,
Radiant, with radiant Savitar united, with the Sun he shines.
15 Agni combined with flaming fire, combined with Savitar
divine, hath shone together with the Sun.

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16 He shines on earth upholder of the sky and heat, the Gods
upholder, God, immortal, born of heat.
To him address a speech devoted to the Gods.
17 I saw the Herdsman, him who never stumbles, approaching
by his pathways and departing.
He, clothed with gathered and diffusive splendour, within
the worlds continually travels.
18 Lord of all earths, Lord of all mind, Lord of all speech,
thou Lord of speech entire.
Heard by the Gods, Caldron divine, do thou, a God, protect
the Gods.
Here, after, let it speed you twain on to the banquet of the
Sweetness for both the sweetness-lovers! Sweetness for
those the twain who take delight in sweetness!
19 Thee for the heart, thee for the mind, thee for the sky, for
Sûrya thee.
Standing erect lay thou the sacrifice in heaven among the
20 Thou art our Father, father-like regard us. Obeisance be to
thee. Do not thou harm us.
May we, accompanied by Tvashtar, win thee. Vouchsafe me
sons and cattle. Grant us offspring. Safe may I be together
with my husband.
21 May Day together with his sheen, pair-lighted with his light,
accept. All-hail!
May Night together with her sheen, fair lighted with her.
light, accept. All-hail!

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BY impulse of God Savitar I take thee with arms of Asvins,
with the Hands of Pûshan.
A zone for Aditi art thou.
2 Idâ, come hither. Aditi, come hither. Sarasvatî, come
Come hither, So-and-So. Come hither, So-and-So. Come
hither, So-and-So.
3 Thou art a zone for Aditi, a diadem for Indrânî. Pûshan art
thou. Spare some for the Gharma.
4 Overflow for the Asvins. Overflow for Sarasvatî. Overflow
for Indra
All-hail, what belongs to Indra! All-hail, what belongs to
Indra! All-hail, what belongs to Indra!
5 That breast of thine, exhaustless, fount of pleasure, wealth-giver,
treasure-finder, free-bestower,
Wherewith thou rearest all things that are choicest,—bring
that, Sarasvatî, that we may drain it.
Throughout the spacious middle air I travel.
6 Thou art Gâyatra metre. Thou art Trishtup metre. With
Heaven and Earth I grasp thee. With the Firmament I
raise thee up.
Indra and Asvins, drink ye the hot draught of sweet honey:
sacrifice, ye Vasus. Vât! All-hail to the rain-winning
beam of the Sun!

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7 Thee with Svâhâ to Vâta the sea. Thee with Svâhâ to Vâta
the flood.
Thee with Svâhâ to Vâta the unconquerable. Thee with
Svâhâ to Vâta the irresistible.
Thee with Svâhâ to Vâta the protection-seeker. Thee with
Svâhâ to Vâta the non-destructive.
8 Thee with Svâhâ to Indra Lord of Vasus. Thee with Svâhâ
to Indra Lord of Rudras.
Thee with Svâhâ to Indra killer of foes. Thee with Svâhâ
to Savitar attended by Ribhu, Vibhu, and Vâja. Thee
with Svâhâ to Brihaspati beloved of all the Gods.
9 Svâhâ to Yama attended by the Angirases, attended by the
Svâhâ to the Gharma! The Gharma for the Father!
10 Here hath he worshipped, seated south, all the sky-regions,
all the Gods.
Drink, Asvins, of the heated draught, the Svâhâ-consecrated
11 In heaven lay thou this sacrifice; lay thou this sacrifice in
To sacrificial Agni hail! May bliss be ours from Yajus texts.
12 Drink, Asvins, with your daily helps, the Gharma, strengthener
of hearts.
To him who draweth out the thread be homage, and to
Heaven and Earth.
13 The Gharma have the Asvins drunk: with Heaven and
Earth have they agreed.
Here, verily, be their boons bestowed.
14 Overflow for food. Overflow for energy. Overflow for the
Priesthood. Overflow for the Nobility. Overflow for
Heaven and Earth. Thou, O duteous one, art Duty.
Innocent one, in us establish manly powers; establish the

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15 All-hail to Pûshan, to the milk's skin! All-hail to the
All-hail to their echoes! All-hail to the Fathers who are
above the grass, who drink the Gharma! All-hail to
Heaven and Earth! All-hail to the All-Gods!
16 All-hail to Rudra invoked by worshippers! All-hail! Let
light combine with light.
May Day together with his sheen, fair-lighted with his light,
accept. All hail!
May Night together with her sheen, fair-lighted with her
light, accept. All-hail!
May we enjoy the mead offered in most Indra-like Agni.
Homage to thee, divine Gharma! Do not thou injure me.
17 Thy far-spread majesty, instinct with wisdom, hath
surpassed this heaven,
And, with its glorious fame, the earth.
Seat thee, for thou art mighty: shine, best entertainer of
the Gods.
Worthy of sacred food, praised Agni! loose the smoke ruddy
and beautiful to see.
18 Gharma, that heavenly light of thine in Gâyatrî, in the
May it increase and be confirmed for thee, that light.
Gharma, that light of thine in air, in Trishtup, in the sacred
May it increase and be confirmed for thee, that light.
Gharma, that light of thine on earth, in Jagatî, of the priest's
May that increase and be confirmed for thee, that light.
19 Thee for the sure protection of the Nobles. Guard thou
from injury the Brahman's body.
We follow thee in interest of the People, for the renewal of
our peace and comfort.

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20 Square, far-spread is the sacrifice's navel: it spreads for us
wide, full of all existence, spreads wide for us full of
complete existence.
We turn against the hate and guiles of him who keeps an
alien law.
21 This, Gharma! is thy liquid store. Swell out and wax in
strength thereby.
May we too grow in strength and wax to greatness.
22 Loudly the tawny Stallion neighed, mighty, like Mitra fair to see.
Together with the Sun the sea, the store shone out with
flashing light.
23 To us let Waters and let Plants be friendly; to him who
hates us, whom we hate, unfriendly.
24 Looking upon the loftier light above the darkness we have come
To Sûrya, God among the Gods, the light that is most excellent.
25 A brand art thou, fain would we thrive, Fuel art thou, and
splendour: Give me splendour,
26 Far as the heaven and earth are spread in compass, far as
the Seven Rivers are extended,
So vast thy cup which I with strength am taking, Indra,
unharmed in me, uninjured ever.
27 In me be that great hero power, in me be strength and
mental force:
The Gharma shines with triple light, with lustre fulgent
far away, with holy lore, with brilliancy.
28 Brought hither is the seed of milk. Through each succeeding
year may we enjoy the bliss of draining it.
Invited, I enjoy a share of that which hath been offered me,
the savoury draught by Indra drunk and tasted by Prajâpati.

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SVÂHÂ to the Vital Breathings with their Controlling Lord!
To Earth Svâhâ! To Agni Svâhâ! To Firmament, Svâhâ!
To Vâyu Svâhâ! To Sky Svâhâ! To Sûrya Svâhâ!
2 To the Quarters Svâhâ! To the Moon Svâhâ! To the Stars
Svâhâ! To the Waters Svâhâ! To Varuna Svâhâ! To
the Navel Svâhâ! To the Purified Svâhâ!
3 To Speech Svâhâ! To Breath Svâhâ! To Breath Svâhâ!
To Sight Svâhâ! To Sight Svâhâ! To Hearing Svâhâ!
To Hearing Svâhâ!
4 The wish and purpose of the mind and truth of speech may
I obtain.
Bestowed on me be cattle's form, swept taste of food, and
fame and grace. Svâhâ!
5 Prajâpati while in preparation; Samrâj when prepared;
All-Gods’ when seated; Gharma when heated with fire;
Splendour when lifted up; the Asvins’ while milk is
poured in; Pûshan's when the butter trickles down it;
the Maruts’ when the milk is clotting; Mitra's when the
milk's skin is spreading; Vâyu's when it is carried off;
Agni's while offered as oblation; Vâk when it has been
6 Savitar on the first day; Agni on the second; Vâyu on the
third; Âditya (the Sun) on the fourth; Chandramâs (the
Moon) on the fifth; Ritu on the sixth; the Maruts on
the seventh; Brihaspati on the eighth; Mitra on the
ninth; Varuna on the tenth; Indra on the eleventh;
the All-Gods on the twelfth.

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7 Fierce; Terrible; The Resonant; The Roarer; Victorious;
Assailant; and Dispeller. Svâhâ.
8 Agni with the heart; Lightning with the heart's point;
Pasupati with the whole heart; Bhava with the liver.
Sarva with the two cardiac bones; Îsâna with Passion;
Mahâdeva with the intercostal flesh; the Fierce God with
the rectum; Vasishtha-hanuh, Singis with two lumps of
flesh near the heart.
9 The Fierce with blood; Mitra with obedience, Rudra with
disobedience; Indra with pastime; the Maruts with
strength; the Sâdhyas with enjoyment.
Bhava's is what is on the throat; Rudra's what is between
the ribs; Mahâdeva's is the liver; Sarva's the rectum;
Pasupati's the pericardium.
10 To the hair Svâhâ! To the hair Svâhâ! To the skin Svâhâ!
To the skin Svâhâ! To the blood Svâhâ! To the blood
Svâhâ! To the fats Svâhâ! To the fats Svâhâ! To the
fleshy parts Svâhâ! To the fleshy parts Svâhâ! To the
sinews Svâhâ! To the sinews Svâhâ! Svâhâ to the bones!
Svâhâ to the bones! To the marrows Svâhâ! To the
marrows Svâhâ! To the seed Svâhâ! To the anus Svâhâ!

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11 To Effort Svâhâ! To Exertion Svâhâ! To Endeavour Svâhâ!
To Viyâsa Svâhâ! To Attempt Svâhâ!
12 To Grief Svâhâ! To the Grieving Svâhâ! To the Sorrowing
Svâhâ! To Sorrow Svâhâ!
To Heat Svâhâ! To him who grows hot Svâhâ! To him
who is being heated Svâhâ! To him who has been heated
Svâhâ! To Gharma Svâhâ!
To Atonement Svâhâ! To Expiation Svâhâ! To Remedy
13 To Yama Svâhâ! To the Finisher Svâhâ! To Death Svâhâ!
To the Priesthood Svâhâ! To Brâhmanicide Svâhâ! To
the All-Gods Svâhâ! To Heaven and Earth Svâhâ!

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ENVELOPED by the Lord must be This All—each thing that
moves on earth.
With that renounced enjoy thyself. Covet no wealth of
any man.
2 One, only doing Karma here, should wish to live a hundred
No way is there for thee but this. So Karma cleaveth not
to man.
3 Aye, to the Asuras belong those worlds enwrapt in blinding
To them, when life on earth is done, depart the men who
kill the Self.

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4 Motionless, one, swifter than Mind—the Devas failed to
o’ertake it speeding on before them.
It, standing still, outstrips the others running. Herein Both
Mâtarisvan stablish Action.
5 It moveth; it is motionless. It is far distant; it is near.
It is within This All; and it surrounds This All externally.
6 The man who in his Self beholds all creatures and all things
that be,
And in all beings sees his Self, thence doubts no longer,
ponders not.
7 When, in the man who clearly knows, Self hath become all
things that are,

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What wilderment, what grief is there in him who sees the
One alone?
8 He hath attained unto the Bright, Bodiless, Woundless,
Sinewless, the Pure which evil hath not pierced.
Far-sighted, wise, encompassing, he self-existent hath
prescribed aims, as propriety demands, unto the
everlasting Years.
9 Deep into shade of blinding gloom fall Asambhûti's
They sink to darkness deeper yet who on Sambhûti are
10 One fruit, they say, from Sambhava, another from Asambhava.
Thus from the sages have we heard who have declared this
lore to us.
11 The man who knows Sambhûti and Vinâsa simultaneously,
He, by Vinâsa passing death, gains by Sambhûti endless life.

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12 To blinding darkness go the men who make a cult of
The devotees of Science enter darkness that is darker still.
13 Different is the fruit, they say, of Science and of Nescience.
Thus from the sages have we heard who have declared this
lore to us.
14 The man who knoweth well these two, Science and Nescience,
O’ercoming death by Nescience by Science gaineth endless
15 My breath reach everlasting Air! In ashes let my body end.
OM! Mind, remember thou; remember thou my sphere;
remember thou my deeds.

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16 By goodly path lead us to riches, Agni, thou God who
knowest all our works and wisdom.
Remove the sin that makes us stray and wander: most
ample adoration will we bring thee.
17 The Real's face is hidden by a vessel formed of golden light.
The Spirit yonder in the Sun, the Spirit dwelling there am I.
OM! Heaven! Brahma!

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Source: Max Müllers' translation of the Upanishads, Volume One. (1879) (Volume 1 of the Sacred Books of the East.) and Volume Two. (1884) (Volume 15 of the Sacred Books of the East.). While we have made every effort to reproduce the text correctly, we do not guarantee or accept any responsibility for any errors or omissions or inaccuracies in the reproduction of this text.

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