Websites About the History of Hinduism

Hinduism Links

Links to the History of Hinduism

Development of Hindu Thought - Development of philosophical thought and scientific method in ancient India.

Hinduism Timeline - A timeline of Hinduism's earliest beginnings, including world events as points of reference.

Hindus in Armenia - An unknown chapter in the history of ancient India and Armenia. An article by Dr.Mesrob Jacob Seth.

Historical Chronology of Bharat - A chronological account of developments in Indian history with specific reference to the development of Hinduism scripture.

Alexander in India - Brief one page account of Alexander of Macedonia's time east of the Hindu Kush.

The Date of Kanishka - A modern discussion of this topic by Robert Bracey.

Democracy in Ancient India - Steve Muhlberger, Associate Professor of History, Nipissing University, describes republics and other democratic forms of government in ancient India.

History of Bengal - Chronicles the art, archaeology, history and culture of Chandraketugarh, near Calcutta, an important medieval site.

Indian Philosphy from Upanishadic Theism to Scientific Realism - Describes the development of Indian philosophy after the development of the Upanishads. Includes a discussion of the Nyaya Sutras, and the atomic theories of Buddhist and Jain philosophers.

Naval Warfare in Ancient India - Article in the Indian Historical Quarterly published 1930.

Political and Social Ethics of India - The Magadha and Maurya empires and Alexander's conquests in the North. By Sanderson Beck

Concise History - Offers a brief summary of India's history and kingdoms.

Glorious India - A journey through India - Provide information about Indian history, culture, religion, people, places, tourism, geography, economy, and biographies of famous persons.

India - Information about India's origin, history, some pictures.

India Resource - Hosts sites concerning Indian history and social studies, collection of other links.

IndiaCulture - Provides information on Indian community, culture, religion, historical origin, and also open discussion on related topics.

Indian History - Indian history from ancient times to modern times. Includes a search facility.

Naya Ishtahar - Anthology of the Naxalite movement in India in 70's.

Patriots of Modern India - Lists some freedom fighters and patriots and provides brief biographies.

South Asian History - Shishir Thadani offers essays on the history of the Indian sub-continent including science, technology, philosophy, culture, social relations, colonization and independence.

Timeline of India - Relates the ancient backdrop of Indian civilizations.

Today In Indian History - Find what happened in Indian History on any date chronologically and date wise. Provides details of historic events, birth date and death date. 

Tamils: A Brief Introduction - Historical account of the Tamil people and the Tamil country.

Internet Indian History Sourcebook - An extensive collection of links and original source material on the history, religion and culture of the whole subcontinent, from the earliest times.

Bharteeya Historiography - An article by Sriram Sathe questioning the foundations of current accepted histories of India.

Coinage - Describes the coinage of India with moderately detailed historic notes.

Heritage (India Heritage) - A site devoted to the culture of India. In particular there are pages describing the history and development of temple architecture.

Hindu History - Discusses many topics in the history of the subcontinent from an Indian nationalist viewpoint. By Sudheer Birodkar.

History of India - Topics include the caste system, widow-burning, Jewish communities.

India 3000 BC - 1750 AD - Chronology of the history of India.

Indian Civilization Studies - Mailing List - Mailing list to exchange information on Indian civilization studies and research findings.

Indology - Academic site at University College London, with a large and up to date collection of links.

Jain History Outline - Timelines of Jain history with many links to history topics and Jain texts, comparisons with other historical events.

Library of Hindu History - An overall view, as seen from a modern religious and Hindu nationalist viewpoint.

Manas: History and Politics - A brief overview of the history of the subcontinent.

A Short History of Bengal - History of the Bengal region and the people, and their language and culture, from the ancient to the modern period.

South Asian History - Several essays on the history of the Indian subcontinent. Topics covered include history of science and philosophy, trade, crafts and manufacturing as well as the impact of colonial rule and partition.

Technological Discoveries and Applications in India - Brief history of technological innovations and development. Outlines developments in construction activities, town planning, metallurgy, water-management, medical tools, textile technology, and India's role in the industrial revolution. Ancient India

Development of Hindu Thought - Development of philosophical thought and scientific method in ancient India.

Hinduism Timeline - A timeline of Hinduism's earliest beginnings, including world events as points of reference.

Hindus in Armenia - An unknown chapter in the history of ancient India and Armenia. An article by Dr.Mesrob Jacob Seth.

Historical Chronology of Bharat - A chronological account of developments in Indian history with specific reference to the development of Hinduism scripture.

Ancient India - Brief overviews of the major topics from prehistory through to the Islamic invasions.

Ancient India - Explore the people, culture, beliefs, and history of ancient India using animations, 3D models and objects from the British Museum's collections.

Ancient Indus Tour: Indus Essay 1 - A 90 slide tour of the ancient Indus Valley with one of its foremost scholars, Jonathan Mark Kenoyer.

Daily Life in Ancient India - Part of a schools series, laid out in a simple easy to follow form.

Indus Valley; People and Languages - Detailed account by Dr Tariq Rahman on the people and languages of the IV civilisation, and their relationships to modern societies and languages.

Vedas and Upanishads by Sanderson Beck - Account of the Vedic age, with historical notes. Follows the accepted histories of ancient India.

The Aryan Question Revisited - Text of a lecture by Romila Thapar discussing the existence of the distinction between Arya and Dasa in the Rg Veda.

The Aryans - A page by Richard Hooker, supportive of the Aryan invasion theory, and describing Aryans in India according to the standard histories.

Fall of Harappan Civilization - Ascribes the fall of the Indus civilisation to Aryan invasions, and defends the Aryan Invasion Theory.

History of Ancient India - Restating the claims by eminent authors who disagree with the Aryan Invasion Theory.

Kalidas Vedic India - Website maintained by N. S. Rajaram, author of several works criticising the Aryan invasion theory, and presenter of a possible decipherment of the Indus Valley script.

The Myth of Aryan Invasion of India - David Frawley makes the case stated in the title in a detailed book length exposition.

Update on the Aryan Invasion Debate - Outlines the case against the theory of the 'Aryan Invasion', and discusses the contemporary political implications of the theory. Online version of a book by Koenraad Elst.

Why Pepetuate Myths? - Text of a lecture from B. B. Lal claiming continuity between the ancient Indus valley culture and more modern times. Includes graphic evidence.

Wikipedia: Aryan Invasion Theory - An overview of the theory, plus information on criticism of it and evidence for and against. Medieval India

The Babur Nama - An extract from Babur's account of his invasion of India, a backgrounder on the Babri Masjid issue and Mir Baqi's inscription on the mosque

A Forgotten Empire: Vijayanagar; A Contribution to the History of India - The text of the history by Robert Sewell. At Project Gutenberg.

Hindu Kush means Hindu Slaughter - Accounts of the taking of captives across the Hindu Kush into West Asia and the possible origins of European Gypsies in these captives.

Impact of Islam on India - Examines the impact of Islam on Indian culture, society, trade, politics, manufacturing, social relations, art and crafts and urbanization

Portuguese Bengal - The history of Portuguese settlements in Bangla Desh,the Coromandel Coast, and Arakan.

The Real Akbar. - Unsympathetic account of Akbar, detailing some of his less publicised and intolerant acts and practices.

The Rise and Fall of the Mughals - On Mughal military expansion, development of trade and manufacturing by Sher Shah Suri and Akbar, Mughal arts and crafts, and factors that contributed to the collapse of the empire.

Sidi Al Reis; Travels to India - Extract from the Mirat ul Memalik, the account by Sidi Al Reis, a Turkish admiral of his travels in India in 1557.

Details of the Life of Shivaji Maharaj - The first Maratha hero to successfully resist Muslim kings in 17th century and founder of the Maratha empire. Seen as an ideal king, considered a great protector of Hinduism.

James Laine, Shivaji And Freedom Of Speech - Manu Bhagavan on the ideologies behind the attacks on James Laine, for permitting material alleged to be disrespectful of Shivaji to appear in his book.

Shivaji and the Marathas - Some key topics are missing and awaiting completion but there are a few useful articles.

Christian Science Monitor: How a US historian sparked calls for his arrest - "Laine is the latest in a long string of authors to meet the violent face of political correctness in India." (March 29, 2004)

BBC : The Mughal Empire - A brief account of the Mughal (or Mogul) Empire, which ruled most of India and Pakistan in the 16th and 17th centuries; it also spread Muslim (and particularly Persian) arts and culture in South Asia.

A Concise History Of India : The Mogul Empire - Covers the rise and decline of the Mogul Empire on the Indian sub-continent, from 1500 to 1765 CE.

The Hilltop Palace in the Fort of Daulatabad - An illustrated history and description of a site of particular importance for Mughal imperial ambitions for the control of the Deccan. [Maharashtra, India]

Indian History Sourcebook : An Account of India and the Great Moghul, 1655 - An excerpt from Francois Bernier's "An Account of India and the Great Moghul" of 1655 CE. Describes Shah Jehan and his rule.

The Memoirs of Babur - An extract from the Babur Nama (translation by Annette Susannah Beveridge, 1921) where the first Mughal emperor chronicles his conquest of Delhi and Agra.

The Mughal Empire - A timeline from 1526 to the Battle of Plassey.

The Mughals - A history of the empire, from its origins; includes biographies, exploits and cultural achievements of the emperors; also a brief account of the Sikhs, and colonial rule.

Period of Muslim Dominance 1207-1701 C.E. - An overview of Islam, the Delhi Sultanate (founded by Qutb-ud-Din Aibek), and the Mughal Empire of Babur. Includes links to other resources.

When the Moguls Ruled ... - A history of the Mughal Empire; includes maps, biographies of rulers, a timeline, and examples of their arts. Archeology

Archaeobotanical and Settlement Survey, South Indian Neolithic - Fieldwork has involved Reinvestigation of known archaeological sites through test excavations together with Professor Ravi Korisettar of Karnatak University and Dr. P. C. Venkatasubbaiah.

Archaeobotany of Early Historic sites in Southern Tamil Nadu - Sites sampled included two that were under excavation by the Tamil State Government Department of Archaeology and one which Dr. Rajan has had excavations on in the past.

Archaeobotany of the Vindhyan Neolithic, Gangetic India, Uttar Pradesh - This study, in collaboration with Professor J. N. Pal hopes to assess the evidence for early rice cultivation, as well as other crops, from the Mesolithic to Neolithic archaeological sequence provided by the sites of Chopani-Mando, Koldihwa and Mahagara.

Archaeology in the Third World - Review by D. P. Agrawal of Dilip K. Chakrabarti's 2003 volume.

Archaic Indian Punch Marked Coins - An article by Shailendra Bhandare on approaches to the classification of Archaic Indian punch marked coins.

Artifacts or Geofacts? - An alternative explanation of alleged artifacts from the Gulf of Cambay, western India.

Asoka Statues Unearthed in India - An article from the BBC reporting the discovery of two statues of King Asoka.

Banawali Mound - Banawali Mound lies 14 kms, north-west of Fatehbad on the right bank of the Rangoi Nala. It is spread over an 1kmsq area and is 10 meters high.

Bhimbetka [Archaeological Site in India] - Features an illustrated article about mesolithic artists who loved to paint animals.

Buddhist Archaeological Sites - A survey of Buddhist archaeological sites with links to photographs of surviving stupas and museum sculpture collections.

Concern Over Distortions - An article in Frontline reporting that participants at the Kolkata session of the Indian History Congress express concern over attempts to distort history in school textbooks and thus subvert secular education.

Dholavira - A description of the Harappan site at Dholavira.

Discover India - Features articles on Banawali, Dholavira, and Burzahom, archaeological sites in India.

Excavations at Arikamedu, India - On the southeast coast of India just south of Pondicherry, is the most famous archaeological site in southern India. Discovered in the 1930s and quickly linked with Roman trade, it was excavated three times in the 1940s. The first excavation was an amateur French endeavor. Wheeler conducted the second; with the third being conducted by Casal.

Excavations at the Palaeolithic Site of Attirampakkam - Significant conceptual developments in Indian prehistory and Quaternary studies had their origin in research at this site, which was also characterised as a type-site of the Acheulian handaxe-based 'Madras Industries'.

An Extensive Middle Palaeolithic Quarry Landscape in the Kaladgi Basin - The Kaladgi Basin is a well-known region of southern India as the area has been subject to archaeological surveys from the 1960s to the 1980s. Survey has resulted in the identification of 191 Middle Palaeolithic localities along the margins of the Malaprabha and Ghataprabha rivers.

Group of Monuments at Hampi - A brief description and justification for inscription.

The Gulf of Khambat Debate - Discussion with two eminent historians on the underwater discoveries in the Gulf of Khambat, announced in January 2002.

Gupta Era Statue Found in Patna - From the Times of India reporting that a statue belonging to the Gupta period was unearthed while digging for construction of a temple near Rani Ghat on the outskirts of Patna district.

Harappan Civilization - Haryana, Rajasthan & Beyond? - An article in The South Asian describing excavations at the village of Rakhigarhi, about 150km from Delhi.

Heritage in Ruins - From Tribune, 20 km from Chandigarh, is the township of Pinjore, which is steeped in history; besides being a retreat for tourists, has remained the centre of attraction for art lovers and archaeologists who come here to see these rare archaeological findings

Hindutva and History - An editorial article in Frontline discussing history as projected by Hindutva ideologues, which is being introduced to children through textbooks and is being imposed upon research institutes.

India and Southern Asia Chronology - Articles and images.

India Uncovers Ancient Buddhist Marvel - An article from the BBC reporting the excavation in Bihar, of one of the world's tallest Buddhist stupas.

India's Salt Lake Cities - Recent digs in the ancient town that was Dholavira are revealing a civilization vastly ahead of its time.

Lost City Found Off Indian Coast - From the BBC, a city which has been the subject of legend for thousands of years is discovered off the south-east coast of India.

Making of Copper Artifacts in Ancient India - In India, copper ores are found in various parts of Rajasthan, Gujarat, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, and Andhra Pradesh. There is evidence of mining and the making of copper artifacts.

Man and Man-Lion: the Philadelphia Narasimha - Article by Dr. Michael W. Meister discussing a red sandstone attached sculpture of Narasimha (Vishnu as the Man-Lion or Killer of Demons).

Megalithic Pochampad: The Skeletal Biology and Archaeological Context of an Iron Age Site in Andhra Pradesh, India - Asian Perspectives 41(1). Human skeletal remains from a burial site in southern India excavated in the 1960s by the Department of Archaeology and Museums of the Government of Andhra Pradesh, Hyderabad, have been analyzed. (PDF)

On the banks of the Yamuna river in the state of Uttar Pradesh - In ancient times, Mathura was also known by other names such as Madhura and Madhupura.

The Origins of Iron-working in India - Recent excavations in Uttar Pradesh have turned up iron artefacts, furnaces, tuyeres and slag in layers radiocarbon dated between c. BCE 1800 and 1000. [PDF]

Peopling of India - An article discussing research into mDNA base sequences, combined with archaeological and linguistic data as applied to the question of the peopling of India.

Prehistoric Rock Paintings in India - Examples of cave art dating back over 20,000 years.

Ritual and Presentation in Early Buddhist Religious Architecture - Asian Perspectives 43(1). The physical organization and layout of Buddhist reliquary mounds, stupas, provides a window into the forms of ritual practiced by Buddhists in the first few centuries B.C. through the end of the second century A.D. (PDF)

Ropar, India - Article by Upinder Singh describes the history of this site inhabited from about 2100 B.C. to 1700 A.D. and finds made in excavations.

Sangam - Sangam is a site devoted, but not limited to, the study of pre-historic and stone age of India. It has the Table of Contents of Man and Environment.

Saraswati Project May be Buried - From the Times of India, a pet project of the then culture minister Jagmohan, officials now indicate that it would be certainly axed.

Social Life in Medieval Deccan : Status of Women - Status of Women in 14th Century South India.

Sphinx of India - The recent discovery of the sphinx in the art and tradition of India shines a new light on our understanding of India in the history of civilization.

Temple and Village: Patterns and Prints of India - A special exhibition at the Frank H. McClung Museum in 1998. Includes a short description of textiles in ancient India.

A Unique Memorial to a Learned Lady - Recent discovery of a stone portrait of a woman scholar of the 10th century.

Urn-burial Site Found at Adichanallur - From the Hindu, 20 urns, painted pot sherds, black ware and red ware have been unearthed. The burial site is adjacent to a lake on a huge mound on the southern bank of the Tamiraparani.

Roof collapse in Purana Qila - From IndiaExpress, the roof of a cell on the walls of the Purana Qila collapsed due to heavy rains that lashed the city last week, according to workers at the monument. (September 23, 2005)

Mother Goddess Figurines Found in Tamil Nadu - From the Hindu, terracotta figurines of the Mother Goddess have been found at Andipatti in Tiruvannamalai district and Modur in Dharmapuri district of Tamil Nadu during excavations conducted by the State Archaeology Department. (May 25, 2005)

The Tell-tale Pallava Stamp - From the Hindu, a newly revealed Tamil inscription confirms the origins of an unearthed Mamallapuram temple. (April 29, 2005)

Iron Age Habitational Site Found at Adichanallur - From The Hindu, habitational site of the Iron Age people who were buried in big urns at Adichanallur, 24 km from Tirunelveli town in Tamil Nadu. (April 3, 2005)

Archaeologists hit paydirt in Gola Dhora - A nine-year search ended successfully for MSu archaeologists this winter when their two-month excavation in Rajkot's Bagasra opened gates to a new city. (March 11, 2005)

Unprotected, Prehistoric Rock Art Withering Away - From the Times of India, the 12 prehistoric rock paintings found scattered along state's eastern tribal belt are perhaps the only indicators that man also inhabited Gujarat in the Mesolithic period (July 13, 2004)

Visvarupa - Treats the beginning of Brahmanical figures in Northern India which are seen as visual images of cosmogonic theory. Their anthropomorphic figures are emanatory, issuing from a central figure and represent, not a group of figures, but a process of cosmic becoming in its continuity. Form 'multiple icons' as phases of the process of creation, and is shown as an ongoing, uninterrupted whole. (July 5, 2004)

997 A.D. Stone Inscriptions Found in Tamil Nadu - From the Hindu, bilingual inscriptions in Tamil `vatteluttu' and Sanskrit in Grantha letters engraved on an outlet stone of a big lake has been found at Madakkulam village near Srivilliputhur, Virudhunagar district. (July 4, 2004)

Champaner's Now on World Heritage Site List - From Express India, the State got its first world heritage site on Thursday when the medieval ruins of Champaner-Pavagadh town was declared a world heritage site by UNESCO. (July 3, 2004)

Historical Sites in Gujrat Crumbling - From Daily Times, historical sites in Gujrat are crumbling and the district government has made no arrangements to preserve and protect the rich heritage for future generations. (May 9, 2004)

Hunting for Muziris - From the Hindu, archaeologist has been in the limelight after he put forward a hypothesis, based on some striking pieces of evidence, that Muziris, the legendary seaport of the ancient world, stood at Pattanam, a small town some 12 km south of the Periyar rivermouth. (April 28, 2004)

Sanjan Shards Help Piece Together Parsi History - From the Times of India, an important find at Sanjan, one of the first Parsi settlements in India , is expected to provide fresh insights into the Zoroastrians' flight from Iran to India 1,400 years ago. (April 13, 2004)

Ancient Indians Made 'Rock Music' - From the BBC, archaeologists rediscover a huge rock art site in India where inhabitants used the local rocks to make musical sounds. (March 19, 2004)

Monk Mummy Found in Mountains - From phayul, a mummy of a Tibetan Buddhist monk, believed to be about 500 years old, has been found in India's northern Himalayan state of Himachal Pradesh (March 5, 2004)

Buddha Site Celebrates U.N. Status - From the BBC, ancient Indian temple, Buddhism's holiest shrine, is formally dedicated as a World Heritage site. (February 19, 2004)

A Puzzling Wreck - From Archaeology, India's first ancient shipwreck, discovered recently in the coastal town of Kadakkarapally, has archaeologists stumped. (January 7, 2004)

1,100-year-old Chola Stone Inscription Found - From the Hindu, inscription of the Parantaka Chola period has been discovered at a Siva temple at Ezhuchur, near Padappai, in Sriperumbudur taluk of Kancheepuram District. (December 31, 2003)

1,000-Year-Old Sculpture Found - From New Inda Press, research team of Kongu Naadu Vellalar Trust has found a 1,000-year-old sculpture at Athanur Amman Temple near Rasipuram, highlighting the importance of trade activities of Tamils. (November 26, 2003)

A Monumental Effort - From Frontline, after a delay of about 40 years, the master plan to beautify Mamallapuram, a World Heritage Site, becomes a reality. (November 8, 2003)

1000-year-old, Long Tamil Inscription Found - From the Hindu, a long inscription in Tamil, running to 28 lines and about 1,000 years old, has been discovered at a temple in Ennayiram village, 18 km from Villupuram town in Tamil Nadu. (November 6, 2003)

Experts Split on Ayodhya Findings - From BBC, an archaeological report it was hoped would resolve the row over the north Indian religious site only entrenches opinions. (August 23, 2003)

Search for Lost River Throws Up 300 AD Site in Haryana - Extensive excavation in the last seven months at Adi Badri site, 40 km north of the Yamunanagar district in Haryana, has yielded a 300 AD Kushan site, and speculation that this may be the spot where the river had originated. (August 13, 2003)

Ayodhya Excavations Completed - From BBC, archaeologists complete excavation work on the religious site in northern India, the subject of dispute between Hindus and Muslims. (August 8, 2003)

Government to Dig up the Path of the Mythical Saraswati River - From New India Press, Indian government has decided to take up excavation along the entire stretch of what was once the route of the long dried Saraswati river from Haryana to Gujarat. (July 26, 2003)

Orality to literacy: Transition in Early Tamil Society - Brahmi script reached Upper South India and the Tamil country at about the same time during the 3rd century B.C.E. in the wake of the southern spread of Jainism and Buddhism. (April 11, 2003)

Excavations to Resolve Temple Row - From Guardian Unlimited, a court in India ordered archaeologists to excavate the site of the demolished Ayodhya mosque to determine whether a Hindu temple ever existed there. (March 3, 2003)

Indian 'Jews' resist DNA tests to prove they are a lost tribe - From the Telegraph, members of a remote community of Indians who claim to be descendants of one of the 10 lost tribes of Israel are resisting plans to carry out genetic tests to prove their Jewishness. (November 10, 2002)

Mystery of Delhi's Iron Pillar Unraveled - Metallurgists at Kanpur IIT have discovered that a thin layer of misawite, a compound of iron, oxygen and hydrogen, has protected the 1,600-year-old cast iron pillar from rust. (July 18, 2002)

Clues to Missing Pagodas Found - From the Times of India, submerged structures found off the coast of Mahabalipuram in the Bay of Bengal could well solve the mystery of seven pagodas dating back to 7th century CE. (July 6, 2002)

Urns Proof of Ancient Pot Burial - From the Telegraph, evidence of a prehistoric burial custom of interring dead people in pots has again surfaced in Tamil Nadu with the chance discovery of six “burial urns” in Tirunelveli district. (June 20, 2002) History of Sanskrit

Acharya, IIT Madras - Systems Development Lab - Introductory Sanskrit lessons using images to display pages of text in mixed Devanagari and Latin script with transliterations. Glossaries, dictionary, and script editing software.

American Sanskrit Institute - Teaches Sanskrit using programs based in the theory and practice of yoga.

Discover Sanskrit - A concise study of the Sanskrit language and its culture. Includes brief grammar, sample texts and audio.

Jambudvipa - Indology & Sanskrit Studies - A guide to select online resources for Sanskrit studies.

Samskrit for All - Translated articles on science, technology and culture to preserve and encourage general usage in India.

Samskrita Bharati - Internet and offline resources for learning and reading Sanskrit, newsletter, news, project announcements, and links.

Sandhi and Syllables in Classical Sanskrit - A paper on the phonological Sanskrit language grammatics which is strongly related to Sandhi (conjunctions) formations.

Sanskrit - Sanskrit hymns, good sayings, quotes, riddles, stories, and classes.

Sanskrit & Sánscrito - Sanskrit, Yoga and Indian philosophies.

Sanskrit Fonts, Sanskrit Texts and Typography. - Site has fonts (for Windows) and Sanskrit texts with a few other Sanskrit documents for download by Ulrich Stiehl.

Sanskrit Portal by Bathula Venkata Subbaiah - Information related to the Vedas (Srutis), Smritis (Dharma Shastras), Itihasas, Puranas, and other original texts, are available for download. Indus Valley Civilization

Harappa - A glimpse of South Asia before 1947, includes: a 90-slide show by Jonathon Kenoyer; photos; maps; and a detailed description of the Indus Civilization.

Ancient Gold Treasure Found - An article from the BBC reporting the discovery in Uttar Pradesh of gold jewelry belonging to the Indus Valley.

Ancient India - Highlights geography and origins of the Indus civilization, cultural elements and a timeline of the Harappan, and arts technology and trade. Includes links and a bibliography.

Birth of a Civilization - Abstract of an article in Archaeology by J.M. Kenoyer.

The Demise of Utopia - An article by Chris J D Kostman discussing the theorized collapse and transformation of the Harappan Civilization.

Harappa-Mohenjodaro Cultures - Short description with images.

Harappan Astronomy - A discussion of the mathematics and a astronomy of the Harappan Civilization.

Harappan Civilization - A course outline.

The Harappan Tradition - Attempt at an evolutionary ethnological synthesis of the cultural phenomena known variously as the Indus Valley or Harappan Civilization. Includes: links, maps, images, essays, and an extensive bibliography.

Impact of Dravidians on the Development of Civilization in India - Particularly a discussion of their impact on the Harappan Civilization.

In Search of Those Elusive Centers and Peripheries - An article by Chris J.D. Kostman describing the place of the Harappan Civilization in 2nd millennia BCE world economy.

Indus Graffiti as Rock Art and Their Astronomical Implications - Article by N. S. Valluvan discusses interpretations of the Kanaga sign.

Indus Valley Civilization - A synopsis of the Harappan Civilization by Vinay Lal of the UCLA History Department.

The Indus Valley Civilization - A short synopsis of the Harappan Civilization. Includes pictures.

Indus Valley Civilization in Gujarat - Short descriptions of the Harappan towns of Dholavira, Lothal, and Surkotda.

Indus Valley, Inc. - A article from Discover Magazine asking whether the growth and existence of this civilization was due to a capitalist base.

Indus/Sarasvati Civilization - An article by Dr S Kalyanaraman discussing the geology of the dry Sarasvati River and its import to South Asian archaeology.

International Conference on Revisiting Indus/Sarasvati Age & Ancient India - Details of a conference held in Georgia, 1996 by the World Association for Vedic studies and includes abstracts.

Mohenjodaro! - One hundred slides of the largest ancient Indus Valley city, Mohenjodaro. Full bibliography, essay and more.

Questionable Agendas and Assertions - From Frontline, discussing assertions made at a gallery on the Harappan Civilization at the National Museum in Delhi.

Who Were They? - A tabular comparison of Dravir and Aryan cultures with the Harappan.

Harappan Horse Myths and the Sciences - An editorial by Michael Witzel in The Hindu disputing reports of horse remains from the Harappan period. (March 5, 2002)

Locating Indus Civilization Pyrotechnological Craft Production - Field research at the ancient Indus Valley city of Harappa concentrated on refining surface survey methods for the location of pyrotechnological manufacturing areas. (2002)

Ancient Indus Valley Script - Harappa presents interviews with the three leading scholars of the undeciphered ancient Indus Valley script, papers in pdf format, a dictionary, audio, and resources.

Earliest Writing Found - From the BBC, earliest examples of writing may have been discovered in Pakistan, according to archaeologists working on the Harappa Project.

Indo European - Sanskrit decipherment of the Indus Valley script.

Indus Graffiti as Rock Art and their Astronomical Implications - The Kanaga sign is very common in Indus rock art. It can be interpreted as the symbol for a primordial god and a Lord of space and time with an astronomical meaning.

Murukan in the Indus Script - Article by Iravatham Mahadevan about the pan-Indian god Skanda or Murugan and his occurrence in the Indus Valley script.

One Sees What One Wants To - From Frontline, Asko Parpola answering the alleged decipherment by N.S. Rajaram.

New Evidence on the 'Piltdown Horse' Hoax - From Frontline, Witzel and Farmer accuse Rajaram of fraud. (November 24, 2000)

Of Rajaram's 'Horses', 'decipherment', and Civilisational Issues - From Frontline, Asko Parpola responds to the claims of decipherment by Rajaram. (November 24, 2000)

Horseplay in Harappa - From Frontline, Witzel and Farmer report on media hype, faked data, and Hindutva propaganda in recent claims that the Indus Valley Script has been decoded. (October 13, 2000)

Early Indus Script - Discovery of sherds at Harappa confirm dates for discoveries of Early Indus Script on pottery and in the impression of a square seal on a lump of clay. (October, 1999) Dravidians and Dravidian Languages History

Facts about Dravidian Languages - Review (written by E. Annamalai) of the Cambridge University Press publication "The Dravidian Languages", by Bhadriraju Krishnamurti.

Kodava Speech Community: An Ethnolinguistic Study - An article on the Kodava language, its speakers, and its relationships with other languages and Kodava culture. From 'Language in India'.

Description of the Kannada Language - An account of the script and writing system of the language, also with details of unicode fonts.

Kamat's Potpourri: - History of Kannada Literature - A collection of brief articles on literary history and earlier religious tracts.

Kannada Learning Center - Offers online courses for learning Kannada. Requires registration and login.

KannaDa Saahitya PuTa - Kannada alphabet explained with pictures and sound; links to Kannada pages.

Ammamalayalam - Language Section - Malayalam language resources and learning tools.

Ayyappa Paniker - Poet, professor and critic provides examples of his works, awards and recognition.

Malayalam: A Short History - One page introduction to history of Malayalam.

Malayalam Language Tutor Online - Free tutorial to learn writing Malayalam, the language spoken by the people of Kerala, India. Simple descriptions and animated alphabets for quick learning.

Malayalam on GNU/Linux - Project aimed at supporting Malayalam language on GNU/Linux for the user interfaces like X, GNOME and KDE desktop.

Varamozhi Malayalam Editor - Free editor, information and support for Malayalam / Latin (English) transliteration.

Akilan - All about the Tamil author Akilan.

Azhagi Tamil Transliteration Software - Tamil transliteration software that can be used as a stand-alone application or in conjunction with other Windows applications like word processing, mail and chat.

Bharathidasan Poems and Songs - A collection of a Tamil poet Bharathidasan's poems, songs and articles.

Institute of Indology and Tamil Studies - Official website of the Institute of Indology and Tamil Studies at University of Cologne, Germany.

Interactive Thamizh - An interactive Tamil learning site with sounds and pictures, especially suited for young learners.

Kural Tamil Software - A keyboard manager that helps to directly input Tamil in any Microsoft Windows Application including MS Office, Open Office, Star Office, WordPad, Notepad, Internet Explorer, Firefox, Netscape, Yahoo Chat, Google Talk, MSN and AIM chat clients.

Learn Tamil - Learn spoken and written Tamil. Practice with volunteers.

Mozhi Tamil Research Centre - The Mozhi Trust is a charitable trust in (Madras) Chennai engaged in resource development in language learning and teaching and in understanding culture. - Tamil lessons for all. Tamil lessons with pronunciation. Tamil printable work sheets. Printable books. Videos.

Project Madurai - Electronic versions of printed texts (abbreviated as ETexts) of ancient Tamil literary works are stored in easily accessible archives.

Research Papers on Tamil Language and Linguistics - Bibliography of research articles on Tamil language and linguistics.

Roja Muthiah Research Library - A brief history of this library in Chennai, which houses Roja Muthiah's collection of Tamil publications. Online search the library catalog.

Search Internet in Tamil - Internet gateway providing direct search using Tamil characters, as well as transliteration and translation interfaces.

Standards for Tamil Computing - Official site for TSCII encoding standard. Downloadable fonts, text editors, and conversion tools.

Tamil at Penn Language Center - Contains a number of different kinds of teaching materials suitable for studying spoken and written Tamil with a teacher.

Tamil Class - Contains tips, tools and lessons to learn Tamil. Primary focus is to help parents teach their kids to speak, read and write Tamil.

Tamil Computing Words - Technical English-Tamil glossary of computer/electronics engineering terms.

Tamil Education Connection - Links to Tamil education centers around the world.

Tamil Electronic Library - A comprehensive site providing information and links to ancient and current Tamil literature, electronic texts of literary works, fonts and software.

Tamil Fonts - A collection of Tamil fonts for free download.

Tamil Fonts TSC TSCII - Implementation tools (fonts, keyboard editors, convertors) for the proposed Tamil Standard Code for Information Interchange (TSCII).

Tamil Internet 2003 Papers - A collection of research papers presented at the Tamil Internet 2003 Conference.

Tamil Lessons - Learn to read Tamil.

Tamilinix - Discussion of Tamil language support on Mandrake 9.0 Operating System.

Thamil Paadanool (Tamil Textbook) - Learn Tamil: An online version of a textbook to teach Tamil to those who know English. Written for kids in middle school and older.

Thamizh Marabu - History of Tamil literature over the ages and samples of Tamil literature. Site has both English and Tamil content.

Type in Tamil - Online tool to easily type in Tamil.

UCLA Language Materials Tamil Language Profile - A profile of Tamil language from University of California at Los Angeles, USA.

Encyclopedia of Telugu - A range of translations between English and Telugu, with the addition of a quiz to test skills.

Saahiti - A search engine in Telugu.

Srinu and Anu's Home Page - A very big mix of Telugu related items, including a store, fonts, literature, calendar, and Telugu tutor.

Telugu Books - Telugu Pusthakaalu - Telugu dictionaries, encyclopaedia, Telugu bible, spoken Telugu.

Telugu Drill and Practice - Practice telugu letters and words online.

Telugu Literary Page - This website is partly in Telugu and represents an effort to bring Telugu literature to the web. Indo Aryan Languages History

About Hindi-Urdu - Discusses the history of these two speech forms, essentially considering them as versions of the same language.

Bangani - Collection of links to linguistic discussions about Bangani, an Indo-Aryan language spoken in the lower Himalayas (India). Bangani has some features in common with the "kentum" (Western European, Greek and Tokharian) rather than the "satem" (Balto-Slavic and Indo-Iranian) branches of the Indo-European family.

Hindi-Urdu FAQ - Similarities, differences, origins, and political status of the two languages.

Indo-Aryan Languages - This article presents the historical development of the Indo-Aryan family of languages, one of the major language families of the world. These languages, spoken in the northern half of the Indian subcontinent and in Sri Lanka, are direct descendants of Sanskrit.

Scripts of All of Asia - Comprehensive site on scripts descendent from ancient Brahmi script.

Technology Development for Indian Languages (TDIL) - Information processing tools to facilitate human-machine interaction in Indian languages.

Update on the Aryan Invasion Debate - Online version of a book by Koenraad Elst, published by Aditya Prakashan in New Delhi (India). It oulines the latest arguments (including those in linguistics) for and against the prehistoric invasion of India by Indo-European speakers.

Suggestions for Further Reading

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